SODIUM PERSULFATE

Sodium persulfate is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2S2O8. 
It is the sodium salt of peroxydisulfuric acid, H2S2O8, an oxidizing agent. 
It is a white solid that dissolves in water. It is almost non-hygroscopic and has good shelf-life.
Sodium persulfate appears as a white crystalline solid. 
Very irritating to skin and eyes. May be toxic by skin absorption. Used as a bleaching agent.

Physical and Chemical Properties
Sodium persulfate, also known as sodium peroxydisulfate is a white crystal or crystalline powder, odorless, tasteless. Formula is Na2S2O8, relative molecular mass is 238.13. 
Gradual decomposition at room temperature, heating or rapidly decompose in ethanol, decomposition to release oxygen and produce sodium pyrosulfate. 
Moisture and platinum black, silver, lead, iron, copper, magnesium, nickel, manganese and other metal ions or their alloys can promote the decomposition, it decomposes rapidly and emit hydrogen peroxide at high temperature (about 200 ℃). 
It is soluble in water (70.4 when 20 ℃).

Sodium peroxydisulfate is used as a radical initiator for emulsion polymerization reactions like acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, detergent component, soil conditioner and soil remediation. It is also used for curing of formaldehyde adhesives. It acts as a bleaching agent and in the production of dyestuffs. It finds application in zinc and printed circuit boards and considered to be a replacement for ammonium persulfate in etching mixtures. Further, it is used in the preparation of diapocynin from apocynin. It plays a role in the conversion of phenols to para-diphenols in alkaline solution and of arylamines to aminophenols. It is actively involved in the Elbs persulfate oxidation and the Boyland-Sims oxidation reactions as an oxidizing agent.

Notes
Incompatible with combustible materials, strong reducing agents, strong bases, alcohols, aluminum and magnesium. Decomposes in alcohol.

Use: Sodium Persulfate is a moderately water and acid soluble Sodium source for uses compatible with sulfates.
Sulfate compounds are salts or esters of sulfuric acid formed by replacing one or both of the hydrogens with a metal. 
Most metal sulfate compounds are readily soluble in water for uses such as water treatment, unlike fluorides and oxides which tend to be insoluble. 
Organometallic forms are soluble in organic solutions and sometimes in both aqueous and organic solutions. 
Metallic ions can also be dispersed utilizing suspended or coated nanoparticles and deposited utilizing sputtering targets and evaporation materials for uses such as solar energy materials and fuel cells. 
Sodium Persulfate is generally immediately available in most volumes. High purity, submicron and nanopowder forms may be considered

Use: Sodium Persulfate is mostly used as a bleaching agent and detergent component. 
Other uses include battery depolarizers, in the manufacture of dyestuffs, and in emulsion polymerization.

Sodium persulfate is a strongly oxidizing chemical used as a bleaching and oxidizing agent

Initiator for the emulsion or solution Polymerization of acrylic monomers, vinyl acetate, vinyl chloride etc. and for the emulsion co-polymerization of styrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene etc.,

Oxidizing agent, used in cleaning and pickling of metal surface, accelerated curing of low formaldehyde adhesives and modification of starch, production of binders and coating materials, Desizing agent and bleach activator,

It is an essential component of bleaching formulations for hair cosmetics.

Synonyms:
disodium [(sulfonatoperoxy)sulfonyl]oxidanide
disodium peroxodisulphate
disodium sulfonatooxy sulfate
peroxydisulfuric acid disodium salt
peroxydisulfuric acid, disodium salt
sodium peroxodisulfate
sodium peroxydisulfate
sodium persulfate [UN1505] [Oxidizer]
sodiumpersulfate


Other names
Sodium peroxodisulfate
Sodium peroxodisulphate
Sodium peroxydisulfate
Sodium peroxydisulphate
Identifiers
CAS Number    
7775-27-1
Sodium Persulfate Synonyms
Sodium peroxodisulfate; disodium peroxodisulphate; disodium oxidooxysulfonyl sulfate; Disodium [(sulfonatoperoxy)sulfonyl]oxidanide; disodium sulfonatooxy sulfate, Peroxydisulfuric acid, disodium salt

PERSULPHATES;SODIUM PERSULFATE;SODIUM PERSULPHATE;persulfatedesodium;SodiumPersulphateGr;Natriumperoxodisulfat;SODIUM PEROXODISULFATE;SODIUM PEROXYDISULFATE;SodiumPersulphate,>98%;Sodium peroxidisulfate

Formaldehyde Activator Solution, for Purpald Method
SODIUM PEROXYDISULFATE
SODIUM PEROXODISULFATE
SODIUM PERSULFATE
SODIUM PERSULPHATE
Sodium Peroxodisulfate 〔Sodium Persulfate〕
SODIUM PEROXIDISULFATE 
SODIUM PERSULFATE
peroxydisulfuricacid([(ho)s(o)2]2o2),disodiumsalt
Peroxydisulfuricacid,disodiumsalt
persulfatedesodium
Sodium persulfate purum p.a., >=99.0% (RT)
Sodium Persulfate Sodium peroxydisulfate
SodiumPersulphate99%Min
SodiumPersulphate,>98%
SodiumPersulphateGr
Sodium Persulphate 99%Min, Cas
Sodiumperoxydisulfate,98%
DI-SODIUM PEROXODISULPHATE
SODIUMPERSULFATE,REAGENT
PERSULPHATES
Natriumperoxodisulfat
SODIUM PERSULFATE (SPS)
SODIUM PERSULPHATE (SPS)
Disodium peroxodisulphate (measured as [S2O8])
Disodium peroxidisulfate
Disodium sulfonatooxy sulfate
Sodium peroxidisulfate
Peroxodisulfuric acid disodium salt
Persulfuric acid sodium salt
SodiuM persulfate
SODIUM PEROXIDISULFATE FOR ANALYSIS
SodiuM Persulfate, Technical
SODIUM PERSULFATESODIUM PERSULFATESODIUM PERSULFATESODIUM PERSULFATE
Peroxydisulfuric acid ([(HO)S(O)2]2O2), sodium salt (1:2)
Sodium persulfate,AR,98%
7775-27-1

Chemical formula: Na2S2O8
Molar mass:238.10 g/mol
Appearance:white powder
Density: 2.59 g/cm3
(Loose bulk density: 1.12 g/cm3)[1]
Melting point: 180 °C decomposes
Solubility in water:55.6 g/100 ml (20 °C)


Sodium persulfate 
[(Sulfonatoperoxy)sulfonyl]oxydanide de disodium [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
231-892-1 [EINECS]
7775-27-1 [RN]
Dinatrium-[(sulfonatoperoxy)sulfonyl]oxidanid [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Disodium [(sulfonatoperoxy)sulfonyl]oxidanide [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Disodium peroxodisulphate
Persulfate de sodium [French]
Sodium peroxodisulfate
SODIUM PEROXYDISULFATE
DISODIUM PEROXODISULFATE
disodium sulfato sulfate
disodium sulfonatooxy sulfate
disodium;sulfonatooxy sulfate
EINECS 231-892-1
Peroxydisulfuric acid, disodium salt
Persulfate de sodium [French]
persulfato de sódio [Portuguese]
sodium peroxydisulphate
Sodium persulfate [UN1505] [Oxidizer]
Sodium persulphate
sodiumpersulfate

Sodium persulfate
Sodium peroxosulphate (short form NaPS, trade name sodium persulfate) is the salt of peroxodisulphuric acid. 
It is a strong oxidizer and radical donator for polymerisation. Due to its high oxidation potential it can cause ignition under certain conditions. 
NaPS is highly soluble in water, aqueous solutions show an acidic reaction and have limited stability 

Unlike ammonium persulfate, NaPS is free of ammonium ions and causes fewer problems in wastewater treatment.


Applications
The most important application for NaPS is in the water-based emulsion polymerisation of organic monomers in aqueous systems. 
he monomers are either sufficiently soluble in water and precipitate during polymerisation or polymerisation takes place in an aqueous emulsion of the monomers, as with styrene-butadiene and Acrylonitrile.

Large quantities of NaPS are used for etching and pickling metal surfaces (copper and copper alloys). 
Etching thin copper coating is a key part in the production of printed circuit boards.


Other applications of NaPS
in the cosmetics industry as a booster for hair bleaches and an oxidizer in hair dyes
in the paper industry for re-pulping and de-inking
in order to recover metals and metal salts, for oxidative treatment of high grade metal ores
in the photographic industry for regenerating bleaching baths for color stock
in the textile industry for de-sizing
for the production of desinfectants
in-situ decontamination of industrial areas: degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons


Chemical/Product: Sodium persulfate
Abbreviation: NaPS
Chemical name: Sodiumperoxodisulphate
Chemical formula: Na2S2O8
CAS - Number: 7775 - 27 -1
Molecular weight: 238,1 g/mol
Appearance: white, crystalline
Assay: min. 99% NaPS
Active oxygen content min. 6,65%

Persulfates are widely used as polymerization initiators in the plastic's industry, and as etchants, desizing agent, etc. Our product line includes ammonium persulfate, potassium persulfate, sodium persulfate, and SPS superficially designed for the soft etching of printed circuit boards.

Production
The salt is prepared by the electrolytic oxidation of sodium hydrogen sulfate:

2 NaHSO4 → Na2S2O8 + H2
Oxidation is conducted at a platinum anode. In this way about 165,000 tons were produced in 2005

The standard redox potential of sodium persulfate into hydrogen sulfate is 2.1 V, which is higher than that of hydrogen peroxide (1.8 V) but lower than ozone (2.2 V).
The sulfate radical formed in situ has a standard electrode potential of 2.7 V.

However, there are a few drawbacks in utilizing platinum anodes to produce the salts; the manufacturing process is inefficient due to oxygen evolution and the product could contain contaminants coming from platinum corrosion. 
Thus, boron-doped diamond electrodes have been proposed as alternatives to the conventional platinum electrodes

Applications
It is mainly used as a radical initiator for emulsion polymerization reactions for styrene based polymers such as Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene.
Also applicable for accelerated curing of low formaldehyde adhesives.

Other uses
It is a bleach, both standalone (particularly in hair cosmetics) and as a detergent component. 
It is a replacement for ammonium persulfate in etching mixtures for zinc and printed circuit boards, and is used for pickling of copper and some other metals.

It is also used as a soil conditioner and for soil and groundwater remediation and in manufacture of dyestuffs, modification of starch, bleach activator, desizing agent for oxidative desizing, etc.

Organic chemistry
Sodium persulfate is a specialized oxidizing agent in chemistry, classically in the Elbs persulfate oxidation and the Boyland–Sims oxidation reactions. 
It is also used in radical reactions; for example in a synthesis of diapocynin from apocynin where iron(II) sulfate is the radical initiator.

Sodium persulfate has strong oxidizing. 
There is a strong irritation to the skin, prolonged contacting with the skin can cause allergies, should pay attention to it when operation. 
Rat oral LD50 is 895mg/kg. 

Strong oxidants
With strong oxidizing, Sodium persulfate can be used as an g agent, which can oxidize Cr3 +, Mn2 + and so on to the corresponding compound of high oxidation state, when there is the presence of Ag +, which can promote the oxidation reaction. 
Due to its oxidizing properties, it can be used as a bleaching agent, metal surface treatment agent, chemical reagents, pharmaceutical raw materials, accelerator and initiator of battery and emulsion polymerization.

Uses
Sodium persulfate is used as a bleach, both standalone (particularly in hair cosmetics) and as a detergent component. 
It is a replacement for ammonium persulfate in etching mixtures for zinc and printed circuit boards, and is used for pickling of copper and some other metals. 
It is a source of free radicals, making it useful as an initiator for e.g. emulsion polymerization reactions and for accelerated curing of low formaldehyde adhesives. 
Sodium persulfate is also used as a soil conditioner and in manufacture of dyestuffs, modification of starch, bleach activator, desizing agent for oxidative desizing, etc.

For waste processing in the photographic industry, used as a soft metal surface corrosion agents of the printed circuit board and textile desizing agents, sulfur dyes colorformer.

Preparation method
1. The electrolytic oxidation of the aqueous solution of ammonium sulfate is to obtain ammonium persulfate, and then metathesis reaction with sodium hydroxide, after the expulsion of the ammonia by-product, and then concentrated under reduced pressure, crystallization, drying, to obtain sodium sulfate.
(NH4) 2S2O8 + 2NaOH → Na2S2O8 + 2NH3 + 2H2O.
2. Dithionic acid can be prepared by electrolysis of cold sulfuric acid won, which reacts with alkali and then obtain sodium sulfate.
2HSO4--2e → H2S2O8
H2S2O8 + 2NaOH → Na2S2O8 + 2H2O.

storage
Sodium persulfate is a strong oxidizer and a severe irritant of skin, eyes, and respiratory system. It is almost non-hygroscopic and has particularly good ability to be stored for long time. It is easy and safe to handle. It is not combustible, but releases oxygen easily and assists combustion of other materials.
Conditions/ substances to avoid mixing persulfates with are: moisture, heat, flame, ignition sources, shock, friction, reducing agents, organic material, sodium peroxide, aluminum and powdered metals.

Chemical Properties
White, crystalline powder. Soluble in water; decomposed by alcohol; decomposes in moist air.

Uses
Bleaching and oxidizing agent; promoter for emulsion polymerization reactions.

General Description
A white crystalline solid. Very irritating to skin and eyes. May be toxic by skin absorption. Used as a bleaching agent.

Air & Water Reactions
Water soluble. Decomposes slowly in moist air.

Reactivity Profile
Sodium persulfate is a strong oxidizing agent. Reacts with many combustible materials and reducing agents, often vigorously enough to start fires or cause explosions. 
Decomposes gradually under ordinary conditions decomposition is promoted by moisture and heat. 
Decomposed by alcohol and silver ions 

Sulfate IonSodium Persulfate is a moderately water and acid soluble Sodium source for uses compatible with sulfates. 
Sulfate compounds are salts or esters of sulfuric acid formed by replacing one or both of the hydrogens with a metal. 
Most metal sulfate compounds are readily soluble in water for uses such as water treatment, unlike fluorides and oxides which tend to be insoluble. 
Organometallic forms are soluble in organic solutions and sometimes in both aqueous and organic solutions. 
Metallic ions can also be dispersed utilizing suspended or coated nanoparticles and deposited utilizing sputtering targets and evaporation materials for uses such as solar cells and fuel cells. 
Sodium Persulfate is generally immediately available in most volumes

Sodium persulfate is a strongly oxidizing chemical used as a bleaching and oxidizing agent. 
Persulfate oxidation mechanisms are effective in degrading many volatile oxidizing chemicals (VOCs) including chlorinated ethenes (CEs), BTEXs and trichloroethanes. 
The compound is used as a promoter for polymerization reactions. Sodium persulfate has also been used as a chemical oxidant to treat laboratory slurry reactors for the accumulation of surfactants.

Sodium persulfate
7775-27-1
Sodium peroxydisulfate
Sodium peroxodisulfate
Disodium peroxodisulphate
Peroxydisulfuric acid, disodium salt
sodium persulphate
UNII-J49FYF16JE
Persulfate de sodium [French]
EINECS 231-892-1
UN1505
Peroxydisulfuric acid (((HO)S(O)2)2O2), disodium salt
CAS-7775-27-1
Persulfate de sodium
Sodium peroxydisulphate
Peroxydisulfuric acid (((HO)S(O)2)2O2), sodium salt (1:2)
Peroxydisulfuric acid ([(HO)S(O)2]2O2), sodium salt (1:2)
sodium peroxidisulfate
Sodium peroxy disulfate
Na2S2O8
EC 231-892-1
Sodium persulfate [UN1505] [Oxidizer]
Sodium persulfate [UN1505] [Oxidizer]
LS-102480
disodium [(sulfonatoperoxy)sulfonyl]oxidanide
FT-0698963
Q419438
Formaldehyde Activator Solution, for Purpald Method
SODIUM PEROXYDISULFATE
SODIUM PEROXODISULFATE
SODIUM PERSULFATE
SODIUM PERSULPHATE
Sodium Peroxodisulfate 〔Sodium Persulfate〕
SODIUM PEROXIDISULFATE FOR ANALYSIS EMSURE
FREE SAMPLE NCV SODIUM PERSULFATE
peroxydisulfuricacid([(ho)s(o)2]2o2),disodiumsalt
Peroxydisulfuricacid,disodiumsalt
persulfatedesodium
Sodium persulfate 
Sodium Persulfate Sodium peroxydisulfate
SODIUM PERSULFATE, 98+%
SodiumPersulphate99%Min
SodiumPersulphate,>98%
SodiumPersulphateGr
Sodium Persulphate 99%Min, Cas
Sodiumperoxydisulfate,98%
DI-SODIUM PEROXODISULPHATE
SODIUMPERSULFATE,REAGENT
PERSULPHATES
Natriumperoxodisulfat
SODIUM PERSULFATE (SPS)
SODIUM PERSULPHATE (SPS)
Disodium peroxodisulphate (measured as [S2O8])
Disodium peroxidisulfate
Disodium sulfonatooxy sulfate
Sodium peroxidisulfate
Peroxodisulfuric acid disodium salt
Persulfuric acid sodium salt
SodiuM persulfate, 98+% 1KG
SodiuM persulfate, 98+% 5KG
SODIUM PEROXIDISULFATE FOR ANALYSIS
SodiuM Persulfate, Technical
SODIUM PERSULFATESODIUM PERSULFATESODIUM PERSULFATESODIUM PERSULFATE
Peroxydisulfuric acid ([(HO)S(O)2]2O2), sodium salt (1:2)
Sodium persulfate,AR,98%
7775-27-1
Na2O8S2
Na2S2O8
O8Na2S2
Oxidation
Synthetic Reagents
Sulfur-Based
Inorganics
Inorganic Chemicals

Sodium peroxydisulfate (commonly called sodium persulfate) is a commercial chemical particularly useful for etching printed circuits, for cleaning copper before plating or soldering, and for initiating polymerization reactions. 
Other commercially available persulfate salts are ammonium persulfate and potassium persulfate; however, ammonium persulfate introduces objectionable ammonium ions into solution, while the solubility of potassium persulfate is much less than ammonium or sodium persulfate. Consequently, sodium persulfate is the preferred compound for some applications.


Sodium persulfate is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2S2O8. 
It is a white solid that dissolves in water. 
It is almost non-hygroscopic and has good shelf-life.

It is mainly used as a radical initiator for emulsion polymerization reactions for styrene based polymers such as Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. 
Also applicable for accelerated curing of low formaldehyde adhesives. 
Can be used as a bleach and as detergent component, soil conditioner and soil remediation and in manufacture of dyestuffs, modification of starch, bleach activator, desizing agent for oxidative desizing, etc.
Can also be a replacement for ammonium persulfate in etching mixtures for ammonium persulfate in etching mixtures for zinc and printed circuit boards.

Sodium persulfate can be catalyzed with iron, acid, base and heat. 
This allows sodium persulfate to be effective over a wide range of subsurface conditions. 
A total organic carbon test is completed with sodium persulfate at 60C. 
Therefore, when thermally catalyzed persulfate is used, it is equivalent to completing an in situ TOC test.

Persulfate is a strong oxidant that has been widely used for initiating emulsion polymerization reactions, clarifying swimming pools, hair bleaching, micro-etching of copper printed circuit boards, and TOC analysis. 
Among all the persulfate salts typically manufactured (sodium, potassium, and ammonium salts), the sodium form is the most commonly used for environmental applications in the last few years. 
Sodium persulfate has the potential to in-situ destruct chlorinated and non-chlorinated organic compounds commonly encountered in contaminated soil and groundwater.

The persulfate anion is one of the strongest oxidants used in remediation. The standard oxidation reduction potential for the reaction

 

S2O82- + 2H+ + 2e– => 2 HSO4–

is 2.1 V, as compared to 1.8 V for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This potential is higher than the redox potential for the permanganate anion (MnO4– ) at 1.7 V, but slightly lower than that of ozone at 2.2 V.

Another persulfate oxidation mechanism is through free radicals. With the presence of some catalyst, like heat, persulfate can be induced to form sulfate radicals.

 

S2O82- + initiator => SO4 •?+ SO4•?

 

The sulfate radical has a similar reaction mechanism to the hydroxyl radical generated by the Fenton’s chemistry. 
The sulfate radical is one of the strongest oxidizing species with a redox potential estimated to be 2.6 V, similar to that of the hydroxyl radical, 2.7 V.

Persulfate and sulfate radical oxidation has several advantages over other oxidant systems. 
In addition to its robust treatment capabilities, the sulfate radical is more stable than the hydroxyl radical stable and therefore able to transport to greater distances in the sub-surface. 
Comparing to permanganate, persulfate has less affinity for natural soil organics and is thus more efficient in high organic soils. 
These attributes make persulfate a viable option for the chemical oxidation of a broad range of contaminants.

Disodium peroxodisulphate
EC Inventory
Disodium peroxodisulphate
Other
disodium peroxodisulphate
Pre-Registration process
Disodium peroxodisulphate/Sodium persulphate

SODIUM PERSULPHATE
Translated names
Dinaatriumperoksodisulfaat/naatriumpersulfaat (et)
Dinatrijev peroksodisulfat/natrijev persulfat (hr)
Dinatrijev peroksodisulfat/natrijev persulfat (sl)
Dinatrio peroksodisulfatas/natrio persulfatas (lt)
Dinatriumperoksodisulfaatti/natriumpersulfaatti (fi)
Dinatriumperoxodisulfaat/natriumpersulfaat (nl)
dinatriumperoxodisulfat/natriumpersulfat (da)
Dinatriumperoxodisulfat/Natriumpersulfat (de)
Dinátrium-peroxo-diszulfát/nátrium-perszulfát (hu)
Dinātrija peroksodisulfāts/nātrija persulfāts (lv)
Disodium peroxodisulphate/Sodium persulphate (no)
Natriumpersulfat/Natriumperoxidisulfat (sv)
Peroksodisiarczan disodu/Nadsiarczan sodu (pl)
Perossodisolfato di disodio/Persolfato di sodio (it)
Perossodisulfat tad-disodju/Persulfat tas-sodju (mt)
Peroxodissulfato de dissódio/Persulfato de sódio (pt)
Peroxodisulfat disodic/Persulfat de sodiu (ro)
Peroxodisulfate de disodium/persulfate de sodium (fr)
Peroxodisulfato de disodio/persulfato de sodio (es)
peroxodisíran disodný/persulfát sodný (sk)
peroxodisíran sodný (cs)
Υπερθειικό νάτριο (el)
Динатриев пероксодисулфат/натриев персулфат (bg)

CAS names
Peroxydisulfuric acid ([(HO)S(O)2]2O2), sodium salt (1:2)

IUPAC names
disodium [(sulfonato peroxy)sulfonyl] oxidanide
Disodium [(sulfonatoperoxy)sulfonyl]oxidamide
Disodium [(sulfonatoperoxy)sulfonyl]oxidanide
disodium [(sulfonatoperoxy)sulfonyl]oxidanide
Disodium peroxodisulphate
disodium peroxodisulphate
disodium peroxodisulphate
Disodium persulfate
disodium sulfanotooxy sulfate
disodium sulfonatooxy sulfate
disodium {[(oxidooxy)sulfonyl]oxy}sulfonate
disodium;sulfonatooxy sulfate
Peroxydisulfuric Acid Disodium Salt
peroxydisulfuric acid, dipotassium salt
Sodium peroxodisulfate, Disodium persulfate, Sodium persulfate, Peroxydisulfuric acid disodium salt
Sodium peroxydisulfate
Sodium Persulfate
Sodium persulfate
Sodium persulfate
Sodium Persulphate
Sodium persulphate
Sodiumpersulphate
sodiumpersulphate

Trade names
Disodium persulfate
disodium persulfate
Sodium peroxodisulfate
sodium peroxodisulfate
Sodium persulfate
sodium persulfate
SPS


Application: Sodium persulfate is an oxidizing persulfate salt that is used as a detergent component, as an etchant in printed circuit boards, and as a radical initiator in polymerization reactions of styrene based monomers. Sodium persulfate also has some application as a standalone bleach in cosmetics, particularly for hair.

Compatibility: Sodium persulfate is incompatible with acids, alkalis, halides, combustible materials, most metals and heavy metals, oxidizable materials, other oxidizers, reducing agents, cleaners, and organic or carbon containing compounds. Please see SDS for full safety and compatibility information.


Ammonium Persulfate, Potassium Persulfate and Sodium Persulfate are inorganic salts. 
In cosmetics and personal care products, mixtures of persulfates such as Ammonium Persulfate, Potassium Persulfate and Sodium Persulfate are used in hair bleaches and hair lighteners.

Ammonium Persulfate, Potassium Persulfate and Sodium Persulfate help to decolorize or lighten hair by oxidizing the colors present in the hair shaft.

Ammonium Persulfate is also used in the baking industry as a bleaching agent for flour

Ammonium, Potassium, and Sodium Persulfate are inorganic salts used as oxidizing agents in hair bleaches and hair-coloring preparations. 
Persulfates are contained in hair lighteners at concentrations up to 60%, in bleaches and lighteners at up to 22 % and 16 %, respectively, and in off-the-scalp products used to highlight hair strands at up to 25%. 
They are used in professional product bleaches and lighteners at similar concentrations. 
Much of the available safety test data are for Ammonium Persulfate, but these data are considered applicable to the other salts as well.


Ammonium, Potassium, and Sodium Persulfate are inorganic
salts used as oxidizing agents in hair bleaches and hair coloring
preparations.


AmmoniumPersulfate and PotassiumPersulfate are prepared by electrolysis of concentrated solutions of ammonium sulfateand potassium sulfate, respectively (Lewis 1999). 
Merget et al.(1996) reported that Ammonium Persulfate is produced by anodic oxidation of a concentrated ammonium sulfate solution, and that Sodium Persulfate is made by conversion of Ammonium Persulfate with lye


Cosmetic
Ammonium, Potassium, and Sodium Persulfate are oxidizing agents used in hair bleaches, hair-coloring preparations, and/or hair lighteners with color (Wenninger, Canterbery, and McEwen 2000) and are used to decolorize or lighten hair.

Description
Polymerization:
Persulfate is very widely used as initiators for Emulsion Polymerization of Acrylic Monomers and Emulsion Co-Polymerization of Styrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene SBR, ABS.

Metal Treatment:
Sodium Persulfate is used for the treatment of metal surfaces, to etch copper on printed circuit boards, manufacturing of semiconductors, and activation of copper and aluminum surfaces.

Water Treatment and Disinfectants:
Persulfate is extensively used in the degradation of harmful substances, also used for the production of disinfectants.

Sodium Persulfate is cleared for use as components of paper and paperboard in contact with aqueous, fatty, and dry food; 
in closures with sealing gaskets for food containers when <1% by weight of the gasket composition; 
and at a concentration of less than 1% in can-end cements for resinous and polymeric coatings (Rothschild 1988). 
Additionally, it is cleared as a denuding agent of mucous membranes in tripe. 
Sodium Persulfate is used as a bleaching agent for fats, oils, fabrics, and soaps. 
It is also used in battery depolarizers and in emulsion polymerization (Lewis 1997).


AMMONIUM PERSULFATE
(APS)    Printed circuit boards, Metal surface treatment, Starch modifiers, Polymerization initiators for synthetic resins and synthetic fibers, soil improvement additives, bleaching of natural products, oxidizing agents of pharmaceutical compounds, flour modifiers , etc.
SODIUM PERSULFATE
(SPS)    Printed circuit boards, Metal surface treatment, Starch modifiers, Polymerization initiators for synthetic resins and synthetic fibers, soil improvement additives, bleaching of natural products, oxidizing agents of pharmaceutical compounds, flour modifiers , etc.
POTASSIUM PERSULFATE
(KPS)    Printed circuit boards, Metal surface treatment, Starch modifiers, Polymerization initiators for synthetic resins and synthetic fibers, soil improvement additives, bleaching of natural products, oxidizing agents of pharmaceutical compounds, flour modifiers , etc.


Alias: disodium peroxodisulfate; Peroxydisulfuric acid, disodium salt; Peroxydisulfuric acid (((HO)S(O)2)2O2), disodium salt; Sodium peroxydisulfate; Sodium persulphate; ; disodium [(sulfonatoperoxy)sulfonyl]oxidanide; disodium dioxidan-2-idesulfonate
CAS #: 7775-27-1
Summary of performance
Sodium persulfate is a white tasteless crystal, or powder, broken down by ethanol, stable at room temperature. 
It is often used as a strong oxidant and also as a monomer polymerization initiator. 
It absorbs little moisture, is easy to store, easy to use, and safe.


 

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