SODIUM PERBORATE

Sodium perborate is an active form of oxygen used to whiten, brighten, clean, and deodorize. 
Sodium perborate may be used in a large number of cleaning products, such as laundry detergents, automatic dishwasher detergents, oxygen powder bleaches, fabric softeners, hand dishwashing detergents, all-purpose cleaners, air fresheners, and stain removers.

Sodium perborates serve as a source of active oxygen. 
Sodium perborate is inorganic peroxide, odorless, water-soluble chemical compound prepared in a form of MONOHYDRATE (NaBO3·H2O) or TETRAHYDRATE (NaBO3·4H2O).


The essential difference between both Sodium Perborates is in the AVOX (free active oxygen):
Monohydrate has AVOX minimum 15 % and is used for low temperature wash, but on contrary Tetrahydrate has AVOX minimum 10 % only.
The monohydrated form of Sodium Perborate has further on higher heat stability and a higher dissolution rate into water.


CAS Number    
7632-04-4 
10332-33-9 (monohydrate) 
10486-00-7 (tetrahydrate) 

Sodium peroxometaborate
EC / List no.: 231-556-4
CAS no.: 7632-04-4
Mol. formula: BNaO3


Sodium perborate monohydrate
EC / List no.: 600-419-4
CAS no.: 10332-33-9

Perboric acid (HBO(O2)), sodium salt, tetrahydrate
EC / List no.: 600-611-8
CAS no.: 10486-00-7


Sodium perborate monohydrate
EC / List no.: 600-419-4
CAS no.: 10332-33-9
Perboric acid (HBO(O2)), sodium salt, monohydrate
perboric acid (HBO(O2)), sodium salt, monohydrate; sodium peroxoborate
SODIUM PERBORATE MONOHYDRATE
sodium peroxoborate
Sodium perborate monohydrate

Perboric acid (HBO(O2)), sodium salt, tetrahydrate
EC / List no.: 600-611-8
CAS no.: 10486-00-7
Perboric acid (HBO(O2)), sodium salt, tetrahydrate
perboric acid (HBO(O2)), sodium salt, tetrahydrate; sodium peroxoborate hexahydrate
sodium peroxoborate hexahydrate
Sodium perborate, tetrahydrate


PERBORIC ACID (HBO3), SODIUM SALT
PERBORN
SODIUM BORATE (NABO3)
SODIUM PERBORATE
SODIUM PERBORATE (NABO3)
SODIUM PEROXOBORATE
SODIUM PEROXOBORATE, ANHYDROUS

Sodium perborate monohydrate is used in the formulations of concentrated detergents and some medical, disinfectant, and cleaning preparations. 
Sodium perborate monohydrate (NaBO3·H2O or NaBO2·H2O2) contains 16% active oxygen. 
It does not have a specific melting point. 
When heated, it decomposes by releasing oxygen and water. 
Sodium perborate monohydrate is preferred to tetrahydrate due to its higher oxygen content and faster dissolution rate. 
In addition, in storage, monohydrate is more stable than tetrahydrate. Sodium perborate monohydrate is produced commercially either by dehydration of tetrahydrate or by crystallization of monohydrate

Sodium perborate is an important ingredient of many laundry detergent powders, laundry bleach additive products and automatic machine dishwash powders. 
Sodium perborate is also used as a tooth whitener in toothpastes, as an antiseptic, as a deodorant, and as a reactive agent (reagent) in industral processes.

Sodium perborate is a reagent that lightens or whitens a substrate through chemical reaction. Bleaching reactions usually involve oxidative or reductive processes that degrade colour systems. Bleaching can occur by destroying one or more of the double bonds in the conjugated chain, by cleaving the conjugated chain, or by oxidation of one of the other moieties in the conjugated chain. Their reactivity results in many bleaches having strong bactericidal, disinfecting, and sterilising properties.


Pure sodium perborate (NaBO3) is a white, odorless solid under standard conditions. 
However, a molecule of sodium perborate normally crystallizes with 1, 2 or 4 molecules of water. 
Sodium perborate monohydrate (NaBO3.H2O) and sodium perborate tetrahydrate (NaBO3.4H2O) have commercial applications, especially as detergents and bleaches. 
Both forms of sodium perborate are more stable and safer to handle than compounds with similar applications, such as sodium percarbonate and sodium perphosphate.


Comparing the properties of the hydrates of sodium perborate: 
The tetrahydrate is prepared from disodium tetraborate pentahydrate, hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydroxide. 
However, it is not as soluble as the monohydrate nor is it as stable at higher temperatures. Sodium perborate monohydrate is easily prepared by heating the tetrahydrate.


Bleaching teeth with sodium perborate: 
It is a common active ingredient in regular tooth bleaches and it may also bleach teeth internally. 
In this case, a preparation of sodium perborate is placed inside a tooth with a non-vital root. 
The sodium perborate bleaches the tooth from the inside over time and it also serves as an antiseptic and a disinfectant.


Usage of sodium perborate in detergents:
This compound readily provides the oxygen that is needed for effective laundry detergents, laundry bleaches and other cleaning products.

Consider sodium perborate for applications that require a gentler alternative to other bleaches:
Sodium perborate is not as harsh as sodium hypochlorite and therefore does not cause as much fading to colored fabrics. 
However, sodium perborate detergents need an activator such as tetraacetylethylenediamine (TAED) to release oxygen rapidly at temperatures below 60 degrees Celsius.

Preparing formulas of eye drops that contain sodium perborate:
These products use sodium perborate to prevent bacterial growth without harming the eyes.


In the industry, sodium perborate is used as a disinfectant. It is also part of the ingredients for detergents, bleach powders, and personal care formulations. In cosmetic products, perboric acid and mainly its salt are used as an oxidizing agent for dyeing or permanent waving.8

In dentistry, sodium perborate monohydrate is used as an aid for the removal of phlegm, mucus or other secretions associated with an occasional sore in the mouth, for cleansing minor wounds, for temporary cleanse of canker sore or for the removal of foreign materials in minor wounds.6

In ophthalmic preparations, sodium perborate is used as a preservative for products used for dry eye. This use is approved as this compound rapidly degrades to harmless byproducts.2


Mechanism of action
Perboric acid acts as a source of active oxygen.5 In contact with water, perboric acid hydrolyzes to hydrogen and borate.2 As an antiseptic, the formation of hydrogen peroxide oxidizes the cellular components of the surrounding bacteria and kills them.7

Absorption
Dermal absorption is assumed to be very low due to the high hydrophilicity of perboric acid and its ionic nature.9

Volume of distribution
As perboric acid and its sodium salt are rapidly degraded in the body, this pharmacokinetic property is studied in the terms of Sodium carbonate and Hydrogen peroxide.

Protein binding
As perboric acid and its sodium salt are rapidly degraded in the body, this pharmacokinetic property is studied in the terms of Sodium carbonate and Hydrogen peroxide.

Metabolism
If perboric acid or its sodium salt get in touch with body fluids, they will rapidly dissociate into hydrogen peroxide, carbonate and sodium ions which are naturally present in the body. The produced hydrogen peroxide is rapidly degraded in blood and tissues. As carbonate is part of the normal buffer system of the body it is unlikely to be absorbed in amounts that could disturb the normal balance of the body. The rest of the dissociation products are also not thought to produce any significant systemic modifications.9


Perboric acid
Carbonate + Hydrogen peroxide + Sodium carbonate


Route of elimination
As perboric acid and its sodium salt are rapidly degraded in the body, this pharmacokinetic property is studied in the terms of Sodium carbonate and Hydrogen peroxide.

Half-life
As perboric acid and its sodium salt are rapidly degraded in the body, this pharmacokinetic property is studied in the terms of Sodium carbonate and Hydrogen peroxide.

Clearance
As perboric acid and its sodium salt are rapidly degraded in the body, this pharmacokinetic property is studied in the terms of Sodium carbonate and Hydrogen peroxide.


Sodium perborate is used in laundry detergents and bleaches. Sodium perborate releases more hydrogen peroxide than borax when it reacts with water. 
Hydrogen peroxide acts as a bleach, and this action is aided by the alkaline solution also produced by the reaction.

Sodium perborate monohydrate is an inorganic sodium salt widely used in laundry detergents and in peroxide-based bleaches, such as tooth whitening products. 
Sodium perborate also has antiseptic and disinfectant properties and is therefore used as an oral debriding agent or oral wound cleanser.
Sodium perborate serves as a source of active oxygen in many detergents, laundry detergents, cleaning products, and laundry bleaches. 
Sodium perborate is also present in some tooth bleaching formulas.


Sodium perborate is chemical compound whose chemical formula may be written NaH2BO4, Na2H4B2O8, or, more properly, [Na+]2·[B2O4(OH)4]2−. Its name is sometimes abbreviated as PBS.

The compound is commonly encountered in anhydrous form or as a hexahydrate (commonly called "monohydrate" or PBS-1 and "tetrahydrate" or PBS-4, after the early assumption that NaBO3 would be the anhydrous form).
They are both white, odorless, water-soluble solids.

This salt is widely used in laundry detergents, as one of the peroxide-based bleaches.

CAS Number    
7632-04-4 
10332-33-9 (monohydrate) 
10486-00-7 (tetrahydrate) 

Uses
Sodium perborate serves as a stable source of active oxygen in many detergents, laundry detergents, cleaning products, and laundry bleaches
It is a less aggressive bleach than sodium hypochlorite and other chlorine-based bleaches, causing less degradation to dyes and textiles. 
Borates also have some non-oxidative bleaching properties.[citation needed] Sodium perborate releases oxygen rapidly at temperatures over 60 °C. 
To make it active at lower temperatures (40–60 °C), it has to be mixed with a suitable activator, typically tetraacetylethylenediamine (TAED).

Sodium perborate is also present in some tooth bleaching formulas for non vital root treated teeth. 
The compound is inserted in the root canal and left in place for an extended period of time to allow it to diffuse into the tooth and bleach stains from the inside out. However, this use has been banned in the European Union.[8]

Sodium perborate has antiseptic properties and can act as a disinfectant. 
It is also used as a "disappearing" preservative in some brands of eye drops.

Sodium perborate is also used as an oxidizing reagent in organic synthesis. 
For example, it converts thioethers into sulfoxides and sulfones.

Sodium perborate isn't just limited to cleaning uses; it can also be found in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. It is used in some whitening toothpastes, denture cleaners, hair bleaches, wound cleaners, douches, contact lens cleaners and solutions, eye drops, and artificial tears products. 


Synonyms:
per    boric acid (H6B2O8) disodium salt
per    boric acid (HBO3), sodium salt
per    boric acid, sodium salt
     disodium diboron diperoxide tetrahydroxide
     sodium dihydrogen borate
     sodium oxidooxy(oxo)borane
     sodium peroxometaborate
     sodium peroxometaborate / sodium perborate


SODIUM PERBORATE MONOHYDRATE 
CAS: 10332-33-9
Chemical Formula: NaBO3H2O
Molecular Weight: 99.81
DOT Classification:Class 5.1: Oxidizing Material 
Identification: Oxidizing Solid, n.o.s. 
(Sodium Perborate) : UN1479 PG: II

Sodium Perborate Tetrahydrate
Synonyms: Perboric Acid, Sodium Salt Sodium Metaborate Peroxyhydrate, SPB
Chemical Formula: NaBO3.4H2O
Available Oxygen: 10.0% min.
pH: 9.5-10.5
Appearance: White, granular, free flowing
Ferric0.002% max.
Bulk Density: 550-800
CAS-No: 10486-00-7
Transport regulations Packing Group: II
Application: Sodium Perborate is similar to Sodium Percarbonate as a famous oxygen bleach agent. 

Sodium Perborate Tetrahydrate offers many of the functional benefits as liquid hydrogen peroxide in a stable solid form. 
Sodium Perborate Tetrahydrate's oxidative power improves the cleaning, bleaching, stain removal and deodorizing performance of powder detergent formulations, all fabric dry bleaches, denture cleaners, automatic dishwasher detergents and various institutional and industrial laundry products. 
Sodium Perborate Tetrahydrate's main disadvantage is that the bleaching action only takes place at elevated temperatures. 

NaBO3.4H2O
Synonyms: sodium peroxometaborate
Grade: Technical
Uses: Developing vat dyes, textile bleaching,synthetic detergents, dental compositions, electroplating, laboratory reagent, deodorant.


Sodium perborate serves as a stable source of active oxygen in many detergents, laundry detergents, cleaning products, and laundry bleaches. It is a less aggressive bleach than sodium hypochlorite and other chlorine-based bleaches, causing less degradation to dyes and textiles.

Sodium Perborate Tetrahydrate, Sodium Perborate 4H2O
Sodium Perborate Tetrahydrate, Sodium Perborate 4H2O  Product Name: Sodium Perborate Tetrahydrate, 4H2O  Synonyms: Perboric acid sodium salt monohydrate, sodium borate monohydrate, Perboric acid (HBO(O2)) sodium salt monohydrate, disodium perborate monohydrate, Natriumperborate 


Product Description:

Sodium Perborate Tetrahydrate, 4H2O  is prepared by reaction of sodium borate with hydrogen peroxide. 
When dissolved in water, Sodium perborate can release back hydrogen peroxide. 
Properties of Sodium Perborate Tetrahydrate, 4H2O  in aqueous solution are practically similar to them of a solution of hydrogen peroxide. 
Accordingly, sodium perborate is considered to be a solid form of hydrogen peroxide worked as a strong oxidizing substance in various industry including and not limited to detergent. In comparison with solution of hydrogen peroxide, Solid form of Sodium Perborate Tetrahydrate, 4H2O  compounds provide better conditions of stability and convenient handling. Its oxidative power improves the cleaning, bleaching, stain removal and deodorizing performance. TAED (Tetraacetyl Ethylenediamine) can be added to lower down working temperature. The principal sources of boron for the production of sodium perborates are the minerals Kernite, Na2B4O7.4H2O, and Tincal, Na2B4O7.10H2O. Both the mono and tetrahydrate of sodium perborate are utilized as oxidising and bleaching agents in cleaning, cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations but their main application is in detergents. Typically a detergent will contain up to 15 wt% of the tetrahydrate and/or up to 10% of the monohydrate.
The monohydrate of Sodium perborate is preferred if rapid solution is required.

As the most famous China Sodium Perborate Tetrahydrate, 4H2O Powder and granular supplier in China, Fengchen Group’s Sodium Perborate Tetrahydrate, 4H2O  Powder and granular is well packed with the newest and the safest package.

Sodium Perborate Tetrahydrate, 4H2O  is generally immediately available in most volumes. High purity, submicron and nanopowder forms may be considered.

Sodium Perborate Tetrahydrate, 4H2O  is a true inorganic peroxide containing a cyclic peroxide ring structure. It is manufactured commercially in both a tetrahydrate and monohydrate form. Both tetrahydrate and monohydrate form of sodium perborate are ordorless. And Sodium Perborate Tetrahydrate, 4H2O  is very easy to use. It is a kind of free flowing white granular powder. 

Sodium Perborate Tetrahydrate, 4H2O  is an important ingredient of many household laundry detergent powders, laundry bleach additive products and automatic machine dishwash powders. Unlike sodium percarbonate and sodium perphosphate, Sodium Perborate Tetrahydrate, 4H2O  is not just an addition compound of peroxide, but contains true peroxygen bonds.  Sodium perborate tetrahydrate has good storage stability when blended with many ingredients of formulated products for use in temperate climates. When used in laundry powders, sodium perborate tetrahydrate provides a stable, cost effective source of active oxygen. 

Both sodium perborate and sodium percarbonate are refered as Oxyen Bleach . 

Sodium perborate Chemical Properties, Uses and Production
Chemical Properties

Sodium perborate, anhydrous, NaB03 is a white,amorphous powder of unknown constitution containing active oxygen that evolves oxygen gas when dissolved in water,and is hygroscopic. Derived by heating sodium perborate tetrahydrate. Used as a denture cleaner and oxygen source.
Sodium perborate, monohydrate, NaB03·H20 , better represented as Na2(B2(02)2(OH)4) is a white, amorphous powder that is rapidly soluble in water givinga solution of H202 and sodium borated.Derived by partial dehydration of sodium perborate tetrahydrate. Used as a denture cleaner and bleaching agent.

Chemical Properties
Colourless, prismatic crystals or white or almost white powder, stable in the crystalline form.

Uses
Sodium perborate is the most widely used solid peroxygen compound. Commercially, Sodium perborate is available as a tetrahydrate and a monohydrate. The tetrahydrate is produced by treating a borax solution with hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydroxide.

Uses
Antiseptic.
Sodium perborate Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials
Sodium tetraborate decahydrate Hydrogen peroxide Sodium hydroxide

IUPAC name
Sodium perborate
Other names
Dexol
PBS-1 (mono)
PBS-4 (tetra)
Sodium peroxoborate
Sodium peroxometaborate


Properties
Chemical formula: NaBO3·nH2O
Molar mass: 99.815 g/mol (monohydrate)
153.86 g/mol (tetrahydrate)

Appearance: White solid
Odor: Odorless
Density    1.73 g/cm3[1]

Melting point    tetrahydrate
63 °C (145 °F; 336 K)

Boiling point    tetrahydrate
130-150 °C (266-302 °F; 403-423 K) (decomposes)

Solubility in water
tetrahydrate
2.15 g/100 ml (18 °C)
2.3 g/100 ml (20 °C)

Solubility: Insoluble in hydrocarbons
Acidity (pKa): 10

Hazards
Safety data sheet    
Sigma-Aldrich (monohydrate)
Flash point: Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):LD50 (Median dose), 2567 mg/kg (rat, oral)


Chemical
Sodium perborate undergoes hydrolysis in contact with water, producing hydrogen peroxide and borate.

Sodium borate added to glacial acetic acid will yield peracetic acid, which can be used to oxidize aromatic amines to nitro groups, reaction best takes place at temperatures between 50-55 °C.
Sodium borate in glacial acetic acid will also oxidize oximes to nitro compounds.

Physical
Sodium perborate is a white hygroscopic solid, which dissolves in water.

Availability
Conventional detergents may contain 10-20% of sodium perborate by weight, depending on the brand. Some oxygen bleach powders may contain up to 80% sodium perborate.

Pure sodium borate can be bought from chemical suppliers or online.

Preparation
Sodium perborate ban be prepared by adding concentrated hydrogen peroxide to a solution of borax and sodium hydroxide.


The oldest and previously most widely used bleaching agent is sodium perborate which hydrolyzes during use and forms hydrogen peroxide and borate. 
Peroxide is completely decomposed by the reaction with reducing substances present in the washing liquid and subsequently in the wastewater. 
Borate remains in the wastewater and passes through WWTPs and ultimately enters surface waters. 
According to comprehensive studies, the toxicity of sodium borate to fish and invertebrates is relatively low in spite of strongly varying effect concentrations which depend on the individual studies. 
Fish LC50 values between 11 and 3400 mg/l are reported. 
NOEC values from long-term toxicity tests are clearly above a concentration of 1 mg/l and do not indicate a pronounced ecotoxic action of borate either.

However, literature data exist that indicate chronic effects towards certain aquatic organisms, e.g. fish, algae, reed plants in the sub micrograms per liter concentration range. 
A critical reevaluation of these previously collected data in the light of more recent investigations showed, however, that the environmentally relevant no-effect concentration in freshwaters is not lower than 1 mg/l. 
Taking the reported river water concentrations of boron into account it is evident that boron does not constitute a problem for surface waters. 
However, the margin between the ecotoxicological no-effect concentration and the environmental concentrations in the majority of rivers is relatively small. 
Regarding its terrestrial toxicity, boron displays specific phytotoxic effects to some useful plants like fruit trees, tomatoes and vines. 
Therefore, recycling of boron-containing wastewater for irrigation purposes is not advisable 


Sodium perborate monohydrate is a white powder and a boron compound, which hydrolyzes to hydrogen peroxide and boron. It's also called sodium perborate monohydrate, SPB, perboric acid, sodium salt, monohydrate, sodium borate monohydrate, sodium perborate, CAS# 10332-33-9, and EC# 231-556-4. Its chemical formula is NaBO3 · H2O.


Cleaning Uses
Sodium perborate is an active form of oxygen used to whiten, brighten, clean, and deodorize. 
Sodium perborate may be used in a large number of cleaning products, such as laundry detergents, automatic dishwasher detergents, oxygen powder bleaches, fabric softeners, hand dishwashing detergents, all-purpose cleaners, air fresheners, and stain removers.

Perboric acid, sodium salt, monohydrate
UNII-Y9UKD0XE6F
Y9UKD0XE6F
sodium;oxidooxy(oxo)borane;hydrate
Sodium perborate monohydrate (USAN)
Sodium perborate monohydrate [USAN]
Caswell No. 784A
Sodium borate, monohydrate
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 011105
Sodium perborate hydrate
Perboric acid (HBO(O2)), sodium salt, monohydrate
DTXSID9035676
FT-0696526
D07066
Q18212089

WHITE WASHING WITH MINIMUM EFFORT
SODIUM PERBORATE
In 1904, the Frankfurt-based testing facility of Deutsche Gold- und Silber-Scheideanstalt (Degussa AG since 1980) succeeded in developing a chemical synthesis that led to the worldwide success of the detergent, “Persil,” three years later. Company’s chemist Dr. Otto Liebknecht, brother of the socialist, Karl Liebknecht, who was shot dead in 1919, succeeded in producing the active oxygen sodium perborate that was to herald a new era in textile cleaning as self-acting bleaching agent.

The lack of success of the new product, initially marketed as Oxygenol, was crushing. Within the course of 18 months, only three hundredweights could be pushed off on major laundries; this corresponded to a meager 300 grams per day. An advertising budget of 10,000 Reichsmarks, a princely sum at the time, seemed to vanish into thin air with no effect whatsoever.

Only when the company Henkel took an interest in Degussa’s sodium perborate in 1907 was commercial success secured. The Dusseldorf-based company started off by ordering 50 kilograms per day and mixed the additive with one of its own detergents. The result was a product that is still a household name today: Persil. The brand name historically stood for Degussa’s perborate and Henkel’s silicate.

For the first time, the new detergent rendered conventional grass-bleaching superfluous, which greatly reduced the amount of work for the consumer.

The sales success was so great that production of sodium perborate soon had to be transferred to the larger plant in Rheinfelden.

In 1920, a new electrolytic method was introduced to enable more favorable production. In 1964, active oxygen was manufactured in the Rheinfelden plant in 141 crucibles and capacities have continued to increase ever since.

Evonik continues to produce sodium perborate; however over the last years, sodium percarbonate has become a more important detergent substance.


What Is It?
Sodium Perborate occurs as white crystals. 
In cosmetics and personal care products, Sodium Perborate is used in the formulation of body and hand products, hair dyes and colors, and hair bleaches.

Why is it used in cosmetics and personal care products?
Sodium Perborate restores hair or skin to its normal oxidized state after exposure to the reducing agent in permanent waving, or aids in oxidative hair dyeing. 
Sodium Perborate is also applied topically for use in caring for the oral cavity.


Sodium Perborate hydrolyzes to hydrogen peroxide and borate on contact with water. This reaction releases oxygen and has led to the use of Sodium Perborate in detergents and cleaning products.

Sodium perborate tetra and monohydrates are mainly used as bleaching agents in laundry detergents and machine dishwashing products. 
The amount of sodium perborate that was used in household cleaning products was estimated to be about 280,000 tons in 2000 (calculated as sodium perborate tetrahydrate). 
Sodium perborate hydrates readily dissolve in water. In aqueous solution equilibrium between boric acid, hydrogen peroxide and sodium perborate exists. 
For sodium perborate acute aquatic toxicity data are available for all 3 trophic levels and the LC50 values range from 51-125 mg/l for fish, 11 to 30 mg/l for Daphnia magna and 3.3 to 20 mg/l for algae for the mono- and tetrahydrate respectively. 
The available data show that the acute toxicity of sodium perborate can be explained by the formation of hydrogen peroxide. In the fabric washing or dishwashing process the hydrogen peroxide is consumed and the equilibrium is shifted to the reaction products. 
After washing, the active oxygen is rapidly degraded in the sewer so that boric acid is the only relevant species that enters the environment. 
As boric acid is an inorganic substance it will not be degraded in the sewage treatment plant. 
Adsorption to sediment is also considered negligible. 
Consequently the risk assessment is concentrating on boric acid (calculated as boron) in the water compartment. 
A large amount of chronic toxicity data for boric acid is available for all trophic levels and a probabilistic PNEC that covers 95% of the species was derived. 
This PNEC was 3.45, or in a more conservative approach 1.34-mg boron/l. 
PEC calculations were based on a large amount of monitoring data and the PEC/PNEC ratio is well below 1. 
Thus it can be concluded with confidence that there is no risk to the environment from the use of sodium perborate containing household cleaning products. 
Sodium perborate mono and terahydrates have a long history of safe use in bleach-containing cleaning products, in particular in laundry detergents and machine dishwashing agents. 
The substances are of low to moderate acute toxicity via the oral and inhalation route and of low toxicity via the dermal route. In aqueous media their toxicological properties are mainly determined by hydrogen peroxide and boric acid. 
The local toxicity of sodium perborate hydrates is mediated by hydrogen peroxide. 
Hydrogen peroxide is known for its local irritant and cytotoxic properties that are also used in the physiological defence systems of the human body.
 Effective detoxification mechanisms are in place in the body to effectively destroy and detoxify hydrogen peroxide. 
The detoxification systems are practically unsaturable. With regard to genotoxicity and carcinogenicity the properties of sodium perborate also resemble those of hydrogen peroxide and it can be concluded that there is no concern for humans with regard to a possible genotoxicity or carcinogenicity of the products. 
Boric acid, which is the species that is potentially systemically available from sodium perborate, is also of low acute toxicity and does not have any genotoxic or carcinogenic potential. 
The systemic availability of boric acid from sodium perborate hydrates is, however, limited by the formation of hydrogen peroxide at the same time. 
The toxicologic endpoints of concern for boric acid from studies in rodents were effects on fertility as well as developmental toxicity at high dose levels. 
The most sensitive endpoint indicative of possible effects on fertility of boric acid are effects on the histology of male sex organs in repeated dose studies. 
In a repeated dose study in rats with sodium perborate tetrahydrate it was shown that at the maximum tolerated dose levels no test compound related effects on the sex organs were observed. 
Effects on developmental toxicity were only observed at maternally toxic dose levels. 
Human exposure to products containing sodium perborate hydrates under normal handling conditions is so low, that it will neither lead to significant local irritation nor to any systemic effects. 
Accidental exposure to eyes may result in transient irritation that is normally readily reversible. 
Accidental swallowing may lead to irritation of mucous membranes in the gastro-intestinal tract and in some cases vomiting. 
These effects are normally also readily reversible and no fatal or severe poisoning cases have been reported. 
Thus, it can be concluded that no risk for the consumer is anticipated from the use of sodium perborate hydrates in household detergent and cleaning products.

Sodium perborate [Wiki]
10332-33-9 [RN]
10486-00-7 [RN]
15120-21-5 [RN]
239-172-9 [EINECS] [RN]
disodium tetrahydroxidodi-μ-peroxido-diborate
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:30178
Na2[B2(O2)2(OH)4]
Na2H4B2O8
Sodium perborate monohydrate
过硼酸钠 [Chinese]

Sodium perborate (PBS) is a white, odorless, water-soluble chemical compound with chemical formula Template:SodiumTemplate:BoronTemplate:Oxygen3. It crystallizes as monohydrate or tetrahydrate. Sodium perborate is manufactured by reaction of sodium tetraborate, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hydroxide. It is a skin irritant.

File:Perborate dimer.png
Perborate dimer, peroxide bond shown in red, charges in blue
Unlike percarbonate and perphosphate, perborate is not just an addition compound of peroxide, but contains true peroxygen bonds. This makes the material more stable, safer for handling and storage. The monohydrate form dissolves better than the tetrahydrate and has higher heat stability; it is prepared by heating the tetrahydrate.

Sodium perborate undergoes hydrolysis in contact with water, producing hydrogen peroxide and borate. It serves as a source of active oxygen in many detergents, laundry detergents, cleaning products, and laundry bleaches. It is also present in some tooth bleaching formulas. It has antiseptic properties and can act as a disinfectant. It is also used as a "disappearing" preservative in some brands of eye drops. One eye drop manufacturer, Novartis, claims that it "turns into pure water and oxygen upon contact with your eye."[1]

Sodium perborate is a less aggressive bleach than sodium hypochlorite, causing less degradation to dyes and textiles. Borates also have some non-oxidative bleaching properties.

Sodium perborate releases oxygen rapidly at temperatures over 60 °C. To make it active at lower temperatures (40-60 °C), it has to be mixed with a suitable activator, typically tetraacetylethylenediamine (TAED).

Sodium peroxometaborate
EC / List no.: 231-556-4
CAS no.: 7632-04-4
Mol. formula: BNaO3

Perboric acid (HBO(O2)), sodium salt
perboric acid (HBO(O2)), sodium salt, monohydrate
perboric acid (HBO(O2)), sodium salt, tetrahydrate
perboric acid (HBO(O2)), sodium salt, tetrahydrate sodium peroxoborate hexahydrate
sodium peroxoborate
SODIUM PEROXOBORATE, ANHYDROUS
Sodium peroxometaborate


Translated names
[obsahuje ≥ 0,1 % hmot. částic s aerodynamickým průměrem menším než 50 μm] (cs)
[που περιέχει σε αναλογία < 0,1 % (w/w) σωματίδια αεροδυναμικής διαμέτρου κάτω των 50 μm] (el)
[που περιέχει σε αναλογία ≥ 0,1 % (w/w) σωματίδια αεροδυναμικής διαμέτρου κάτω των 50 μm] (el)
acid perboric (HBO(O2)), sare sodică, tetrahidrat (ro)
acid perboric, sare sodică (ro)
acide perborique (HBO(O2)), sel de sodium, monohydrate; peroxoborate de sodium;[contenant < 0,1 % (p/p) de particules d'un diamètre aérodynamique inférieur à 50 μm] (fr)
acide perborique (HBO(O2)), sel de sodium, monohydrate; peroxoborate de sodium;[contenant ≥ 0,1 % (p/p) de particules d'un diamètre aérodynamique inférieur à 50 μm] (fr)
acide perborique (HBO(O2)), sel de sodium, tétrahydrate; peroxoborate de sodium, hexahydrate; [contenant < 0,1 % (p/p) de particules d'un diamètre aérodynamique inférieur à 50 μm] (fr)
acide perborique (HBO(O2)), sel de sodium, tétrahydrate; peroxoborate de sodium, hexahydrate; [contenant ≥ 0,1 % (p/p) de particules d'un diamètre aérodynamique inférieur à 50 μm] (fr)
acido perborico (HBO(O2)), sale di sodio, tetraidrato (it)
aċidu perboriku (HBO(O2)), melħ tas-sodju, tetraidrat (mt)
aċidu perboriku, melħ tas-sodju (mt)
czterowodna sól sodowa kwasu nadborowego (HBO(O2)) (pl)
kyselina perboritá (HBO(O2)), sodná sůl, monohydrát (cs)
kyselina perboritá (HBO(O2)), sodná sůl, tetrahydrát (cs)
kyselina perboritá, (HBO(O2)), sodná sůl, monohydrát (cs)
kyselina perboritá, sodná sůl (cs)
monohydrát sodnej soli kyseliny hydrogenoxoperoxoboritej (HBO(O2)) (sk)
natrijev peroksometaborat (hr)
Perboorhappe (HBO(O2)) naatriumsoola monohüdraat (et)
perboorhappe (HBO(O2)) naatriumsoola tetrahüdraat (et)
perboorhappe naatriumsool (et)
perboorihappo (HBO(O2)), natriumsuola, tetrahydraatti (fi)
perboorihappo, natriumsuola (fi)
perboorzuur (HBO(O2)), natriumzout, tetrahydraat (nl)
perboorzuur, natriumzout (nl)
perborna kiselina (HBO(O2)), natrijeva sol, monohidrat (hr)
perborna kiselina (HBO(O2)), natrijeva sol, tetrahidrat (hr)
perborova kislina (HBO(O2)) natrijeva sol, monohidrat (sl)
perborova kislina (HBO(O2)), natrijeva sol, monohidart (sl)
perborova kislina (HBO(O2)), natrijeva sol, tetrahidrat (sl)
perborova kislina, natrijeva sol (sl)
perborskābes (HBO(O2)) nātrija sāls tetrahidrāts (lv)
perborskābes (HBO(O2)) nātrija sāls, monohidrāts (lv)
perborskābes (HBO(O2)) nātrija sāļa tetrahidrāts (lv)
perborskābes nātrija sāls (lv)
perborsyra (HBO(O2)), natriumsalt, tetrahydrat (sv)
perborsyra, natriumsalt (sv)
perborsyre (HBO(O2)), natriumsalt tetrahydrat (da)
perborsyre (HBO(O2)), natriumsalt, monohydrat (no)
perborsyre (HBO(O2)), natriumsalt, tetrahydrat (da)
perborsyre (HBO(O2)), natriumsalt, tetrahydrat (no)
perborsyre, natriumsalt (da)
perborsyre, natriumsalt (no)
Perborsäure (HBO(O2)), Natriumsalz, Monohydrat (de)
Perborsäure (HBO(O2)), Natriumsalz-Monohydrat (de)
Perborsäure (HBO(O2)), Natriumsalz-Tetrahydrat (de)
Perborsäure, Natriumsalz (de)
perbórsav (HBO(O2)), nátriumsó, tetrahidrát (hu)
perbórsav(HBO(O2)), nátriumsó, monohidrát (hu)
perbórsav, nátriumsó (hu)
peroksoborato rūgšties (HBO(O2)) natrio druska, monohidratas (lt)
peroksoborato rūgšties (HBO(O2)) natrio druska, tetrahidratas (lt)
peroksoborato rūgšties (HBO(O2)), natrio druska, monohidratas (lt)
peroksoborato rūgšties (HBO(O2)), natrio druska, tetrahidratas (lt)
peroksoborato rūgšties natrio druska (lt)
peroxométaborate de sodium;peroxoborate de sodium;[contenant < 0,1 % (p/p) de particules d'un diamètre aérodynamique inférieur à 50 μm] (fr)
peroxométaborate de sodium;peroxoborate de sodium;[contenant ≥ 0,1 % (p/p) de particules d'un diamètre aérodynamique inférieur à 50 μm] (fr)
sale sodico dell'acido perborico (it)
sare de sodiu monohidratata(HBO(O2)),a acidului perboric (ro)
sodná soľ kyseliny trihydrogendioxodiperoxoboritej (sk)
sól sodowa kwasu nadborowego (pl)
sól sodowa kwasu nadborowego (H3BO2(O2)) jednowodna (pl)
tetrahydrát sodnej soli kyseliny hydrogenoxoperoxoboritej (HBO(O2)) (sk)
ácido perbórico (HBO(O2)), sal de sodio, tetrahidratada (es)
ácido perbórico (HBO(O2)), sal de sódio, tetra-hidratado (pt)
ácido perbórico, sal de sodio (es)
ácido perbórico, sal de sódio (pt)
άλας του υπερβορικού οξέος (HBO(O2)) με νάτριο, τετραένυδρο; [3] υπεροξοβορικό νάτριο, εξαένυδρο (el)
άλας του υπερβορικού οξέος με νάτριο (el)
Μετά νατρίου άλας του υπερβορικού οξέος (HBO(O2)) , μονοένυδρο (el)
перборна киселина (HBO(O2)), натриева сол, тетрахидрат (bg)
перборна киселина, (HBO(O2)), натриева сол, монохидрат (bg)
перборна киселина, натриева сол (bg)

CAS names
Perboric acid (HBO(O2)), sodium salt (1:1)

IUPAC names
hydroperoxy(oxo)borane; sodium; tetrahydrate
perboric acid (HBO(O2)), sodium salt, monohydrate
perboric acid (HBO(O2)), sodium salt, tetrahydrate
perboric acid, sodium salt
sodium [(oxoboranyl)oxy]olate
sodium oxidooxy(oxo)borane
sodium oxidooxy(oxo)borane hydrate
Sodium Perborate
Sodium perborate tetrahydrate
sodium peroxoborate
sodium peroxometaborate
Sodium-perborate-tetrahydrate


Sodium perborate monohydrate
EC / List no.: 600-419-4
CAS no.: 10332-33-9
Perboric acid (HBO(O2)), sodium salt, monohydrate
perboric acid (HBO(O2)), sodium salt, monohydrate; sodium peroxoborate
SODIUM PERBORATE MONOHYDRATE
sodium peroxoborate
Sodium perborate monohydrate

Perboric acid (HBO(O2)), sodium salt, tetrahydrate
EC / List no.: 600-611-8
CAS no.: 10486-00-7
Perboric acid (HBO(O2)), sodium salt, tetrahydrate
perboric acid (HBO(O2)), sodium salt, tetrahydrate; sodium peroxoborate hexahydrate
sodium peroxoborate hexahydrate
Sodium perborate, tetrahydrate


 

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