SULFATED CASTOR OIL

SULFATED CASTOR OIL = SULFONATED CASTOR OIL = TURKEY RED OIL

Reaction Stoichiometry
Reaction of the experiment is according to stoichiometry.
Feed= Castor oil + Sulphuric acid
Product= Turkey red oil
Residue= Spent acid


EC / List no.: 232-306-7
CAS no.: 8002-33-3


Castor oil, sulfated
Castor oil sulfated
Castor oil, sulfated
castor oil, sulfated
Castor oil, sulfonated
sulfated castor oil
Turkey-red oil
Sulforicinoleate sodium salt

SYNONYMS : Sulfonated Castor Oil ; sulfated castor oil; Castor oil, sulfated; Castor oil, sulfated

FORMULA: C18H32Na2O6S

Turkey Red oil, also known as sulphated castor oil, is miscible in water and emulsifies other oils in water.  It is an excellent base to utilize for bath oil formulations as it is the only oil that completely disperses in water and does not leave an oily ring in the tub. Sulphated castor oil is created by adding sulphuric acid to castor oil. The oil has a distinct, heavy scent and has an amber colour

Synonyms: red turkey oil;Sulfonated tor oil;NICOTINIC ACID ABS/TRANS STD (RSPEC0027);Turkey red oil sodium salt, CP,70%;TURKEY RED OIL;TURKEY RED OIL SODIUM SALT;Castoroil,sulfated;SULFATED CASTOR OIL

Sulphonated castor oil (also known as: Sulphated castor oil, Turkey red oil) is an anionic surfactant.

Uses: Sulphonated castor oil is used in several applications where it functions as wetting agent, dispersing agent, levelling agent and detergent.

Sulfated castor oil can be used in textile applications for wetting and detergency and in metalworking formulations for emulsification and improved lubricity. 
Recommended use level: 0.25 and 1% by w/w


The most common applications are:

SULFATED CASTOR OIL is employed in textiles for dye levelling and lubrication.

Textiles (Printing, Dyeing, or Finishing)


SULFATED CASTOR OIL enables better pigment wetting and dispersion in paints and coatings.
SULFATED CASTOR OIL is used for dye dispersion and levelling in inks.
SULFATED CASTOR OIL is used in metalworking oils (e.g. cutting oils and coolants) to provide lubricity, wetting and detergency.

Uses: Sulfated castor oil is a surfactant used as a cleansing agent.

Cosmetic Uses:    
cleansing agents
humectants
surfactants
surfactant - emulsifying

Markets and applications
Lubricants and metalworking fluids, base oils, additives / Metalworking fluids
Metallurgical industry / Metalworking
Textile industry

Function
Cleansing agents
Emulsifiers
Lubricants
Wetting agents

Composition: Alkyl sulfates
Segment: Surfactants / Anionic surfactants
Alternative names: Sulfated Castor Oil, Sodium Salt, solution

SULFATED CASTOR OIL can be used as wetting agent, lubricant, dispersant, penetrant, softener and surface active agent in various chemical formulations. 

SULFATED CASTOR OIL is used as a fatliquor in the leather industry 

SULFATED CASTOR OIL is used as pesticide emulsifier in crop protection in Agriculture Industry.
SULFATED CASTOR OIL is employed in cosmetics, detergents, textiles, papermaking, metal processing, paints and pigments. 

With excellent level dyeing, penetration and emulsification properties, SULFONATED CASTOR OIL is widely used in textile, printing and dyeing, leather making, paper making, metal processing, dye chemical industry and other industries. 
TURKEY RED OIL can also be used as an emulsifier for pesticides, as a lubricant for drawing steel, as an oiling agent in man-made fibers, and in industries such as leather and papermaking. 
TURKEY RED OIL is used as dye sizing aid, to help the dye fully dissolve in the printing paste, to make the printing color uniform, to improve the dye penetration of the fabric and dyeing fastness. 
SULFONATED CASTOR OIL can also be used as defoaming agent in dyeing and dyeing.


Sulfonated castor oil Chemical Properties,Uses and Production

Description: Sulphonated castor oil (also known as: Sulphated castor oil, Turkey red oil) is an anionic surfactant.

organically combined sulphate % corrected to non volatile content
colour Gardner max. 12
free fatty acid % max. 30
total alkali as KOH % max. 8
pH (10% in water) 6 - 8
non volatile content % 70 - 85

Uses
Sulphonated castor oil is used in several applications where it functions as wetting agent, dispersing agent, levelling agent and detergent.

The most common applications are:
textiles: dye levelling and lubrication.
paints: pigment wetting and dispersion.
inks: dye dispersion and levelling.
metalworking oils (e.g. cutting oils and coolants): to provide lubricity, wetting and detergency.

Uses
sulfated castor oil is a surfactant used as a cleansing agent.


Sulfonated castor oil Preparation Products And Raw materials
Raw materials
Castor oil Concentrated sulfuric acid Sodium hydroxide Sulfuric acid


Turkey Red Oil is also known as Sulfated Castor Oil. It is the only oil that will completely disperse in water. 
The oil is expressed from the seed. Sulfated castor oil is created by adding sulfuric acid to castor oil, and is considered the first synthetic detergent. 
Turkey Red Oil has a distinct and heavy scent. 
It is a surfactant and therefore makes a wonderful base for a bath oil as it mixes well with water, producing a milk bath.

Uses : Used in Textile industries, Sugar industry, as a defoaming agent, as an Emulsifier. In cosmetics it is used as humectants and as an Emulsifier for Oil Bath.

Sulfonated castor oil, also called Sulfonated (sulfated) castor oil, or Turkey Red Oil, is the only oil that completely disperses in water. 

Sulfonated castor oil is made by adding sulfuric acid to pure castor oil. 
This allows easy use for making bath oil products. 
Sulfonated castor oil was the first synthetic detergent after ordinary Soap. 
Sulfonated castor oil is used in formulating lubricants, softeners, and dyeing assistants 

reaction temperature is controlled by regulating the flow of water to the cooling coils. This can be done manua.lly, or by automatic controls. 
Modification of the Refined Castor Oil: Sulphation  20g of oil was warmed at 35°C. 
15ml of concentrated sulphuric acid (98%) was then added and the reaction was allowed to completion with constant stirring. 
After, the product was washed with hot distilled water and left to stand for 2 hrs, after which water was then removed. 
And the sulphuric acid ester formed was finally neutralized with 10ml of 0.1m Sodium Hydroxide. 
Characterization of TRO Specific gravity, pH, acid value, iodine value, saponification value, refractive index and viscosity of the oil were determined Determination of Specific Gravity Density bottle  was used  to determination  of density of  the oil.  
A clean and  dry bottle  of 25ml  capacity was weighed (W0) and then filled with the oil, stopper inserted and reweighed to give (W1). 
The oil was substituted with water after washing and drying the bottle and weighed to give (W2). 
The expression for specific gravity (Sp.gr) is: Sp.gr = (W1-W0)/(W2-W0) = Mass of the substance / Mass of an equal volume of water [7]. 
Determination of PH value  The pH value of oil was determined with the aid of a pH meter (Model Delta 320, Mettler Toledo, China). 
Determination of Acid Value The method was specified by ISO 660 (2009). 25ml of diethyl ether and 25ml of ethanol was mixed in a 250 ml beaker. 
The resulting mixture was added to 10g of  oil in a 250ml conical flask and few drops of phenolphthalein were added to the mixture. 
The mixture was titrated with 0.1N KOH to the end point with consistent shaking for which a dark pink colour was observed and the volume of 0.1N KOH (V) was noted [7]. 
Acid value = (56.1*V*C)/M Where V is the volume in ml of standard volumetric KOH solution  used, C is the exact concentration in KOH solution used (0.1 N); m is the mass in grams of the test portion (1g). 56.1 is equivalent weight of KOH. Determination of Saponification Value Indicator method was use as specified by ISO 3657 (2002). 
2g of the sample was weighed into a conical flask; 25ml of 0.1N ethanolic potassium hydroxide of was then added. The content which was constantly stirred was allowed to boil gently for 60 min. A reflux condenser was placed on the flask containing the mixture. 
Few drops of phenolphthalein indicator was added to the warm solution and then titrated with 0.5M HCl to the end point until the pink colour of the indicator just disappeared. The same procedure was used for other samples and blank. 
The expression for saponification value (S.V.) is given by: S.V = [56.1 N (V0-V1)]/M, where V0 = the volume of the solution used for blank test; VI = the volume of the solution used for determination; N = Actual normality of


urkey Red oil is used in agriculture as organic manure, in textiles as surfactants and wetting agents, in paper industry for defoaming, in cosmetics as emulsifiers, in pharmaceuticals as undecylenate, in paints inks and as lubricants.

For e.g. it is used to emulsify essential oils so that they will dissolve in other water-based products, or for superfatting liquid soap if you want the soap to remain transparent. This means that the oil will combine with the water in the tub, and not leave those little oil bubbles floating on the top of the water. 
It is of medium viscosity and is usually used in bath oil recipes along with fragrance or essential oils, or in shampoos. This oil also has great moisturizing abilities.


•    red turkey oil
•    Sulfonated tor oil
•    NICOTINIC ACID ABS/TRANS STD (RSPEC0027)
•    Turkey red oil sodium salt, CP,70%
•    TURKEY RED OIL
•    TURKEY RED OIL SODIUM SALT
•    Castoroil,sulfated
•    SULFATED CASTOR OIL
•    sulfonated castor oil
•    SULFORICINOLATE SODIUM SALT
•    CASTOR-OIL SULFATED SODIUM SALT
•    CASTOR OIL, SULFONATED
•    sulfated caster oil
•    sulfonated caster oil
•    TURKEY-RED OIL 100 %
•    100ml
•    CASTOROILSODIUMSALT,SULFONATED
•    SULPHONATEDCASTOROIL
•    Castor-oil sulfated sodium salt, Sulfated castor oil, Sulforicinolate sodium salt
•    Castor oil,sulfonic
•    Turkey red oil sodium salt,Castor-oil sulfated sodium salt, Sulfated castor oil, Sulforicinolate sodium salt
•    Turky red oil
•    Castor oil sulfonate
•    Sulfonated Castor 0il
•    Turkeyredoilsodiumsal
•    Sulfonated castor oil ISO 9001:2015 REACH
•    8002-33-3
•    C18Na2O6S
•    Anionic
•    BioChemical
•    Detergents

Synonyms:
     aquasol
     castor oil sulfated
     castor oil, sulfated
     cordon NU 890/7
     eureka 102
     laurel R-50
sulfated ricinus communis oil
     turkey red oil
     turkey-red oil


Other Notes for Sulfonated Castor Oil
During long periods of cold weather, and during storage at low temperatures, cloudiness or crystallization can occur in individual cases. 
These can be eliminated by stirring and gentle heating up of Sulfonated Castor Oil to 40°C without any loss of quality.


NOTES
Used in formulation of lubricants, softeners, and certain detergents/cosmetics.  

Use: CLEANSING, EMULSIFYING,
CLASS

Adhesives, Coatings and Sealants Chemicals,  Food and Beverage Chemicals - Sweeteners - Acidulants - Emulsifiers,  Personal Care - Cosmetic Ingredients,  Green Chemicals - Eco-Friendly 
FUNCTIONS


Castor Oil and its derivatives 

INDUSTRY
Food Chemicals,  Cosmetic,  Resin & Coating,  Adhesives,  Personal Care 


Other Names
Castor Oil Sulphonated
sulforicinoleate sodium salt
Sulfated castor oil
Castor oil, sulfated
Turkey Red Oil
sulfated sodium salt
Castor oil

•  Synonyms:
•  Castor oil,sulfonic
•  Turkey Red Oil Sodium Salt
•  Castoroil,sulfated
•  Sulfated Castor Oil
•  Sulforicinolate Sodium Salt
•  Castor-Oil Sulfated Sodium Salt
•  Castor Oil, Sulfonated
•  Sulfonated Caster Oil
•  Turkey red oil
•  Aceite De Ricino, Sulfatado
•  Actrasol C 75
•  Actrasol PSR
•  Alizarin oil
•  Aquasol
•  Atlas G 7205
•  Avirol 130
•  Castor oil, sulfated
•  Fats and Glyceridic oils, Turkey-red
•  Freedom SCO 50
•  Freedom SCO 75
•  Huile de ricin sulfatee
•  Laurel R 75
•  Monopole Oil MDD
•  Nopcocastor
•  Oils, Castor, Sulfated
•  Oils, glyceridic, Turkey-red
•  Oils, Turkey Red
•  Red oil
•  Red oil, distilled
•  Rizinusol, sulfatiert
•  Sco 75
•  Sv 102
•  TO Sulfate 200


Sulfonated castor oil CAS 8002-33-3 Usage

1.Widely used in textile, printing and dyeing, leather, paper, metal processing.

2.It is mainly used to add fat to chrome tanned leather, which can infiltrate into leather evenly and make leather plump and soft

3.It can also be used as pesticide emulsifier and steel wire drawing lubricant.


Product Name : Sulfated Castor Oil; CAS: 8002-33-3; MF: C18H32Na2O6S; MW: 422.49; EINECS: 232-306-7; 
Application: Sulfonated Castor Oil is used in several applications where it is used as a humectant, dispersant. 
The most common areas of application are: textiles: colour balance and lubrication. 
Colours: pigment wetting and emulsion ink: colour dispersion and levelling. 
Metalworking oils (e.g. cutting oils and coolants): for lubrication, wetting and cleaning power.

The results of  the research  showed that  castor oil  derivatives can be used to formulate  wetting agent that has comparable characteristics with normal wetting agent. 
The refined castor oil was modified by means of sulphation and Turkey-red oil was obtained which can be use as a wetting and dyeing agent and in the finishing of cotton and linen. 
This review on the uses of castor oil in the chemical and polymer industry clearly shows that castor oil is a very valuable renewable resource. 
Apart from a direct use of this OH group functional oil in  many applications (e.g. for PU synthesis a series of industrial procedures to yield a variety of different renewable platform chemicals is well established. 
Especially the industrially available platform chemicals 10-undecenoic acid and sebacic acid in combination with newly available a, o-bifunctional derivatives obtained via olefin metathesis offer the potential to derive a vast amount of different polyesters and PA with different application possibilities from castor oil in a sustainable fashion. Moreover, the manifold uses of castor oil in polymer applications is described and highlighted within this contribution, clearly showing that castor oil is and will be one of the most promising renewable raw materials for the chemical and polymer industries. 
The production of wetting agent from castor oil was successively done. 
The many desirable intrinsic qualities of castor oil makes it very useful in the wetting industry, thus castor oil can serve as a good substitute to synthetic wetting agent, the conventional detergent bases

Turkey Red Oil is also known as Sulfated Castor Oil. It is the only oil that will completely disperse in water. The oil is expressed from the seed. Sulfated castor oil is created by adding sulfuric acid to castor oil, and is considered the first synthetic detergent. Turkey Red Oil has a distinct and heavy scent. It is a surfactant and therefore makes a wonderful base for a bath oil as it mixes well with water, producing a milk bath.

Uses : Used in Textile industries, Sugar industry, as a defoaming agent, as an Emulsifier. In cosmetics it is used as humectants and as an Emulsifier for Oil Bath.

Various Applications of Turkey Red Oil:

Turkey Red oil is used in agriculture as organic manure, in textiles as surfactants and wetting agents, in paper industry for defoaming, in cosmetics as emulsifiers, in pharmaceuticals as undecylenate, in paints inks and as lubricants.

For e.g. it is used to emulsify essential oils so that they will dissolve in other water-based products, or for superfatting liquid soap if you want the soap to remain transparent. This means that the oil will combine with the water in the tub, and not leave those little oil bubbles floating on the top of the water. It is of medium viscosity and is usually used in bath oil recipes along with fragrance or essential oils, or in shampoos. This oil also has great moisturizing abilities.


Various Grades of Turkey Red Oil:

Various grades of TRO are available for different applications. Our TRO is made as per International Process and Standards.

1. Turkey Red Oil – Phenyl Grade.
Used in manufacture of Black Phenyl and White Phenyl. Phenyl manufacturers generally face problems of layer separation while manufacturing white phenyl. Using our Phenyl Grade Turkey Red Oil this problem is eliminated. Also quantity of Turkey Red Oil to Pine Oil decreases from 1:3 to 0.8:3 resulting in substantial savings.
 
2. Turkey Red Oil – Textile Grade.
Used in the process of Dyeing. Textile dyers generally face problems of oil floating on water during dyeing process, this results in the cloth getting contaminated with oil. Using our Textile Grade Turkey Red Oil this is totally eliminated.
 
3. Turkey Red Oil – Leather Grade.
Used in production of Leather Boards.
 
4. Turkey Red Oil – Metal Cutting Grade
Used in manufacture of Metal Cutting Oil.
 
5. Turkey Red Oil – Distillery Grade
This grade is used in Sugar Industry and Distillery as a De-foaming agent.


Name: Sulfonated castor oil
Synonyms:Castor oil,sulfonic
TURKEY RED OIL SODIUM SALT
Castoroil,sulfated
SULFATED CASTOR OIL
SULFORICINOLATE SODIUM SALT
CASTOR-OIL SULFATED SODIUM SALT
CASTOR OIL, SULFONATED
sulfonated caster oil
Turkey red oil

Castor oil, sulfated
Agent Name: Castor oil, sulfated
Alternative Name: Turkey-Red Oil
CAS Number: 8002-33-3
Major Category: Biological Agents
Synonyms: Aquasol; Red oil; Sulfated castor oil; Sulfonated castor oil; Turkey red oil; Turkey-red oil; [ChemIDplus]
Category: Plant Oils and Extracts
Description: Clear viscous liquid; [Sigma-Aldrich MSDS]
Sources/Uses: Formerly registered in the US for use as a disinfectant; [NPIRS] Permitted for use as an inert ingredient in non-food pesticide products; [EPA] Used in textile finishing (cotton and linen) and dyeing; [Merck Index]


Turkey Red Oil is also popularly known as Sulfated Castor Oil. 
Turkey Red Oil is widely appreciated in the market for its capacity to easily disperse in water, its long life shelf and its purity. 
Owing to these qualities, Turkey Red Oil is highly used in the manufacturing of dispersible bath oils and many personal care products.

How is Turkey Red Oil prepared?

Using a process called Sulfonation, the castor oil is exposed to sulphuric acid. This gives the thick and sticky liquid with a strong odor and is orangey-red in colour. 
This oil is named as Turkey Red Oil or sulfonated castor oil as it resembles the colour and textile dyeing process known as the Turkey Red. 
This water soluble oil retains the moisturising properties of castor oil and is therefore valuable for the production of bath oils and personal care products like skin care, hair care, nail care, cosmetics and soaps.

Various Applications of Turkey Red Oil

Due to its unique properties, Turkey Red Oil is used as an emulsifier for bath oils and as a humectant in cosmetics. 
Other than these, Turkey-Red Oil is also used in the textile industry and sugar industries as a defoaming agent and also as an emulsifier.

In the agricultural industry, it is used as organic manure and helps plants to grow.
In textiles, as surfactants and wetting agents, in paper industry for defoaming, in cosmetics as emulsifiers, in pharmaceuticals industry as undecylenate, in paints inks and as lubricants.
For the soap-making industry that wishes to manufacture transparent soaps, this Turkey Red Oil or sulfonated castor oil helps in superfatting liquid soap.
This oil also helps to emulsify essential oils so that they can dissolve in other water-based products.
There are many other grades of Turkey Red Oil that are used for many other industrial purposes. Castor Oil Manufacturers and Turkey Red Oil manufacturers produce it through the best of their processes to ensure its quality and sustainability. The oil’s medium viscosity helps the manufacturers of personal care products to craft the moisturizing products in the best way possible due to the presence of Turkey Red Oil in their products.


The sulphated castor oil known as "Turkey Red Oil" is obtain from castor oil directly sulphonated with So3. 
The Turkey red oil manufacturing process known as sulphonation process is the faster process than present process. 
The castor oil is mixing with lye solution (NaOH) and reaction with EDTA (Ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid). 
The EDTA acts as a catalyst in this process. In this process no waste product are formed. 
The reaction occurs according to stoichiometry of batch or continuous process. 
The process requires less man power. 
The process can only occurs when the temperature range is maintained at 20-30℃. 
The cooling provided through the jacket for maintaining temperature up to 20-30 °c at atmospheric conditions. 
The adding of Sulphuric Acid in the castor oil solution upto 3 hours with continuous agitation. 
The process gives maximum yield.

Castor Turkey Red is a biodegradable, aqueous solution of sulfated castor oil.  It is a low foaming surface active agent and lubricant which provides effective dispersing and emulsifying performance for oil, waxes, fats dyes and pigments.  It is an excellent lubricant for textile scouring and bleaching operations for both knit and woven goods.  It is commonly used in textile, metal working and printing operations to provide continuous cleaning and lubrication to metal parts.  It is often used as a component of general purpose hard surface cleaners.

Turkey Red Oil is also widely known as Sulfated Castor Oil. The oil is commonly referred to as Turkey Red Oil because the color of the oil resembles the color and textile dying process known as Turkey Red.

Using a process known as sulfation, our Turkey Red Oil is manufactured by exposing pure castor oil to sulfuric acid. This specialized process produces an oil that is miscible in water while also retaining the moisturization properties of Castor Oil. The oil is then packaged to maintain the purity, freshness and beneficial properties of this uniquely water soluble oil.

Uses:
Turkey Red Oil is easily dispersible in water. It is perfectly suited for use in making water dispersible bath oils and personal care products. Turkey Red Oil also helps to solubilize other lipids and essential oils.

Properties:
Clear Amber Hue
Medium-Thick Viscosity
Characteristic Castor Aroma
Moisturizing
Strength: 70%
Fully Dispersible in Water
Emulsifier/Surfactant
Humectant
Turkey Red Oil is Perfectly Suited for the Following Personal Care Applications:
Skin Care
Hair Care
Nail Care
Cosmetics
Soap

Sulfated Castor Oil acts as an emollient and solubilizing agent. 

Sulfated Castor Oil is mainly used in low foaming bath preparations. 

Sulfated Castor Oil solubilizes essential oils. 
Sulfated Castor Oil is used to formulate shower baths, liquid soaps and hand cleaning pastes.


A viscous liquid used as an anionic surfactant. Turkey red oil is prepared by treating Castor oil with Sulfuric acid followed by washing and neutralization. Because cotton fibers pretreated with Turkey red oil give a brighter color, the oil was used as a dyeing assistant in the 19th century and at one point was called alizarin assistant. Turkey red oil is also used in soaps and in the manufacture of leathers and paper.

Synonyms and Related Terms
Turkey-red oil; sulfated castor oil; sulfonated castor oil; red oil; alizarin oil; alizarin assistant

Turkey Red Oil (Sulfated Castor Oil), 70%
Turkey Red Oil is also widely known as Sulfated Castor Oil. The oil is commonly referred to as Turkey Red Oil because the color of the oil resembles the color and textile dying process known as Turkey Red.

Using a process known as sulfation, Turkey Red Oil is manufactured by exposing pure castor oil to sulfuric acid. This specialized process produces an oil that is miscible in water while also retaining the moisturization properties of Castor Oil. The oil is then packaged to maintain the purity, freshness and beneficial properties of this uniquely water soluble oil.

Sulphonated Canola Oil is not strictly Turkey Red Oil but it does have similar properties and is used as a surfactant/wetting agent in textile dyeing. 
Sulphonated Canola Oil is an oil soluble anionic surfactant with excellent emulsification properties, is compatible with a wide range of materials and is stable over a wide pH range. It may reduce foaminess and provide anticorrosive properties in formulated products.

Sulfated castor oil (Red Turkey) Ecocert
INCI: Sulfated Castor Oil
 

CAS # 8002-33-3 
EC # 232-306-7 
Solubilizer and emollient for cosmetics

Chemical composition: sodium Sulforicinoleate

Appearance: clear character, yellowish brown liquid Ionic: anionic

Ingredient:
Active: 82%
Water content: 18%
pH value (10%): 7.5
Solubility: clearly soluble in dist. water, fairly soluble in alcohol, dispersible vegetable oils and mineral oil Typical data

Chemical composition
Sulfated castor oil (Red Turkey) Ecocert is a solubilizing agent for essential oils. It is mainly used in preparations of low foaming bath. Because of its oil components the sulfated castor oil (Red Turkey) Ecocert is applied as an emollient in shower gels, liquid soaps and hand cleaning pastes.
This applies especially at lower temperatures, the product may show turbidity or sediment can be removed even by stirring or heating to 30 - 40 ° C, without reducing quality.

Uses :

"Water micellar" lotions
Bath oils
Shower gels, shampoos and conditioners nutritious
Cleaning products (including detergents or liquid dishwashing detergent)


Dosage:
0.2 to 3% (of the total weight of the preparation) in foaming
1 to 90% in an oil bath

Sulfated castor oil (Red Turkey) Ecocert
INCI: Sulfated Castor Oil
 

CAS # 8002-33-3 
EC # 232-306-7 
Solubilizer and emollient for cosmetics

Chemical composition: sodium Sulforicinoleate

Appearance: clear character, yellowish brown liquid Ionic: anionic


Chemical composition
Sulfated castor oil (Red Turkey) Ecocert is a solubilizing agent for essential oils. 
It is mainly used in preparations of low foaming bath. Because of its oil components the sulfated castor oil (Red Turkey) Ecocert is applied as an emollient in shower gels, liquid soaps and hand cleaning pastes.
This applies especially at lower temperatures, the product may show turbidity or sediment can be removed even by stirring or heating to 30 - 40 ° C, without reducing quality.

Uses :

"Water micellar" lotions
Bath oils
Shower gels, shampoos and conditioners nutritious
Cleaning products (including detergents or liquid dishwashing detergent)


Dosage:
0.2 to 3% (of the total weight of the preparation) in foaming
1 to 90% in an oil bath


ABSTRACT:The sulphated castor oil known as “Turkey Red Oil” is obtain from castor oil directly sulphonated with So3. 
The Turkey red oil manufacturing process known as sulphonation process is the faster process than present process. 
The castor oil is mixing with lye solution (NaOH) and reaction with EDTA (Ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid). 
The EDTA acts as a catalyst in this process. In this process no waste product are formed. 
The reaction occurs according to stoichiometry of batch or continuous process. 
The process requires less man power. The process can only occurs when the temperature range is maintained at 20-30℃. The cooling provided through the jacket for maintaining temperature up to 20-30 °c at atmospheric conditions. The adding of Sulphuric Acid in the castor oil solution upto 3 hours with continuous agitation. The process gives maximum yield.
Definition:-Sulphated castor oil is a reaction product of 96% sulphuric acid with castor oil, with a starting acid concentration of 20%. 
Castor oil, also called Ricinus Oil, non-volatile fatty oil obtained from the seeds of the castor bean, Ricinus communis, of the spurge family(Euphorbiaceae). 
It is used in the production of synthetic resins, plastics, fibres, paints, varnishes, and various chemicals including drying oils and plasticizers.
Castor oil is viscous, has a clear and colourless to amber or greenish appearance, a faint characteristic odour, and a bland but slightly acrid taste, with a usually nauseating aftertaste.India is the world’s largest producer of castor seed. 
India produces 8 to 8.5 lakh tonnes of castor seed annually.
Both beans and oil are produced principally by India and Brazil and consumed primarily in the United States, largely in industry. 
Castor oil is a vegetable oil obtained by pressing the seeds of the castor oil plant(Ricinus communis).
The common name "castor oil", from which the plant gets its name, probably comes from its use as a replacement for castoreum, a perfume basemade from the dried perineal glands of the beaver (castor in Latin).
Turkey red oil, also called sulphonated (or sulphated) castor oil, is made by adding sulphuric acid to vegetable oils, most notably castor oil. 
It was the first synthetic detergent after ordinary soap. 
It is used in formulating lubricants, softeners, and dyeing assistants.
Turkey Red oil is also used in agriculture as organic manure, in textiles as surfactants and wetting agents, in paper industry for defoaming, in cosmetics as emulsifiers, in pharmaceuticals as undecylenate, in paints inks and as lubricants. 

II. LITERATURE SURVEY 
As the Industrial Revolution spread across Europe, chemists and manufacturers sought new red dyes that could be used for large-scale manufacture of textiles. 
One popular colour imported into Europe from Turkey and India in the 18th and early 19th century was Turkey red, known in France as rouge d'Andrinople. 
Beginning in the 1740s, this bright red colour was used to dye or print cotton textiles in England, the Netherlands and France. 
Turkey red used the root of the rubia plant as the colorant, but the process was long and complicated, involving multiple soaking of the fabrics in lye, olive oil, sheep's dung, and other ingredients[4]. 
The fabric was more expensive but resulted in a fine bright and lasting red, similar to carmine, perfectly suited to cotton. 
The fabric was widely exported from Europe to Africa, the Middle East and America. 
In 19th-century America, it was widely used in making the traditional patchwork quilt.[3] 


III. SELECTION CRIATERIA 

A) SELECTION OF RAW MATERIAL While selecting raw material the following criteria should be considered. 
1. The oil should contains of high fats & oils. 
2. The oil should have high viscosity with decreasing temperature. 
3. The oil should also have miscible with other acid.
4. The oil should have solubility criteria. The castor is unique among all the criteria’s suitable for selection process. 
The Castor Oil have fats & oil in that it has more fatty acid composition. 
It comprises approximately 90% of fatty acid. 
The castor oil is also known as ricinus oil is triglyceride of fatty acid. 
Castor oil is well known as a source of ricinoleic acid, a monounsaturated, 18- carbon fatty acid. 
Among fatty acids, ricinoleic acid is unusual in that it has a hydroxyl functional group on the 12th carbon. 
The table shows composition of castor seed oil. 
Table 1 .The composition of castor seed oil / fatty acid chains[1]. 
Average composition of castor seed oil / fatty acid chains Acid Name Average percentage range Ricinoleic Acid 85-95 Oleic Acid 2-6 Linoleic Acid 1-5 α-Linolenic acid 0.5-1 Stearic Acid 0.5-1 Palmltic Acid 0.5-1 Dihydroxystearic Acid 0.3-0.3 Others 0.2-0.5 B) SELECTION OF REACTANTS While selecting reactants following points should be considered. 1. Castor oil is used as a source of vegetable oil which, on reaction with warm concentrated alkali. 2. Relatively the castor oil has high viscosity and specific gravity and it highly Soluble in alcohols in any proportion. 3. The castor oil sulphation results largely in a sulphuric acid. 4. The sulphate group acts as a hydrophile imparting in the reaction. 5. In addition to acting as retarding agent on the action of sulphuric acid, one and only this property we getting turkey red oil.[8] ISSN: 2350-0328 International Journal of AdvancedResearch in Science

C) SELECTION OF CATALYST The selection of catalyst is depends upon the following criteria &the right catalyst selection is most important for maximum yield. 
1. The catalyst should have the chilling property to reduce the reaction temperature. 
2. The catalyst also have colourless & water soluble. 
3. The catalyst should prevent Metal ion impurities. 
4. The catalyst also have neutral PH. From above points we have choose the EDTA for better performance. 
The only EDTA is having all above properties. EDTA is an animopolycarboxylic acid and colourless and water soluble solid as well as it is chelating agent to reduce the reaction temperature. EDTA is highly stable and having neutral-pH.[8] Reduce water hardness and do not form precipitate with the action of surfactant. 
How does it work? EDTA is a chemical that binds and holds on to (chelates) minerals and metals such as chromium, iron, lead, mercury, copper, aluminium, nickel, zinc, calcium, cobalt, manganese, and magnesium. When they are bound, they can't have any effects on the body and they are removed from the body. IV. METHODOLOGY The method of making Turkey red oil using castor oil known as sulphonation process. Sulphonation and sulphation are major industrial chemical processes used to make a diverse range of products, including dyes and color intensifiers, pigments, medicinals, pesticides and organic intermediates. Additionally, almost 500,000 metric tons per year of lignin sulphonates are produced as a by-product from paper pulping. Petroleum sulphonates are widely used as detergent additives in lubricating oils. 
However, the majority of the 1.6 million metric tons of sulphonates and sulfates produced annually in the United States are used as surfactants in laundry and consumer products applications. This chapter focuses only on commercial techniques for production of detergent range sulphonates and sulphates.  Experimental Setup Fig. 4.3 Experimental setup of manufacturing of Turkey red oil.  Procedure 1) Take castor oil (500 ml)in beaker and measure the quantity of raw material taken. 2) The sodium hydroxide is taken in a other beaker for preparation of 1N solution. 
The 1N solution is prepared from raw material we taken. 
Because the 1N solution is 60% of raw material we taken. 

3) After the preparation of 1N solution of sodium hydroxide the catalyst should be add in it. 
The catalyst is 1% of raw material we taken. 
The raw material basis catalyst is strictly use for preparation of product. 
4) When the catalyst and sodium hydroxide are added in the other beaker the castor oil (raw material) is added partially and slowly in it. 
5) Mix up gradually the solution by glass rod while the bubbles created are in the form of mixture. 
6) The solution is subjected to stirring process using water bath and gradually 1000 rpm speed of agitator/stirrer. 
7) Add sulphuric acid from top drop by drop to the process. It takes long time to react. 
8) The stirring process is about 2 to 3 hours from starting of stirrer. 
9) Wait and check the temperature of the solution by thermometer in around 15 min. 
10) The temperature of solution changed due to process of sulphuric acid added change water from water bath by cool. 
11) Allow to cool the solution in at 20 to 25℃ when it is on the above 25℃ temperature. 
12) When the solution is totally mixed up of colour brown the solution is subjected to the separating funnel. 
13) The separating process may take a night time. 
14) After the separation process is done the solution may separate out in separate beaker. 
15) The upper layer of the solution is the Turkey red oil and lower layer is water. 
16) The water is waste and other product we have is use for many purposes. 

Reaction Stoichiometry Reaction of the experiment is according to stoichiometry. 
Feed= Castor oil+Sulphuric acid 
Product= Turkey red oil 
Residue= Spent acid 

The overall reaction is as follow 
1)Castor oil+sulphuric acid Sulphonated Castor Oil + Spent Oil 
2) Sulphonated Castor Oil + Sodium Hydroxide Turkey red Oil + Spent Oil 

From above reaction the reaction 1) forms intermediate. 
The intermediate forms from reaction 
1) is the sulphonated castor oil. 
The both reactions may be carry out separately or single overall reaction. 
The single overall reaction may be as follow. C54H100O7 + 3H2SO4 + 6 NaOH EDTA 3C18H32Na206S + H2 + 7H2O 
1. C54H100O7= Castor Oil 
2. H2SO4= Sulphuric Acid 
3. NaOH = Sodium Hydroxide 
4. C18H32Na206S3 = Turkey Red Oil 

V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 

The result required to find out the solubility of the solution. 
There is the method to check out the solubility that is amount of castor oiltaken to the amount of sulphuric acid taken to dissolve the salt in solution with rise in temperature. 
The process for check out te solubility of the acid in castor oil is follows. 
1. If the compound is insoluble in 5% HCl and 5% NaOH, add 1 drop of a liquid sample or about 25 ml of a sample to 0.5 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in a dry test tube. 
Tap the tube with your finger to mix or stir gently with a glass stirring rod. 
2. Record the sample as soluble or insoluble. 
Interpret a color change or a precipitate as soluble. 
3. If the compound is soluble in sulphuric acid, the sample is an alcohol. 

Table 2. Solubility Data Temperature Solubility 20 5.43 30 10.02 40 14.49 50 18.23 The above data is as per experiment. 
The data shows while rise in temperature the solubilityof oil is also increase.
The results getting from our experiment shows the better identification of 100% sure product quality also gets the expected effect on the yield while using the catalyst.
As per standard specifications of product the following results found from experiment (table 3). 
The Turkey red oil is the product that should be use as dyeing agent, synthetic detergent etc. 

Result 
The experimental results shows the maximum yield of getting 100% better quality of our product with using catalyst. 
From the study the following data we have found with compare the standard specifications. 
The catalyst is more efficient with 0.1 % of that of feed for getting maximum yield. 
The standard specification values of the Turkey red oil & our experimental result are approximately same. 
Table. 3. Data are evaluated from our project. 

Specifications Values result PH 7-8 7.89 
Appearance Amber colour viscous liquid Dark Brown 
Viscosity (27°C) 102-120 mm/ s 106 mm/s TRO As Sulphonated Oil Oil Oil Purity 40-80% 76.50% 
Specific gravity 1-1.10 0.97 
Solubility Miscible in water Miscible in water 
Acid value 0.10-0.40 0.20 
Iodine value 50-90 70 Sulphonation degree Min. 40 - 0 5 10 15 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Solubility 


VI.CONCLUSION 
In this experiment, we have implemented the method of preparing of Turkey red oil from castor oil by sulphonation process at min 3 hours with continuous stirring and adding of conc. Sulphuric acid drop by drop maintaining the temperature 20-30°C for getting maximum yield of Turkey red oil. 
By this process, we have got 70% yield of Turkey red oil from feed. 
This is the easy process of getting maximum yield of product. 
From this experiment we studied the PH is 7.89 it means the product is light alkali.

  

 
Title: Turkey-Red Oil
Additional Names: Sulfated castor oil; red oil
Literature References: Sulfated castor oil is prepared by treating castor oil with 15-30% H2SO4 at 25-30° for several hrs, followed by washing and neutralizing with NaOH soln. The product is an anion-active wetting agent. The commercial mfg process actually esterifies the 12-hydroxyl group in ricinoleic acid (the main constit of castor oil) thus producing a true sulfate ester, and not a sulfonate.
Use: In finishing cotton and linen; to obtain bright, clear colors in dyeing fabrics.


Turkey Red Oil is produced by the treatment of castor oil with sulfuric acid. It is the natural emulsifier which serves as a wonderful base for bath oils to enhance their properties and allow them to emulsify in bath water. This is an orangey-red colored viscous liquid having mild oily odor. It can also be used as organic manure in agriculture, defoaming agent in paper industry, and as undecylenate in pharmaceuticals.

Sulphated Castor Oils are biodegradable anionic surfactants derived from natural oils and fatty esters of the Castor bean. The product is produced by reacting concentrated sulphuric acid with castor oil and then neutralized with Sodium hydroxide. Originally known as Turkey Red oil as a result of its use as a dye assistant for Turkey Red cloth. Primary applications now include cosmetic and personal care, print press cleaning, metal working and textiles. 

Turkey Red Oil, Carrier Oils
Botanical Name: Ricinus communis

INCI Name: Sulfated Ricinus communis (Castor) Oil

Description: The reaction of sulfuric acid with castor oil produces a unique carrier oil known affectionately as Turkey Red Oil, Sulfated Castor Oil and/or Sulfonated Castor Oil.

Turkey Red Oil contains no no solvents, or preservatives.

The unique characteristic of Turkey Red Oil is its ability to disperse in water as it is completely miscible.

Extraction Process:  Expeller pressed

Part of Plant:  Seed

Aromatic Profile:  Turkey Red Oil has a scent characteristic of most Carrier Oils.

Color:  Amber reddish color.

Consistency: Non oily consistency.

Turkey Red Oil Uses: Used for its emulsification and humectant qualities in personal skin care products. For example, it will emulsify essential oils so that they can be incorporated in water based preparations.

Owing to its medium viscosity, it is a commonly used as a base in bath oil and recipes using essential oils and fragrance oils.

Turkey Red Oil enhances the moisturizing properties of the products to which it is added.


This oil is obtained thru the process of adding salt of sulfuric acid to ordinary castor oil, creating what is often called Turkey Red Oil. The addition of the sulfuric acid makes this oil completely water soluble, thus when added to water it will disperse evenly without needing a suspension agent. For this reason it's often used in blooming bath oil recipes, or as a co-emulsifier for oils into water formulations.

Turkey Red oil is deeply red in color, and thick in texture, similar to standard castor oil. This oil holds differences of opinions as to the benefit for skin use, some studies show that direct skin contact over a period of time can mildly irritate the skin. Other studies show no toxicity or skin related issues, and other findings show it benefits the skin.

Cosmetic grade. External Use Only.

INCI: Sulfated Ricinus communis (Castor) Oil


Name    Sulfonated castor oil
Synonyms    Castor oil,sulfonic
TURKEY RED OIL SODIUM SALT
Castoroil,sulfated
SULFATED CASTOR OIL
SULFORICINOLATE SODIUM SALT
CASTOR-OIL SULFATED SODIUM SALT
CASTOR OIL, SULFONATED
sulfonated caster oil
Turkey red oil

Sulfated Castor Oil contains all of the moisturizing and humectant properties of Cosmetic Castor Oil however Sulfated Castor Oil is water soluble.  
Sulfated Castor Oil is the only oil that completely disperses in water which makes it very popular for use as a dispersing bath oil.   
Also known as Turkey Red Castor Oil, this oil is dark red in colour.

INCI: Sulfated Ricinus communis (Castor) Seed Oil

Turkey Red Oil is also known as Sulfated Castor Oil. It is the only oil that will completely disperse in water. The oil is expressed from the seed. Sulfated castor oil is created by adding sulfuric acid to castor oil, and is considered the first synthetic detergent. Turkey Red Oil has a distinct and heavy scent. It is a surfactant and therefore makes a wonderful base for a bath oil as it mixes well with water, producing a milk bath.

Uses : Used in Textile industries, Sugar industry, as a defoaming agent, as an Emulsifier. In cosmetics it is used as humectants and as an Emulsifier for Oil Bath.

Various Applications of Turkey Red Oil:

Turkey Red oil is used in agriculture as organic manure, in textiles as surfactants and wetting agents, in paper industry for defoaming, in cosmetics as emulsifiers, in pharmaceuticals as undecylenate, in paints inks and as lubricants.

For e.g. it is used to emulsify essential oils so that they will dissolve in other water-based products, or for superfatting liquid soap if you want the soap to remain transparent. This means that the oil will combine with the water in the tub, and not leave those little oil bubbles floating on the top of the water. It is of medium viscosity and is usually used in bath oil recipes along with fragrance or essential oils, or in shampoos. This oil also has great moisturizing abilities.


SULFATED CASTOR OIL
Also called "TURKEY RED" CASTOR OIL

Sulfated Castor oil is a useful type of castor oil also derived from the Castor plant Ricinus communis,There is a type of castor oil that is specially treated with a sulfate thorugh a process called sulfonation and it is named and known as either Sulfated Castor oil, or more commonly known as the  "Turkey red" castor oil

Sulfated Castor oil, is used in all kinds of formulations and applications.  Since it completely disperses in water and will not leave an oily ring around the tub when you use it in your products to emulsify colors, fragrance and essential oils.

Features of Sulfated Castor/ Turkey Red

Turkey Red Castor oil completely disperses in water.
Emulsifies fragrance and essential oils so they disburse completely in other water-based products
Use for superfatting liquid soap so it remains transparent
Excellent humectant & moisturizing properties
Has a typical sulfated castor oil odor but is easily disguised in formulations using typical fragrance and essential oils.
It contains all of the same humectant and moisturizing properties of Cosmetic Castor Oil but in a water soluble form. Castor Turkey Red is a common addition to bath products, natural soaps, lotions etc.  It is perfectly suited for use in making water dispersible bath oils and personal care products. Turkey Red Oil  will solubilize many lipids, additives, and essential oils.

Also try using it to formulation balms, shampoos, hair oils, and other thick emulsions for the skin and hair. In soap making try superfatting liquid soap  with the sulfated castor oil if you want the soap to remain transparent.

Sulfated Castor oil CAS 8002-33-3 Formula: C18H32Na2O2S

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