THIOUREA

EC Number: 200-543-5
CAS Number: 62-56-6 
Chemical formula: CH4N2S
Molar mass: 76.12 g/mol

Thiourea (Thiocarbamide) is used in the production and modification of textile and dyeing auxiliaries, in the leaching of ores, in the production of pharmaceuticals and pesticides, as a vulcanization accelerator, and as an auxiliary agent in diazo paper. 
Thiourea is available in Technical and Laboratory grade. 
Thiourea (/ˌθaɪoʊjʊəˈriːə/) is an organosulfur compound with the formula SC(NH2)2. 
Thiourea is the sulfur analog of urea. 
Thiourea is used for Thioureas synthetic equivalence to hydrogen sulfide. 
Thiourea plays an important role in the construction of heterocycles. 
Thiourea appears as whitecrystals which is combustible and on contact with fire gives off irritating or toxic fumes. 
Thiourea acts as a precursor to sulphide to produce metal sulphides like mercury sulphide.

Thiourea is structurally similar to urea, except that the oxygen atom is replaced by a sulfur atom, but the properties of urea and thiourea differ significantly. 
Thiourea is a reagent in organic synthesis. 
"Thioureas" refers to a broad class of compounds with the general structure (R1R2N)(R3R4N)C=S. 
Thioureas are related to thioamides, e.g. RC(S)NR2, where R is methyl, ethyl, etc.

Applications of Thiourea
Thiox precursor
Thiourea per se has few applications. 
Thiourea is mainly consumed as a precursor to thiourea dioxide, which is a common reducing agent in textile processing.

Other uses of Thiourea
Other industrial uses of thiourea include production of flame retardant resins, and vulcanization accelerators.
Thiourea is used as an auxiliary agent in diazo paper, light-sensitive photocopy paper and almost all other types of copy paper.
Thiourea is also used to tone silver-gelatin photographic prints.
Thiourea is used in the Clifton-Phillips and Beaver bright and semi-bright electroplating processes.
Thiourea is also used in a solution with tin(II) chloride as an electroless tin plating solution for copper printed circuit boards.

What is Thiourea?
Thiourea is an organosulfur compound composed of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulfur atoms. 
Thioureas chemical formula is SC(NH2)2. 
As the name and Thioureas composition suggests, thiourea is very much similar to urea. 
In thiourea, the oxygen atom of urea is displaced by sulfur atom. 
Here you need to note that urea and thiourea are structurally similar but very different in physical and chemical properties. 
Thiourea is also known as thiocarbamide.
All hydrogen atoms of thiourea can be substituted by alkyl group and thus formed compounds come under the category of the class thioureas. 
Such compounds have the general formula (R1R2N) (R3R4N) C=S, where R is an alkyl group. 

Thioureas is a class of thiourea compounds with the general formula (R1R2N)(R3R4N)C=S. 
Thioureas general structural formula is given below –
General chemical structure of a compound of class thioureas.

Thiourea is used in vulcanization accelerators. 
Thiourea is used as an auxiliary agent. 
Thiourea is used in silver – gelatin photographic prints.
Thiourea is used in diazo paper, light – sensitive photocopy paper etc.
Thiourea is used in many electroplating processes such as Clifton – Philips and Beaver bright electroplating etc. 
For copper printed circuits, tin(II) chloride solution is used. 
Thiourea is also used in the solution. 
Thiourea is used in silver cleaning products such as TarnX. 
TarnX contains thiourea, sulfamic acid and detergent. 
Thiourea is used in gold and silver leaching. 
Lixiviants are used for this purpose and thiourea is an important ingredient of these. 

Structure of Thiourea 
Thiourea is found in Thioureas two tautomeric forms – thione form and thiol form. 
Thione form is found in larger amounts in aqueous solutions. 

Thioureas thiol form is also known as isothiourea. 
Thiourea has planar structure. 
Thiourea is a covalent compound. 
Thiourea has a double bond between carbon and sulfur. 
C=S bond distance in thiourea is 1.71 A and average of C-N distances is 1.33 A. 

Properties of Thiourea 
Physical and Chemical properties – Thiourea shows following physical and chemical properties –
Thiourea is an organosulfur compound. 
Thioureas molar mass is 76.12 g.mol-1.
Thiourea is a white colored compound.
Thiourea is found as solid at room temperature. 
Melting point of thiourea is 182 ℃.
Thioureas boiling point is 155 ℃.
Thioureas density is 1.405 g.ml-1.
Thiourea is highly soluble in water. 
142g of thiourea can be dissolved in one liter of water at 25 ℃.
Thiourea is weakly acidic in nature.
Thioureas crystals are combustible on contact with fire. 
Thioureas pH is more than 3. 
Thiourea is an odorless compound.
Thioureas surface tension is 1.04  10-2 N/m.
Conversion in ammonium thiocyanate – Thiourea on heating above 130 ℃, forms ammonium thiocyanate. 
Although upon cooling Thioureas again converts into thiourea. 

Reduction – Peroxides get reduced into their corresponding diols by thiourea. 
During this reduction reaction an intermediate is formed which is called endoperoxide. 
Endoperoxide is a highly unstable compound. 

Due to Thioureas non - volatile nature, Thiourea is also used in ozonolysis of cyclic alkenes to give carbonyl compounds. 
Thiourea reacts with alkyl halides and forms thiols. 

Production of Thiourea 
Thiourea can be prepared by ammonium thiocyanate. 
On heating ammonium thiocyanate, Thiourea forms thiourea. 

Thiourea’s a reversible reaction and gives high yield at a specific temperature only. 
So, Thiourea is not used commonly for production of thiourea. 
Most commonly calcium cyanamide is used for production of thiourea. 
Hydrogen sulfide reacts with calcium cyanamide in presence of carbon dioxide and forms thiourea. 

Uses of Thiourea 
Total global production of thiourea approximately 40% is produced in Germany and another 40% in China. 
Thus, Germany and China are the main manufacturers of thiourea. 
Approximately 10,000 tonnes of thiourea is being produced globally in a year. 
Thioureas huge production clearly states Thioureas importance in the market. 
Few of Thioureas applications are listed below –
Thiourea is mainly used as a precursor to thiourea dioxide. 
Thiourea dioxide is used as a reducing agent in many chemical reactions used in textile processing. 
Thiourea is used in production of flame - retardant resins. 
Thiourea is used as a source of sulfide. 
Thiourea reacts with alkyl halides and changes them into thiols. 
For example, ethane – 1,2 – dithiol is prepared by 1,2 – dibromoethane.
C2H4Br2 + 2SC(NH2)2 → [C2H4(SC(NH2)2)2]Br2
[C2H4(SC(NH2)2)2]Br2 + 2KOH → C2H4(SH)2 + 2OC(NH2)2 + 2KBr

Thiourea can be used as a source of sulfide in reactions with metal ions as well. 
For example, mercury sulfide is formed when mercury ion reacts with thiourea in presence of water and heat.
Hg2+ + SC(NH2)2 + H2O → HgS + OC(NH2)2 + 2H+
Pyrimidine derivatives are formed by using thiourea. 
Thiourea condense with - dicarbonyl and forms pyrimidine derivatives.

Fertilizer
Recently thiourea has been investigated for Thioureas multiple desirable properties as a fertilizer especially under conditions of environmental stress.
Thiourea may be applied in various capacities, such as a seed pretreatment (for priming), foliar spray or medium supplementation.

Other uses of Thiourea:
Other industrial uses of thiourea include production of flame retardant resins, and vulcanization accelerators.
Thiourea is used as an auxiliary agent in diazo paper, light-sensitive photocopy paper and almost all other types of copy paper.
Thiourea is also used to tone silver-gelatin photographic prints.
Thiourea is used in the Clifton-Phillips and Beaver bright and semi-bright electroplating processes.
Thiourea is also used in a solution with tin(II) chloride as an electroless tin plating solution for copper printed circuit boards.

Thiourea is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and hydrogen, with the formula CSN2H4 or (NH2)2CS. 
Thiourea is similar to urea, except that the oxygen atom is replaced by a sulfur atom. 
The properties of urea and thiourea differ significantly because of the relative electronegativities of sulfur and oxygen. 
Thiourea is a versatile reagent in organic synthesis. 

"Thioureas" refers to a broad class of compounds with the general structure (R1R2N)(R3R4N)C=S. 
Thioureas are related to thioamides, e.g. RC(S)NR2, where R is methyl, ethyl, etc. 
Thiourea is prohibited from use in food. 
Industrial uses of thiourea include production of flame retardant resins, and vulcanization accelerators. 

Thiourea is used as an auxiliary agent in diazo paper (light-sensitive photocopy paper) and almost all other types of copy paper. 
Thiourea is also used to tone silver-gelatin photographic prints. 
The liquid silver cleaning product TarnX is essentially a solution of thiourea. 
A leaching agent for gold leaching and silver leaching can be created by selectively oxidizing thiourea, bypassing the steps of cyanide use and smelting. 

Another common application for use of thiourea is a common sulfur source for making semiconductor cadmium sulfide nanoparticle. 
Thiourea is a planar molecule. 
The C=S bond distance is 1.60±0.1 for a wide range of derivatives. 
This narrow range indicates that the C=S bond is insensitive to the nature of the substitutent. 
Thus, the thioamide, which is similar to an amide group, is difficult to perturb. 

Thiourea reduces peroxides to the corresponding diols. 
The intermediate of the reaction is an unstable epidioxide which can only be identified at -100 °C. 
Epidioxide is similar to epoxide except with two oxygen atoms. 
This intermediate reduces to diol by thiourea

Thiourea Reactions
The material has the unusual property of changing to ammonium thiocyanate upon heating above 130 °C. 
Upon cooling, the ammonium salt converts back to thiourea.

Preferred IUPAC name
Thiourea 
Other names
Thiocarbamide

Thiourea, also called thiocarbamide, an organic compound that resembles urea (q.v.) but contains sulfur instead of oxygen; i.e., the molecular formula is CS(NH2)2, while that of urea is CO(NH2)2. 
Like urea, Thiourea can be prepared by causing a compound with the same chemical composition to undergo rearrangement, as by heating ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN). 
A method of preparation more commonly used consists of the addition of hydrogen sulfide to cyanamide. 
Thiourea exhibits many of the chemical properties of urea, but Thiourea has little commercial application. 

Synonym(s): Thiocarbamide, Sulfourea
Linear Formula: NH2CSNH2
CAS Number: 62-56-6
Molecular Weight: 76.12
Beilstein/REAXYS Number: 605327
EC Number: 200-543-5
MDL number: MFCD00008067
PubChem Substance ID: 24900549

Urea and thiourea represent privileged structures in medicinal chemistry. 
Indeed, these moieties constitute a common framework of a variety of drugs and bioactive compounds endowed with a broad range of therapeutic and pharmacological properties. 
Herein, we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of urea and thiourea-containing pharmaceuticals. 
We also review the diverse approaches pursued for (thio)urea bioisosteric replacements in medicinal chemistry applications. 
Finally, representative examples of recent advances in the synthesis of urea- and thiourea-based compounds by enabling chemical tools are discussed.

Quality Level: 200
grade: ACS reagent
assay: ≥99.0%
ign. residue: ≤0.1% (as SO4)
loss: ≤0.5% loss on drying, 105°C, 2h
mp:
170-176 °C (lit.)
174-177 °C
solubility: H2O: passes test
SMILES string: NC(N)=S
InChI: 1S/CH4N2S/c2-1(3)4/h(H4,2,3,4)
InChI key: UMGDCJDMYOKAJW-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Thiourea is used in breaking dormancy in some seed types to determine seed viability if the seed fails to germinate under normal conditions.
Thiourea is also used to increase stress tolerance in plant tissues. 
Thiourea has been used in several tree species as a substitute for stratification of seeds.

General description
Thiourea is an analogue of urea containing sulphur.

Thiourea application
Thiourea has been used:
-as a component of lysis buffer for liver tissue homogenization
-in 2-D sample buffer for two-dimensional in-gel protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) assay
-in rehydration buffer for protein extraction

Chaotropic agent; strong denaturant. 
Increases solubility and recovery of proteins

Chemical formula: CH4N2S
Molar mass: 76.12 g/mol
Appearance: white solid
Density: 1.405 g/ml
Melting point: 182 °C (360 °F; 455 K)
Solubility in water: 142 g/l (25 °C)
Magnetic susceptibility (χ): −4.24×10−5 cm3/mol

Thiourea
CAS Registry Number 62-56-6

What is Thiourea?
Thiourea is an industrial chemical and also occurs naturally in some plants and fungi.

How is Thiourea used?
As an industrial chemical, thiourea is used in metal finishing solutions, in the manufacture of printed circuit boards, in copper refining, and as a rust inhibitor.
Thiourea may also be found in black and white photographic chemicals, and silver polish/metal cleaners.
Based on the most recent data, thiourea is not manufactured in Canada, but Thiourea is imported into Canada.

Biochem/physiol Actions
Thiourea is a free radical scavenger of the peroxide radical. 
Thiourea was shown to inhibit lipid peroxidation and ultraviolet (UV)-induced crosslinking of collagen. 
Bud dormancy in plants can be inhibited by thiourea which is used as a growth stimulator. 
Thiourea is also known to be used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.

Structure and bonding
Thiourea is a planar molecule. 
The C=S bond distance is 1.71 Å. 
The C-N distances average 1.33 Å.
The weakening of the C-S bond by C-N pi-bonding is indicated by the short C=S bond in thiobenzophenone, which is 1.63 Å.
Thiourea occurs in two tautomeric forms, of which the thione form predominates in aqueous solutions. 
The equilibrium constant has been calculated as Keq is 1.04×10−3.
The thiol form, which is also known as an isothiourea, can be encountered in substituted compounds such as isothiouronium salts.

Thiourea Production
The global annual production of thiourea is around 10,000 tonnes. 
About 40% is produced in Germany, another 40% in China, and 20% in Japan. 
Thiourea can be produced from ammonium thiocyanate, but more commonly Thiourea is produced by the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with calcium cyanamide in the presence of carbon dioxide.

Thiourea Features:
Purity
Non hazardous
Long shelf life

CAS Number: 62-56-6  
Beilstein Reference: 605327    
CHEBI:36946  
ChEMBL: ChEMBL260876  
ChemSpider: 2005981 
ECHA InfoCard: 100.000.494 
Gmelin Reference: 1604
KEGG: C14415  
PubChem CID: 2723790
RTECS number: YU2800000
UNII: GYV9AM2QAG  
UN number: 2811
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID9021348

thiourea
Where is thiourea found?
Thiourea is used as an accelerator in rubber production (e.g. neoprene), and as an antioxidant to photo paper, photographic chemicals, rubber and plastics. 
Thiourea is also found as an additive in etchants, cleaners and polishes. 
Thiourea may be used as an inhibitor in pickling baths, scavenger of heavy metals, textile dye, and fireretardant component in nylon.

How can you avoid contact with thiourea?
Avoid products that list any of the following names in the ingredients:
• Thiourea
• 2-Thiopseudourea
• 2-Thiourea
• AI3-03582
• CCRIS 588
• Caswell No. 855
• EINECS 200-543-5
• HSDB 1401
• Isothiourea
• NSC 5033
• Pseudothiourea
• Pseudourea, 2-thio-
• Sulourea
• THU
• Thiocarbamide
• Thiocarbonic acid diamide
• Thiuronium
• USAF EK-497
• Urea, thio-
• beta-Thiopseudourea
• EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 080201
• RCRA waste no. U219

What are some products that may contain thiourea?
Adhesives
Cleaners
Copy Paper
Corrosion Inhibitor
Etchants
Fire-Retardant Resins
Light-Sensitive Photocopy Paper
Metal Polishes
Neoprene (polychloroprene) Products
• Gloves
• Wetsuits
• Orthopedic braces/supports
• Weather stripping
• Keyboard wrist supports
• Athletic shoes/insoles
• Swim goggles
• Rubber boots
• Protective eyewear
• Insoles
Paint & Glue Removers
Photo Paper
Photographic Chemicals
Plastic
Rubber
Textile and Paper Dye
Thermocoating
• Plastic phone cards

Thioureas, containing sulfur and nitrogen atoms, are susceptible to oxidation by a large number of oxidants giving rise to various products including ureas, sulfides, oxides of sulfur, and nitrogen. 
Some novel cyclized products were also obtained during oxidation. 
The reaction conditions and types of oxidants steer the formation of different products. 
This review comprises basically the synthetic aspects, and the mechanism/schemes of the reactions discussed in the manuscript are based on stoichiometry and products of the reactions.

Backed by our hard-earned experience of this industry, we are engaged in offering an exclusive range of Thiourea Powder. 
Thiourea is widely praised in domestic and international markets. 
Apart from this, our quality inspectors test this product in order to ensure that the offered product is free from any defects. 
Thiourea can be purchased from us at industry leading prices within the promised time - frame.

Thiourea was introduced into the micropores of UiO-66 and its derivatives. 
Thiourea provides the first example of doping highly polar molecules into the metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) via a solution process. 

THIOUREA
Thiocarbamide
62-56-6
Isothiourea
2-Thiourea
Pseudothiourea
Sulourea
Thiuronium
2-Thiopseudourea
Sulfourea
Thiocarbonic acid diamide
Urea, thio-
Carbamimidothioic acid
beta-Thiopseudourea
Thiomocovina
Urea, 2-thio-
Tsizp 34
Pseudourea, 2-thio-
Thiocarbamid
Thioharnstoff
Thiokarbamid
Sulfouren
USAF EK-497
RCRA waste number U219
carbonothioic diamide
thio-urea
UNII-GYV9AM2QAG
NSC 5033
MFCD00008067
.beta.-Thiopseudourea
17356-08-0
GYV9AM2QAG
Urea, thio- (8CI)
H2NC(S)NH2
(NH2)2CS
CHEMBL260876
CHEBI:36946
DSSTox_CID_1348
DSSTox_RID_76101
DSSTox_GSID_21348
Thiourea, 99%, extra pure
TOU
Thiomocovina [Czech]
Thiourea, 99+%, for analysis
Caswell No. 855
Thiourea, 99+%, ACS reagent
sulfocarbamide
RCRA waste no. U219
CAS-62-56-6
CCRIS 588
S C (N H2)2
HSDB 1401
THIOUREA, ACS
EINECS 200-543-5
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 080201
aminothioamide
thiopseudourea
thiourea group
AI3-03582
isothiourea group
Thiourea Solution
aminothiocarboxamide
2-Thio-Pseudourea
Thiocarbonic diamide
2-Thio-Urea
beta -thiopseudourea
Thiourea, homopolymer
Thiourea, 99%
Sulfourea, Thiocarbamide
WLN: ZYZUS
EC 200-543-5
Thiourea ACS Reagent Grade
Thiourea, LR, >=98%
MLS002454451
BIDD:ER0582
DTXSID9021348
[N]C(N)=S
NC([S])=N
NSC5033
HMS2234E12
HMS3369M21
AMY40190
BCP27948
NSC-5033
STR00054
ZINC8437745
Thiocarbamide,Isothiourea,2-Thiourea
Tox21_201873
Tox21_302767
BDBM50229993
STL194300
Thiourea, ACS reagent, >=99.0%
AKOS000269032
AKOS028109302
CCG-207963
MCULE-5046264236
NE10552
UN 2877
Thiourea, ReagentPlus(R), >=99.0%
NCGC00091199-01
NCGC00091199-02
NCGC00091199-03
NCGC00256530-01
NCGC00259422-01
Thiourea, >=99.999% (metals basis)
BP-31025
S726
SMR000857187
Thiourea, JIS special grade, >=98.0%
Thiourea, p.a., ACS reagent, 99.0%
FT-0675198
T0445
C14415
T-3650
10.14272/UMGDCJDMYOKAJW-UHFFFAOYSA-N.1
A833853
Q528995
Thiourea, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, >=99.0%
doi:10.14272/UMGDCJDMYOKAJW-UHFFFAOYSA-N.1
J-524966
F0001-1650
Thiourea, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
53754-90-8
Thiourea [ACD/Index Name] [ACD/IUPAC Name] [Wiki]
200-543-5 [EINECS]
2-Thiopseudourea
2-thiourea
605327 [Beilstein]
62-56-6 [RN]
b-Thiopseudourea
GYV9AM2QAG
MFCD00008067 [MDL number]
Sulfourea
sulourea
thiocarbamide
Thioharnstoff [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Thiourée [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
tiomocznik [Polish]
UNII-GYV9AM2QAG
Urea, 2-thio-
Urea, thio- (8CI)
YU2800000
β-thiopseudourea
β-Thiopseudourea
(NH2)2CS
17370-85-3 [RN]
2-Thio-Pseudourea
2-Thio-Urea
ACS, 99%
carbonothioic diamide
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:36946
InChI=1S/CH4N2S/c2-1(3)4/h(H4,2,3,4)
Isothiourea
Pseudothiourea
Pseudourea, 2-thio-
STR00054
sulfouren
Thiocarbamid
thiocarbonic acid diamide
Thiocarbonic diamide
Thiokarbamid
Thiomocovina [Czech]
thio-urea
Thiourea ACS Reagent Grade
Thiourea|Thiocarbamide
Thiurea
Thiuronium
THU
urea, thio-
ZYZUS [WLN]
β -thiopseudourea
硫脲 [Chinese]

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