SODIUM PERCARBONATE

IUPAC name: sodium carbonate—hydrogen peroxide (2/3)
sodium carbonate sesquiperhydrate, PCS, SPC, solid hydrogen peroxide, Sodium carbonate hydrogen peroxide, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate
CAS Number: 15630-89-4 


SYNONYMS: Sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate, sodium carbonate peroxide.
DEFINITION
Chemical names Sodium percarbonate
C.A.S. number 15630-89-4
Chemical formula 2Na2CO3 · 3H2O2
Formula weight 314.0


Sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate is the chemical name for an addition product produced by drying hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sodium carbonate (CAS No. 497-19-8). 
The pure substance contains 32.5 % hydrogen peroxide and 67.5 % sodium carbonate (based on weight). 
It combines dual properties of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide, providing significant benefits when alkalinity and bleaching is required. 
Sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate is a white crystalline powder with a purity of > 85 % (Czerczak, 2005). 
Both shipment and storage are facilitated by this solid form when compared to requirements for liquid hydrogen peroxide solutions


Sodium Percarbonate is a compound of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide. It is highly soluble and does not congeal easily.It is used to bleach textiles,as a detergent/sterilizer, an oxygen generation agent, a slime removing agent, and for pollution control, etc.

Application
Sodium Percarbonate is also named as solid hydrogen peroxide; it is an addition of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide. 
Sodium Percarbonate provides a stable source of alkaline hydrogen peroxide which is environmentally friendly and easy to use. 
Sodium Percarbonate is a good cleaning and bleaching agent at normal temperature. Sodium Percarbonate provides powerful cleaning, bleaching, stain removal, deodorizing and disinfecting capabilities. Our Sodium Percarbonate with high stability has a wide range of applications including use in heavy duty laundry detergents, all fabric bleaches, wooden furniture polish & cleaners and personal care formulations.


Sodium Percarbonate is a white odorless, crystalline powder which when added to water releases hydrogen peroxide, a powerful disinfectant.

Applications
Sodium percarbonate is used as an oxidizing agent and environmentally friendly bleaching agent. 
Sodium percarbonate is used as a laboratory source of anhydrous hydrogen peroxide. 
Sodium percarbonate is utilized for the preparation of optically active 4-hydroxy-2-isoxazolines. 
Sodium percarbonate is widely used in detergent formulations and cleaning products such as carpet cleaner, textile bleach, denture cleaners, pulp and paper bleaching processes. 
Sodium percarbonate is also used as a hard filth removing agent in electroplating, waste water treatment agent and polymerization control agent. 
Further, Sodium percarbonate finds application in furniture polish and cleaners and personal care formulations. 
In addition to this, Sodium percarbonate is used in the preparation of trimethyl cyclopentenyl acetaldehyde and epoxydihydrolinalool.

Notes
Sodium percarbonate is moisture sensitive. Sodium percarbonate is incompatible with strong reducing agents, strong acids, organic materials and powdered metals.

“Sodium percarbonate” (SPC) is an inexpensive, stable, safe and commercially available material which may be used as a hydrogen peroxide source for organic synthesis. Epoxidation, amine and sulfide oxidation reactions were simply performed with the solid reagent in moderate to excellent yield.

Sodium percarbonate is a chemical substance with formula Na2H3CO6. 
Sodium percarbonate is an adduct of sodium carbonate (“soda ash” or “washing soda”) and hydrogen peroxide (that is, a perhydrate) whose formula is more properly written as 2 Na2CO3 · 3H2O
2. It is a colorless, crystalline, hygroscopic and water-soluble solid. Sometimes abbreviated as SPC. It contains 32.5% by weight of hydrogen peroxide.

Sodium percarbonate is used in some eco-friendly bleaches and other cleaning products, and as a laboratory source of anhydrous hydrogen peroxide.

Uses
Sodium percarbonate is primarily used as an oxidizing agent, as in non-chlorine bleach.  Other uses include as a convenient source of anhydrous hydrogen peroxide.

Carbonic acid disodium salt, compd. with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (2:3); Carbonic acid, disodium salt, compound with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (2:3); Disodium carbonate, compound with hydrogen peroxide (2:3); Sodium Carbonate Peroxide; Sodium Carbonate Peroxyhydrate; SPC
Sodium Percarbonate dissolves into water rapidly to release oxygen and provides powerful cleaning, bleaching, stain removal and deodorizing capabilities. 
As a kind of new high effective bleaching raw material for detergent, Sodium Percarbonate also is one disinfecting agent.


Carbonic acid disodium salt, compd. with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (2:3)
Carbonic acid sodium salt (1:2), compd. with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (2:3)
Carbonic acid, disodium salt, compd. with hydrogen peroxide (2:3)
Disodium carbonate, compound with hydrogen peroxide (2:3)
Disodium carbonate, compound with hydrogen peroxide (2:3)
disodium carbonate, compound with hydrogen peroxide (2:3)
Disodium carbonate, hydrogen peroxide (2:3)
FB Sodium percarbonate
Oxyper
Perdox
Peroxy sodium carbonate

Sodium carbonate peroxide

SODIUM CARBONATE PEROXYHYDRATE
Sodium carbonate peroxyhydrateSodium percarbonate
CAS names
Carbonic acid sodium salt (1:2), compd. with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (2:3)
IUPAC names
Carbonic acid, disodium salt, compd. with hydrogen peroxide (2:3)

DISODIOUM PERCARBONATE
disodium carbonate
disodium carbonate, compound with hydrogen peroxide
Disodium carbonate, compound with hydrogen peroxide (2:3)
disodium carbonate, compound with hydrogen peroxide (2:3)
Disodium carbonate, compound with hydrogen peroxide (2:3)
disodium carbonate, compound with hydrogen peroxide (2:3)
disodium carbonate-hydrogen peroxide (2/3)
Percarbonate
sodium carbonate hydrogen peroxide (2:3)
Sodium carbonate hydrogen peroxide (4:2:3)
Sodium carbonate peroxide
Sodium Carbonate Peroxyhidrate
sodium carbonate-hydrogen peroxide (2/3)
Sodium carbonate—hydrogen peroxide
sodium carbonate—hydrogen peroxide (2/3
sodium carbonate—hydrogen peroxide (2/3)
Sodium Percabonate
Sodium Percarbonat EC 239-707-6
sodium percarbonate
Sodium percarbonate (NaPC)
Sodiumpercarbonate
tetrasodium hydrogen peroxide dicarbonate
tetrasodium tris(peroxol) dicarbonate
tetrasodium;hydrogen peroxide;dicarbonate

Trade names
disodium carbonate, compound with hydrogen peroxide (2:3)
ECOX ®
FB®400 Sodium Percarbonate
NaPC
Oxyper ®
OXYPER ® 131
OXYPER ® 131/222
OXYPER ® S142/SHC
OXYPER ® SCS
PCS
percarbonate
Sodium Carbonate Peroxide
Sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate
Sodium Percarbonate
Sodium percarbonate
sodium percarbonate
SPC
tetrasodium hydrogen peroxide dicarbonate

Other Names
Sodium carbonate, peroxide
Carbonic acid, disodium salt, compound with hydrogen peroxide (2:3)
Sodium Percarbonate Coated
Disodium carbonate, compound with hydrogen peroxide (2:3)
Carbonic acid, disodium salt, compound with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (2:3)
Sodium Percarbonate 
Sodium Carbonate Peroxide
Carbonic acid disodium salt, compd. with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (2:3)
SPC
Carbonic Acid, Sodium Salt Compound With Hydrogen Peroxide
Sodium Carbonate Peroxyhydrate
Sodium Percarbonate Uncoated

CARBONIC ACID DISODIUM SALT, COMPOUND WITH HYDROGEN PEROXIDE (2:3)
DISODIUM CARBONATE COMPOUND WITH HYDROGEN PEROXIDE (2:3)
DISODIUM CARBONATE COMPOUND WITH HYDROGEN PEROXIDE (NA2CO3.1.5 H2O2)
DISODIUM CARBONATE SESQUIPEROXIDE
ECOX-C
FB SODIUM PERCARBONATE
HYDROGEN PEROXIDE (H2O2), COMPOUND WITH DISODIUM CARBONATE (3:2)
HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, COMPOUND WITH DISODIUM CARBONATE (3:2)
OXYPER
PERDOX
PEROXY SODIUM CARBONATE
SODIUM CARBONATE PEROXIDE
SODIUM CARBONATE SESQUIPEROXIDE (2NA2CO3.3H2O2)
SODIUM PERCARBONATE
SODIUM PERCARBONATE (NA2CO3.1.5H2O2)
SODIUM PERCARBONATES


A good source of hydrogen peroxide available in the form of powder or granules usually white-colored is sodium percarbonate. 
Its chemical formula is (2Na2CO3.3H2O2). 
It is observed that the sodium percarbonate is made by an additional reaction between hydrogen peroxide and carbonates of sodium available in the crystalline powder, commonly used as a cleaning agent. The sodium percarbonate has various properties like it is water-soluble, hygroscopic, and colorless and largely used in the laundry and cleaning industry and hence accelerates the growth of sodium percarbonate market in the global market. 
Owing to the presence of hydrogen peroxide in the formation, it has a wider scope in detergent and bleaching agent application.

Sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate is transformed into hydrogen peroxide and sodium carbonate in the presence of water. 
The hydrogen peroxide oxidizes the critical cellular components of the target organism and thus kills them.

Sodium percarbonate is mainly used as a bleaching chemical in laundry detergents, laundry additives and machine dishwashing products. 
The pure product (100 %) is also available for consumers as a laundry additive. 
Sodium percarbonate may also be used in products for drain cleaning, multipurpose cleaning or for denture cleansing.

Hydrogen peroxide has good microbial properties, particularly at elevated temperatures. 
The product itself has been used as a disinfectant in concentrations ranging from 1 to 50%. 
It is a very reactive material and should not be mixed with other chemicals. 
Solid products such as sodium percarbonate or sodium perborate release hydrogen peroxide when dissolved in water and are used in powder detergents.


The name "sodium percarbonate" (SPC) does not reflect the structure of this oxidizing agent, which is in fact a carbonate perhydrate: 2 Na2CO3 • 3 H2O2. 
Although SPC is very storage-stable if dry, the solid material has a slight vapour pressure of hydrogen peroxide leading to exchange with water or to violent reactions with oxidizable substrates, even in the solid state.

Sodium percarbonate is a source of highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide in non-aqueous systems, even if the material is not fully soluble. The addition of small amounts of water or sonication can increase the rate of oxidation. 
For example, sodium percarbonate allows the convenient preparation of peroxyacids from acid chlorides, and even from the acids themselves. Thus, SPC can be used in epoxidations and Baeyer-Villiger oxidations in the presence of an acylating agent


Sodium percarbonate is 100% active ingredient so it is a very powerful cleaner. 
Sodium percarbonate is sodium carbonate (i.e. Arm and Hammer Super Washing Soda) reacted with hydrogen peroxide and it is a very effective cleaner for all types of brewing equipment. 
It rinses easily. Sodium percarbonate uses active oxygen to penetrate carbon or protein soils and has a high kill rate on wide range of microorganisms making it an effective sanitiser as well as cleaner. 
This is a fantastic product for use on all brewery equipment including beer lines, pots, fermenters, heat exchangers. 
It will effectively remove beer stone and dried up yeast. 
Sodium percarbonate gradually decomposes into non-toxic, environmentally safe, food grade elements. 
It decomposes into oxygen, sodium carbonate and water. 
In our opinion, percarbonate-based cleaners are the best choice for equipment cleaning. 
These products combine sodium metasilicate with the percarbonate in a stable form which increases its effectivity and prevents the corrosion of metals like copper and aluminum that strong alkaline solutions can cause.

SODIUM PERCARBONATE    
Sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate    
CAS #: 15630-89-4    
UN #: 3378
EC Number: 239-707-6

Chemical formula: Na2CO3·1.5 H2O2
Molar mass: 156.982 g/mol
Appearance: white solid
Solubility in water: 150 g/l

Hazards
Main hazards: Irritant, Oxidizer
Flash point:Non-flammable

Product Name: SODIUM PERCARBONATE
Chemical Name: Sodium per carbonate
CAS No: 15630-89-4
EINECS No: 239-707-6

carbonoperoxoic acid, disodium salt
carbonoperoxoic acid, monosodium salt
percarbonate
sodium percarbonate

Industry Uses    
Bleaching agents
Oxidizing/reducing agents
Plating agents and surface treating agents
Surface active agents

Sodium percarbonate appears as a colorless, crystalline solid. Denser than water. May combust in contact with organic materials. Contact may irritate skin, eyes and mucous membranes. May be toxic by ingestion. Used to make other chemicals.

Sodium percarbonate is a chemical substance with formula Na2H3CO6. 
Sodium percarbonate is an adduct of sodium carbonate ("soda ash" or "washing soda") and hydrogen peroxide (that is, a perhydrate) whose formula is more properly written as 2 Na2CO3·3 H2O2. 
Sodium percarbonate is a colorless, crystalline, hygroscopic and water-soluble solid. Sodium percarbonate is sometimes abbreviated as SPC. Sodium percarbonate contains 32.5% by weight of hydrogen peroxide.
Sodium percarbonate is used in some eco-friendly bleaches and other cleaning products.

Sodium percarbonate was first prepared in 1899 by Russian chemist Sebastian Moiseevich Tanatar

Structure
At room temperature, solid sodium percarbonate has the orthorhombic crystal structure, with the Cmca crystallographic space group. 
The structure changes to Pbca as the crystals are cooled below about −30 °C


Chemistry
Dissolved in water, sodium percarbonate yields a mixture of hydrogen peroxide (which eventually decomposes to water and oxygen), sodium cations Na+, and carbonate CO2−3.

Production
Sodium percarbonate is produced industrially by crystallization of a solution of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide, with proper control of the pH and concentrations.
This is also a convenient laboratory method.

Alternatively, dry sodium carbonate may be treated directly with concentrated hydrogen peroxide solution.

It may also be formed from a process starting from sodium peroxide When absolute ethyl alcohol reacts with sodium peroxide at 0° C. a perhydroxide is produced.

C2H5OH + Na2O2 - O:NaOH + C2H5ONa.

Carbon dioxide converts it into sodium hydrogen percarbonate.

World production capacity of this compound was estimated at several hundred thousand tons for 2004.

Uses
As an oxidizing agent, sodium percarbonate is an ingredient in a number of home and laundry cleaning products, including non-chlorine bleach products such as Oxyper, OxiClean, Tide laundry detergent,[1] and Vanish.[4]

Many commercial products mix a percentage of sodium percarbonate with sodium carbonate. The average percentage of an "Oxy" product in the supermarket is 65% sodium percarbonate and 35% sodium carbonate. 
The "ultra boosters" seen on infomercials may contain as much as 80% sodium percarbonate. 


Sodium percarbonate is also used as a cleaning agent by many home brewers. 

Sodium percarbonate can be used in organic synthesis as a convenient source of anhydrous H2O2, in particular in solvents that cannot dissolve the carbonate but can leach the H2O2 out of it.
A method for generating trifluoroperacetic acid in situ for use in Baeyer–Villiger oxidations from sodium percarbonate and trifluoroacetic anhydride has been reported; it provides a convenient and cheap approach to this reagent without the need to obtain highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide

Sodium percarbonate is a great killer of bacteria, fungi, viruses and mildew, therefore can be used as a very effective exterior Algae removal agent and moss killer. 
Sodium percarbonate is also an effective indoors product and is used as a house deodoriser, floor cleaner and carpet spot cleaner.


RODUCT SPECIFICATIONS        ANALYTICAL METHOD
Appearance    White spherical granules    Visual


Active Oxygen: min % 13.1 (m/m)    Titrimetric
Bulk Density: 1-1,2 g/ml    Gravimetric
Moisture: max. %0,5 (m/m)    Karl-Fischer
Iron (Fe) Content: max. 10ppm

Colorimetric Grain Size Distribution: min. %90 400-1400 µ
max. %10 <400 µ, max %10 >1400 µ
max. %1 <150 µ, max %1 >1600 µ
Sieve Analysis

Solubility: 140 g/L    Titration
Stability: min. 90 %, (48h, 32°C, %80RH)    Wet Stability
Rate of Dissolution: 90 %, 60 sec, 20°C    Titration
Stability: <10 µW/g, 16h, 40°C    TAM


APPLICATION FIELDS

Bleaching, cleaning and stain removal agent for laundry and automatic dishwashing detergent formulations
Stain remover agent for stain remover product formulations
Bleaching agent for textile and paper industry applications
Bleaching and disinfectant agent for several food and pharmaceutical industry applications
Bleaching agent for various personal cleaning and cosmetics products
Oxidizer disinfectant for a variety of industrial cleaning applications


Sodium percarbonate
Sodium carbonate peroxide
UNII-Z7G82NV92P
Carbonic acid disodium salt, compd. with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (2:3)
Z7G82NV92P
tetrasodium;hydrogen peroxide;dicarbonate
Perdox
FB Sodium percarbonate
Peroxy sodium carbonate
EINECS 239-707-6
Sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate
Disodium carbonate, hydrogen peroxide (2:3)
HSDB 8161
Disodium carbonate, compound with hydrogen peroxide (2:3)
Sodium percarbonate, CP
EC 239-707-6
C2H6Na4O12
Sodium Percarbonate (Coated)
Sodium Percarbonate (Uncoated)
DTXSID3029736
Carbonic acid, disodium salt, compd. with hydrogen peroxide (2:3)
Carbonic acid sodium salt (1:2), compd. with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (2:3)
disodium carbonate hydrogen peroxide (2:3)
FT-0688134
W3396
Sodium percarbonate, avail. H2O2 20-30 %
Q420070

Methods of Manufacturing    
Crystallization Processes. 
The production of sodium carbonate peroxohydrate is mainly carried out by crystallization from aqueous solution. 
Sodium carbonate is reacted with hydrogen peroxide at 10-20 °C, and crystallized in the presence of stabilizers, such as magnesium silicate, and salting-out agents, preferably sodium chloride. 
Crystallization aids such as polyphosphates or polyacrylates are used. 
The product is obtained as coarse, mechanically stable crystals, which are centrifuged followed by drying, preferably in a fluidized-bed dryer with an air inlet temperature of 75-130 °C. 
The mother liquor from the centrifuge can be further concentrated and mixed with industrial-grade sodium carbonate (sometimes after adding a magnesium salt), filtered to remove iron compounds, and fed back into the crystallizer. 
Processes that do not include a salting-out process with sodium chloride are usually less economic because of the lower space-time yield.


Spraying Processes. ... These processes avoid the need for filtration and centrifugation of the crystalline product. 
An aqueous solution or suspension of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide is completely evaporated in a spray dryer. 
The product has a very low bulk density (0.35 kg/L). 
In a variation of this process, solutions of Na2CO3, and H2O2 are continuously sprayed onto a bed of sodium carbonate peroxohydrate fluidized with hot air. 
The spraying and drying stages can alternatively be carried out in two stages. 
In a further process variation, solutions of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide are sprayed through separate nozzles into a reaction chamber into which a hot mixture of air and carbon dioxide is passed at the same time. 
This process produces a rather porous sodium carbonate peroxohydrate. 
A highly attrition resistant product with an active oxygen content of >14% and high bulk density (>1000 g/L) can be obtained in a continuous spray- granular process using a fluidized-bed reactor.


Dry Methods. In these processes, anhydrous or hydrated sodium carbonate (75-90 wt% Na2CO3) is reacted with a concentrated solution (50-80 wt%) of hydrogen peroxide, so that only a small amount of water must be removed. 
This can be achieved in a mixer or fluidized-bed reactor in which gaseous hydrogen peroxide can be used. 
Apart from the long reaction time, these dry processes have the disadvantage that no purification of the sodium carbonate takes place and therefore these sodium carbonate peroxohydrate products have only moderate storage properties. 
However, this problem can be solved by recrystallizing the sodium carbonate before use and by using sodium carbonate monohydrate.


Sodium percarbonate is produced by the reaction of sodium carbonate with hydrogen peroxide, which can be done via dry, spray granulation and crystallization processes. 
In the dry process aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution is sprayed on solid sodium carbonate; a solid-liquid reaction yields sodium percarbonate. 
In the spray granulation process sodium percarbonate is produced by a fluid bed process. 
Solutions of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide are sprayed simultaneously into a drying chamber onto seed crystals whereby the water is evaporated. 
In the crystallization process sodium percarbonate is usually formed by reacting solutions of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide in a crystallizer possibly in combination with salting out agents.


Sanitizer for aquaculture water treatment is an option for organic aquaculture operation

Example of manual application of the hydrogen peroxide-containing powder product SPC.
Water treatment options for organic aquaculture are restricted, compared to those available to conventional fish farming; only easily degradable disinfectants are allowed. 
One of the permissible water disinfectants that can be used in both conventional and organic aquaculture production systems is sodium percarbonate (SPC). 
SPC is a dry, granulated form of hydrogen peroxide (H202), being a crystalline adduct of H2O2 with sodium carbonate (2Na2CO3·3H2O2; Fig. 1).

SPC decomposes in water into Na+, CO32- and H2O2.  It has different trade names – Oxyper, Biocare or Oxypro – and is also referred to as “emergency oxygen powder.” 
The product has documented anti-parasitic effects (Heinecke and Buchmann, Aquaculture 288.1 (2009): 32-35), controls unwanted algae growth and has sanitizing properties, and liberates oxygen during its decomposition.

The advantage of applying SPC over other H2O2 products is that it is safe and easy to handle. 
Being a granulated powder, it can be evenly distributed in a pond or raceway by use of a hand shovel, as shown in the picture above.

The added powder can be visually checked as it precipitates to the bottom of the tank or raceway when added to the water, helping guide and ensure a safer, more even and effective distribution. Immediately after the addition of SPC to the water, hydrogen peroxide reacts with organic matter and bacteria in the sediment.

During the enzymatic breakdown of H2O2, oxygen is formed, which is seen as microbubbles emerging from the bottom/sediment. This process may help in liberating organic matter and debris from the bottom, which is another apparent, beneficial property of this product. The water quality is momentarily deteriorated as a result of this, and some decomposition products (flocculated material, particulate organic matter) may accumulate on the surface following the water treatment procedure.


Example of SPC application on a commercial fish farm
SPC can be used to improve water quality by the indirect addition of oxygen and associated elimination of bacteria. 
As a side effect, it purifies the bottom in concrete raceways in hatcheries, and cleans up the sediment in earthen ponds when SPC reacts with the organic matter. 
The dosages vary from system to system and depend on factors like fish size, water temperature and water quality (organic matter content).

In January 2017, we measured the associated effect of adding SPC to a 100 m3 earthen pond with juvenile (150 to 200-gram) rainbow trout. 
An amount of 12 kg SPC was evenly added using a hand shovel to the pond over a period under five minutes.

At the outlet of the pond, oxygen and pH sensors were installed to record and log data prior to, and during SPC application. Water samples were collected in transects across the pond and from the outlet of the pond to assess hydrogen peroxide concentrations. 
H2O2 concentrations were estimated by use of commercial Peroxid sticks (0-25 ppm H2O2) and analyzed in the field with a portable spectrophotometer and a fixating color reagent.


Perborate as a bleach component in heavy-duty laundry detergents is being increasingly substituted by percarbonate. 
In the wash process, sodium percarbonate does form hydrogen peroxide and sodium carbonate. 
Sodium carbonate is a water-soluble mineral and ubiquitously present in the aqueous environment as there is an equilibrium with carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and with other dissolved minerai carbonates. 
While Na-percarbonate expectedly displays some aquatic toxicity due to the formation of unstable hydrogen peroxide (fish-LC50 = 71 mg/l, daphnia-EC50 = 4.9 mg/l), sodium carbonate has a very low aquatic toxicity (see Section 3.2.6). 
Thus, the use of sodium percarbonate as detergent bleaching active will not have any significant impact on the aquatic organisms.


Hydrogen peroxide has good microbial properties, particularly at elevated temperatures. 
The product itself has been used as a disinfectant in concentrations ranging from 1 to 50%. 
It is a very reactive material and should not be mixed with other chemicals. 
Solid products such as sodium percarbonate or sodium perborate release hydrogen peroxide when dissolved in water and are used in powder detergents.


Sodium percarbonate – Sodium percarbonate (Na2CO3·1.5 H2O2) is not a persalt but a perhydrate and so, is less storage stable than perborate. 
As a carbonate source, it also contributes alkalinity to the wash liquor as it dissolves. 
To enhance its stability, percarbonate is frequently marketed as granules coated with a protective disilicate-based layer.


The main user of sodium percarbonate is the household cleaning products industry, which is expected to use more than 95 % of the European sodium percarbonate demand.
Sodium percarbonate is mainly used as a bleaching chemical in laundry detergents (tablets,compact or regular powders), laundry additives and machine dishwashing products. 
The concentrations of sodium percarbonate in the different household cleaning products are presented in Table 2. 
However, higher concentrations are used also. 
Bleach booster products with a sodium percarbonate concentration between 65 and 85 % are placed on the market.
Furthermore the pure product (100 %) is available for consumers as a laundry additive. 
Minor amounts of sodium percarbonate may be used in products for drain cleaning, multipurpose cleaning or for denture cleansing. 


Table 2: Sodium percarbonate content in household cleaning products (AISE, 2002a)
Product Content sodium percarbonate (%)

Typical content (%)
Laundry regular, powder 7-16 8-16
Laundry compact, powder
Laundry compact, tablet
12-21
12-24
12-21
12-20

Laundry additive, powder bleach
Laundry additive, tablet
20-40
25-56
23-31
28-56

Machine dishwashing, powder
Machine dishwashing, tablet
3-21
8.5
21
8.5 


Mainly as a result of environmental pressures to reduce borate content of detergents, sodium perborate has slowly been replaced by sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate, more commonly known as sodium percarbonate. 
Sodium percarbonate exists as a colourless crystalline solid (2Na2CO3·3H2O2) and the peroxide is present as a perhydrate, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) being incorporated in the crystal lattice rather than as a cyclic peroxide. 
Due to the lack of stabilisation in a covalent, favourable, six-membered ring structure, sodium percarbonate is far less stable than sodium perborate, and must therefore be coated to provide sufficiently stable detergent formulations. 
However, since percarbonate has a greater rate of dissolution, has a more environment-friendly profile and has the advantage of concurrently generating hydrogen peroxide and of liberating carbonate, which gives a higher pH than borate and favours perhydrolysis, percarbonate today is the form of hydrogen peroxide of choice in most European detergents.


Sodium percarbonate rapidly dissolves in water and dissociates into sodium, carbonate and hydrogen peroxide. 
Acute ecotoxicity tests with fish and water fleas revealed LC50 values of 71 and 4.9 mg/l. 
The available data show that the observed aquatic toxicity of sodium percarbonate can be explained by the formation of hydrogen peroxide. 
Because sodium percarbonate dissociates into sodium, carbonate and hydrogen peroxide, the environmental risk assessment is based on the risk assessment of the individual components. 

Sodium percarbonate is produced by the reaction of sodium carbonate with hydrogen peroxide, which can be done via dry, spray and wet processes. 
In the dry process aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution is sprayed on solid sodium carbonate; a solid-liquid reaction yields sodium percarbonate. 
In the spray process sodium percarbonate is produced by a fluid bed process. 
Solutions of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide are sprayed into a drying chamber where the water is evaporated. 
In the wet process sodium percarbonate is usually prepared by cristallisation possibly in combination with salting out. 

Sodium percarbonate, also known as Sodium Carbonate Peroxyhydrate, or oxygen bleach powder is a free-flowing, white powder. 
It is an addition compound of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide. Percarbonate has an active available oxygen content (13%) which is equivalent to 27.5% Hydrogen peroxide. 
It breaks down to oxygen, water and sodium carbonate upon decomposition. 
It is an environmentally safe bleaching agent. 
Sodium Percarbonate / oxygen bleach offers many of the same functional benefits as liquid hydrogen peroxide. 
It dissolves into water rapidly to release oxygen and provides powerful cleaning, bleaching, stain removal and deodorizing capabilities in addition to being effective at killing bacteria, fungus, viruses and algae. It has the added advantage of having no odour.

 
Uses for Sodium Percarbonate / Oxygen Bleach
Sodium percarbonate improves the performance of conventional detergents and shampoos on stubborn stains. 
It is a gentle stain remover for synthetic carpeting and upholstery fabrics. 
It saves time by allowing cleaning in one pass that would perhaps have taken two or three passes with a carpet cleaner that uses shampoo only. 
It improves personal safety by eliminating the need to use harsher cleaning or stain removal products. 
It also eliminates the need for expensive prespotters and stain removers. It prolongs carpet cleaner machine life by reducing the use of harsh and corrosive products. 
It is very effective as a laundry presoak for heavily stained articles. It is colour safe. It brightens colours and prevents fabric from become yellowed or darkened.

On wood it is effective in removing mildew stains and weathering. The sodium carbonate acts as a built-in detergent, removing dirt and other deposits. 
Thus, sodium percarbonate-based cleaners are effective in removing dirt, mildew and weathered grey residues. 
Once treated the wood returns to its natural original appearance. 
Oxygen bleach is excellent for cleaning and removing organic stains (such as coffee, tea, wine, fruit juices, foods, sauces, grass, pet stains and blood) from fabrics, plastics, fiberglass, porcelain, ceramics, wood, carpets, asphalt, concrete, etc. Oxygen bleach containing products can be used in any place in or around the house that need to be destained and deodorized; they are efficient, safe and economical.

Benefits:

No environmental hazards - breaks down to oxygen, water and sodium carbonate (soda ash) in your wash water.
Effectively kills wide range of bacteria, mildew, algae, viruses, fungi
Colour safe and fabric safe. It brightens colours and prevents fabrics from becoming yellowed or darkened
Effective stain removal on a multitude of surfaces
In the laundry Sodium Percarbonate is used to destain, deodorize, and whiten. It is very effective as a laundry presoak for heavily stained articles.
Where to use:

Laundry cleaner & bleach
Spot cleaning fabrics
Carpet & Upholstery cleaning and prespotting
Kitchen surfaces and utensils
Destaining cups, Coffee Pots etc
Fridges & freezers
Chopping Boards
Bathroom surfaces
Mildew Removal tiles, grouting and walls
Wood Decks and wooden garden furniture
Plastic garden furniture
Kills algae and moss on driveways, patios, brickwork and roofs.
General household Cleaning
Sterilizing utensils in hairdressers and barbers


How to use sodium percarbonate / oxygen bleach:

Dilution rates for sodium percarbonate / oxygen bleach:

5g = 1 heaped teaspoon 30g = 1/4 cupful 60g = 1/2 cupful

How to use oxygen bleach for Laundry Applications: For light soils add 30g of Sodium Percarbonate / oxygen bleach with your laundry detergent per load. For moderate soils use 60g (1/2 cupful) and for heavily soiled articles use 120g. In the laundry Sodium Percarbonate is used to destain, deodorize, and whiten. It is very effective as a laundry presoak for heavily stained articles. Soak in hot water for at least 30 minutes, or overnight, then complete wash cycle. For whitening old linens and yellowed window shears, deodorizing and cleaning tennis shoes, or to get rid of yellow armpit stains on shirts: soak in a solution containing 60g of Sodium Percarbonate in 5 litres of water for at least one hour, or overnight, then rinse.

How to use oxygen bleach for For general cleaning: Dissolve 25g per litre of warm/hot water For Heavy cleaning: Dissolve 60g per litre of warm/hot water Soaking: Dissolve between 15g and 60g per litre of warm/hot water To make a paste mix 30g of powder with just enough warm water that the paste forms.

How to use oxygen bleach as a Carpet Prespotter / stain remover: Add 30g per litre of water. apply to stain ensuring that it is well soaked. Leave for up to 10 minutes. Lift residue with white paper towelling. Repeat cleaning if necessary. After carpet has been cleaned rinse with clean water and absorb with towelling. repeat rinsing.

How to use oxygen bleach for Kitchen Cleaning: For general cleaning and deodorising of work surfaces, fridges, floors, walls etc use 25g per litre of water. Apply to surface by spraying, mopping or wiping. Allow to remain on surface for 5-10 minutes and rinse off.

How to use oxygen bleach for Cleaning Decks: Dissolve 50-60g of sodium percarbonate / oxygen bleach per litre of warm/hot water. Each litre will clean approx 5m2 of surface. Brush decking first to remove all loose debris, leaves, rubbish etc. Apply solution to the surface and allow to work for 30-60 minutes, scrub with stiff brush and rinse off. For stubborn stains futher applications will be necessary.

How to use oxygen bleach for Destaining: Soak items in a solution containg 60g per litre of water. Leave for 15-20 mins. Remove and rinse thoroughly.

How to use oxygen bleach for Cleaning Machines: make up a solution of 25g dissolved in 1 litre water. Switch on Machine and pour in the solution and allow it to circulate. drain off solution. Rinse thoroughly by circulating clean water through the machine.

Pre-mixed solutions Of Sodium Percarbonate / oxygen bleach will remain active for 5 to 6 hours, after which they should be discarded. Unused material may be poured down the drain or into a septic tank. It will actually help clean and deodorize your pipes, drains, toilets etc. Sodium percarbonate solutions are most effective when mixed and used in warm to hot solutions (30o to 60o C).
 

Water Treatment using Sodium Percarbonate:
Sodium percarbonate is a quick oxygen-releasing agent, it can release a large of oxygen into water and increase the oxygen concentration of water for a long period of time. At the same time, it can improve the water quality and degrade the organic matter of water to reduce the toxicity of ammonia, nitrogen, H2S and algae. Applications for sodium percarbonate include treatment of biological upsets in ponds, treatment of sludges, municipal sewage treatment, dechlorination and water softening. In sewage treatment SPC helps to reduce the chemical oxygen demand and improve biodegradability. It neutralises pollutants such as sulphides, nitrosamines, amides, chlorine and thiosulphate. NB. Not for use in drinking water.
 
 

Uses of Sodium Percarbonate in the Textile Industry:
Sodium Percarbonate is used as a method of adding hydrogen peroxide to dye oxidation baths in order to fix the dye onto the fabric. SPC is used as the bleaching agent to improve fabric whiteness.when a solid bleach is desirable. It also offers a system for the fixation of sulphur dyes on fabrics. Sodium Percarbonate is not suitable for use with silk or wool.

  
Sodium Percarbonate in the laboratory:
Sodium percarbonate is a source of highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide in non aqueous systems. It is useful for solvents that cannot dissolve the carbonate but leech out the hydrogen peroxide from it. It behaves as an electrophile, because the driving force is the formation of carbonate. At room temperature solid SPC has the orthorhombic crystal structure.

sodium percarbonate allows the convenient preparation  of peroxyacids from acid chlorides, and even from the acids themselves. Thus, Sodium percarbonate can be used in epoxidations and Baeyer-Villiger oxidations in the presence of an acylating agent.

Sodium percarbonate in trifluoroacetic acid is an effective reagent for the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of ketones to esters. 

The oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols by sodium percarbonate in the presence of catalytic amounts of both molybdenyl acetylacetonate and Adogen 464 gave fair to high yields of the corresponding carbonyl compounds.

Sodium percarbonate is an ideal and efficient oxygen source for the oxidation of tertiary nitrogen compounds to N-oxides in excellent yields in the presence of various rhenium-based catalysts under mild reaction conditions.

Outstanding performance in the homecare industry
OXYPER (Sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate) is a coated and stabilized sodium percarbonate that serves as a powerful oxygen bleaching agent for cleaning, whitening, stain removal, hygiene, disinfection, water softening and product compaction. 
Percarbonate comes in a powder form and is one of the most effective stain removers and disinfectants ౼ outperforming liquid alternatives ౼ especially when used in synergy with a bleach activator or catalyst. 

It combines the dual properties of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide to deliver significant benefits in the Homecare industry. 
OXYPER is mainly used in laundry powder, automatic dishwashing tablets or bleach and laundry additives but can also be used in other applications where a solid, easy to use source of alkaline hydrogen peroxide is needed. These situations include water treatment, soil remediation, fish and shrimp farming and textile bleaching for example. 
 
Effective, yet sustainable bleaching agent 
OXYPER® 's high oxygen content and high bulk density improve detergency performance while reducing the need for additional builders. 
The eco-friendly molecule decomposes after use into water, oxygen and soda ash ౼  resulting in minimal impact on the environment as the harmless elements disappear in nature.


Sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate - commonly referred to as sodium percarbonate - is an addition compound of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide. 
OXYPER® S, is a coated and stabilized sodium percarbonate. 
It combines the dual properties of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide to deliver significant benefits in powder or tablet detergent applications such as cleaning, whitening, stain removal, hygiene, disinfection, water softening and product compaction. 
The combination of 'two functions in one' product, in addition to a high available oxygen content and high bulk density, allows OXYPER® S to improve detergency performance while reducing the need for additional builders and consequently the environmental impact of the formulated detergents. 
OXYPER® S has minimal impact on the environment, decomposing after use into water, oxygen and soda ash. 
OXYPER® S is mainly used in laundry powder, automatic dish washing tablet or bleach & laundry additives but can also be used in other applications where a solid, easy to use source of alkaline hydrogen peroxide is needed such as water treatment, soil remediation or textile bleaching.

Oxyper® SCS is a stabilised grade of sodium percarbonate (Sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate) specially designed for use laundry (powders and tablets) and in bleach additive products. 
Oxyper® SCS combines the properties of hydrogen peroxide with the properties of sodium carbonate in an easy to use free flowing white granular powder with excellent water solubility and high rate of dissolution. 
The bleaching action of Oxyper® SCS maintains fabric whiteness and colour brightness while effectively removing wine, fruit, coffee, tea and other stains without damaging fibres. 
The alkalinity, the buffering capacity and water softening properties of sodium carbonate provide additional cleaning benefits, such as helping the removal of natural fatty soils.


Oxyper® SHC is a high coated, stabilised grade of sodium percarbonate (Sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate) specially designed for use in bleach additive products, detergent powders and tablets, automatic machine dishwash powders and tablets. 
Sodium percarbonate combines the properties of hydrogen peroxide with the properties of sodium carbonate in an easy to use free flowing white granular powder with excellent water solubility and high rate of dissolution. 
The bleaching action of Oxyper® SHC maintains fabric whiteness and colour brightness while effectively removing wine, fruit, coffee, tea and other stains without damaging fibres. 
The alkalinity, the buffering capacity and water softening properties of sodium carbonate provide additional cleaning benefits, such as helping the removal of natural fatty soils.

Reactivity Profile
Oxidizing agents, such as SODIUM PERCARBONATE, can react with reducing agents to generate heat and products that may be gaseous (causing pressurization of closed containers). The products may themselves be capable of further reactions (such as combustion in the air). The chemical reduction of materials in this group can be rapid or even explosive, but often requires initiation (heat, spark, catalyst, addition of a solvent). Explosive mixtures of inorganic oxidizing agents with reducing agents often persist unchanged for long periods if initiation is prevented. Such systems are typically mixtures of solids, but may involve any combination of physical states. Some inorganic oxidizing agents are salts of metals that are soluble in water; dissolution dilutes but does not nullify the oxidizing power of such materials. Organic compounds, in general, have some reducing power and can in principle react with compounds in this class. Actual reactivity varies greatly with the identity of the organic compound. Inorganic oxidizing agents can react violently with active metals, cyanides, esters, and thiocyanates.

Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Salts, Basic
Oxidizing Agents, Strong
Carbonate Salts
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents
Use caution: Liquids with this reactive group classification have been known to react with the absorbents listed below. More info about absorbents, including situations to watch out for...

Cellulose-Based Absorbents
Expanded Polymeric Absorbents


Sodium percarbonate is an excellent bleaching agent ideal for keeping your laundry naturally white, preventing the greying of fabric from limescale build-up. Used as a stain remover it quickly and completely dissolves a wide range of stubborn stains including: tea, coffee, red wine, grass, fruit stains, sweat and blood.

Sodium percarbonate is derived from natural raw materials (salt, water and chalk)
Alkalie pH softens water
increases the effectiveness of cleaning agents
Contains no chloride or phosphates, which cause huge damage to our rivers.
Low environmental impact.

Sodium Percarbonate (Na2CO3·1.5H2O2) is a colorless, crystalline, hygroscopic and water-soluble solid. 
An adduct of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide. Applications of sodium percarbonate include use in laundry detergents.


The effects of sodium percarbonate and perborate usage on pulping and flotation deinking instead of hydrogen peroxide
Pesman, E., Imamoglu, S., Kalyoncu, E. E., and Kirci, H. (2014). "The effects of sodium percarbonate and perborate usage on pulping and flotation deinking instead of hydrogen peroxide," BioRes. 9(1), 523-536.
_________________________________________
Abstract
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of sodium percarbonate and sodium perborate utilization during repulping of old news and magazine paper mixture. 
A series of experiments were performed to determine the effects of bleaching agents on ISO brightness and ink removal efficiency of pulp after flotation deinking. 
Conventionally, with other parameters are constant, the ISO brightness of pulp was increased from 45.24% to 54.10% and ink elimination ratio at 950 nm of pulp was increased to 69.12% with 1% sodium hydroxide and 1% (as active oxygen content) hydrogen peroxide usage. 
However, when sodium percarbonate was utilized instead of hydrogen peroxide (as 1% active oxygen content) without alkaline addition, the ISO brightness of the pulp was increased to 55.00%. 
Also, unlike the other bleaching agents, a favorable effect of sodium percarbonate on ink detachment was observed. 
The ink elimination ratio of floated pulp was increased to 74.31% with 1% (active oxygen) sodium percarbonate addition without alkaline usage. 
There were no additive effects of sodium perborate usage on brightness, and ERIC value of pulp could be determined. 
In this respect, sodium percarbonate utilization without sodium hydroxide addition was proposed for effective repulping, deinking, and prebleaching of waste papers, in a similar manner to the use of hydrogen peroxide.


Sodium percarbonate and sodium perborate are alkaline reactants unlike hydrogen peroxide and do not need extra caustic soda (NaOH) for bleaching activity. 
Meshcherova and coworkers (1982) conducted laboratory studies on the use of sodium and potassium perborates for bleaching softwood kraft pulps and they concluded that it is more advantageous to bleach kraft pulp with potassium perborate than hydrogen peroxide. 
Also sodium perborate monohydrate was utilized for reinforcement of oxygen delignification; it was found that the delignification ratio can be increased from 45.56% to 57.59% without selectivity loss (Pesman et al. 2010). 
Varennes and coworkers (1996) used sodium perborate tetrahydrate for bleaching of thermomechanical pulp. 
Brightness as high as 75% ISO was reached with the addition of 6.5% sodium perborate tetrahydrate. 

CONCLUSIONS
This paper has focused on the use of sodium percarbonate and sodium perborate for prebleaching of waste papers during repulping. 
These agents were examined with respect to ISO brightness, CIE L*a*b* values, yield parameters, and ink elimination ratios. 
The advantage of using sodium percarbonate and sodium borate is that sodium hydroxide is not required for the bleaching reaction, since these chemicals contribute to alkalinity. 
Sodium percarbonate is a solid form of hydrogen peroxide and sodium carbonate. 
Likewise, sodium perborate is a solid form of hydrogen peroxide and sodium metaborate. 
A solid form of these peroxide derivatives is another advantage in the terms of handling and storage. 
Hydrogen peroxide requires special engineered safety precautions, but granulated percarbonate and perborate can be easily storage and used for bleaching processes.
Sodium percarbonate usage during pulping is more effective than sodium perborate on ISO brightness of pulp. 
Sodium percarbonate can be activated at low temperatures (30 to 50 °C), and a reaction temperature of 45 °C can be used during pulping. 
By contrast, perborate needs high temperatures (70 to 80 °C) for effective bleaching activity. 
In a deinking process, an alkaline additive is necessary not only for bleaching of pulp but also necessary for ink removal from pulp. 
Sodium percarbonate can provide the needed alkaline for deinking activity by itself. 
Sodium percarbonate usage (1% active oxygen) was increased the ink elimination to 74.31% without sodium hydroxide addition.
It is concluded that sodium percarbonate application during repulping may provide advantages relative to sodium perborate and hydrogen peroxide for improving brightness and ink removal efficiency.


1. WO2004014789 - COATED SODIUM PERCARBONATE AND THE PREPARATION PROCESS AND USE THEREOF

Abstract(EN)
This invention relates to coated sodium percarbonate, its preparation process, and it use as bleach component in the formulations of detergent, cleaning agent, and bleaching agent. 
This invention pertains to the field of detergent. 
It solves the problem in shell stability of coated sodium percarbonate. 
The essential content of this invention is t obtain coated sodium percarbonate with shelf stability by using sodium carbonate refined salt, and hydrogen peroxide as starting materials, introducing inner stabilizer crystallizing aid, and outer stabilizer, respectively, and controlling the reaction conditions. 
This invention is advantageous in that it does not cause formation of waste gas and waste residue and it is environment-friendly and simple in facility and good in product stability.

Percarbonate as a bleach component in heavy-duty laundry detergents is being increasingly substituted by percarbonate. 
In the wash process, sodium percarbonate does form hydrogen peroxide and sodium carbonate. 
Sodium carbonate is a water-soluble mineral and ubiquitously present in the aqueous environment as there is an equilibrium with carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and with other dissolved mineral carbonates. 
While Na-percarbonate expectedly displays some aquatic toxicity due to the formation of unstable hydrogen peroxide.

Related projects:- Chemicals (Organic, Inorganic, Industrial) Projects

Sodium percarbonate is a source of highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide in non-aqueous systems, even if the material is not fully soluble. 
The addition of small amounts of water or sonication can increase the rate of oxidation. 
For example, sodium percarbonate allows the convenient preparation of peroxyacids from acid chlorides, and even from the acids themselves. 
Thus, SPC can be used in epoxidation and Baeyer-Villager oxidations in the presence of an acylation agent:


Sodium Percarbonate is a solid, effective, and safer alternative to “chlorine” type bleaches and may be used for whitening, sanitising, brightening, and deodorizing.

Sodium Percarbonate may be used as a soak for nappies or other foul linen plus may be added to the wash cycle to provide a bleaching action.

Sodium carbonate may be used in a wash at the boil and will not fix hibitane stains. Sodium Percarbonate may be used for flame retardant treated fabrics, is suitable for most easy care finished fabrics, and is safer for use with certain dyed fabrics.


What’s the difference between Coted and uncoated Sodium percarbonate?

Sodium percarbonateis used as an active oxygen component in detergents, bleaching and cleaning agents.

Due to the unsatisfactory storage stability of the uncoated sodium percarbonate in warm/moist surroundings and in the presence of certain detergent and cleaning agent components, sodium percarbonate must be stabilized against

the coated sodium percarbonate is the sodium percarbonate crystals coated with single or multiple layers of various substances in order to increase active oxygen stability and optimize its storage and anti-aging properties.

Compared with the uncoated sodium percarbonate, Coated sodium percarbonate is the more commonly commercialized peroxide. However, the uncoated SPC is still the preferred ingredient for simply mixing with enough quantity of soda ash or some surfactants to form the popular oxygen bleaches.

The sodium percarbonate market has shown moderate growth in recent years, and is expected to experience a lower growth trend over the forecast period through 2030. In terms of supply, the market has shown fluctuations during the past half-decade. However, demand for sodium percarbonate has been gradually increasing during the same period. This rift has led to increasing prices of raw materials as well as sodium percarbonate in recent times.

Overall, the sodium percarbonate market is expected to show moderate growth in terms of value during the forecast period, while growth in volume is expected to be low. Investments by companies to increase penetration, increasing demand for cleaning products and disinfectants, are expected to drive the expansion of the sodium percarbonate market size over the coming years.

Sodium Percarbonate Market Drivers

Use of sodium percarbonate for laundry has been constant, and is expected to increase during the forecast period. Demand for bleaching agents in textile and laundry industries is expected to gain significant traction during the forecast period. Growing need for wastewater treatment is expected to boost demand for sodium percarbonate. Scarcity of clean water is expected to further increase over the coming years. As sodium percarbonate is permissible for usage in conventional and organic aquaculture, demand in fish farming is expected to be moderate over the coming years.

Demand for the uncoated type accounts for a higher share in the sodium percarbonate market, but need for long-term storage in multiple end-use industries has been driving demand for coated sodium percarbonate. Demand for coated sodium percarbonate is expected to see significant traction from textile and laundry industries during the forecast period.

Synonyms:
     carbonic acid disodium salt, compd. with hydrogen peroxide (2:3)
     carbonic acid disodium salt, compd. with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (2:3)
     carbonic acid, disodium salt, compd. with hydrogen peroxide (2:3)
     disodium carbonate compound with hydrogen peroxide (2:3)
     disodium carbonate hydrogen peroxide (2:3)
     disodium carbonate, compound with hydrogen peroxide (2:3)
     disodium carbonate, hydrogen peroxide (2:3)
     peroxy sodium carbonate
     sodium carbonate - hydrogen peroxide (4:2:3)
     sodium carbonate peroxide
     sodium percarbonate
     tetrasodium hydrogen peroxide dicarbonate


Composition of the Substance:

Sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate is the chemical name for an addition product produced by drying hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sodium carbonate (CAS No. 497-19-8). 
The pure substance contains 32.5 % hydrogen peroxide and 67.5 % sodium carbonate (based on weight). 
It combines dual properties of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide, providing significant benefits when alkalinity and bleaching is required. 
Sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate is a white crystalline powder with a purity of > 85 % (Czerczak, 2005). 
Both shipment and storage are facilitated by this solid form when compared to requirements for liquid hydrogen peroxide solutions

Sodium percarbonate, also known as oxygen bleach, is a white, granular or powdered solid oxidizer. 
It is an additional salt of hydrogen peroxide and sodium carbonate that provides a solid source of hydrogen peroxide. 
When dissolved in water, sodium percarbonate liberates hydrogen peroxide. Sodium percarbonate is used primarily as a bleaching agent in cleaning products.

Disclaimer: Exposure to sodium percarbonate can cause irritation to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. Ingestion should be avoided at all concentrations. 
Store at a cool room temperature.


Sodium percarbonate is one of the most useful chemicals for cleaning products. Available as a powder, it is a dry, granulated form of hydrogen peroxide. 
It easily breaks down dirt and stains, and the chemical itself breaks down into clean, easily removed elements.

Why is sodium percarbonate so popular among product manufacturers?

Sodium percarbonate is easy to transport. As a powder, it’s easier to ship both at a wholesale level and to get it to consumers using the end product.
Sodium percarbonate is less messy. Compared with liquid hydrogen peroxide, sodium percarbonate powder is easier to contain and will not splash.
Sodium percarbonate is economical. Both for manufacturers and consumers, sodium percarbonate is a smart choice for economic reasons. 
A little sodium percarbonate will go a long way. For manufacturers making cleaning products, that is a big advantage.
Sodium percarbonate is environmentally friendly, compared with similar chemicals. 
Sodium percarbonate is considered to be one of the cleanest options available. The chemical breaks down into oxygen, water and soda ash — all of which are environmentally safe.

INDUSTRIES AND APPLICATIONS
The cleaning supplies industry is a primary user of sodium percarbonate. 
Sodium percarbonate has natural cleaning properties that make it easier to break down dirt and stains. 
Sodium percarbonate is an essential chemical for cleaning supplies manufacturers. 
Examples of common products made with sodium percarbonate include:

Laundry detergent
Dishwasher detergent
Stain remover
Household cleaner

Solid heavy duty laundry detergents count among the most efficient washing materials. 
They contain, among other important components, bleaching agents and bleach activating compounds for the effective removal of stains and to improve the degree of whiteness. 
In the past few decades sodium perborate has been used as the bleaching agent. 
Because the bleaching effect is only active above 60°C, so-called bleaching activators have been developed to allow effecting bleaching at lower temperatures. 
The demand for energy saving, as well as the availability of modern washing agents, has led to the fact that e.g. in Germany almost 70% of all washings today are carried out at temperatures below 40°C. 
Based on its better efficiency and environmental considerations, sodium percarbonate has replaced sodium perborate in modern washing agents. 
Recently, the European officials have required that sodium perborate be replaced by sodium percarbonate. 
According to EU-DECREE No. 109/2012 dated 09 February 2012 various boron compounds, specifically perborates, may not be used in detergents after 20th June 2013. 
The basis for this is, that a range of boron compounds have been shown to be harmfull to the reproduction organs, and that sodium percarbonate is available as a good and reliable alternative to sodium perborate. 
The difference between these two bleaching agents, sodium percarbonate and sodium perborate, lies in the amount of freely available hydrogen peroxide. 
Sodiumperborate releases only one molecule H2O2 and sodiumpercarbonate three of them

The sodium percarbonate market is expected to witness robust growth in the near future, thanks to rising demand for eco-friendly bleaches and deodorants, especially from emerging countries. 
Moreover, demand for green products are likely to remain high in both household and industrial applications, with a key focus on laundry detergents. 
Sodium percarbonate is witnessing a broadening of application in baby products as it has shown effectiveness in removing stubborn stains, as well as promising potential for disinfection. 


Textile industry has been a key end-user of sodium percarbonate products to drive pre-treatment of textiles to obtain white clean fabric. 
This is expected to continue in the near future as demand for textiles continues to rise, thanks to cost-effective e-commerce distribution channel. 
Moreover, sodium percarbonate has shown promise as a denture cleanser. 
While, this remains a niche in the current landscape, it is a promising opportunity for new players in the sodium percarbonate market. 
Its use as a potential disinfection agent, and its oxidizing properties will likely drive more growth for the substance in the near future. 
Its application as a whitener for tubs, clothes, and sinks with the use of bleach remains the most promising aspect of its future growth.


he market for powdered products is experiencing a slight dip in end-use. 
Many western countries are favouring an adoption towards liquid sodium percarbonate. 
This is apparent in recent cases like shutting down of manufacturing facility of Solvay in the UK. 
The 50,000 ton capacity facility catering to the growth of powdered products came to a close as liquid products outstripped demand for laundry products. 
The increasing focus on the technologies to develop liquid products will also pay rich dividends in the near future as sodium percarbonate products promise immense potential in water treatment application. 
It has shown an exceptional promise in this area, and liquid versions of it can make way for permissible water disinfectant in the near future. 
The liquid version will promise growth in industries, agriculture, as well as support trends like aquaculture.

Synonyms
Carbonic acid, disodium salt, compd. with hydrogen peroxide (2:3); Disodium carbonate, hydrogen peroxide (2:3); FB Sodium Percarbonate; Oxyper; Perdox; Peroxy sodium carbonate; Sodium carbonate peroxide; Sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate; Carbonic acid sodium salt (1:2), compd. with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (2:3); Disodium carbonate, compound with hydrogen peroxide (2:3); [ChemIDplus] Carbonic acid disodium salt, compound with hydrogen peroxide (2:3); Disodium carbonate sesquiperoxide; Ecox-C; Hydrogen peroxide, compound with disodium carbonate (3:2); Sodium percarbonates; [CAMEO] Percarbonate; PCS; [Reference #1] Hydrogen peroxide sodium carbonate adduct; [Sigma-Aldrich MSDS] UN3378

ources/Uses
Used to make other chemicals; [CAMEO] Used mainly as a bleaching agent in household laundry detergents and additives and dishwashing machine products; Also used in other consumer cleaning products, dental care products, and for the preservation of raw milk; Used as an algaecide and fungicide for ornamentals, turf grasses, landscapes, commercial greenhouses, garden centers, nurseries, and storage areas; No registered food uses; Permitted for use as an inert ingredient in non-food pesticide products; 


Comments
A strong oxidizing agent that may combust on contact with organic substances; [CAMEO] Decomposed by water; A respiratory tract, severe eye, and mild skin irritant; Repeated or prolonged exposure may cause lung effects; [ICSC] An addition product of hydrogen peroxide and sodium carbonate; Dissociates into hydrogen peroxide, carbonate, and sodium ions on contact with body fluids (all found naturally in the human body); Causes local irritation but is not likely to cause systemic toxicity; [Reference #1] An oxidizer that may intensify fire; An irritant that may cause serious eye injury; Harmful by ingestion; [Sigma-Aldrich MSDS]

Sodium Percarbonate (Tips to use)

1. What is Sodium Percarbonate?
Sodium Percarbonate (or sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate) is an addition compound of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide. 
When dissolved into water, its releases H2O2and soda ash (sodium carbonate).
2Na2CO3 . 3H2O2 ---> 2Na2CO3 + 3H2O2
The pH of the resulting solution is typically alkaline, which activates the H2O2 for bleaching. 
The dry powder contains about 30% w/w H2O2.

2. What are the applications of Sodium Percarbonate?
Sodium percrabonate has a wide range of applications in various solid detergent products and all fabric bleaches. 
We may also find its usages in oxygen release compositions, personal care formulations, disinfectants, food bleaches, pulp and paper bleaches and textile bleaches, etc.

3. What are the advantages of Sodium Percarbonate?
Compared with chlorine bleaching chemicals that have contaminations on the environment, Sodium Percarbonate is an environmentally friendly chemical which decomposes into oxygen, water and natural soda ash when in contact with hydrous media.
Sodium Percarbonate is increasingly being the substitute for sodium perborate in detergent formulations due to its lower dissolving temperature in water, as well as the characteristic of no contamination on soil, as sodium perborate is made of borax which is found to have negative impact on the soil quality.
Detergent or bleach compositions formulated with Sodium Percarbonate have an strong stain removal capability. 
It is very effective as a laundry presoak for heavily stained articles. It is color safe. 
It brightens colors and prevent fabric form become yellowed or darkened.
Sodium Percarbonate is effective as a disinfectant on both bacteria and virus. 
It is an excellent ingredient in personal care and home care formulations for hygiene.
For its environmental advantages, Sodium Percarbonate is a good oxygen release chemical for agricultural and aquicultural applications.


 What are the difference between the coated and uncoated Sodium Percarbonate?
Sodium Percarbonate is used as an active oxygen component in detergents, bleaches and cleaning agents. 
Due to the unsatisfactory storage stability of the uncoated Sodium Percarbonate in warm/moist surroundings and in the presence of certain detergent and cleaning agent components, Sodium Percarbonate must be stabilized against the loss of active oxygen. 
An essential principle of stabilization involves encasing the Sodium Percarbonate particles in a coating of components having a stabilizing action. Here comes the definetion: the coated Sodium Percarbonate is the Sodium Percarbonate crystals coated with single or multiple layers of various substances in order to increase active oxygen stability and optimize storage and ensiling properties.
Coated Sodium Percarbonate is the more commonly commercialized peroxide compared with the uncoated Sodium Percarbonate. 
But the uncoated product is still the preferred ingredient for simply mixing with enough quantity of soda ash and some surfactants to form the popular oxygen bleaches.

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