THPS

THPS = Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate = Octakis (Hydroxymethyl) Diphosphonium Sulfate

Tetrakis (Hydroxymethyl) Phosphonium Sulfate Application Industries: Oil & Gas, Water Treatment, Leather, Textile

Tetrakis (Hydroxymethyl) Phosphonium Sulfate functions: Biocide, Iron Sulfide Scavenger, Flame Retardant, Tanning Agent

Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate (THPS)
Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulphate(2:1)
Octakis (Hydroxymethyl) Diphosphonium Sulfate,

CAS No.: 55566-30-8
EC / List no.: 259-709-0


Molecular Formula:  C8H24O12P2S        
Molecular Weight: 406.27
THPS;
Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate;
Octakis(hydroxymethyl)diphosphonium sulfate

Based on function, the market has been segmented as follows:
Biocide
Iron sulfide scavenger
Flame retardant
Tanning agent


Based on application, the market has been segmented as follows:
Oil & gas
Water treatment
Textile
Leather
Paper & paperboard manufacturing; 
Paints, coatings and emulsions
Agriculture
Aquaculture


Use: 
(1). Biological Bactericide 
(2). Textile Flame Retardant Product 
(3). Synthetic Intermediate
(4). Used in oil field as bactericide fracturing fluid


Other Names
Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulphate(2:1)
Phosphonium, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)-, sulfate (2:1) (salt)
THPS, 75%

By application, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate market is segmented into oil & gas, water treatment, leather, textile, and others including paper & paperboard manufacturing; paints, coatings, and emulsion; agriculture; and aquaculture.THPS has preservative properties and provides high-temperature stability and prolonged downhole protection in oilfields, thereby making it a preferred choice in the oil & gas industry.

However, it is the biocidal function of THPS, which is encouraging its increasing use in the oil & gas industry. THPS has been the most widely used biocide, followed by glutaraldehyde during oil & gas operations.

THPS as FLAME RETARDANT
THPS is used as flame retardant for textile finishing, applicable to pure cotton or polyester cotton and other textile. The treated textile has very good flame-retarding effect, good handle, strong washing resistance, and small tear strength loss with the original performances of fabrics not affected.It is also used as flame retardant of plastic, paper etc.

Tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulphate is an environmentally friendly biocide. 
THPS is mainly used in water treatment systems, oil drilling operations and the paper industry.

Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate (THPS), regarded as one of the most effective oilfield biocides in fighting Sulfate Reducing Bacteria, is also found being able to dissolve iron sulfide scales which are known difficult to be solubilized.

Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate  (THPS)  is  an  environmental  friendly biocide commonly used in oil field for both downhole and topside. 
Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate is also widely applied in  other  variety  of  water  treatment  processes  including  industrial  cooling  and  paper manufacture. 
THPS is primarily utilized to control sulfate reducing bacteria due to its enhanced performance, higher thermal stability and low foaming potential. 
It  was  discovered  that  the  THPS  is  also  able  to  dissolve  a  range  of  iron  sulfides formed in oil wells. 
This led, in some instances, to the use of THPS solely for this purpose although  often  the  dual  functionality  (as  biocide  and  iron  sulfide  dissolver)  significantly increased the economic effectiveness of this form of treatment.

Talbot et al. [4] studied the dissolution of iron sulfides in THPS based solutions over a range  of conditions  and  showed  that  its performance  was  comparable to  or  even  better than the uninhibited hydrochloric (HCl) acid with actual field scale samples as well as pure authigenic  minerals,  particularly  in  combination  with  ammonium  chloride  or  organic phosphonate scale inhibitor. In their study, the THPS also displayed an  ability  to dissolve pyrite,  which  is  generally  considered  insoluble  in  hydrochloric  acid. 
Wang  et al.  [5] performed further evaluations using iron sulfide scales formed in high temperature sour gas wells.  

The studies evaluated THPS as scale dissolver for zinc and lead sulfide scales formed in the oil  wells.  
It  is  found  that  the  dissolution  power  of  THPS  alone  on  zinc  and  lead  sulfide scales is  poor, but  its  dissolution  power  can be  significantly increased  by  adding  NH4Cl. 
The  dissolution  efficiency  of THPS–NH4Cl  mixture  increases  with  THPS concentration with maximum dissolution achieved at 15% THPS with for zinc sulfide and at 30% THPS for  lead  sulfide.  
The  efficiency  of the  THPS–NH4Cl  mixture  also  increases  with  NH4Cl concentration  with  maximum  dissolution  efficiency  at  12%  NH4Cl.  
In  addition,  the dissolution behavior is time and temperature dependent. The optimal dissolution results are obtained at 24 hours and 85°C.

By function, the tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate market is segmented into biocides, iron sulfide scavenger, flame retardant, and tanning agent.THPS biocides are aqueous solutions that do not contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

In many cases, after treatment with THPS, the toxicity level of water is low, which would not be toxic for aquatic life.Also, THPS does not bioaccumulate, and therefore, lowers the risks for marine lives.

It rapidly breaks down in the environment through hydrolysis, biodegradation, photodegradation, and oxidation.
North America market is estimated to account for the largest market share due to the rapid adoption of advanced technologies for better yielding of crops in the region.


THPS as a biocide is an important chemical used in hydraulic fracturing as well as water treatment systems. Biocides are used mainly for killing and controlling bacteria, as they can cause instability in viscosity and pose high threats. THPS was used initially as an industrial biocide in cooling systems. THPS biocides are aqueous solutions that do not contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs).  

THPS has become the most widely used biocide in oilfields, where sulfate-reducing bacteria create major problems. Another major reason for its use is that it is suitable for downhole applications (well drilling process). The treatment of oil wells with THPS has resulted in increased oil production due to the dissolution of iron sulfide after the use of THPS. However, it is the biocidal function of THPS, which is encouraging its increasing use in the oil & gas industry.  


THPS is also used on a larger scale in the leather industry, as it increases the strength properties for chrome in the tanning of hides (a process in which rawhides or skins are converted into leather). In the Asia Pacific region, China is the fifth-largest importer of leather and leather products in the world.

Tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate (THPS) market was valued at USD 191,056.9 thousand in 2018 and is projected to reach USD 278,541.8 thousand by 2025, at a CAGR of 5.5% from 2019 to 2025.

The growth of this market is primarily triggered by the increasing usage of THPS in various industries such as oil & gas, textile, and leather, along with its growing application in hydraulic fracturing. 
However, the increasing focus on oxidizing biocides is expected to restrict the growth of the market.

Tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate (THPS) is a colorless-to-yellow liquid that is primarily used as a biocide for gas and oil-field applications as well as for water treatment.

As a biocide, THPS offers a broadspectrum activity and is highly effective against the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) found in various oil & gas operations. 
Tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate is widely used as a flame retardant in the textile industry and a tanning agent in the leather industry. THPS is also used in the hydraulic fracturing process, where it is preferred due to its biodegradability and high-temperature performance.

THPS is a kind of anti-microbial reagent. THPS is characterized by its low solidity point and fine stability. 
It can be reserved for long time and can easily dissolve in water. 
It's a kind of new environmental pesticide with high efficacy, low toxicity and low rudimental. 

THPS can kill germ and aquatic plants. In 1995, the EPA of the United States ratified it with zero toxicity and awarded it with US Green Chemical prize.

Usage:

THPS is mainly used in water treatment systems, oil field operations, and paper-making industry. 
The advantage is it will soon degrade to a nontoxic substance immediately after use. Also THPS can be applied to fabric coating as flame retardant, obviously improving flame retarding property.

With a large number of plants using THPS as an anti-microbial agent, the requirement for the chemical is expected to rise in the near future.

Tetrakis Hydroxymethyl Phosphonium Sulfate (THPS)
THPS 75% is useful in a wide variety of industries including textile finishing and leather tanning, oil and gas production and industrial water treatment. Its broad range of use is based on multifunctional properties that make it an effective agent for flame retardancy, protein crosslinking, and metal sequestration and deposit control.

Textile Flame Retardant – In textile finishing, Tetrakis Hydroxymethyl Phosphonium Sulfate is used to impart flame retardancy to cotton fabric. This is accomplished by first forming a precondensate with urea and subsequent curing of the precondensate onto the fabric.

Leather tanning – Tetrakis Hydroxymethyl Phosphonium Sulfate can be an effective substitute for chrome in the tanning of hides. The use of THPS 75% produces a white hide and allows the tanner to reduce the use of hazardous chrome salts.

Oilfield – Tetrakis Hydroxymethyl Phosphonium Sulfate acts as an iron sulfide scavenger in oilfield waters by turning it into a water soluble complex. It has been shown that the addition of small quantities of THPS 75% to produced water containing iron sulfide will effectively reduce the level of iron sulfide in the water and remove deposits from pipe surfaces, filter media, and other equipment.

The benefits include reduced corrosion of pipes and pump components, improved filter life, improved permeability at the well bore, increased efficiency of oil/water separation, and reduced sheen formation in offshore discharge of produced waters.

Advantages
Effective against algal, fungal and bacterial species
Exceptional environmental profile
Highly effective against legionella pneumophilla

Dosing
The dose of WTHPS depends on the micro-organism being targeted, typical values are;
Sulphate reducing bacteria; 200 ppm (6 hours)
Algae; 200 ppm (2 hours)
General Aerobic; 200 ppm (6 hours)
Legionella pneumophilla; 100 ppm (6 hours)
Initial doses on contaminated systems should be doubled

Effect of tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate used in indoor disinfection

Abstract:
In this paper tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate (THPS) as environmental friendly biocide was studied for daily indoor disinfection. 
Because THPS in indoor air disinfection performance and its toxicity had been verified by us, the experiments of THPS in water disinfection performance, durability test, and contrast after spraying THPS&H20 into air were done. 
Results showed the highest sterilization rate of THPS in water was 99.9%. The speed of sterilization was fast and the time of duration was long; 
The sterilization rate of THPS on the ground was above 92%. 
So for the object surface, ground, wall and other surfaces which can be scrubbed or sterilized by THPS aqueous, the sterilization ability was also very strong and last for a long time; THPS in indoor air had a long-lasting disinfection performance. 
When the concentration of THPS was increased, sterilization effect would be improved. 
In a word, THPS used for daily indoor disinfection has excellent performance.
Published in: 2011 International Conference on Electrical and Control Engineering


TETRAKIS(HYDROXYMETHYL)PHOSPHONIUM SULFATE
55566-30-8
THPS
Bis[tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium] sulfate solution
UNII-5I8RSL9E6S
Phosphonium, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)-, sulfate (2:1) (salt)
TETRAKIS(HYDROXYMETHYL) PHOSPHONIUM SULFATE
5I8RSL9E6S
Phosphonium, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)-, sulfate (2:1)
Retardol S
bis[tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium] sulfate
Pyroset TKO
CCRIS 316
HSDB 4215
NCI-C55050
EINECS 259-709-0
Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulphate(2:1)
Octakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate
Bis(tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium)sulfate (salt)
tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate
DSSTox_CID_1331
EC 259-709-0
ACMC-1B11Z
DSSTox_RID_76086
DSSTox_GSID_21331
SCHEMBL195676
CHEMBL1549844
DTXSID0021331
Tox21_200928
ANW-41198
AKOS016010449
LS00071
Tetrakis Hydroxymethylphosphonium Sulfate
Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate [Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium salts]
NCGC00091951-01
NCGC00091951-02
NCGC00258482-01
tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphanium;sulfate
Tetrakis Hydroxymethyl-Phosphonium Sulfate
CAS-55566-30-8
FT-0659692
J-519902
Q27262300
Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate (75% aqueous solution)

Application
THPS exhibits excellent activity against problem microorganisms. 
THPS is extremely effective against sulphate reducing bacteria, a major cause of hydrogen sulphide souring and corrosion.
Formulations containing THPS may be used in many applications where microbiological contamination is present and they have extensive use in enhanced oil recovery injection water systems, topside recovery systems, pipeline protection and storage. 
THPS produces a rapid kill against a broad spectrum of bacteria and when suitably formulated with a surfactant it readily eradicates unwanted biofilms. 
The excellent toxicity profile of THPS and ease of deactivation to a virtually non toxic substance makes it an ideal biocide to use when cooling water is discharged into ecologically sensitive waters.


Application:
THPS is a biocide effective against micro pest in industrial cooling systems, oil field operations,and paper-making industry. 
The advantage is it will soon degrade to a nontoxic substance after use.
THPS exhibits excellent activity against problem microorganisms. In particular, it is extremely effective against sulphate-reducing bacteria, a major cause of hydrogen sulphide souring and corrosion.
Formulations containing THPS may be used in many applications where microbiological contamination is present and they have extensive use in enhanced oil recovery injection water systems, topside recovery systems, pipeline protection and storage. 
THPS produces a rapid kill against a broad spectrum of bacteria and when suitably formulated with a surfactant it readily eradicates unwanted biofilms. 
The excellent toxicity profile of THPS and ease of deactivation to a virtually non-toxic substance makes it an ideal biocide to use when cooling water is discharged into ecologically sensitive waters.

THPS as a biocide is an important chemical used in hydraulic fracturing as well as water treatment systems. Biocides are used primarily for killing and controlling bacteria, as they can cause instability in viscosity and pose high threats. THPS was used initially as an industrial biocide in cooling systems. However, it is used more frequently in the petroleum, oil, and gas industries, as a biocide over the past two decades


Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulphate (2:1) (THPS)
Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulphate(2:1)


Translated names
Siarczan tetrakis(hydroksymetylo)fosfoniowy (2:1) (THPS) (pl)
Solfato di tetrachis(idrossimetil)fosfonio (2:1) (THPS) (it)
Sulfat de tetrakis(hidroximetil)fosfoniu (2:1) (THPS) (ro)
Sulfat tat-tetrakis(idrossimetil)fosfonju (2:1) (THPS) (mt)
Sulfate de tétrakis(hydroxyméthyl)phosphonium (2:1) (THPS) (fr)
Sulfato de tetrakis(hidroximetil)fosfonio (1:2) (THPS) (es)
Sulfato de tetraquis(hidroximetil)fosfónio (2:1) (THPS) (pt)
Tetrakis(hidroksimetil)fosfonij sulfat (2:1) (THPS) (hr)
tetrakis(Hidroksimetil)fosfonija sulfāts (2:1) (THPS) (lv)
Tetrakis(hidroksimetil)fosfonijev sulfat (2:1) (THPS) (sl)
Tetrakis(hidroksimetil)fosfonio sulfatas (2:1) (THPS) (lt)
Tetrakis(hydroksimetyyli)fosfoniumsulfaatti (2:1) (THPS) (fi)
Tetrakis(hydroximetyl)fosfoniumsulfat (2:1) (THPS) (sv)
tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)fosfonium-sulfát (2:1) (THPS) (cs)
Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)fosfoniumsulfaat (2:1) (THPS) (nl)
Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulphate(2:1) (THPS) (no)
tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphoniumsulfat (2:1) (THPS) (da)
Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphoniumsulfat (2:1) (THPS) (de)
tetrakis(hydroxymetyl)fosfónium-sulfát (2:1) (THPS) (sk)
Tetrakis(hüdroksümetüül)fosfooniumsulfaat (2:1) (THPS) (et)
Tetrakisz-(hidroximetil)-foszfónium-szulfát(2:1) (THPS) (hu)
Θειικό τετράκις(υδροξυμεθυλο)φωσφόνιο (1:2) (THPS) (el)
Тетракис(хидроксиметил)фосфониев сулфат(2:1) (THPS) (bg)

CAS names
Phosphonium, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)-, sulfate (2:1)
IUPAC names
bis(tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphanium) sulfate
bis[tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium] sulfate
bis[tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium] sulphate

PHOSPHONIUM, TETRAKIS(HYDROXYMETHYL)-, SULFATE (2:1) (SALT)
TETRAKIS (HYDROXYMETHYL) PHOSPHONIUM SULFATE
Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate
tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphanium;sulfate
tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulphate
Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulphate(2:1)


THPS
THPS


Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate (THPS)
Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate (THPS) is an organophosphorus compound . 
ATAMAN CHEMICALS is regional leader for the usage of THPS in the leather industry.

Applications
•    precursors in flame retardant manufacture process
•     biocide in water system
•    Tanning agent in the leather industry
One of the main application within ATAMAN CHEMICALS is to use THPS as Tanning agent in the leather industry.
In this case THPS can be used as chrome-free (metal free) tanning system in the wet white process and give

THPS can give the benefits of a lower allergology phenomena and a better biodegradability

Advantages of the wet white tanned leathers, using THPS offers:
•    a light color and pastel shades
•    Shrink temperatures of at least 70 grad C
•    Good lightness
•    Natural and soft feeling
•    Pleasant touch
•    Beauty that lasts for a long time
•    Can be burned without the risk of hexavalent chromium formation


The Biocidal Efficacy of Tetrakis-hydroxymethyl Phosphonium Sulfate (THPS) Based Biocides on Oil Pipeline PigRuns Liquid Biofilms
C. C. Okoro
Pages 1366-1372 | Published online: 04 Sep 2015

Abstract
The biocidal efficacy of THPS on oil pipeline biofilms was determined by direct MPN counts of SRB and APB after incubations at various concentrations of THPS for 14 days and also by its inhibitory effects on functional group activities of some oil field microorganisms. THPS was unable to drastically inhibit SRB growth at lower concentrations (0.1–0.3%) but its selective action on the activities of the hNRB and so-NRB further inhibits SRB growth and prevents sulfide formation at lower concentrations (0.2–0.3%). It was also observed that sulfide formation occurred at relatively high concentration of SRB (>106 cells/mL) at 0.1% THPS concentration.

Properties
Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate is a type of environmental-friendly water treatment micro biocide which is made of THPS chemicals. It can easily withhold sulfate-reducing microorganisms.

Most of the aerobic bacterias such as microorganisms that form biofilm inside the enhanced oil process of recovery, manufacturing and also other supporting systems. For example water injection equipment, well water disposal facilities, water holding tanks, recirculating water treatment systems, as well as pipelines.

Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate can also be good at managing bacterial development in drilling muds and also stimulation liquids for gas and oil wells. The THPS biocide is actually known as its low solidity point and excellent stability.

THPS 75% solution can simply dissolve in water and also can be maintained for a long period. In 1995, the United States environmental protection agency ratified it with absolutely no toxicity and awarded it with US green chemical prize because of its characteristics associated with high efficacy, low toxicity and also low rudimental.


AQUCAR™ THPS 75 Water Treatment Microbiocide
Antimicrobial for Industrial Water Treatment

Applications
AQUCAR™ THPS 75 Water Treatment Microbiocide is a broad-spectrum biocide developed to inhibit the growth of algae, bacteria, yeasts and fungi in process waters used in various industrial applications. AQUCAR THPS 75 Water Treatment Microbiocide is effective in both acid and alkaline environments. It is especially effective against sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) which are particularly troublesome in enhanced oil recovery operations, such as injection water treatment, top-side systems, pipeline protection and storage.
AQUCAR THPS 75 Water Treatment Microbiocide is a 76.5% w/w aqueous solution of tetrakis(hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate.
The following are typical physical properties of AQUCAR THPS 75 Water Treatment
Microbiocide; they are not to be considered as product specifications.

Appearance: ................................................................ Clear, colorless to pale yellow liquid
pH (@ 0.1% in water, 25°C): ................................................................................... 3.0 - 5.0
Solubility in water (20°C): ........................................................................................ Miscible
Viscosity (20°C): ........................................................................................................ 39mPs
Specific Gravity (25°C): ....................................................................................... 1.37 - 1.40
Total P content : .................................................................................... Approximately 12.0
Composition:

THPS .......................................................................................................................... 76.5%
Water .................................................................................................. Approximately 23.5%
• Inhibits microbial growth in enhanced oil recovery systems, industrial recirculating cooling waters, and non-food contact paper manufacturing
• Broad spectrum biocide against a range of bacteria, especially sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), and algae (blue-green, green and other types such as yellow-green, brown and mustard algae)
• Miscible in all proportions with every type of water, including seawater
• Is readily deactivated under controlled conditions
• No organic solvents / aqueous formulation
• Outstanding chemical stability and good compatibility with most water treatment chemicals
THPS tetrakis(hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate
CH2OHCH2OHCH2OHHOH2C+P SO4 2-2

AQUCAR™ THPS 75 
Water Treatment Microbiocide is a broad spectrum biocide that is highly effective at controlling sulfate reducing bacteria (SRBs), as demonstrated in the following data.
Efficacy vs. Sea Water SRB

Log Reduction
Biocide (ppm a.i.) 1 hr 2 hr 4 hr
THPS, 25 3 3 3
THPS, 50 3 5 7
THPS, 100 7 8 8
Total SRB count in Control = 108
Efficacy vs. Produced Water SRB
 Log Reduction
Biocide (ppm a.i.) 1 hr 2 hr 4 hr
THPS, 25 0 3 5
THPS, 50 5 3 6
THPS, 100 5 8 8
Total SRB count in Control = 108

Usage:

Flame retardant for the finishing of cotton and polyester fabrics.
Applied to pure cotton or polyester cotton as well as other fabrics.
Treated textiles show excellent flame-retarding, handling, wash resistance, and low tear strength effects as opposed to untreated fabrics.


Cotton fabrics were treated with tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium chloride-urea precondensate via pad-dry-ammonia curing to reduce the flammability of the fabrics. 
Optimum finishing conditions were investigated for durable flame retardancy including the physical properties such as tensile strength and color fastness to washing. 
The fabrics treated by this technique showed excellent durable flame resistance, higher tensile strength, and a slightly lower tearing strength in comparison with the untreated fabric.

Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl) phosphonium salts represent the major class of chemicals used as a flame retardant for cotton, cellulose and cellulose-blend fabrics. 
There is low migration from fabrics treated with tetrakis(hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride (THPC)-urea. 
The sulfate salt (THPS) is mainly used as a biocide. Combined world production is estimated to be >3000 tonnes for THP salts and around 3000 tonnes for the THPC-urea condensate.
Photodegradation and hydrolysis of THP salts are significant abiotic degradation pathways in the environment. 
THPS binds poorly to environmental particulates and is, therefore, mobile. THPS degrades rapidly under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions.
Trihydroxymethyl phosphine oxide (THPO) and bishydroxymethyl phosphonic acid (BMPA) have been identified as breakdown products.
Since no monitoring has been reported, no estimates can be made of exposure to humans or organisms in the environment.
The acute oral toxicity of THPC and THPS is moderate; dermal toxicity is low.

Tetrakis-HydrTetrakis-Hydroxymethyl Phosphonium Sulfate-Urea Pre-condensate Polymer (THPS-UPC)

Molecular Formula: C9H24N2P2SO11
Molecular Weight: 430.3

Cas No    063502-25-0
Properties
THPS-UPC has its characteristic odor. Non-flammable. Has mild acid properties and are considered corrosive. 
Properties
THPS-UPC is easily biodegradable and considered environmentally friendly compound

Specifications
Appearance: Clear liquid with slight yellow color
Active matter (%): 69.0-71.0
Active P(%): 9.9-10.5
PH: 3.0-5.0
Specific Gravity (25℃) (g/ml): 1.350-1.400

Uses    
Textile Flame Retardant Product. Especially effective on cotton fabric textiles and imparts
permanent cloth flame retardancy even after cleaning 50 times with an automatic washing machine


Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium chloride-urea condensate is the major commercially available flame retardant product.
Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride-urea
condensate (THPC-urea)
Chemical formula: [C4H12O4P.CH4N2O.Cl]x
Chemical name: Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride-urea copolymer
CAS registry number: 27104-30-9
CAS name: Phosphonium, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)-chloride, polymer with urea

Wetting the treated fabric with water, beverages, liquid foods or urine does not release the flame retardant polymer. 
The lack of water solubility and the physical entrapment of the polymer inside the fibres (which make up the treated fabric) make the polymer resistant to removal by cleaning materials that a consumer might normally employ to clean these flame-retardant-treated articles.
Industrial work clothing treated with THPC-urea condensate flame retardants have been shown to be flame resistant after 50–100 washings or dry cleanings, demonstrating the durability of the polymer to leaching and washing


The primary use for AQUCAR THPS 75 Water Treatment Microbiocide is controlling microbial growth in oil field applications such as injection water systems, drilling muds, packer fluids, completion and workover fluids. The unique mechanism of action of THPS enables it to not only kill microorganisms but also reduce hydrogen sulfide concentrations.
THPS can also dissolve iron sulfide in the presence of ammonium ions.

AQUCAR THPS 75 Water Treatment Microbiocide is very suitable for protecting against microbial contamination in water treatment applications such as industrial cooling water, paper and paperboard manufacturing. However, it must not be used in the manufacture of paper and paperboard products that may come in contact with food.
Recommended use levels are included in the table below. Use this product in a manner consistent with its product information and labeling.


AQUCAR THPS 75
For enhanced oil recovery systems
Injection Water/Waterfloods
Shock dose (initial dose) 93 to 350 ppm

• Add for 2 to 6 hours
Maintenance dose (weekly or as needed to maintain control) 14 to 98 ppm

• Add for 2 to 6 hours
Continuous dose 14 to 67 ppm
Oil and Gas Pipelines
Shock dose (initial dose) 93 to 350 ppm

• Add for 2 to 6 hours
Continuous dose 14 to 100 ppm
Drilling Muds, Packer Fluids, Completion & Workover Fluids
Shock dose (based on severity of contamination) 33 to 1400 ppm


Gas Storage Wells & Well Systems
Individual injection wells should be treated at the same application rates and in the same manner as described under Injection Water.
Individual drips to produce sufficient concentration when diluted by the water present in the drip (repeat as needed to maintain control) 33 to 133 ppm


Antimicrobial Activity
Applications/
Directions for Use

Well Remediation Operations
Shut-in Treatment (at least 6 hours) 13.3 to 40%
Hydrotesting
Slug Dose to produce a concentration in the test water (depending on water quality and test duration) 67 to 667 ppm

Pipeline Pigging and Scraping Operation
Slug Dose to produce residual a concentration at the discharge point or pig trap (depending on water quality and test duration) 0.007 to 0.07%

For cooling tower waters
Shock dose (initial dose) for heavily fouled systems or at start-up 93 to 350 ppm or where the build up of biomass is apparent:
• Clean heavily fouled systems before starting treatment
• Add of AQUCAR™ THPS 75 Water Treatment Microbiocide at a point (such as water basin, box etc) in the distribution system that will lead to rapid distribution
• Repeat 2 - 3 times each week until fouling is under control 


Maintenance dose (after initial treatment)
• Add AQUCAR THPS 75 Water Treatment Microbiocide weekly 35 to 140 ppm
• Based on 4-7 days turnover/blow down for water in system
• For systems with higher turnover of water (1-3 days) use two to three times per week
For paper mill waters, dose based on dry paper weight
Maintenance dose 19 to 65 ppm
Maintenance dose with intermittent addition 33 to 1333 ppm
• Clean heavily fouled systems before starting treatment
Maintenance dose with continuous addition 53 to 187 ppm
• Clean heavily fouled systems before starting treatment 

Store AQUCAR THPS 75 Water Treatment Microbiocide in a cool dry area away from direct sunlight and heat to avoid deterioration. Avoid temperatures above 160°C (320°F). 
The active ingredient (THPS) decomposes at elevated temperatures with generation of gas which can cause pressure buildup in closed systems. Exposure to air can decrease the shelf life of the product. Ensure that storage conditions are in conformance with applicable legal,fire, insurance and government requirements.
If excess AQUCAR THPS 75 Water Treatment Microbiocide cannot be used according to use instructions, it must be sent to an approved waste disposal facility. 
Because disposal regulations can vary by location, the regulatory authority for waste disposal in your location will need to be contacted for guidance. Do not dispose of this product by dumping into lakes, streams, ponds, estuaries, oceans, sewers, ditches, or into soil at any time.
Dispose of unused product and contaminated soils as permitted by applicable government requirements.
Containers should be triple rinsed with water (or equivalent) and sent to an approved waste handling facility for disposal. Send waste liquid from cleaning of used containers to an approved waste handling facility.

Prompt and cautious attention to drips, splashes and spills is important to reduce the potential for unnecessary exposure to AQUCAR THPS 75 Water Treatment Microbiocide.
Avoiding container punctures and mishandling of containers are important elements in preventing spills. 
Storing containers in contained areas and use of spill containment pallets will control the size of potential spills. 
A spill response plan should be in place to address both small and large spills. The plan should include instructions for easy access to personal protective equipment (PPE) and specific equipment for cleaning up the spill.
Storage, Spill
Cleanup and
Disposal Guidance
Disposal of
Excess Product
Disposal of
Product Containers
Spill Handling

 
General guidance
for spill cleanup
Chemical Deactivation
Product Stewardship

Immediate actions:
• Have people leave the affected area immediately
• A person familiar with your spill response plan should lead the cleanup
• Do not re-renter the area without designated spill response personal protective equipment which should be assigned based on the hazards of THPS and protection below the occupational exposure limit ( 2 mg/m3 – 8 hour time weighted average)

General Clean Up Procedure:
• Cover the spill with appropriate inert material such as clay, sand or Vermiculite.
• Collect material in appropriate container, rinse the remaining residue with water using additional absorbent to collect the waste. 
Repeat as needed until all spilled material and residue has been collected. 
Deactivate large spills prior to collection. 
Small spills may be deactivated after collection.
• Once collected, close containers and label for transit to an approved waste disposal facility.
The active ingredient in AQUCAR™ THPS 75 Water Treatment Microbiocide can be deactivated with alkaline sodium bisulfite. 
Use 1.36 Kg (3 pounds) of sodium bisulfite (100% basis) to each 0.45 Kg (1 pound) of AQUCAR THPS 75 Water Treatment Microbiocide to ensure complete deactivation

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