STEARIC ACID

Stearic Acid is a saturated long-chain fatty acid with an 18-carbon backbone. Stearic acid is found in various animal and plant fats, and is a major component of cocoa butter and shea butter.

Stearic acid, also called Octadecanoic Acid, one of the most common long-chain fatty acids, found in combined form in natural animal and vegetable fats. Commercial “stearic acid” is a mixture of approximately equal amounts of stearic and palmitic acids and small amounts of oleic acid. It is employed in the manufacture of candles, cosmetics, shaving soaps, lubricants, and pharmaceuticals.

Stearic acid is a fatty acid that occurs naturally in animal and plant fats (typically coconut or palm oil).

Stearic acid is a white solid, often crystalline, with a mild odor. It’s a major component of cocoa and shea butter.

EC / List no.: 200-313-4
CAS no.: 57-11-4
Mol. formula: C18H36O2


STEARIC ACID    
Octadecanoic acid
1-Heptadecanecarboxylic acid
Cetylacetic acid    
CAS #: 57-11-4    
EC Number: 200-313-4

Stearic Acid is a typical example of a fatty acid, which are essentially long hydrocarbon chains containing a carboxyl group at one end and a methyl group at the other. 
The chain lengths can vary from 3 (propionic acid) to 24 (lignoceric acid) but the majority of fatty acids found in hydrogenated vegetable or animal oils are around C16-C20 in length. 
Stearic acid is a saturated acid, since there are no double bonds between neighbouring carbon atoms. 
Stearic acid is found in various animal and plant fats, and is a major component of cocoa butter and shea butter. 
Stearic acid is a very common amino acid is used in the manufacturing of more than 3,200 skin and hair care products sold in the United States. 
On product labels, it is sometimes listed under other names, including Century 1240, cetylacetic acid, Emersol 120, Emersol 132, Emersol 150, Formula 300 and Glycon DP. 
Stearic Acid is mainly used in the production of detergents, soaps, and cosmetics such as shampoos and shaving cream products. 
Stearic acid is used along with castor oil for preparing softeners in textile sizing. 
Being inexpensively available and chemically benign, stearic acid finds many niche applications 
It is used in the manufacture of candles, and as a hardener in candies when mixed with simple sugar and corn syrup. 
It is also used to produce dietary supplements. In fireworks, stearic acid is often used to coat metal powders such as aluminum and iron. 
This prevents oxidation, allowing compositions to be stored for a longer period of time. 
Stearic acid is a common lubricant during injection molding and pressing of ceramic powders. 
It is also used as a mold release for foam latex that is baked in stone molds. 
Stearic acid is known antidiabetic and antioxidant agent.

Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid with an 18 carbon chain that is used in a variety of cosmetics and skincare products. 
Stearic acid is mainly used to support the scent of the product and improve the texture and spreadability. Stearic acid also has an added benefit as it helps to improve the moisture content of the skin. 

Stearic acid, also known as octadecanoic acid, can be derived from both animal and vegetable fats and oils. However, fats and oils rich in stearic acid are more abundant in animal fat, up to 30%, than in vegetable fat, typically less than 5%. Depending on the source of the stearic acid it can be a vegan ingredient, particularly when it is derived from either cocoa or shea butter which have a higher stearic acid content of  28 to 45% respectively.


Stearic acid helps to improve the scent, texture, and spreadability of a formulation. Stearic acid also has an added benefit as it helps to improve the moisture content of the skin.   


Synonyms     
18:0    
acide octadécanoïque Français    
acide stéarique Français    
C18:0    ChemIDplus
CH3‒[CH2]16‒COOH    
n-octadecanoic acid    
Octadecanoic acid    
Octadecansäure Deutsch    
octadecoic acid    
Oktadekansäure Deutsch    
STEARIC ACID    
stearic acid    
Stearinsäure Deutsch

Stearic Acid, also called Octadecanoic Acid, is one of the most common long-chain fatty acids. It is found in combined form in natural animal and vegetable fats. Commercial stearic acid is a mixture of approximately equal amounts of stearic and palmitic acids and small amounts of oleic acid. It is employed in the manufacture of candles, cosmetics, shaving soaps, lubricants, and pharmaceuticals.

Stearic Acid is mainly used in the production of detergents, soaps, and cosmetics such as shampoos and shaving cream products. Stearic acid is used along with castor oil for preparing softeners in textile sizing.

Being inexpensively available and chemically benign, stearic acid finds many niche applications It is used in the manufacture of candles, and as a hardener in candies when mixed with simple sugar and corn syrup. It is also used to produce dietary supplements.

In fireworks, stearic acid is often used to coat metal powders such as aluminum and iron. This prevents oxidation, allowing compositions to be stored for a longer period of time.

Stearic acid is a common lubricant during injection molding and pressing of ceramic powders. It is also used as a mold release for foam latex that is baked in stone molds.

Stearic Acid, also called Octadecanoic Acid, is a colorless, waxy solid that is almost insoluble in water. Its chemical formula is CH3(CH2)16CO2H. Its name stems from a Greek word meaning tallow. The salts and esters of stearic acid are called stearates. Stearic acid is one of the most common saturated fatty acids found in nature following palmitic acid.

Stearic acid occurs in many animal and vegetable fats and oils, but it is more abundant in animal fat (up to 30%) than vegetable fat (typically <5%).

Stearic acid is prepared by treating these fats and oils with water at a high pressure and temperature (above 200 °C), which leads to the hydrolysis of triglycerides. The resulting mixture is then distilled.

In terms of its biosynthesis, stearic acid is produced from carbohydrates via the fatty acid synthesis machinery via acetyl-CoA.

Stearic acid is a common multi-tasker fatty acid. It makes your skin feel nice and smooth (emollient), gives body to cream type products and helps to stabilize water and oil mixes (aka emulsions).


Stearic Acid is a C18 straight-chain saturated fatty acid component of many animal and vegetable lipids.
 As well as in the diet, Stearic Acid is used in hardening soaps, softening plastics and in making cosmetics, candles and plastics.


Stearic acid (IUPAC systematic name: octadecanoic acid) is one of the useful types of saturated fatty acids that comes from many animal and vegetable fats and oils. It is a waxy solid

Stearic acid (SA), sometimes also called octadecanoic acid, is a saturated long-chain fatty acid. It’s present in humans, animals and some plants.

It appears as a waxy, yellow-white, solid substance.

Stearic acid uses include:

Making soap and cleansers (one of the most common ways it’s used worldwide)
Improving the efficacy and texture of cleansers, lotions and skin care/hair products, including shampoo and conditioner
Making cosmetics/makeup
Stabilizing the texture of shaving creams and lubricants
Creating detergents, house cleaners and textile softeners
Forming and softening plastics
Making candles
Making chewing gum
Making supplements/tablets
Stearic acid’s structure (being an 18-carbon chain fatty acid) allows it to help improve the texture and consistency of other products. It can help make skin/hair/household products solid and improve the ability of them to to mix with water (which is usually difficult since oil/water do not combine well).

Our customers use stearic acid in several products as a moisturizer. 
Whole Foods has deemed the ingredient acceptable in its body care quality standards, and studies show the ingredient is not a skin irritant
The Cosmetics Ingredient Review has deemed stearic acid safe for use in cosmetics.
The FDA has also deemed stearic acid Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS).

Stearic Acid is a waxy, colorless or white solid that exudes a mild odor. 
Stearic Acid is soluble in oil but only slightly dissolves in water, thus it floats. Stearic Acid is a long-chain fatty acid that, due to its 18-carbon chain, is also referred to as Octadecanoic Acid. 
This valuable saturated fatty acid is the main constituent of both Cocoa and Shea butter. 
The name “stear” is a Greek word meaning “tallow,” as it was often derived from the natural animal by-products and fats that were obtained during the processing of meats; however, Stearic Acid may also be obtained from the fatty parts of plant sources, which makes it ideal for use in natural formulations. 
Stearic Acid is generally obtained from Palm Oil, its natural source making it a safer substitute for chemicals that may be found in cosmetic products.

Stearic Acid may be used to form the base of other ingredients that are intended to be incorporated into formulations as lubricants, emollients, and emulsifiers. In emulsions, Stearic Acid is an effective stabilizer, thickener, and softener that contributes a cooling sensation on the skin. It is also known to contribute a pearly finish to lubricants.

Stearic Acid helps to harden products, such as candles and soap bars, helping the latter to create a rich lather that feels velvety. 
This property makes it ideal for use in shaving foams. 

With occlusive properties, it helps the skin remain hydrated by preventing or slowing moisture loss from the skin’s surface.

Stearic acid is a long-chain saturated fatty acid. It is a major component of cocoa butter and has also been found in beef fat and vegetable oils.
 Unlike many long-chain saturated fatty acids, dietary stearic acid does not induce hypercholesterolemia or raise LDL-cholesterol.
Stearic acid, also known as n-octadecanoic acid (C18H36O2), is a saturated, wax-like, fatty acid commonly used in the production of pharmaceutical tablets and capsules. It is made by extraction from animal or vegetable fats and oils.

In pharmaceutical dosage forms, stearic acid is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, tablet and capsule lubricant. Stearic is also commonly found in lotions, detergents, soaps, and shampoos, and is a natural component of cocoa butter and shea butter. Stearic acid use as an inactive ingredient must be approved by the FDA

Vegetable Derived Stearic acid is useful as an ingredient in making candles, soaps, plastics, oil pastel, cosmetics and for softening rubber. 
Stearic acid is used to harden soaps, particulary those made with vegetable oil, that otherwise tend to be very soft. 
It is an organic acid (high molecular weight and appear as white wax) it has no acid properties like Hydrochloric, Sulphuric etc. 
It is obtained from Palm Oil and are used as wax components in creams to provide increased consistency and skin protection. 
It may also be reacted with an alkali to form a soap as an emulsifier.


Stearic acid Chemical Properties, Uses, Production

description
Stearic acid is one of several major long-chain fatty acids comprising oils and fats. 
It is presented in animal fats, oil and some kinds of vegetable oils as wellin the form of glycerides. 
These oils, after hydrolysis, produce the stearic acid.
Stearic acid is a fatty acid widely existing in nature and has the general chemical properties of carboxylic acids. 
Almost all kinds of fat and oil contain certain amount of stearic acid with the content in the animal fats being relative high. 
For example, the content in the butter can reach up to 24% while the content in vegetable oil is relative low with the value in tea oil being 0.8% and the oil in palm being 6%. However, the content in cocoa can reach as high as 34%.
There are two major approaches for industrial production of stearic acid, namely fractionation and compression method. 
Add decomposition agent to the hydrogenated oil, and then hydrolyze to give the crude fatty acid, further go through washing with water, distillation, bleaching to obtain the finished products with glycerol as the byproduct.
Most domestic manufacturers use animal fat for production. 
Some kinds of production technology will result in the incompletion of the distillation of fatty acid which produce stimulating odor at the time of the plastic processing and high temperatures. Although these odor is of no toxic but they will have certain effect on the working conditions and the natural environment. Most imported form of stearic acid takes vegetable oil as the raw materials, the production processes are more advanced; the produced stearic acid is of stable performance, good lubrication property and less odor in the application.
Stearic acid is mainly used for the production of stearates such as sodium stearate, magnesium stearate, calcium stearate, lead stearate, aluminum stearate, cadmium stearate, iron stearate, and potassium stearate. The sodium or potassium salt of stearic acid is the component of soap. Although sodium stearate has a less decontamination ability than sodium palmitate, but its presence may increase the hardness of soap.
Take butter as raw material, go through sulfuric acid or pressurized method for decomposition. 
The free fatty acids was first subject to water pressure method for removing the palmitic acid and oleic acid at 30~40 ℃, and then dissolved in ethanol, followed by addition of barium acetate or magnesium acetate which precipitates stearate. Then further add dilute sulfuric acid to get the free stearate acid, filter and take it, and re-crystallize in ethanol to obtain the pure stearic acid.
The above information is edited by the chemicalbook of Dai Xiongfeng.

Chemical Properties
Pure product appears as white shiny soft small pieces. It is slightly soluble in water, soluble in alcohol, acetone, easily soluble in benzene, chloroform, ether, carbon tetrachloride, carbon disulfide, amyl acetate and toluene.

application
Stearic acid is widely used in cosmetics, plastics plasticizers, mold release agents, stabilizers, surfactants, rubber vulcanization accelerator, waterproof agent, polishing agent, metal soap, metal mineral flotation agents, softeners and pharmaceuticals as well as other organic chemicals. Stearic acid can also be used as the solvents of oil-soluble paint, crayons lubrication agent, stencil lighting agent and the emulsifier of stearic acid glyceride.
Stearic acid can also be widely used in the manufacturing of PVC pipe, sheet material, profiles and film and is the PVC heat stabilizers with good lubricity and excellent stability against light and heat. In the application of polyvinyl chloride pipe, stearic acid helps prevent the "coke" during the processing and is effective heat stabilizer during PVC film processing while also preventing the discoloration of the finished film discoloration caused by exposure.
Stearic acid has become the additive for lubrication, plasticization and stabilization of the filled masterbatch. 
Stearic acid can effectively improve the coating activating effect of inorganic powder and increase the flow rate of materials. When there is demand for a large flow rate of the melt for material with inorganic powder accounting for the most part, an appropriate increase in the content of stearic acid can significantly increase the melt flow rate of material. 
However, the amount of stearic acid used in filled masterbatch also have threshold with its amount being controlled in about 1% of the total mass. 
If the added amount is over-excessive, it will not only cause the decrease of the quality and the performance of plastic products but also generate sticky substance in the die lip location of the manufacturing equipment of the plastic products, affecting the production efficiency and product quality.
The mono-or multi-alcohol ester of stearic acid can be used as cosmetics, nonionic surfactants and plasticizers. 
Its alkali metal salt can be dissolved in water and is a major component of soap. Other kinds of salts can be used as waterproofing agents, lubricants, bactericides, coating additives and PVC stabilizers.

Uses
Stearic acid can be used as natural rubber, synthetic rubber (except butyl rubber) and latex curing active agent. 
Stearic acid can also be used as raw material of plastic plasticizer and stabilizer. 
Medicine: Stearic acid can be used for the preparation of ointments, suppositories, etc., as well as being used in the manufacture of cosmetics, candles, waterproof agent and polishing agent. The product can be used as a lubricant, defoamers and food additives in the food industry as well as the raw materials of glycerol stearate, stearic acid sorbitol anhydride esters and sucrose esters.
Stearic acid can also be used as standard reference product for gas analysis as well as the preparation of soap, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and other organic chemicals.


Stearic acid also called octadecanoic acid CH3(CH2)16COOH is one of the many useful types of saturated fatty acids that comes from many animal and vegetable fats and oils. It is a waxy solid that melts at around 70°C and its chemical formula is . Its name comes from the Greek word, stear, which means tallow.
Stearic acid is prepared by treating animal fat with water at a high pressure and temperature. It can also be obtained from the hydrogenation of vegetable oils. Stearic acid is useful as an ingredient in making candles, soaps, and cosmetics and for softening rubber.

Stearic acid is noteworthy as the most common saturated fatty acid, another common one being the C16 compound palmitic acid.

Stearic Acid in Health

Even though stearic acid it is a saturated fat, studies have suggested that it has little effect on blood cholesterol levels, because such a high proportion is converted to oleic acid. Stearic acid is found in chocolate and cocoa.


Stearic Acid (also known as Palm Stearin Acid) is used to help the candle harden more than is usual and provide a greater level of opaqueness when no dye is used or enhance the colour of any candle dye that is applied. As a consequence of a harder candle, the burning time is improved slightly. It is important to note, that this product must not be used in rubber moulds, but is suitable for plastic and metal moulds.

Stearic acid is a naturally-produced, non-synthetic fatty acid. You can find it some plant and animal derivatives. Familiar to you might be such products as your bath soap, the cocoa butter in your favorite lotion, or the oil pastels your children play with.

Basically, stearic acid is what helps all these products hold their shape. Soap would not be so easy to use without its bar shape, and oil pastels would be a terrible mass of runny colors without the hardener that makes them better to color with. However, that is not the only benefit of stearic acid.

Stearic acid is what they call asurfactant, which is a complicated word for a compound that helps water stick to oil and grease, and rinse them away (in the case of soap, that is). In the case of most products, however, it helps the ingredients blend together in a smoother, thicker mixture.

What are the Benefits of Stearic Acid in Skin Care?
Stearic acid makes a powerful cleanser
Because stearic acid causes water, oil, and grease to bind together, cleansers with stearic acid have a higher chance of actually stripping the skin of dirt, oil, and grease. Your daily post-makeup routine will become much easier, and much more effective. However, more than that, stearic acid is a secret weapon when it comes to facial moisturizers.

Stearic acid makes an effective facial moisturizer
Stearic acid helps facial moisturizers hold more water in proportion to oil than other facial moisturizers. First, this helps the product last longer. With stearic acid in the product, the oil, water, and other ingredients are very unlikely to separate into their individual components. You won’t ever face the problem of pouring moisturizer in your hand and watching it come it out in its unblended state.

Additionally, the water content makes the facial moisturizer kinder and runnier. It’s easier to apply, is perfect for milder skin that tends to react to oils, and naturally moisturizes the skin in a way that also cools and soothes the skin. The moisturizing oils bind faster to your skin, keeping it moisturized for longer, without sabotaging the natural oil production of your skin.

Is Stearic Acid Safe?
The Cosmestics Database describes stearic acid as “safe and mild,” generally. However, it does highlight that stearic acid can be a skin irritant to those with sensitive skin. Like other sets of chemicals, it also has the potential to be a carcinogen, or a product that increases the risk of cancer. It can also potentially (mild risk) add to the build up of toxins in the brain and organs.

However, the Cosmetics Database also noted that this was only a potential effect. Of those who participated in tests regarding stearic acid, only a few even experienced these potential side effects. In other words, it is statistically unlikely that stearic acid in a facial product will be ultimately harmful to the users. It would very much help to use skin care products wisely, in a regular rhythm, and responsibly.

Applications
Personal care: Soaps, shampoos, cosmetics, shaving cream, lotions
Food: Lubricity, emulsification, softener (gum, candy)
Oilfield: Lubricity, drilling fluid additives, emulsifiers, wetters 
Chemical manufacturing: Rubber manufacturing, fatty derivatives, metallic stearates  
Lubricants and metal working: Lubricant additives and metalworking fluids, grease manufacturing
Household and industrial cleaners: Detergents, surfactants, fabric softeners 
Plastic additives: Lubricity, mold release agents, PVC stabilizer
Cement grinding: Provides finer grind, improves compression strength
Miscellaneous: Candle making, crayon manufacturing, waxes, lead-acid batteries, paper sizing


Toxicity
LD50 i.v. in mice, rats: 23±0.7, 21.5±1.8 mg/kg, L. Or, A. Wretlind, Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. 18, 141 (1961)

Limited use
FEMA (mg/kg): soft drinks: 2.0~ 10; candy: 4000; bakery: 3.5.
GB 2760-2001: candy, gum base agent; take GMP as limit.

Production method
There are two major approaches for industrial production of stearic acid, namely fractionation and compression method. 
Add decomposition agent to the hydrogenated oil, and then hydrolyze to give the crude fatty acid, further go through washing with water, distillation, bleaching to obtain the finished products with glycerol as the byproduct.
Compression method takes animal oil as raw material. 
Have animal oil subject to hydrolysis in the catalysis of zinc oxide at pressure of 1.17~1.47 MPa, further go through pickling, washing, distillation, cooling, freezing, press for removal of oleic acid to get the finished products.
Heat the cotton seed oil, rice bran oil, or soybean oil in the presence of a hydrolyzing agent under normal pressure to boiling with hydrolysis of 1.5 h and harden to saturated fatty acid. Oleic acid hydrogenation;
Use the C10~C20 and C18~C20 fraction of the synthetic fatty acid as raw materials, go through melting, pickling (with 1% sulfuric acid) mold, pressing, melting, pickling, dehydrating and crystallization to obtain it.
It can be obtained through the low-temperature segment separation of the mixed fatty acid.
It can also be made through the hydrogenation of oleic acid.

Description
Stearic acid (STAIR-ik or STEER-ik) is the saturated fatty acid with an 18 carbon chain and has the IUPAC name octadecanoic acid. 
It is a waxy solid, and its chemical formula is CH3(CH2)16CO2H. 
Its name comes from the Greek word στ?αρ "stéar", which means tallow. The salts and esters of stearic acid are called stearates. 
Stearic acid is one of the most common saturated fatty acids found in nature following palmitic acid.

Chemical Properties
Stearic acid has a characteristic odor and taste resembling tallow. It is a mixture of solid organic acids obtained from fats consisting chiefly of stearic acid (C18H36O2) and palmitic acid (C16H32O2).

Chemical Properties
Stearic acid, CH3(CH2)16COOH, is a white or colorless, waxlike solid with a melting point of 70°C (158 OF), and a boiling point of 232°C (450 OF) at 2 kPa. 
It is soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform,and is insolublein water. Stearic acid, nature's most common fatty acid, is derived from natural animal and vegetable fats. Also known as n-octadecanoic acid, stearic acid is used in the preparation of metallic stearates, as a lubricant, and in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, candles, and food packaging.
Chemical Properties
Stearic acid is a hard, white or faintly yellow-colored, somewhat glossy, crystalline solid or a white or yellowish white powder. It has a slight odor (with an odor threshold of 20 ppm) and taste suggesting tallow.

Occurrence
Stearic acid is naturally present in the glycerides of animal fats and most vegetable oils. Reported found in fresh apple, banana, Vitis vinifera L., melon, tomato, ginger, blue cheeses, cheddar cheese, Swiss cheese, feta cheese, buttermilk, raw fatty fish, raw lean fish, raw shrimp, grapefruit juice, guava, papaya, cucumber, saffron, pork and lamb liver, pork fat, hop oil, beer, cognac, rum, whiskies, sherry, tea, peanut oil, soybean, roast coconut, coconut milk, avocado, passion fruit, rose apple, mushroom, starfruit, fenugreek, mango, cardamom, cooked rice, prickly pear, dill seed, buckwheat, malt, wort, cassava, loquat, shrimp, crab, cape gooseberry and Chinese quince.

Uses
Generally applications of stearic acid exploit its bifunctional character, with a polar head group that can be attached to metal cations and a nonpolar chain that confers solubility in organic solvents. The combination leads to uses as a surfactant and softening agent. Stearic acid undergoes the typical reactions of saturated carboxylic acids, notably reduction to stearyl alcohol, and esterification with a range of alcohols.
Soaps , cosmetics , detergents
Stearic acid is mainly used in the production of detergents, soaps, and cosmetics such as shampoos and shaving cream products. Soaps are not made directly from stearic acid, but indirectly by saponification of triglycerides consisting of stearic acid esters. Esters of stearic acid with ethylene glycol; glycol stearate and glycol distearate, are used to produce a pearly effect in shampoos, soaps, and other cosmetic products. They are added to the product in molten form and allowed to crystallize under controlled conditions. Detergents are obtained from amides and quaternary alkylammonium derivatives of stearic acid.
Lubricants , softening and release agents
In view of the soft texture of the sodium salt, which is the main component of soap, other salts are also useful for their lubricating properties. Lithium stearate is an important component of grease. The stearate salts of zinc, calcium, cadmium, and lead are used to soften PVC. Stearic acid is used along with castor oil for preparing softeners in textile sizing. They are heated and mixed with caustic potash or caustic soda. Related salts are also commonly used as release agents, e.g. in the production of automobile tires.

Niche uses
Being inexpensively available and chemically benign, stearic acid finds many niche applications. When making plaster castings from a plaster piece mold or waste mold and when making the mold from a shellacked clay original. In this use, powdered stearic acid is mixed in water and the suspension is brushed onto the surface to be parted after casting. This reacts with the calcium in the plaster to form a thin layer of calcium stearate which functions as a release agent. When reacted with zinc it forms zinc stearate which is used a lubricant for playing cards (fanning powder) to ensure a smooth motion when fanning. In compressed confections, it is used as a lubricant to keep the tablet from sticking to the die.
Fatty acids are classic components of candle - making. Stearic acid is used along with simple sugar or corn syrup as a hardener in candies.
Stearic acid is used to produce dietary supplements.
In fire works, stearic acid is often used to coat metal powders such as aluminium and iron. This prevents oxidation, allowing compositions to be stored for a longer period of time. Stearic acid is a common lubricant during injection molding and pressing of ceramic powders. It is also used as a mold release for foam latex that is baked in stone molds. .

Uses
Stearic Acid is a fatty acid that is a mixture of solid organic acids obtained principally from stearic acid and palmitic acid. it is practi- cally insoluble in water. it functions as a lubricant, binder, and defoamer. it is used as a softener in chewing gum base.

Uses
Pharmaceutic aid (emulsion adjunct); pharmaceutic aid (tablet and/or capsule lubricant).

Uses
stearic acid is an emulsifier and thickening agent found in many vegetable fats. Stearic acid is the main ingredient used in making bar soaps and lubricants. 
It occurs naturally in butter acids, tallow, cascarilla bark, and in other animal fats and oils. Stearic acid may cause allergic reactions in people with sensitive skin and is considered somewhat comedogenic.

Definition
ChEBI: A C18 straight-chain saturated fatty acid component of many animal and vegetable lipids. As well as in the diet, it is used in hardening soaps, softening plastics and in making cosmetics, candles and plastics.

Production Methods
Stearic acid is manufactured by hydrolysis of fat by continuous exposure to a countercurrent stream of high-temperature water and fat in a high-pressure chamber. 
The resultant mixture is purified by vacuum steam distillation and the distillates are then separated using selective solvents.
Stearic acid may also be manufactured by the hydrogenation of cottonseed and other vegetable oils; by the hydrogenation and subsequent saponification of olein followed by recrystallization from alcohol; and from edible fats and oils by boiling with sodium hydroxide, separating any glycerin, and decomposing the resulting soap with sulfuric or hydrochloric acid. The stearic acid is then subsequently separated from any oleic acid by cold expression.
Stearic acid is derived from edible fat sources unless it is intended for external use, in which case nonedible fat sources may be used. 
The USP32–NF27 states that stearic acid labeled solely for external use is exempt from the requirement that it be prepared from edible sources. 
Stearic acid may contain a suitable antioxidant such as 0.005% w/w butylated hydroxytoluene.

Definition
A solid carboxylic acid present in fats and oils as the glyceride.

Production Methods
Stearic Acid occurs in many animal and vegetable fats and oils, but it is more abundant in animal fat (up to 30 %) than vegetable fat (typically < 5 % ) . 
The important exceptions are cocoa butter and shea butter where the stearic acid content (as a triglyceride) is 28 – 45 %.
Stearic acid is prepared by treating these fats and oils with water at a high pressure and temperature (above 200 °C), leading to the hydrolysis of triglycerides. 
The resulting mixture is then distilled. Commercial stearic acid is often a mixture of stearic and palmitic acids, although purified stearic acid is available.
In terms of its biosynthesis, stearic acid is produced from carbohydrates via the fatty acid synthesis machinery via acetyl-CoA .

Preparation
Commercially it is produced by the hydrogenation of the unsaturated 18-carbon fatty acids of soybean, cottonseed or other vegetable oils. 
When obtained from animal fats by hydrolysis and fractional crystallization, commercial stearic acid is a mixture of solid organic acids, chiefly palmitic and stearic acids. 
Commercial products containing about 90% stearic acid are produced by hydrolysis and crystallization of a completely hydrogenated vegetable oil or by fractional distillation of fatty acid mixtures obtained from tallow
brand name
Hystrene 5016 (Witco).
Aroma threshold values
Detection: 20 ppm

Synthesis Reference(s)
Synthetic Communications, 15, p. 759, 1985 DOI: 10.1080/00397918508063869
General Description
White solid with a mild odor. Floats on water.
Air & Water Reactions
Slightly soluble in water.

Reactivity Profile
Stearic acid is incompatible with strong oxidizers and strong bases. Stearic acid is also incompatible with reducing agents.

Health Hazard
Compound is generally considered nontoxic. Inhalation of dust irritates nose and throat. Dust causes mild irritation of eyes.

Fire Hazard
Stearic acid is combustible. Stearic acid can heat spontaneously.

Pharmaceutical Applications
Stearic acid is widely used in oral and topical pharmaceutical formulations. It is mainly used in oral formulations as a tablet and capsule lubricant, although it may also be used as a binder or in combination with shellac as a tablet coating. It has also been suggested that stearic acid may be used in enteric tablet coatings and as a sustained-release drug carrier.
In topical formulations, stearic acid is used as an emulsifying and solubilizing agent. When partially neutralized with alkalis or triethanolamine, stearic acid is used in the preparation of creams. The partially neutralized stearic acid forms a creamy base when mixed with 5–15 times its own weight of aqueous liquid, the appearance and plasticity of the cream being determined by the proportion of alkali used.
Stearic acid is used as the hardening agent in glycerin suppositories.
Stearic acid is also widely used in cosmetics and food products.

Safety Profile
Poison by intravenous route. A human sktn irritant. Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data by implantation route. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame. Heats spontaneously. To fight fire, use CO2, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

Safety
Stearic acid is widely used in oral and topical pharmaceutical formulations; it is also used in cosmetics and food products. Stearic acid is generally regarded as a nontoxic and nonirritant material. However, consumption of excessive amounts may be harmful.
LD50 (mouse, IV): 23 mg/kg
LD50 (rat, IV): 21.5 mg/kg

Carcinogenicity
Stearic acid was administered subcutaneously to several groups of Swiss–Webster mice at doses of 0.05 or 0.5mg once weekly for 25 weeks (total dose of 1.3–130 mg), 1.0 mg thrice a week for a total of 10 injections or 1.0 mg twice weekly for a total of 82 injections. No neoplasms were reported in these studies . In 3 groups of 10–15 BALB/c mice administered 0.05 mg or 0.5 mg stearic acid (twice weekly for 52 or 57 weeks), one pulmonary neoplasm was detected in each group after 19–21 months.Afewsubcutaneous sarcomas and one adrenal carcinoma were also reported.No injection site sarcomas or other carcinogenic effects were reported by the same authors in a later study of mice injected with 0.05–0.5 mg weekly for 26 weeks. Rats given subcutaneous injections of 0.05 or 0.5 mg stearic acid weekly for 26 weeks did not develop sarcomas at the site of injection. When rat fibroblast cells were transfected with an activated human c-H-ras oncogene and the cells subsequently grown in a medium supplemented with stearic acid (20–80 mM), there was a marked increase in the number of transformed foci. 
Stearic acid inhibited the colony-forming ability of four out of five rat and two human tumor continuous cell lines in vitro. Using rats pretreated with nitrosomethyl urea as a model for mammary carcinoma, Habib et al. demonstrated that subcutaneous injection of stearic acid at weekly intervals prevented tumor development. Increasing levels of stearate in the diet resulted in decreased mammary tumor incidence and increased time to tumor in mice.

Metabolism
An isotope labeling study in humans concluded that the fraction of dietary stearic acid oxidatively desaturated to oleic acid was 2.4 times higher than the fraction of palmitic acid analogously converted to palmitoleic acid. Also, stearic acid was less likely to be incorporated into cholesterol esters. In epidemiologic and clinical studies stearic acid was associated with lowered LDL cholesterol in comparison with other saturated fatty acids. These findings may indicate that stearic acid is healthier than other saturated fatty acids.

storage
Stearic acid is a stable material; an antioxidant may also be added to it. The bulk material should be stored in a wellclosed container in a cool, dry place.

Purification Methods
Crystallise stearic acid from acetone, acetonitrile, EtOH (5 times), aqueous MeOH, ethyl methyl ketone or pet ether (b 60-90o), or by fractional precipitation by dissolving in hot 95% EtOH and pouring into distilled water, with stirring. The precipitate, after washing with distilled water, is dried under vacuum over P2O5. It has also been purified by zone melting and partial freezing. [Tamai et al. J Phys Chem 91 541 1987, Beilstein 2 IV 1206.]

Incompatibilities
Stearic acid is incompatible with most metal hydroxides and may be incompatible with bases, reducing agents, and oxidizing agents.
Ointment bases made with stearic acid may show evidence of drying out or lumpiness due to such a reaction when compounded with zinc or calcium salts.
A number of differential scanning calorimetry studies have investigated the compatibility of stearic acid with drugs. Although such laboratory studies have suggested incompatibilities, e.g. with naproxen, they may not necessarily be applicable to formulated products.
Stearic acid has been reported to cause pitting in the film coating of tablets applied using an aqueous film-coating technique; the pitting was found to be a function of the melting point of the stearic acid.

Regulatory Status
GRAS listed. 
Accepted as a food additive in Europe (fatty acids). 
Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (sublingual tablets; oral capsules, solutions, suspensions, and tablets; topical and vaginal preparations). 
Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.
Stearic acid Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials
D-Sorbitol Glycerol tristearate cow oil tea oil SOYBEAN OIL COTTONSEED OIL Zinc oxide COCOA BUTTER Benzenesulfonic acid FATTY ACID MIXTURE PASSION FLOWER OIL Castor oil Oils, animal, mixed with vegetable oil Me esters, sulfurized Synthetic fat Sorbitol Oleic acid Sodium hydroxide Fatty acids, C8-10, triesters with trimethylolpropane RICE BRAN OIL PALM OIL

APPLICATIONS FOR STEARIC ACID
Bar Soaps, Facial Cleansers, Body Washes, Shampoos, Laundry Detergents
When added to soap formulations, Stearic Acid derivatives function as thickeners that help to harden the formulas into solids and that help to eliminate the thin and runny feeling of watered-down soaps. 
Their surfactant action helps reduce the surface tension of oils, which makes it easier for oil and water molecules to mix well. 
In this way, Stearic Acid works to ensure that emulsions do not separate into isolated layers of water and oil. 
This helps enhance a product’s effectiveness as well as its shelf life. This also means that final products with Stearic Acid do not need to be shaken as vigorously before they are used. 
On the skin and in the hair, Stearic Acid works to eliminate excess oil, sweat, and grime. 
This cleansing property makes it beneficial for addition to formulations for soap bars, face and body washes, shampoos, and even laundry detergents. 
Stearic Acid leaves the final product enhanced with conditioning qualities and its preservative property allows them to last longer. 
When added to shampoo formulations, Stearic Acid functions as a protective conditioner that helps to leave the hair feeling soft, light, and lustrous. 
Recommended Usage for Cleansers: .5%


Lotions and Face Creams
When added to lotion formulations, Stearic Acid functions as a thickening agent that contributes a richness to the texture of the final product. Recommended Usage for Lotions and Creams: 2-5%.


Candles
When added to recipes for paraffin candles, Stearic Acid functions as a hardener. 
The harder the wax, the longer it will take the flame to melt it, thus resulting in a longer-lasting candle. 
Because Stearic Acid causes wax to shrink as it cools down, it also enables the easy release of the final product from a mold. 
Furthermore, its opacifying properties help to boost the colors of added dyes. 
Being a fragrance ingredient, Stearic Acid’s fat cells attach to the scent of an added aroma and prevents it from seeping out of the candle, which allows the fragrance to last longer. 
Recommended Usage for Candles: 3-5%

BOTANICAL/INCI  NAME
Stearic Acid

SUGGESTED USE
Cosmetic use only

BENEFITS
Stearic acid is a vegetable derived saturated fatty acid with an 18 carbon chain and is also know as octadecanoic acid. 

The percentage use in creams is 0.5% to 20% which can be neutralized with sodium hydroxide to make Sodium Stearate Soap. 

Stearic acid is obtained from the hydrogenation of some unsaturated vegetable oils. 
Common Stearic acid is actually a mix of Stearic acid and palmitic acid although purified Stearic acid is available separately. 

Uses: Stearic acid is useful as ingredients in making candles, dietary supplements and cosmetics. 
Its often used to harden soaps, particularly those made with vegetable oil. Stearic acid is used in aerosol shaving cream products also.

Stearic acid is one of the most widely used ingredients in cosmetics. A basic thick cream can be formulated using Stearic acid

 
CONTRAINDICATIONS FOR STEARIC ACID
As with all other New Directions Aromatics products, Stearic Acid Raw Material is for external use only. 
It is imperative to consult a medical practitioner before using this oil for therapeutic purposes. 
Pregnant and nursing women, as well as those with sensitive skin, are especially advised not to use Stearic Acid Raw Material without the medical advice of a physician. This product should always be stored in an area that is inaccessible to children, especially those under the age of 7.

Prior to using Stearic Acid Raw Material, a skin test is recommended. 
This can be done by melting 1 tsp of Stearic Acid in 1 ml of a preferred Carrier Oil and applying a dime-size amount of this blend to a small area of skin that is not sensitive. 
Stearic Acid must never be used near the eyes, inner nose, and ears, or on any other particularly sensitive areas of skin. 
Potential side effects of Stearic Acid include irritation, such as itching, stinging, burning, redness, rashes, inflammation, hives, blisters, sun sensitivity, and scaly skin. 
In the event of an allergic reaction, discontinue use of the product and see a doctor, pharmacist, or allergist immediately for a health assessment and appropriate remedial action. To prevent side effects, consult with a medical professional prior to use.

In nature stearic acid occurs primarily as a mixed triglyceride, or fat, with other long-chain acids and as an ester of a fatty alcohol. 
It is much more abundant in animal fat than in vegetable fat; lard and tallow often contain up to 30 percent stearic acid.

Alkaline hydrolysis, or saponification, of fats yields soaps, which are the sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids; pure stearic acid is obtained with difficulty from such a mixture by crystallization, vacuum distillation, or chromatography of the acids or suitable derivatives. 
The pure acid undergoes chemical reactions typical of carboxylic acids. It is a colourless, waxy solid that is almost insoluble in water.

Stearic acid, another name for octadecanoic acid CH3(CH2)16COOH, is one of the most common fatty acids. 
It exists as a glycerol ester in most animal and plant fats (Beare-Rogers, Dieffenbacher, & Holm, 2001). 
Stearic acid is more abundant in animal fat (up to 30%) than vegetable fat (typically <5%). 
The important exceptions are cocoa butter and shea butter, in which the stearic acid content (as a triglyceride) is 28–45%. 
Unlike the other long-chain saturated fatty acids, stearic acid has no effect on lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations in men or women (Yu, Derr, Etherton, & Kris-Etherton, 1995). 
Results from the study by Kelly et al. (2001) indicate that stearic acid (19 g/day) in the diet has favorable effects on thrombogenic and atherogenic risk factors in males; the authors recommend that the food industry consider enriching foods with stearic acid instead of palmitic acid and trans fatty acids. 
Thus, stearic acid is nontoxic and biocompatible with the human body. 
With a polar head group that can bind with metal cations and a nonpolar chain that confers solubility in organic solvents, stearic acid is commonly used in the production of detergents, soaps, and cosmetics, such as shampoos and shaving cream products.

Stearic acid is an emulsifier, emollient and lubricant. Accordingly, it can help keep products from separating and it can soften skin.
It floats on water.
Stearic acid is in hundreds of personal care products, including moisturizer, sunscreen, makeup, soap, baby lotion and dozens of other items.
It is also used in adhesives, lubricants, laundry products and paper products.
Research shows that the ingredient may help burns heal.


Stearic acid is a fatty acid typically produced by hydrolysis of common animal and vegetable fats and oils, followed by fractionation (distillation or crystallization) of the resulting fatty acids. 
Pressing methods separate the liquid unsaturated fatty acids from the solid saturated fatty acids. 
The stearic acid used in cosmetics is usually pressed two or three times, resulting in different concentrations.
Cosmetic-grade stearic acids are usually mixtures of fatty acids, depending on how they’re manufactured and where they come from (often they’re combined with palmitic acid).
There are several grades of stearic acid available commercially


Stearic acid, a waxlike fatty acid also known as octadecanoic acid, is an important component of stratum corneum lipids. 
Stearic acid is also found in cocoa butter, shea butter, and other vegetable fats, as well as animal tallow. 
As an FDA-approved ingredient in several cosmetic products, it is used as a surfactant and emulsifying agent for fragrance and as the base for other fatty acid ingredients that are synthesized into emollients and lubricants. 
Stearic acid is used most often to thicken and retain the shape of soaps (indirectly, through saponification of triglycerides

Stearic acid is a white solid with a mild odor. Floats on water. 

CAMEO Chemicals
Stearic acid (IUPAC systematic name: octadecanoic acid) is one of the useful types of saturated fatty acids that comes from many animal and vegetable fats and oils. It is a waxy solid.


Preferred IUPAC name: Octadecanoic acid
Stearic acid
C18:0 (Lipid numbers)

CAS Number: 57-11-4 


Stearic acid (/ˈstɪərɪk/ STEER-ik, /stiˈærɪk/ stee-ARR-ik) is a saturated fatty acid with an 18-carbon chain. 
The IUPAC name is octadecanoic acid. It is a waxy solid and its chemical formula is C17H35CO2H. 
Its name comes from the Greek word στέαρ "stéar", which means tallow. 

The salts and esters of stearic acid are called stearates. 
As its ester, stearic acid is one of the most common saturated fatty acids found in nature following palmitic acid.
The triglyceride derived from three molecules of stearic acid is called stearin.


Used in haircare products, stearic acid coats the hair shaft, providing condition and protection without making it dull or heavy. 
Stearic acid and it's esters are also used as emulsifiers in lotions and makeup.


Cosmetic creams and lotions are often composed of water and oil-based ingredients, which are held together by substances called emulsifiers. Without emulsifiers, the formula would separate, causing oil droplets to float on top of the water. Stearic acid is an emulsifier by itself, but can also be used with triethanolamine. When mixed, the two compounds react and become a paste called ‘triethanolamine stearate’ that helps to create a loose emulsion which is easily absorbed by the skin.

Lush use a vegetable-based stearic acid, derived from palm oil. Because completely palm-free stearic acid is so difficult to find, we’ve worked with suppliers to produce a new version from other vegetable oils. In 2017, one of these attempts, derived from olive oil, has finally succeeded and has been introduced in a few products. 

Why a few and not all our products then? Because it's not that simple. One material does not necessarily replace the other. As they are not derived from the same oil, they do not behave in the same way and switching them affects the appearance, shelf life and effectiveness of products. This is why we are also working on formulas to try and remove stearic acid completely when possible, without affecting the quality of the product.

Production
Stearic acid is obtained from fats and oils by the saponification of the triglycerides using hot water (about 100 °C). 
The resulting mixture is then distilled.
Commercial stearic acid is often a mixture of stearic and palmitic acids, although purified stearic acid is available.[citation needed]

Stearic acid is more abundant in animal fat (up to 30%) than in vegetable fat (typically <5%). 
The important exceptions are the foods cocoa butter (34%)[13] and shea butter, where the stearic acid content (as a triglyceride) is 28–45%.
Commercially, fats high in oleic acid such as palm and soy may be hydrogenated to convert oleic into stearic acid.

In terms of its biosynthesis, stearic acid is produced from carbohydrates via the fatty acid synthesis machinery wherein acetyl-CoA contributes two-carbon building blocks.

Uses
In general, the applications of stearic acid exploit its bifunctional character, with a polar head group that can be attached to metal cations and a nonpolar chain that confers solubility in organic solvents. The combination leads to uses as a surfactant and softening agent. Stearic acid undergoes the typical reactions of saturated carboxylic acids, a notable one being reduction to stearyl alcohol, and esterification with a range of alcohols. This is used in a large range of manufactures, from simple to complex electronic devices.[citation needed]

As food additive
Stearic acid (E number E570) is found in some foods.

Soaps, cosmetics, detergents
Stearic acid is mainly used in the production of detergents, soaps, and cosmetics such as shampoos and shaving cream products. 
Soaps are not made directly from stearic acid, but indirectly by saponification of triglycerides consisting of stearic acid esters. 
Esters of stearic acid with ethylene glycol, glycol stearate, and glycol distearate are used to produce a pearly effect in shampoos, soaps, and other cosmetic products. 
They are added to the product in molten form and allowed to crystallize under controlled conditions. 
Detergents are obtained from amides and quaternary alkylammonium derivatives of stearic acid.

Lubricants, softening and release agents
In view of the soft texture of the sodium salt, which is the main component of soap, other salts are also useful for their lubricating properties. 
Lithium stearate is an important component of grease. The stearate salts of zinc, calcium, cadmium, and lead are used to soften PVC. 
Stearic acid is used along with castor oil for preparing softeners in textile sizing. 
They are heated and mixed with caustic potash or caustic soda. 
Related salts are also commonly used as release agents, e.g. in the production of automobile tires. 
As an example, it can be used to make castings from a plaster piece mold or waste mold, and to make a mold from a shellacked clay original. 
In this use, powdered stearic acid is mixed in water and the suspension is brushed onto the surface to be parted after casting. 
This reacts with the calcium in the plaster to form a thin layer of calcium stearate, which functions as a release agent.

When reacted with zinc it forms zinc stearate, which is used as a lubricant for playing cards (fanning powder) to ensure a smooth motion when fanning. 
Stearic acid is a common lubricant during injection molding and pressing of ceramic powders.
It is also used as a mold release for foam latex that is baked in stone molds.

Niche uses
Being inexpensive, nontoxic, and fairly inert, stearic acid finds many niche applications.
Stearic acid is used as a negative plate additive in the manufacture of lead-acid batteries. 
It is added at the rate of 0.6 g per kg of the oxide while preparing the paste. 
It is believed to enhance the hydrophobicity of the negative plate, particularly during dry-charging process. 
It also reduces the extension of oxidation of the freshly formed lead (negative active material) when the plates are kept for drying in the open atmosphere after the process of tank formation. 
As a consequence, the charging time of a dry uncharged battery during initial filling and charging (IFC) is comparatively lower, as compared to a battery assembled with plates which do not contain stearic acid additive. 
Fatty acids are classic components of candle-making. 
Stearic acid is used along with simple sugar or corn syrup as a hardener in candies. 
In fireworks, stearic acid is often used to coat metal powders such as aluminium and iron. 
This prevents oxidation, allowing compositions to be stored for a longer period of time.

Metabolism
An isotope labeling study in humans concluded that the fraction of dietary stearic acid that oxidatively desaturates to oleic acid is 2.4 times higher than the fraction of palmitic acid analogously converted to palmitoleic acid. 
Also, stearic acid is less likely to be incorporated into cholesterol esters. In epidemiologic and clinical studies, stearic acid was found to be associated with lowered LDL cholesterol in comparison with other saturated fatty acids.


Stearic Acid is a typical example of a fatty acid, which are essentially long hydrocarbon chains containing a carboxyl group at one end and a methyl group at the other. 
The chain lengths can vary from 3 (propionic acid) to 24 (lignoceric acid) but the majority of fatty acids found in hydrogenated vegetable or animal oils are around C16-C20 in length. 
Stearic acid is a saturated acid, since there are no double bonds between neighbouring carbon atoms. 
This means that the hydrocarbon chain is flexible and can roll up into a ball or stetch out into a long zig-zag.


Chemical formula: C18H36O2
Molar mass: 284.484 g·mol−1
Appearance: White solid
Odor: Pungent, oily
Density: 0.9408 g/cm3 (20 °C)
0.847 g/cm3 (70 °C)

Melting point: 69.3 °C (156.7 °F; 342.4 K) 
Boiling point: 361 °C (682 °F; 634 K) decomposes 
232 °C (450 °F; 505 K) at 15 mmHg

Solubility in water: 0.00018 g/100 g (0 °C)
0.00029 g/100 g (20 °C)
0.00034 g/100 g (30 °C)
0.00042 g/100 g (45 °C)
0.00050 g/100 g (60 °C)[3]

Solubility: Soluble in alkyl acetates, alcohols, HCOOCH3, phenyls, CS2, CCl4
Solubility in dichloromethane: 3.58 g/100 g (25 °C)
8.85 g/100 g (30 °C)
18.3 g/100 g (35 °C)

Solubility in hexane: 0.5 g/100 g (20 °C)
4.3 g/100 g (30 °C)
19 g/100 g (40 °C)
79.2 g/100 g (50 °C)
303 g/100 g (60 °C)


Solubility in ethanol: 1.09 g/100 mL (10 °C)
2.25 g/100 g (20 °C)
5.42 g/100 g (30 °C)
22.7 g/100 g (40 °C)
105 g/100g (50 °C)
400 g/100g (60 °C)

Solubility in acetone: 4.73 g/100 g
Solubility in chloroform: 15.54 g/100 g
Vapor pressure: 0.01 kPa (158 °C)
0.46 kPa (200 °C)
16.9 kPa (300 °C)

Magnetic susceptibility (χ): -220.8·10−6 cm3/mol
Thermal conductivity: 0.173 W/m·K (70 °C)
0.166 W/m·K (100 °C)

Refractive index (nD): 1.4299 (80 °C)

Structure
Crystal structure    
B-form = Monoclinic
Space group    B-form = P21/a[8]
Point group    B-form = Cs
2h
Lattice constant    
a = 5.591 Å, b = 7.404 Å, c = 49.38 Å (B-form)
α = 90°, β = 117.37°, γ = 90°
Thermochemistry
Heat capacity (C): 501.5 J/mol·K
Std molar entropy (So298): 435.6 J/mol·K
Std enthalpy of formation (ΔfH⦵298): −947.7 kJ/mol
Std enthalpy of combustion (ΔcH⦵298): 11342.4 kJ/mol

stearic acid
Octadecanoic acid
57-11-4
Stearophanic acid
n-Octadecanoic acid
Cetylacetic acid
Pearl stearic
Stearex Beads
Octadecansaeure
Stearinsaeure
Vanicol
1-Heptadecanecarboxylic acid
Century 1240
Industrene R
Glycon DP
Glycon TP
Humko Industrene R
Dar-chem 14
Formula 300
Hydrofol 1895
Hystrene 9718
Hydrofol Acid 150
Glycon S-80
Glycon S-90
Hydrofol acid 1655
Hydrofol acid 1855
Tegostearic 254
Tegostearic 255
Tegostearic 272
Hystrene 80
octadecoic acid
Industrene 5016
Hystrene S-97
Hystrene T-70
Emersol 120
Emersol 132
Hystrene 4516
Hystrene 5016
Hystrene 7018
Groco 54
Groco 55
Groco 55L
Groco 58
Groco 59
Glycon S-70
Industrene 8718
Industrene 9018
Kam 1000
Emersol 150
Steric acid
Neo-Fat 18-53
Neo-Fat 18-54
Neo-Fat 18-59
Neo-Fat 18
Acidum stearinicul
Caswell No. 801D
HY-Phi 1199
HY-Phi 1205
HY-Phi 1303
HY-Phi 1401
Neo-Fat 18-S
C18:0
Kam 2000
Kam 3000
Oktadekansaeure
Neo-Fat 18-55
Neo-Fat 18-61
acide stearique
FEMA No. 3035
PD 185
acide octadecanoique
NAA 173
Hydrofol Acid 150 (VAN)
CCRIS 2305
Prifac 2918
HSDB 2000
Vis-Plus
Barolub FTA
UNII-4ELV7Z65AP
MFCD00002752
NSC 25956
Prodhygine
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 079082
Stearic Acid Cherry
Edenor C18
Stearic acid (TN)
CH3-[CH2]16-COOH
Flexichem B
Loxiol G 20
Century 1210
Century 1220
Century 1230
Emersol 6349
AI3-00909
Lunac S 20
Lunac S 40
WO 2 (fatty acid)
Hydrofol Acid 1895
Bonderlube 235
4ELV7Z65AP
Adeka Fatty Acid SA 910
CHEMBL46403
CHEBI:28842
NSC25956
Stearic acid, 97%
NCGC00091596-02
DSSTox_CID_1642
DSSTox_RID_76256
124-26-5 (amide) 57-11-4 (free base)
DSSTox_GSID_21642
Stearic acid, pure
Lunac
Stearic Acid (Powder/Beads/Flakes)
Fatty acids, C16-20
CAS-57-11-4
Isostearic acid EX
Haimaric MKH(R)
Prisorine 3501
Prisorine 3502
Prisorine 3508
Emersol 153NF
Emersol 871
Emersol 875
Emery 875D
Emery 871
Unimac 5680
C-Lube 10
EINECS 200-313-4
Stearic acid [JAN:NF]
BRN 0608585
Stearophanate
Promulsin
Stearex
Tsubaki
n-Octadecanoate
Bassinic acid
Lactaric acid
Talgic acid
1hmr
1hmt
4fnn
Kiri stearic acid
Edenor FHTI
Lunac YA
n-Octadecylic acid
Stearic acid, CP
EINECS 250-178-0
EINECS 273-087-8
F 3 (lubricant)
Industrene 4518
Nonsoul SK 1
Pristerene 4900
Pristerene 4904
Pristerene 4963
Pristerene 9429
Pristerene 9559
Hystrene S 97
Hystrene T 70
Edenor ST 1
Sunfat 18S
Emersol 153
Selosol 920
Industrene 5016K
Stearic Acid 110
Stearic Acid 120
Stearic Acid 420
Hystrene 9718NF
Kortacid 1895
Radiacid 0427
Edenor ST 20
Lunac 30
Serfax MT 90
Stearic acid_ravikumar
Unister NAA 180
Century 1224
Edenor HT-JG 60
Lunac S 90KC
Stearic acid (8CI)
Stearic acid, puriss.
Hystrene 7018 FG
Hystrene 9718NFFG
Lunac S 30
Lunac S 50
Lunac S 90
Lunac S 98
3v2p
875D
1-Heptadecanecarboxylate
Industrene 7018 FG
Stearic Acid NF Powder
AFCO-Chem B 65
Stearic Acid - 65%
Stearic Acid - 70%
Stearic Acid 153 NF
Heptadecanecarboxylic acid
Stearic Acid & Glycerin
Edenor C 18/98
S 300 (fatty acid)
Octadecanoic acid (9CI)
Stearic acid, >=98%
ACMC-1AR8K
SCHEMBL659
Hystrene 9718 NF FG
SA 400 (fatty acid)
bmse000485
Stearic Acid, High Purity
EC 200-313-4
Emery 400 (Salt/Mix)
Stearic acid (JP15/NF)
Stearic acid (JP17/NF)
Stearic Acid Triple-Pressed
Triple Pressed Stearic Acid
Emersol 110 (Salt/Mix)
Stearic Acid - High Purity
4-02-00-01206 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
68937-76-8
WLN: QV17
Agar Agar Type K-100 NF
Stearic Acid - Triple Pressed
17FA
GTPL3377
WO 2
Stearic Acid (Fragrance Grade)
Stearic Acid High Purity 90%
DTXSID8021642
Nonsoul SN 1 (*Sodium salt*)
S 30C S 30C (fatty acid)
SNA-2000 (*Sodium salt*)
Stearic acid, analytical standard
VLZ 200
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC([O])=O
Stearic Acid High Purity 90% V
Stearic Acid Flake 132 NF Flake
Stearic acid, reagent grade, 95%


Stearic acid–melamine repellents
Compounds formed by reacting stearic acid and formaldehyde with melamine constitute another class of water-repellent materials. 
The hydrophobic character of the stearic acid groups provide the water repellency, while the remaining N-methylol groups can react with cellulose or with each other (crosslinking) to generate permanent effects. 
Advantages of the stearic acid-melamine repellents include increased durability to laundering and a full hand imparted to treated fabrics. 
Some products of this type can be effectively applied by exhaustion procedures. 
Their use as extenders for fluorocarbon repellents is now increasingly replaced by boosters7 as described in Section 6.3.4. 
Disadvantages of stearic acid–melamine repellents include problems similar to durable press finishes (a tendency to exhibit finish mark-off, decreased fabric tear strength and abrasion resistance, changes in shade of dyed fabric, and release of formaldehyde).


What Is Stearic Acid? Where Is It Found?
Stearic acid (SA), sometimes also called octadecanoic acid, is a saturated long-chain fatty acid. It’s present in humans, animals and some plants.

It appears as a waxy, yellow-white, solid substance.

Stearic acid uses include:

Making soap and cleansers (one of the most common ways it’s used worldwide)
Improving the efficacy and texture of cleansers, lotions and skin care/hair products, including shampoo and conditioner
Making cosmetics/makeup
Stabilizing the texture of shaving creams and lubricants
Creating detergents, house cleaners and textile softeners
Forming and softening plastics
Making candles
Making chewing gum
Making supplements/tablets
Stearic acid’s structure (being an 18-carbon chain fatty acid) allows it to help improve the texture and consistency of other products. It can help make skin/hair/household products solid and improve the ability of them to to mix with water (which is usually difficult since oil/water do not combine well).

Where It’s Found:

Is stearic acid a natural ingredient?
Yes, which is why it’s found in many natural skin care/beauty products in place of chemical ingredients.

Stearic acid is found naturally in animal fat, especially pork fat, and also certain plants that contain fat/oil. These sources are heated and pressurized in order to isolate and remove stearic acid.

It then goes a process that involves distillation, steaming and cooling in order to create a finished product of concentrated Stearic acid, which is usually a waxy substance.

Additionally, it is found in some supplements, including magnesium stearate, which is a combination of stearic acid and the mineral magnesium.

Although the consumption of commercially hydrogenated fats is not recommended, since these are found in packaged foods that are linked to various health problems, Stearic acid is also used to create these fats.

You’ll find stearic acid listed on product labels under several different names, some which include:

Octadecanoic acid
Century 1240
Cetylacetic acid
Emersol 120 or 132 or 150
Formula 300
Glycon DP
Because Stearic acid is sometimes sourced from animals, it’s not always suitable for vegans or found in vegan cosmetics. For example, the Environmental Working Group and PETA list it as a “substance of animal origin” since it’s derived from rendered fat of farm animals.

Certain types that are obtained from plants, however, such as coconut, can be used in vegan/animal-free products.

Stearic Acid Uses and Benefits
1. Natural Skin Cleanser and Lubricant
What does stearic acid do to the skin?
It helps remove dirt, bacteria and other substances from the surface of skin. Stearic acid also gives a creamy and “waxy” feel to body care products.

It can lock in moisture and dryness by protecting the skin’s surface against water loss and creating a waxy protective barrier, as explained by the Derm Review. In fact, the presence of Stearic acid is partially what gives moisturizing products like cocoa butter and shea butter their thicker consistency and lubricating effects.

Does stearic acid clog pores?
Even though it is a fatty acid, it shouldn’t. It fact, it can help cleanse pores of excess oil and substances that can build up to form blackheads/whiteheads.

This is due to its ability to degrease and works thanks to its emulsifying effects on oils/lipids.

Is stearic acid harmful to skin if your skin tends to be sensitive?
It’s considered safe for most people and easy to tolerate, even for aged skin and when worn in the sun. However, there’s always a chance that someone can have a sensitivity, so start by using Stearic acid-containing products sparingly at first to test your reaction.

2. Surfactant Agent
A surfactant, or surface active agent, reduces tension between two substances. One of the most important benefits of stearic acid is its ability to help make water and oil mix together more easily in products.

Is stearic acid soluble in water?
It is fairly insoluble in water but becomes somewhat soluble in alcohol. More importantly, it helps lower the surface tension of oil, allowing it to combine better with water so together the two an be used to thoroughly wash anyway microbes from skin, hair, etc. As a surfactant, it can also attract oil, dirt and other impurities that accumulate on your skin and on other surfaces.

3. Natural Emulsifier
Stearic acid is used to help prevent ingredients in different types of products/formulas from separating. It’s used to thicken/harden formulas and bind together ingredients so they don’t wind up separating into liquid and oily layers.

This prolongs how long products like lotions, cosmetics, conditioners, etc., stay stable and useable.

You’ll also find stearic acid in supplements, such as magnesium stearate, for this reason. It’s added to keep the solid ingredients from falling apart and aid in the proper release of active ingredient after someone swallows the supplement.

Stearic Acid Foods and Products
When you eat foods that contain fat there’s a good chance you’re consuming stearic acid in small amounts. It’s a saturated fat with 18 carbon atoms and relatively common in the human diet, according to research.

While it’s used to make some unhealthy processed fats, in its natural form it can have slightly positive or  neutral effects on blood lipid profiles.

Stearic acid food sources include:

Lard and tallow (rendered fats from cows and pigs, which contain up to 30 percent stearic acid)
Fatty meats, such as pork or beef — an article published in the American Journal of Nutrition states that beef is the most common source of dietary stearic acid in the United States, since its roughly 19 percent stearic acid
Coconut oil
Palm kernel oil
Chocolate (cocoa butter)
Many fat-containing foods, both plants and those that come from animals, contain saturated fatty acids — including stearic, lauric, myristic, oleic and palmitic acids.

Animal fats are higher in stearic acid than most plants that contain oils. The exceptions to this rule are cocoa butter and shea butter, two plant-derived products that are both relatively concentrated sources of Stearic acid.

Stearic acid is also found in supplements, including magnesium stearate, which is usually derived from palm oil. Because of its waxy texture, Stearic acid acts as an emulsifier of ingredients used in supplements and as a lubricant to fill capsules when dry powdered ingredients are used.

It can help prevent capsules/tablets from breaking apart and ingredients from separating.

Recipes
You can use Stearic acid at home to make your own lotions and soaps. Most recipes will call for water, oils and an emulsifier (such as Stearic acid) to create a stable and smooth product.

If you’d like to purchase Stearic acid to use in DIY recipes at home, you’ll often find a mixture of stearic and palmitic acids. Purified stearic acid is available but less commonly sold.

If you’re looking for a plant-based/vegan source of Stearic acid, make sure to buy a product made from palm or cocoa.

When making lotions and creams, it’s recommended you use around 2 percent to 5 percent stearic acid in order to help your ingredients blend together and go on smoothly. The more you use, the thicker your product will be.

Try stearic acid in a variety of recipes that use beneficial ingredients, such as:

essential oils
aloe vera
rose water
shea butter
jojoba oil
and more

You can combine Stearic acid with other emulsifiers or waxes in cream/lotion recipes if you want a very smooth finished product. Emulsifiers will bind together water and oil to create lotion that will not separate.

Below is a basic homemade lotion recipe 

70 percent to 80 percent distilled water
3 percent to 5 percent stearic acid (or other co-emulsifier)
3 percent to 6 percent emulsifying wax (or other emulsifier)
Your choice of oils and butters, such as shea, coconut oil, etc.
You can also add stearic acid to these DIY beauty/skin care recipes:

Homemade Lotion With Frankincense and Lavender Oils
Homemade Hand Soap
Lavender and Rosemary Hair Detangler
Homemade Conditioner 
Risks and Side Effects
Is stearic acid safe?
The U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers stearic acid safe for both consumption as a food additive and for topical use in skin care products in limited quantities.

According to the Cosmetics Info website, studies have shown that Stearic acid is non-photosensitising (doesn’t make skin prone to sunburns), not irritating to the eyes and non-carcinogenic.

Most people have a low risk of experiencing stearic acid side effects when using it on their skin, considering it’s a natural fatty acid found in humans. However, some people with sensitive skin may have experience mild reactions.

Is stearic acid ever harmful, such as for heart health?
Although it is fatty substance, Stearic acid is not linked to cardiovascular problems and is even the immediate precursor of oleic acid, an important fatty acid found in heart-healthy olive oil. A number of studies have found that effects of Stearic acid on cardiovascular health are more favorable than those of trans monounsaturated fatty acids.

Stearic acid has even been shown to help lower LDL cholesterol and decrease the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol slightly.

Final Thoughts
Stearic acid is a natural fatty acid that appears as a waxy, yellow-white substance. It’s sourced most often from animal fats, including tallow and lard, or cocoa butter and shea butter.
What is stearic acid used for? It’s a common additive in soaps, cleaners, lotions and hair care products, as well as house cleaners, candles and plastics.
Benefits include naturally cleansing skin, lubricating skin and hair, and emulsifying ingredients in products and supplements.
Is stearic acid safe? Stearic acid side effects are rare, as this fatty acid is naturally occurring inside the human body.
When consumed from food sources it doesn’t seem harmful to heart health and may even have benefits, such as for cholesterol levels.


Stearic acid, also known as octadecanoic acid, occurs naturally in plants and animals, though it appears more abundantly in the latter than the former. Animal fats can contain up to 30% of their composition of stearic acid and its close constituents, whereas plant sources typically have less than 5%. Cocoa butter and shea butter stand out as two exceptions of plant fats with high levels of stearic acid in it, up to 45%. Stearic acid, considered a non-toxic saturated fat, does not affect human cholesterol levels, making it a possible substitute for trans fats and other saturated fats used in food.

The chemical makeup of octadecanoic acid comes from its name, which alludes to the 18 carbons that make up the backbone of the molecule. Like other saturated fats, stearic acid is solid at room temperature and floats on water. It appears white and has a mild aroma. Some vendors will sell stearic acid in crystalline or powder form. The structure of stearic acid, which includes both polar and non-polar components, allows it to function in the creation of soap or detergent. The polar end links to water, while the non-polar end surrounds organic dirt or fats. The non-polar end encapsulates these particles, which wash away with rinsing to remove the water.

Though edible, stearic acid has many other uses outside the human body. 
One of the best-known applications in industries is its use in vulcanizing rubber. However, octadecanoic (stearic) acid does much more than help in the creation of tires and industrial grade rubber. Its uses extend to several other industries, aided by stearic acid's softening abilities, inherent lubricity and non-toxic nature.

APPLICATIONS OF STEARIC ACID
Stearic acid's attributes of activating and lubricating allow this fatty acid to play a key role in several sectors. Its most frequent industrial use is for the creation of rubber. 
Without this or similar fatty acids, modern vulcanization methods would look quite different.

Activator or accelerator
Internal lubricant
Mold release agent and surface lubricant

WHY IT IS USED IN RUBBER PRODUCTS
Attributes of stearic acid rubber grade that make it useful across multiple industries also make it an essential component of rubber production. 
The actions of stearic acid as an activator and lubricant yield benefits for the rubber industry of aiding in vulcanization and improving the texture of the finished products.

Dispersing agent
Softener
Vulcanization activator
Other uses of stearic acid
OTHER USES OF STEARIC ACID
While rubber production is one of the most common uses of this acid, many other industries use stearic acid for other applications. 
As a non-toxic substance, it frequently plays a role in personal care product manufacturing. Its fatty nature makes it an ideal lubricant and softener for plastics and textiles.

INDUSTRIES USING STEARIC ACID INCLUDE
Coatings & Construction
HI&I
Oil & Gas
Personal Care
Plastics
Textiles


Personal and household cleaning products, including many soaps, frequently use stearic acid as an ingredient. 
With its chemical design of a non-polar chain and polar head, each molecule of stearic acid can link oil and water that do not normally blend, acting as a bridge between oil and water phases. It also can trap dirt and other organic materials for later cleaning off or physical removal.

HYSTRENE 9718

KORTACID 1890/1893/1895/1898

MASCID 1892

MASCID 1895

MASCID 1898

PALMAC 90-18 Stearic Acid 90% min.

PALMAC 98-18 Stearic Acid 98% min.

Palmata 1892

PALMERA A9018

PALMERA A9218

PALMERA A9318

PALMERA A9518

PALMERA A9818

PRIFRAC 2980

PRIFRAC 2981

PRIFRAC 2982

PRIFRAC 2984

RADIACID 0135

RADIACID 0150

RADIACID 0151

RADIACID 0152

RADIACID 0154

RADIACID 0156

RADIACID 0164

RADIACID 0165

SINAR – FA 1895

Tefacid Stearic 90

Tefacid Stearic 92

Tefacid Stearic 95

    octadecanoic acid  has parent hydride octadecane (CHEBI:32926)
octadecanoic acid  has role Daphnia magna metabolite (CHEBI:83056)
octadecanoic acid  has role algal metabolite (CHEBI:84735)
octadecanoic acid  has role human metabolite (CHEBI:77746)
octadecanoic acid  has role plant metabolite (CHEBI:76924)
octadecanoic acid  is a long-chain fatty acid (CHEBI:15904)
octadecanoic acid  is a saturated fatty acid (CHEBI:26607)
octadecanoic acid  is a straight-chain saturated fatty acid (CHEBI:39418)
octadecanoic acid  is conjugate acid of octadecanoate (CHEBI:25629)
Incoming    α-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Glc-(1↔1')-Cer(d18:1/18:0) (CHEBI:84690) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
α-Neu5Ac-(2→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-GalNAc-(1→4)-[α-Neu5Ac-(2→8)-α-Neu5Ac-(2→8)-α-Neu5Ac-(2→3)]-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Glc-(1↔1')-Cer(d18:1/18:0) (CHEBI:84682) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
α-Neu5Ac-(2→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Glc-(1↔1')-Cer(d18:1/18:0) (CHEBI:84675) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-N-octadecanoylsphingosine (CHEBI:84759) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
β-D-galactosyl-(1↔1ʼ)-N-octadecanoylsphinganine (CHEBI:90498) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
β-D-galactosyl-N-octadecanoylsphingosine (CHEBI:84720) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1ʼ)-N-octadecanoylsphinganine (CHEBI:84697) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
β-D-glucosyl-N-octadecanoylsphingosine (CHEBI:84719) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
β-GalNAc-(1→4)-[α-Neu5Ac-(2→8)-α-Neu5Ac-(2→8)-α-Neu5Ac-(2→3)]-β-Gal-(1→4)-β-Glc-(1→1')-Cer(d18:1/18:0) (CHEBI:84685) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
(13Z)-8-hydroxyoctadecene-9,11-diynoic acid (CHEBI:73751) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
(9R,10S)-dihydroxyoctadecanoic acid (CHEBI:136767) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
(9S,10R)-10-hydroxy-9-(phosphonooxy)octadecanoic acid (CHEBI:85632) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
(9S,10R)-dihydroxyoctadecanoic acid (CHEBI:85633) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
(9S,10S)-10-hydroxy-9-(phosphonooxy)octadecanoic acid (CHEBI:49253) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1,2-dioctadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-cytidine 5'-diphosphate (CHEBI:104121) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1,2-dioctadecanoyl-sn-glycerol (CHEBI:41847) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1,2-dioleoyl-3-stearoyl-sn-glycerol (CHEBI:77686) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:83718) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine (CHEBI:84519) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1,2-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (CHEBI:47764) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-O-stearoyl-N-acetylsphingosine (CHEBI:76074) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-[(7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z)-docosatetraenoyl]-2-octadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:86200) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-[(8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)-icosatetraenoyl]-2-octadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1D-myo-inositol (CHEBI:89250) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-[(9Z,12Z)-octadecadienoyl]-2-octadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:86112) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-[(9Z,12Z)-octadecadienoyl]-2-octadecanoyl-sn-glycerol (CHEBI:86337) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-acyl-2-octadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (CHEBI:64864) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-acyl-2-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1D-myo-inositol) (CHEBI:84317) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-eicosanoyl-2-octadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:86166) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-hexadecanoyl-2-octadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:73000) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-hexadecanoyl-2-octadecanoyl-sn-glycerol (CHEBI:86975) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-hexadecyl-2-octadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:86229) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-hexanoyl-2-octadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:86282) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-myristoyl-2-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:86090) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-octadecanoyl-2-(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z-docosahexaenoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:84829) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-octadecanoyl-2-(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z-docosahexaenoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (CHEBI:79109) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-octadecanoyl-2-(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z-docosapentaenoyl)-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine (CHEBI:73865) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-octadecanoyl-2-(5E,8E,11E,14E-eicosatetraenoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (CHEBI:84837) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-octadecanoyl-2-(6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z,18Z-docosapentaenoyl)-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine (CHEBI:84151) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-octadecanoyl-2-(7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z-docosatetraenoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:84565) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-octadecanoyl-2-(9Z)-hexadecenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (CHEBI:75073) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-octadecanoyl-2-[(10Z,12Z)-octadecadienoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:84819) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-octadecanoyl-2-[(11Z)-eicosenoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:86173) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-octadecanoyl-2-[(13Z)-docosenoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:86196) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-octadecanoyl-2-[(15Z)-tetracosenoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:86219) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-octadecanoyl-2-[(2E,4E)-octadecadienoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:84820) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-octadecanoyl-2-[(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z)-docosapentaenoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (CHEBI:131665) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-octadecanoyl-2-[(5Z,8Z,11Z)-eicosatrienoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:86176) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-octadecanoyl-2-[(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)-eicosapentaenoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:86181) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-octadecanoyl-2-[(6Z,9Z)-octadecadienoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:84821) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-octadecanoyl-2-[(6Z,9Z,12Z)-octadecatrienoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:86117) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-octadecanoyl-2-[(6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadecatetraenoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:86134) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-octadecanoyl-2-[(7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosapentaenoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:86203) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-octadecanoyl-2-[(8Z,10Z,12Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:84823) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-octadecanoyl-2-[(8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatrienoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:86177) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-octadecanoyl-2-[(9Z)-hexadecenoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:86097) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-octadecanoyl-2-[(9Z,11Z,13Z,15Z,17Z,19E)-docosahexaenoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:84830) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-octadecanoyl-2-[(9Z,12Z)-octadecadienoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:84822) has functional parent octadecanoic acid 
1-octadecanoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1D-myo-inositol (CHEBI:65090) has functional parent stearic acid
1-octadecanoyl-2-docosanoyl-sn-glycerol (CHEBI:87241) has functional parent stearic acid
1-octadecanoyl-2-dodecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:138215) has functional parent stearic acid
1-octadecanoyl-2-eicosanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:86167) has functional parent stearic acid
1-octadecanoyl-2-hexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:138212) has functional parent stearic acid
1-octadecanoyl-2-nonanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:138214) has functional parent stearic acid
1-octadecanoyl-2-octadecenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:84818) has functional parent stearic acid
1-octadecanoyl-2-octanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:138213) has functional parent stearic acid
1-octadecanoyl-2-pentadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:134076) has functional parent stearic acid
1-octadecanoyl-2-pentanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:138211) has functional parent stearic acid
1-octadecanoyl-2-tetracosanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:86212) has functional parent stearic acid
1-octadecyl-2-octadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:86239) has functional parent stearic acid
1-oleoyl-2-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine (CHEBI:75103) has functional parent stearic acid
1-oleoyl-2-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:76073) has functional parent stearic acid
1-oleoyl-2-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (CHEBI:85076) has functional parent stearic acid
1-oleoyl-2-stearoyl-sn-glycerol (CHEBI:75448) has functional parent stearic acid
1-palmitoleoyl-2-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:84570) has functional parent stearic acid
1-palmitoleoyl-2-stearoyl-sn-glycerol (CHEBI:84418) has functional parent stearic acid
1-palmitoyl-2-lauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1ʼ-sn-glycerol) (CHEBI:77122) has functional parent stearic acid
1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-sn-glycerol (CHEBI:77623) has functional parent stearic acid
1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine (CHEBI:84520) has functional parent stearic acid
1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-sn-glycerol (CHEBI:77624) has functional parent stearic acid
1-palmityl-2-acetyl-3-stearoyl-sn-glycerol (CHEBI:77677) has functional parent stearic acid
1-pentadecanoyl-2-octadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:134075) has functional parent stearic acid
1-pentadecanoyl-2-octadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (CHEBI:136139) has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl 2-acylglycerolipid (CHEBI:87007) has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-(α-linolenoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:78022) has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (CHEBI:77258) has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycerol (CHEBI:77129) has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-(7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z-docosatetraenoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine  has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-(7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z-docosatetraenoyl)-sn-glycerol  has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-(8-epi-prostaglandin F2α)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine  has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-(8Z,11Z,14Z-icosa-8,11,14-trienoyl)-sn-glycerol  has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-(8Z,11Z,14Z-icosatrienoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine  has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine  has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-3-oleoyl-sn-glycerol  has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate  has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1ʼ-sn-glycerol) has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1D-myo-inositol 3,4,5-triphosphate)  has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1D-myo-inositol (CHEBI:84153) has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1D-myo-inositol 4,5-biphosphate has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1D-myo-inositol 4-phosphate  has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1D-myo-inositol 5-phosphate has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:74965) has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (CHEBI:79110) has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine (CHEBI:79113) has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol  has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoylglycerol has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoylphosphatidic acid  has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate  has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1D-myo-inositol 5-phosphate has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine  has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycerol  has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-myristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:86089) has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate  has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1D-myo-inositol 4,5-biphosphate has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1D-myo-inositol 4-phosphate has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1D-myo-inositol 5-phosphate has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine  has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate  has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1D-myo-inositol has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:73858) has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine  has functional parent stearic acid
1-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine  has functional parent stearic acid
1-tetracosanoyl-2-octadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine has functional parent stearic acid
10-hydroxystearic acidhas functional parent stearic acid
10-PAHSA has functional parent stearic acid
11-PAHSA has functional parent stearic acid
12-(octadecanoyloxy)stearic acidhas functional parent stearic acid
12-(phosphonooxy)stearic acid has functional parent stearic acid
12-methylstearic acidhas functional parent stearic acid
12-PAHSA (CHEBI:84468) has functional parent stearic acid
13-(octadecanoyloxy)stearic acidhas functional parent stearic acid
13-PAHSA has functional parent stearic acid
16-methylstearic acid has functional parent stearic acid
17-methylstearic acidhas functional parent stearic acid
2,3-distearoyl-sn-glycerol  has functional parent stearic acid
2-methylstearic acidhas functional parent stearic acid
2-octadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (CHEBI:133145) has functional parent stearic acid
2-oxostearic acidhas functional parent stearic acid
2-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine has functional parent stearic acid
2-stearoylglycerol has functional parent stearic acid
3-oxostearic acidhas functional parent stearic acid
5-PAHSA has functional parent stearic acid
7-PAHSA has functional parent stearic acid
8-PAHSA has functional parent stearic acid
9-(octadecanoyloxy)stearic acid has functional parent stearic acid
9-PAHSA  has functional parent stearic acid
all-trans-retinyl stearate has functional parent stearic acid
N-(octadecanoyl)-pentadecasphing-4-enine-1-phosphoethanolamine has functional parent stearic acid
N-(octadecanoyl)ethanolamine (CHEBI:85299) has functional parent stearic acid
N-(octadecanoyl)hexadecasphingosine-1-phosphocholine  has functional parent stearic acid
N-octadecanoyl-(4E,14Z)-sphingadienine has functional parent stearic acid
N-octadecanoyl-15-methylhexadecasphingosine-1-phosphocholine has functional parent stearic acid
N-octadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine has functional parent stearic acid
N-octadecanoylglycine has functional parent stearic acid
N-octadecanoylsphingadienine-1-phosphocholine has functional parent stearic acid
N-octadecanoylsphingosine has functional parent stearic acid
N-octadecanoylsphingosine 1-phosphate has functional parent stearic acid
N-octodecanoylsphinganine has functional parent stearic acid
N-stearoyl-1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine has functional parent stearic acid
N-stearoyl-1-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine  has functional parent stearic acid
N-stearoyl-D-galactosylsphingosine has functional parent stearic acid
N-stearoylhexadecasphinganine  has functional parent stearic acid
N-stearoylserotonin  has functional parent stearic acid
N-stearoylsphingosine-1-phosphocholine has functional parent stearic acid
N-stearoyltaurine  has functional parent stearic acid
O-octadecanoyl-L-carnitine  has functional parent stearic acid
O-stearoylcarnitine has functional parent stearic acid
butyl octadecanoate has functional parent stearic acid
CDP-1-stearoyl-2-(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycerol has functional parent stearic acid
CDP-1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol has functional parent stearic acid
CDP-1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycerol  has functional parent stearic acid
CDP-1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol  has functional parent stearic acid
cholesteryl stearate  has functional parent stearic acid
epoxystearic acid  has functional parent stearic acid
hydroxystearic acidhas functional parent stearic acid
monoacylglycerol 18:0  has functional parent stearic acid
octadecanamide  has functional parent stearic acid
octadecanoate ester  has functional parent stearic acid
stearonitrile  has functional parent stearic acid
stearoyl-CoA has functional parent stearic acid
tristearoylglycerol (CHEBI:45956) has functional parent stearic acid
tuberculostearic acid (CHEBI:68565) has functional parent stearic acid
soybean oil (CHEBI:166975) has part stearic acid
1-heptadecanoyl-2-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (CHEBI:85385) is a stearic acid
octadecanoate (CHEBI:25629) is conjugate base of stearic acid

253-480-0 [EINECS]
30399-84-9 [RN]
608585 [Beilstein]
Acide stéarique [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
C18:0
EMERSOL 132 [Trade name]
MFCD00002752 [MDL number]
MFCD00044082 [MDL number]
Octadecanoic acid [ACD/Index Name]
Proviscol Wax
STA
Stearic acid [ACD/IUPAC Name] [JAN] [JP15] [NF] [USAN] [Wiki]
STEARIC ACID D7
Stearinsäure [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Stearophanic acid
130048-57-6 [RN]
17660-51-4 [RN]
19905-58-9 [RN]
1-octadecanoic acid
211443-83-3 [RN]
4-02-00-01206 [Beilstein]
62163-41-1 [RN]
9-Octadecenoic acid [ACD/IUPAC Name]
acide octadecanoique
acide stearique
Acidum stearinicul
Acidum stearinicum
Barolub FTA
Bonderlube 235
C-Lube 10
Dar-chem 14
Dermarone
Edenor C 18
Edenor C18
Edenor FHTI
Edenor HT-JG 60
Edenor ST 1
Edenor ST 20
EIC
Emersol 120
Emersol 150
Emersol 153
Emersol 871
Emersol 875
Flexichem B
Glycon d
Glycon dp
Glycon S-70
Glycon S-80
Glycon S-90
Glycon tp
Groco 55L
Haimaric MKH(R)
http://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB0000827
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:28842
Humko Industrene R
Hystrene
Hystrene 80
Hystrene S 97
Hystrene S-97
Hystrene T 70
Hystrene T-70
Industrene
Industrene R
Linoleic acid [Wiki]
LNL
Loxiol G 20
Lunac
Lunac S 20
Lunac S 30
Lunac S 40
Lunac S 50
Lunac S 90
Lunac S 90KC
Lunac S 98
Lunac YA
Metallac
Metasap 576
N-OCTADECANOIC ACID
n-Octadecylic acid
Nonsoul SK 1
octadecanic acid
Octadecanoic-2,2-d2 Acid
Octadecanoic-9,9,10,10-d4 Acid
Octadecansaeure
octadecoic acid
Oktadekansaeure
Parteck(R) LUB STA 50
peak 4 (Neudosan)
Pearl stearic
Prodhygine
QV17 [WLN]
Selosol 920
Serfax MT 90
Stavinor ZN-E
Stearex
Stearic Acid - CAS 57-11-4 - Calbiochem
Stearic Acid 110
Stearic Acid NF Powder
Stearic Acid Triple-Pressed
stearic acid, from plants
Stearic Acid, High Purity
Stearic acid, min. 98%
stearic acid, prilled
Stearic acid, pure, 98%
Stearic acid, tech, 90%
Stearicacid
Stearinsaeure
Stearite
Steraic Acid
Steric acid
T16-55F
Talculin Z
Tegostearic 254
Tegostearic 255
Tegostearic 272
Tsubaki
Unister NAA 180
Vaccenic acid [Wiki]
vanico
Vanicol
Vis-Plus
VS-03242
α-Linolenic acid [Wiki]
硬脂酸ar

Other names: Stearic acid; n-Octadecanoic acid; Humko Industrene R; Hydrofol Acid 150; Hystrene S-97; Hystrene T-70; Hystrene 80; Industrene R; Kam 1000; Kam 2000; Kam 3000; Neo-Fat 18; Neo-Fat 18-53; Neo-Fat 18-54; Neo-Fat 18-55; Neo-Fat 18-59; NAA 173; PD 185; Stearex Beads; Stearophanic acid; Steric acid; Vanicol; 1-Heptadecanecarboxylic acid; Heptadecanecarboxylic acid; Neo-fat 18-61; Pearl stearic; Century 1240; Dar-chem 14; Emersol 120; Emersol 132; Emersol 150; Formula 300; Glycon DP; Glycon TP; Glycon S-70; Glycon S-80; Glycon S-90; Groco 54; Groco 55; Groco 55L; Groco 58; Groco 59; Hy-phi 1199; Hy-phi 1205; Hy-phi 1303; Hy-phi 1401; Hydrofol acid 1655; Hydrofol acid 1855; Hydrofol 1895; Hystrene 4516; Hystrene 5016; Hystrene 7018; Hystrene 9718; Industrene 5016; Neo-Fat 18-S; Tegostearic 254; Tegostearic 255; Tegostearic 272; Cetylacetic acid; Industrene 8718; Industrene 9018; Barolub FTA; Loxiol G 20; Lunac S 20; Emersol 153; Century 1210; Century 1220; Century 1230; Emersol 6349; Hystrene 7018 FG; Hystrene 9718 NF FG; Industrene 4518; Industrene 7018 FG; n-Octadecylic acid; Pristerene 4904; Promulsin; Proviscol wax; Stearex; Tsubaki; Vis-Plus; Prifac 2918; Adeka Fatty Acid SA 910; Century 1224; Edenor C18; Hydrofol Acid 1895; Kiri stearic acid; Lunac S 40; SA 400 (fatty acid); WO 2 (fatty acid); Octadecanoic acid (stearic acid); Emersol 110 (Salt/Mix); Emery 400 (Salt/Mix)


What Is It?
Stearic Acid, Lauric Acid, Myristic Acid, Oleic Acid and Palmitic Acid are fatty acids that occur naturally in some foods. 
In cosmetics and personal-care products, fatty acids and mixtures of fatty acids such as Stearic Acid, Oleic Acid, Lauric Acid, Palmitic Acid and Myristic Acid are used in a variety of cosmetic creams, cakes, soaps and pastes.

Why is it used in cosmetics and personal care products?
The following functions have been reported for these ingredients.

Opacifying agent - Myristic Acid, Palmitic Acid
Surfactant cleansing agent - Stearic Acid, Lauric Acid, Myristic Acid, Oleic Acid, Palmitic Acid
Surfactant emulsifying agent - Stearic Acid, Palmitic Acid
Scientific Facts: 
Stearic Acid, also known as Octadecanoic Acid, is obtained from animal and vegetable fats and oils. 
Humans have the ability to synthesize Stearic Acid. 
In general, fatty acids are used in the production of hormones that regulate a variety of functions, including blood pressure, blood clotting and immune response.

What Are The Benefits of Stearic Acid In A Formulation?
Stearic acid functions mainly as a surfactant, emulsifier, and thickener when added to cosmetics and skincare products.

Surfactant
Surfactant is the short term for surface active agent. Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension between two substances to help them mix or allow the skin to be wet evenly. 

Another job of surfactants is to degrease and emulsify oils and fats and suspend dirt, allowing them to be washed away. This is possible because while one end of the surfactant molecule is attracted to water, the other end is attracted to oil. Thus, surfactants attract the oil, dirt, and other impurities that have accumulated on your skin during the day and wash them away. Due to these properties, stearic acid can be found in many different cleansers and body washes.

Emulsifier
Stearic acid also acts as an emulsifier. An emulsifier is needed for products that contain both water and oil components. Water and oil-based ingredients tend to separate in the formulation. Emulsifiers help to keep them mixed and prevent the splitting or separating of ingredients. This helps to stabilize and improve the longevity of your product. 

As an emulsifier, stearic acid consists of a water-loving hydrophilic head and an oil-loving hydrophobic tail. The hydrophilic head is attracted to the water-based ingredients and the hydrophobic tail to the oil-based ingredients, pulling them together and preventing that separation.

Texture
Another property of stearic acid is its ability to function as a thickener or hardener. This is why stearic acid is added to things like soaps, candles, plastics, oil pastels, etc. It helps to harden the product and also helps to retain its shape.

How Does Stearic Acid Benefit The Skin?
Cleansing
As a surfactant, stearic acid helps to wash away excess oil and dirt from the skin. Stearic acid attracts dirt and oils and allows them to be rinsed from the skin. 

Skin barrier
 Stearic acid has been shown to protect the skin’s natural barrier against water loss and help support the skin’s protective barrier. The skin’s natural barrier consists of the first few layers of skin and the natural oils that it produces. This barrier protects the skin from allergens, bacteria, and from losing water to the air and environment. When the skin barrier is damaged or disrupted through the use of harsh products, aging, the environment or skin conditions such as eczema or dermatitis, the skin can lose this protective ability. 

Stearic acid is an important component in the skin’s barrier and is a widely used in skincare products. In formulations in may support the healthy functioning of the skin barrier, potentially helping to improve hydration and sensitivity. It is important to note that this benefit has not been well researched.  

Is Stearic Acid Safe?
The US Food and Drug Administration includes stearic acid on its list of direct food additives considered Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS). The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel, a group responsible for evaluating the safety of skincare and cosmetic ingredients, evaluated the scientific data, and concluded that stearic acid is safe for use in cosmetic products.


Commercial stearic acid  is made by separation and hydrogenation of fats and is usually a mixture of stearic acid (C-18) and palmitic acid (C-16). It is solid at room temperature, has a fatty character and is one of the most common saturated fatty acids found in nature.

Stearic acid is used in the manufacturing of candles, surfactants and fatty alcohols. Furthermore, it finds various applications in the rubber, lubricant and textile industry as well as in the production of EBS waxes, fatty amines and paper chemicals. For a long time already, Baerlocher is using stearic acid to produce metal soaps and additives for the plastics industry.


Stearic acid is from vegetable origins (palm) and is manufactured and designed to blend well with your cosmetic recipes. These small pastilles are ideal as an emulsifying agent in creams, lotions, deodorants, and most natural body care recipes. Stearic acid is best known for the “pearly” and “waxy” feel that it adds to your body care products, which ultimately has a cooling effect when applied to the skin.

Though stearic acid occurs naturally in vegetable and animal fats, it does have to undergo a hydrogenation process to convert it to the end product which is currently bought and sold as the stearic acid we have all come to know. Hydrogenation is a process in which liquid vegetable oils are converted to solid or semi-solid fats. It refers to a chemical reaction in which “unsaturated” bonds between carbon atoms are “reduced” by attachment of a hydrogen atom to each carbon. The process results in the “saturation” of the atoms and eventually converts unsaturated fatty acids to saturated ones. The end result is a white, waxy, natural fatty acid. It is fairly insoluble in water but can become somewhat soluble in alcohol.


Stearic acid is a chemical compound consisting of an 18 carbon chain whose terminal carbon is connected to an oxygen atom with a double bond and a hydroxyl group (OH) by a single bond. It belongs to class of materials known as fatty acids, produced primarily from natural fats and oils. Stearic acid is an important component in soap and other cosmetic and industrial preparations.

Stearic acid is derived predominantly from fats and oils. These materials contain triglycerides which are glycerine molecules attached to long hydrocarbon chains. These hydrocarbons can be removed from the glycerine backbone through a variety of techniques. When a triglyceride molecule is split, it yields three molecules of fatty acid and one molecule of glycerine. The major fat used in the production of stearic acid is beef fat, also known as tallow. Stearic acid is also obtained in lesser amounts from herring and sardine. Plant oils such as cotton, coconut, palm kernel, castor beans, rapeseed, soybeans, and sunflowers are also natural sources. In the United States, almost all stearic acid is made from tallow and coconut oil, although lesser amounts are made from palm oil. The other plant sources are more commonly used in third world countries.


Historically, stearic acid has been made by a process known as hydrolysis, which involves heating the fat in an alkaline solution. This process is also known as saponification. The alkali that is traditionally used is sodium hydroxide, also known as caustic soda or lye. Hence the term “lye soap.” Other methods used to produce fatty acids include solvent crystallization, hydrogenation, and distillation.

Pure stearic acid is a white, waxy solid crystalline material that melts at 156°F (69°C). It is odorless and tasteless. However, because of its natural origin, pure stearic is hard to obtain. Instead, stearic acid usually includes minor amounts of other fatty acids with different carbon chain lengths, such as lauric and palmitic acids. These trace impurities can cause the acid to vary in molecular weight, solubility, melting point, color, odor, and other physical and chemical properties. In addition to the carbon chain distribution, the degree of neutralization, or the amount of free acid present, also determines the acid’s properties. These are a number of physical and chemical specifications used to ensure that the stearic acid is of a consistent quality. Specifications include the acid’s saponification value, iodine value, peroxide value, free fatty acids, unsaponifiables, moisture, and trace impurities.

When fatty acids are neutralized with an alkali, the resultant salt is known as a soap. 
No one knows for sure when soap was first discovered, but it was well known in the ancient world. 
Some legends attribute it to the Romans, others say the ancient Gauls accidentally discovered it as they tried to extract oil from animal fat. 
Soap making techniques were common in the Old World and the Phoenicians, Arabs, Turks, and the Celts were all regarded as master soap makers. 
It wasn’t until the dawn of the nineteenth century, however, that soap chemistry was understood. 
Two key events triggered the modern soap making industry. 
First, in 1790, Nicholas Leblanc discovered a process to make sodium hydroxide from sodium chloride; this established an inexpensive source of lye for soap making. 
Then, in 1823, Michel Chevreul identified the structure of fatty acids. 
Chevreul discovered the first fatty acid when he analyzed a potassium soap made from pig fat. 
After treating the soap with various chemicals, he found that it yielded a crystalline material with acid properties. 
Hence the first fatty acid was isolated. Over the next decade, Chevreul decomposed a variety of soaps made from different animal soaps. 
He identified and named many fatty acids, including stearic and butyric.


While soaps can be made using a variety of fatty acids, stearic acid is one of the most popular. Stearic acid salts made with sodium, potassium, calcium, strontium, barium, and magnesium are used in a variety of applications. Sodium stearate is the most common type of soap and has been used extensively in cleansing for personal care in bar soaps. Potassium stearate is softer and more water soluble and has been used in water solutions for hard surface cleaning. Despite their widespread use, stearic acid soaps do have certain drawbacks. First, it is difficult to prepare concentrated solutions of these soaps because they are only marginally soluble in water. Furthermore, they can react with minerals present in hard water and form insoluble salts such as calcium stearate. These insoluble salts are responsible for bathtub ring and can leave undesirable film on hair, skin, and clothing. In the 1940s, due to wartime shortages of certain natural materials, synthetic soaps, also known as detergents, became commercially available. These detergents had the cleansing properties of soap without its negative properties.

Beside soap making, stearic acid is used to form stable creams, lotions and ointments. It is used in products like deodorants and antiperspirants, foundation creams, hand lotions, hair straighteners, and shaving creams. It is also used as a softener in chewing gum base and for suppositories. It may be further reacted to form stearyl alcohol which is used in a variety of industrial and cosmetic products as a thickener and lubricant. It is also used in candles to modify the melting point of the waxes.

Use: Buffing Compounds, Metal Working Fluids and Greases, Activator / Accelerator, Internal Lubricant, Mold Release Agent, Surface Lubricant and more.


Use: Stearic acid occurs naturally in butter acids, tallow and other animal fats and oils. A white waxy natural fatty acid, it is the major ingredient used in making bar soap and lubricants and gives pearliness to hand creams

Stearic Acid V-1655 is a white to yellowish solid with a characteristic fatty odor at room temperature. It is a triple-pressed grade Stearic Acid, so its C16 content is slightly higher than its C18 content, and it has minimal content of other fatty acid chain lengths. RTD Stearic Acid V-1655 finds application as a raw material in the manufacture of amides, glyceryl esters, PEG esters, sorbitan esters, and many other surfactants. Neutralized with Triethanolamine, it is widely used in the oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions that form the base for a broad range of personal care products. It forms lamellar liquid crystals that enhance yield value and so increase emulsion stability. Typical use levels: 2-4% in emulsions; to greater than 50% in soap bars

Use: Esters, Fatty Amines, Acid Chlorides, Fatty Amides, Waxes, Metal Soaps, Candle, Crayons, Polishing agents, Synthetic Rubbers, Synthetics Stabilizers, Synthetic Resin external lubricants Asphalt Emulsifiers

Use: Oil base for cosmetics like creams, lotions, lip sticks, foundations. Raw material for soaps, esters. Material for pencils.

Use: Cosmetics and Personal Care, Cleaning and Detergents, Adhesives and Lubricants, Industrial

Use: Stearic acid is mainly used in the production of detergents, soaps, and cosmetics such as shampoos and shaving cream products. It is also used in some plastic and rubber applications.


Stearic acid is a saturated, straight chain fatty acid with an 18-carbon chain. It is derived from animal sources--typically tallow, and vegetable sources, such as palm stearin, which is ideal for use in natural formulations. We offer a range of stearic acids, varying by purity, iodine value, and titer options


At room temperature, stearic acid is a waxy sold, mostly commonly sold as flakes, beads, or pastilles packaged in bags or supersacks. Manufacturers rely on stearic acid to enhance a variety of formulations, including lubricants and release agents, soaps, lotions, detergents, tire, rubber, candles, and crayons.


Characteristics
100% naturally derived
Renewable, biodegradable, and non-toxic
Saturated, linear fatty acid
Solid at room temperature
Functions as a lubricant, softening agent, activator, and intermediate


Applications
Oil base for cosmetics like creams, lotions, lip sticks, foundations. Raw material for soaps, esters. Material for pencils.


A 1760
ADEKA FATTY ACID SA 910
BAROLUB FTA
CELOZOLE
CENTURY 1210
CENTURY 1220
CENTURY 1230
CENTURY 1240
CETYLACETIC ACID
DAR-CHEM 14
EDENOR ST 1
EDENOR ST 20
EMERSOL 120
EMERSOL 132
EMERSOL 150
EMERSOL 153
EMERSOL 153NF
EMERSOL 6349
17FA
FORMULA 300
GLYCON DP
GLYCON S-70
GLYCON S-80
GLYCON S-90
GLYCON TP
GROCO 54
GROCO 55
GROCO 55L
GROCO 58
GROCO 59
1-HEPTADECANECARBOXYLIC ACID
HUMKO INDUSTRENE R
HY-PHI 1199
HY-PHI 1205
HY-PHI 1303
HY-PHI 1401
HYDROFOL 1895
HYDROFOL ACID 150
HYDROFOL ACID 1655
HYDROFOL ACID 1855
HYDROFOL ACID 1895
HYSTRENE 4516
HYSTRENE 5016
HYSTRENE 7018
HYSTRENE 80
HYSTRENE 9718
HYSTRENE 9718NF
HYSTRENE 9718NFFG
HYSTRENE S 97
HYSTRENE T 70
INDUSTRENE 5016
INDUSTRENE 8718
INDUSTRENE 9018
INDUSTRENE R
400JB9103-88
KAM 1000
KAM 2000
KAM 3000
KORTACID 1895
LOXIOL G 20
LUNAC 30
LUNAC S 20
LUNAC S 30
LUNAC S 40
LUNAC S 90
LUNAC S 90KC
N-OCTADECANOIC ACID
N-OCTADECYLIC ACID
NAA 173
NAA 180
NEO-FAT 18
NEO-FAT 18-53
NEO-FAT 18-54
NEO-FAT 18-55
NEO-FAT 18-59
NEO-FAT 18-61
NEO-FAT 18-S
NEO-FAT 18S
NOPCOCERA LU 6418
NORSOREX AP
OCTADECANOIC ACID
PD 185
PEARL STEARIC
PRISTERENE 4900
PROMULSIN
PROVISCOL WAX
S 30C
SELOSOL 920
STEAREX BEADS
STEARIC ACID
STEAROPHANIC ACID
SUNFAT 18S
TEGOSTEARIC 254
TEGOSTEARIC 255
TEGOSTEARIC 272
VANICOL


Stearic Acid functions as an anionic oil-in-water emulsifier. It has effective thickening properties. It is widely used in personal care products such as soaps, creams, lotions.
STEARIC ACID is classified as :
Cleansing
Emulsifying
Emulsion stabilising
Masking
Refatting
Surfactant

Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid with an 18 carbon chain, and can be derived from both vegetable and tallow sources. Stearic acid and its derivatives are commonly used as components of cosmetic, food, and industrial products. Esters derived from stearic acid are found in many soaps and detergents, and stearic acid salts are often used as lubricating or softening agents in industrial applications.  Stearic Acid acts as an activator, accelerator,  lubricant, and mold release agent for rubber processing.  In other plastic applications it also mold release agent and lubricant.  In PVC processing, it is a viscosity depressant as well as and internal and external lubricant.

Stearic acid comes in a variety of different types and grade designations, including tech and USP kosher, in bead, flake, powder or liquid forms.


 

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