TITANIUM DIOXIDE

Titanium Dioxide = TiO2 = E171 =  Titania = Titanium(IV) oxide

CAS Number: 13463-67-7
EC / List no.: 236-675-5
Molecular Weight: 79.87
Molecular formula: TiO2

Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO2. 
Titanium dioxide is used as a food coloring, it has E number E171. 
When Titanium dioxide is used as a pigment, it is called titanium white, Pigment White 6 (PW6), or CI 77891. 
Generally, Titanium dioxide is sourced from ilmenite, rutile, and anatase. 
E171 has a wide range of applications, including paint, sunscreen, and food coloring. 
Titanium dioxide is a naturally-occurring mineral found in the earth’s crust. 
Because of Titanium dioxides white color, opaqueness, and ability to refract light, the ingredient is often used as a pigment, brightener, and opacifier, which is an ingredient that makes a formulation more opaque. 
Titanium dioxide is also a UV filter and so is an effective active ingredient in sunscreens. 
Titanium dioxide is often used in cosmetic loose and pressed powders, especially “mineral powder” cosmetics, in addition to other cosmetics, lotions, toothpaste, and soap.
Titanium dioxide, also called titania, (TiO2), a white, opaque, naturally occurring mineral existing in a number of crystalline forms, the most important of which are rutile and anatase. 
These naturally occurring oxide, Titanium dioxide , forms can be mined and serve as a source for commercial titanium. 
Titanium dioxide is odourless and absorbent. 
Titanium dioxides most important function in powder form is as a widely used pigment for lending whiteness and opacity.

Titanium dioxide is a chemical used as a pigment to make products appear white or non-transparent.  These include some sunscreens, cosmetics, and art products.Titanium dioxide is a chemical used as a pigment to make products appear white or non-transparent.  
Titania include some sunscreens, cosmetics, and art products.
Titanium dioxide is a common additive in many food, personal care, and other consumer products used by people, which after use can enter the sewage system and, subsequently, enter the environment as treated effluent discharged to surface waters or biosolids applied to agricultural land, incinerated wastes, or landfill solids. 
Titanium dioxide occurs in nature as the minerals rutile and anatase. 
E171 is mainly sourced from ilmenite ore. This is the most widespread form of titanium dioxide-bearing ore around the world. 
Rutile is the next most abundant and contains around 98% titanium dioxide in the ore. 
The metastable anatase and brookite phases convert irreversibly to the equilibrium rutile phase upon heating above temperatures in the range 600–800 °C (1,110–1,470 °F).

Titanium, the ninth most common element in the Earth’s crust, is a metal commonly found in plants and animals. 
Titanium naturally interacts with oxygen to form titanium oxides, commonly found in ores, indigenous dusts, sands and soils.
Many people are familiar with titanium dioxide as an active ingredient in sunscreen. 
Titanium dioxide works as a UV filtering ingredient in sunscreen – it helps protect a person’s skin by blocking absorption of the sun’s ultraviolet light that can cause sunburn and is also linked to skin cancer. 

Uses & Benefits of Titanium dioxide
Pure titanium dioxide is a fine, white powder that provides a bright, white pigment. 
Titanium dioxide has been used for a century in a range of industrial and consumer products, including paints, coatings, adhesives, paper, plastics and rubber, printing inks, coated fabrics and textiles, as well as ceramics, floor coverings, roofing materials, cosmetics, toothpaste, soap, water treatment agents, pharmaceuticals, food colorants, automotive products, sunscreen and catalysts.
Titanium dioxide is produced in two main forms. 
The primary form, comprising over 98 percent of total production, is pigment grade titanium dioxide. 
The pigmentary form makes use of titanium dioxide’s excellent light-scattering properties in applications that require white opacity and brightness. 
The other form of Titanium dioxide in which titanium dioxide is produced is as an ultrafine (nanomaterial) product. 
Titanium dioxide' this form is selected when different properties, such as transparency and maximum ultraviolet light absorption, are required, such as in cosmetic sunscreens.

Titanium Dioxide uses include general purpose pigment designed primarily for plastics applications, blow molding, blown film, cast film, injection molded products, pigment, plastic molding, plastics.
Personal Care: 
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is used in a variety of personal care products, including sunscreens, pressed powders, and loose powders, as a UV filter or whitening agent. 
In lotions and creams, it presents low risk of exposure.
Coatings and Construction: Titanium dioxide has resistance to discolouration under ultraviolet (UV) light in exposed applications. 
It is used in products such as paints and coatings, including glazes and enamels, plastics, paper, inks, fibres, foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.
Plastic Molding: 
Titanium dioxide possesses non-flammable, insoluble and durable qualities. 
TiO2 ensure UV rays do no penetrate and damage the product and its appearance.
Pharmaceutical Industry: 
Titanium dioxide is used as pigment for pharmaceutical products such as gelatin capsules, tablet coatings and syrups

Applications of Titanium dioxide:
The most important application areas of Titanium dioxide are paints and varnishes as well as paper and plastics, which account for about 80% of the world's titanium dioxide consumption. 
Other pigment applications of Titanium dioxide is such as printing inks, fibers, rubber, cosmetic products, and food account for another 8%. 
Titanium dioxide is used in other applications, for instance the production of technical pure titanium, glass and glass ceramics, electrical ceramics, metal patinas, catalysts, electric conductors, and chemical intermediates.

Uses of titanium dioxide
In ceramic glazes, titanium dioxide acts as an opacifier and seeds crystal formation.
Titanium dioxide is used as a tattoo pigment and in styptic pencils. Titanium dioxide is produced in varying particle sizes which are both oil and water dispersible, and in certain grades for the cosmetic industry. 
Titanium dioxide is also a common ingredient in toothpaste.
The exterior of the Saturn V rocket was painted with titanium dioxide; this later allowed astronomers to determine that J002E3 was the S-IVB stage from Apollo 12 and not an asteroid.

Pigment-grade Titanium Dioxide
Pigment-grade titanium dioxide is used in a range of applications that require high opacity and brightness. 
In fact, most surfaces and items that are white and pastel, and even dark shades of color, contain titanium dioxide. 
Pigment-grate titanium dioxide is used in a range of applications, including:
Paints and Coatings: Titanium dioxide provides opacity and durability, while helping to ensure the longevity of the paint and protection of the painted surface.  
Plastics, Adhesives and Rubber: Titanium dioxide can help minimize the brittleness, fading and cracking that can occur in plastics and other materials as a result of light exposure.
Cosmetics: Pigment-grade titanium dioxide is use in some cosmetics to aid in hiding blemishes and brightening the skin. 
Titanium dioxide allows for the use of thinner coatings of make-up material for the same desired effect.
Paper: Titanium dioxide is used to coat paper, making it whiter, brighter and more opaque.
Food Contact Materials and Ingredients: The opacity to visible and ultraviolet light offered by titanium dioxide protects food, beverages, supplements and pharmaceuticals from premature degradation, enhancing the longevity of the product. 
Specific classes of high purity pigment-grade titanium dioxide are also used in drug tablets, capsule coatings and as a decorative aid in some foods.

Titanium dioxide is a kind of pigment made by vitriol method.
Zincoxide is used as Titanium dioxides crystal lattice stabilizer. 
Titanium dioxide's surface is treated with inorganic composite consisting of titaniuin dioxide.silica and aluminum oxide.
Titanium dioxide is coated with organic componnds Coarse powders are renloved off in production so that particle size distribution is uniforln.
TiO2 has excellent luster.outstanding hiding powder,colorability and good dispersibility.
Performances of the pigment achieve or surpass that of imported similar products.

Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) is the main white pigment widely used across many packaged food products, including confections, soups, fillings, sauces, pet food, and powdered soft drinks to name a few. 
Titania has been a go-to ingredient for many years due to excellent stability in heat, light, pH, oil, and moisture but has been at the center of many headlines lately.

Pigment:
First mass-produced in 1916, titanium dioxide is the most widely used white pigment because of its brightness and very high refractive index, in which it is surpassed only by a few other materials. 
Titanium dioxide crystal size is ideally around 220 nm (measured by electron microscope) to optimize the maximum reflection of visible light. 
However, abnormal grain growth is often observed in titanium dioxide, particularly in its rutile phase. 
The occurrence of abnormal grain growth brings about a deviation of a small number of crystallites from the mean crystal size and modifies the physical behaviour of TiO2. 
The optical properties of the finished pigment of Titanium dioxide are highly sensitive to purity. 
Titanium dioxide, as little as a few parts per million (ppm) of certain metals (Cr, V, Cu, Fe, Nb) can disturb the crystal lattice so much that the effect can be detected in quality control.
Approximately 4.6 million tons of pigmentary TiO2 are used annually worldwide, and this number is expected to increase as use continues to rise.
TiO2 is also an effective opacifier in powder form, where it is employed as a pigment to provide whiteness and opacity to products such as paints, coatings, plastics, papers, inks, foods, medicines (i.e. pills and tablets), and most toothpastes; in 2019 it was present in two thirds of toothpastes on the French market.
In paint, Titanium dioxide is often referred to offhandedly as "brilliant white", "the perfect white", "the whitest white", or other similar terms. 
Titanium dioxide opacity is improved by optimal sizing of the titanium dioxide particles.

Molar mass: 79.866 g/mol
Appearance: White solid
Odor: Odorless
Density    :
4.23 g/cm3 (rutile)
3.78 g/cm3 (anatase)
Melting point: 1,843 °C (3,349 °F; 2,116 K)
Boiling point: 2,972 °C (5,382 °F; 3,245 K)
Solubility in water: Insoluble
Appearance: Fine White Powder
Solubilities: Insoluble in Water
Boiling point: 3000oC
Freezing point: 1843oC
Molecular weight: 79.866 g/mol
Weight per gallon: 35.0154 lb/gallon
Class: Titanium Dioxide, Titanium Dioxide Rutile Grade
Grades: Industrial, Technical, NF Grade

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is used in a variety of personal care products, including sunscreens, pressed powders, and loose powders, as a UV filter or whitening agent. 
In lotions and creams, TiO2 presents low risk of exposure. 
However, when TiO2 is inhalable—as it may be in powders—it is considered a possible carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer.
Nanoized TiO2 does not appear to confer any unique health hazards.

Ultrafine-grade, or Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide
Ultrafine-grades of titanium dioxide are most commonly used in the following specialty applications:  
Sunscreen: Nanoscale titanium dioxide becomes transparent to visible light while serving as an efficient UV light absorber. 
Because the particle size is so small, nano-titanium dioxide does not reflect visible light, but does absorb UV light, enabling a transparent barrier that protects the skin from the sun’s harmful rays. 
According to the Skin Cancer Foundation, using sunscreens containing titanium dioxide can help prevent the occurrence of skin cancer.
Catalysts: Nanoscale titanium dioxide is used as a support material for catalyst applications. 
Major uses include in the automotive industry to remove harmful exhaust gas emissions and in power stations to remove nitrous oxides.

What is titanium dioxide?
Titanium is a common metal element frequently found throughout nature. 
In our environment, titanium is naturally exposed to oxygen, forming titanium oxides that we find in many minerals, dusts, sands, and soils.
Titanium dioxide is one of the many oxides formed naturally in our environment. 
Titanium dioxide is then processed and refined to meet stringent safety guidelines based on the end-use for the mineral.
Titanium dioxide is an insoluble mineral, meaning it cannot dissolve in water.

What does titanium dioxide do?
Titanium dioxide can amplify and brighten white opacity because of its exceptional light-scattering properties. 
In food and drugs, these properties of TiO2 help to define colors clearly and can prevent products from UV degradation.
In cosmetics, titanium dioxide’s properties enhance coloration and can help protect skin from damaging UVA and UVB rays.

What is an exposure route?
Exposure routes are the pathways that allow ingredients to enter our bodies. 
Primary exposure routes include:
-our digestive tract through eating and drinking.
-topically via our skin.
-through our respiratory tract by breathing.
-occasionally, through our blood and eyes. 

How are we typically exposed to titanium dioxide?
There are many ways we’re exposed to titanium dioxide in our everyday life. 
Below are the most common ways we come into contact with titanium dioxide.

What is titanium dioxide used for?
Titanium dioxides ultra-white colour, highly-refractive and UV-resistant properties make TiO2 enormously popular with both the industrial and consumer sectors, appearing in dozens of products that people use and see on a daily basis.
Titanium dioxide used also in paints, catalytic coatings, plastics, paper, pharmaceuticals and sunscreen, some lesser-known applications include packaging, commercial printing inks, other cosmetics, toothpastes, and food (where it is listed as the food colourant E171).

Is titanium dioxide safe?
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has assessed the safety of titanium dioxide pigment as a color additive in food, drug and cosmetic applications, and as an ingredient in sunscreen products. 
FDA has also issued guidance clarifying the safe use of titanium dioxide pigment as a food colorant, and has stated that titanium dioxide may be safely used in cosmetics, including cosmetics intended for use around the eye.

What is titanium dioxide used in sunscreen?
Titanium dioxide is included in FDA’s list of acceptable active ingredients in sunscreen products. 
According to FDA, active ingredients in sunscreen such as titanium dioxide protect your skin from the sun’s harmful UV rays. 

Are there any health concerns associated with exposure to titanium dioxide?
The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified titanium dioxide as “possibly carcinogenic to humans,” based on studies that showed increased lung tumors in rats associated with titanium dioxide inhalation. 
However, extensive studies on titanium dioxide industry workers do not suggest an association between occupational exposure to titanium dioxide and an increased risk for cancer in humans.

What are the differences between pigment-grade titanium dioxide and titanium dioxide nanomaterials?
Pigment-grade titanium dioxide is manufactured at a specific particle size distribution to optimize the scattering of visible light and enhance surface opacity. 
Titanium dioxide is produced primarily in the pigmentary form (over 98 percent of total production), which makes use of its excellent light-scattering properties for a range of applications that require opacity and brightness.
Titanium dioxide nanomaterials are purposefully made in a much smaller particle size distribution than pigmentary particles and are transparent and more effective as UV absorbers or photocatalysts.
The transparency and UV absorbance allow for effective use as a protective ingredient for sunscreens.

Why is titanium dioxide used in toothpaste?
Titanium dioxide is often used to impart whiteness to food products, cosmetics and personal care items, like toothpaste. 
FDA has assessed the safety of titanium dioxide as a color additive and has issued regulations approving the ingredient for these purposes.

Titanium dioxide in food:
In food, TiO2 is used in pigment grade (see below) and called E171. 
In many food products it acts as a whitener, but also as a colour and texture enhancer. 
E171 can give smoothness, when used in some chocolates, or can help give an abrasive effect, as used in some sweets.

Environmental benefits of Titanium dioxide:
Due to Titanium dioxides various properties, titanium dioxide has been found to be useful for many different environmentally friendly applications.
When Titanium dioxide is used in a paint coating on the outside of buildings in warm and tropical climates, the white, light-reflecting qualities of TiO2 can lead to considerable energy savings, as it reduces the need for air-conditioning.
Also, Titanium dioxides opaqueness means Titanium dioxide doesn’t need to be applied in thick or double coats, improving resource efficiency and avoiding waste.
As a photocatalyst, titanium dioxide can be added to paints, cements, windows and tiles in order to decompose environmental pollutants. 
As a nanomaterial (see below), Titanium dioxide can also be used as a crucial DeNOx catalyst in exhaust gas systems for cars, trucks and power plants, thus minimising their environmental impact.
Researchers are discovering new potential uses for titanium dioxide in this form. 
Titanium dioxide includes clean energy production.
As a photocatalyst, Titanium dioxide has also been shown that TiO2 can carry out hydrolysis (breaking water into hydrogen and oxygen), and the collected hydrogen can be used as a fuel.
Also, a type of solar power cell available for use – known as Grätzel cells – utilises nano-grade titanium dioxide to produce solar energy in a process similar to photosynthesis in plants.

Digestive System Exposure:
We’re most often exposed to E171 through the foods we ingest. 
We find E171 in many food products, like popsicles, ice cream, gum, and more. 
Another way we ingest E171 is through pharmaceutical drugs. 
Many pills and capsules contain E171 as an inactive ingredient. 
Less frequently, we ingest E171 through liquids such as salad dressing, dairy products, and some artificially colored drinks. 
Since E171 is insoluble, manufacturers must use other stabilizers to keep E171 suspended in liquids as an emulsion; otherwise, it will settle to the bottom.

Topical Exposure
We apply titanium dioxide to our skin in the form of sunscreens, makeup, lip balms, nail polish, and other cosmetic products.
We even use titanium dioxide when brushing our teeth as it’s found in many toothpastes.

Respiratory Exposure
In industrial settings, people can be exposed to titanium dioxide through inhalation. 
Inhalation exposure to titanium dioxide is exceedingly rare for most people.

Why does the exposure route matter and does titanium dioxide harm our health?
How we’re exposed to an ingredient matters greatly in terms of our long-term health.
Research shows that inhaling titanium dioxide particles in significant quantities over time can cause adverse health outcomes. 
Unless you work in an industrial setting, inhaling substantial amounts of titanium dioxide is highly unlikely.
Research supports that applying titanium dioxide to the skin in the form of sunscreens, makeup, and other topical products does not pose any health risks.
Overwhelmingly, research that’s relevant to human’s eating patterns shows us that E171 is safe when ingested normally through foods and drugs (1,2,3).
Other research suggests that E171 could cause harm; however, those research processes did not take into consideration how people are typically exposed to E171. 
Research that adds E171 to drinking water, utilizes direct injections, or gives research animals E171 through a feeding apparatus is not replicating typical human exposure.

Let’s break this down further. 
In food products, E171 is not a singular ingredient; it’s always combined with other ingredients (e.g., proteins and fats) in the food product. 
Digesting food is a slow process for the body compared to drinking a beverage, which passes much more quickly through the body (1,2).
When E171 is part of a food product, it passes through the digestive system without causing harm because E171 combines with the other ingredients.
In some studies, E171 was given to animals in drinking water without the stabilizers that keep E171 suspended in the liquid. 
Without stabilizers, E171 can settle and prevent the ingredient from combining with surrounding ingredients. 
When E171 isn’t combined with other ingredients, it can drastically alter the way it’s processed in the body, which could produce adverse health impacts.
However, humans are not exposed to E171 in drinking water at any significant quantity over a long duration, so this potential effect is not relevant to the human experience. 
It’s important to understand that a potential hazard is not the same thing as an actual risk.

How to Approach Titanium Dioxide in Products?
Avoid titanium dioxide in powdered cosmetics, including loose and pressed powders, eyeshadows, and blush.
Some sunscreens will say “non-nano” on the label, choose those, and if the label doesn’t specify if titanium dioxide is nanoparticle size, call or email the company and ask the particle size of the active sunscreen ingredient.
Look for the MADE SAFE seal on products, which means they’re made without unsafe titanium dioxide and other ingredients linked to human health and ecosystem harm.

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is considered as an inert and safe material and has been used in many applications for decades. 
However, with the development of nanotechnologies TiO2 nanoparticles, with numerous novel and useful properties, are increasingly manufactured and used. 
Therefore increased human and environmental exposure can be expected, which has put TiO2 nanoparticles under toxicological scrutiny. 
Mechanistic toxicological studies show that TiO2 nanoparticles predominantly cause adverse effects via induction of oxidative stress resulting in cell damage, genotoxicity, inflammation, immune response etc. 
The extent and type of damage strongly depends on physical and chemical characteristics of TiO2 nanoparticles, which govern their bioavailability and reactivity. 
Based on the experimental evidence from animal inhalation studies TiO2 nanoparticles are classified as “possible carcinogenic to humans” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and as occupational carcinogen by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 
The studies on dermal exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles, which is in humans substantial through the use of sunscreens, generally indicate negligible transdermal penetration; however data are needed on long-term exposure and potential adverse effects of photo-oxidation products. 
Although TiO2 is permitted as an additive (E171) in food and pharmaceutical products we do not have reliable data on its absorption, distribution, excretion and toxicity on oral exposure. 
TiO2 may also enter environment, and while it exerts low acute toxicity to aquatic organisms, upon long-term exposure it induces a range of sub-lethal effects.
Conclusions
Until relevant toxicological and human exposure data that would enable reliable risk assessment are obtained, TiO2 nanoparticles should be used with great care.

What are the physical properties of titanium dioxide?
Titanium dioxide has a number of unique characteristics that make it ideally suited to many different applications.
Titanium dioxide has an extremely high melting point of 1,843ºC and boiling point of 2,972ºC, so occurs naturally as a solid, and, even in its particle form, it is insoluble in water. TiO2 is also an insulator.
Unlike other white materials that may appear slightly yellow in light, because of the way TiO2 absorbs UV light, it doesn’t have this appearance and appears as pure white.
Importantly, titanium dioxide also has a very high refractive index (its ability to scatter light), even higher than diamond. This makes it an incredibly bright substance and an ideal material for aesthetic design use.
Another crucial property of titanium dioxide is that it can show photocatalytic activity under UV light. This makes it effective for environmental purification, for different kinds of protective coatings, sterilisation and anti-fogging surfaces, and even in cancer therapy.

Brilliant:
Brilliance, colour strength, opacity and pearlescence unlike any other substances.
Resistant:
Stability to heat, light and weathering prevents degradation of paint, in films and embrittlement of plastics. 
Protective:
Ability to scatter and absorb UV radiation makes TiO2 a crucial ingredient for sunscreen, protecting the skin from harmful, cancer-causing UV rays. 
Powerful:
Titanium dioxide is used as a photocatalyst in solar panels as well as reducing pollutants in the air.
 
What are the forms of titanium dioxide?
TiO2 possesses different qualities depending on whether it is produced as pigment-grade or nanomaterial-grade. Both forms are tasteless, odourless and insoluble.
Pigment-grade TiO2 particles are approximately 200-350nm in dimension and this form accounts for 98 percent of total production. It is used mainly for light scattering and surface opacity applications, such as paint – this includes its use as a base for various colour paints or as a standalone ‘brilliant’ white.
Nano, or ultrafine TiO2 comprises of primary particles sized less than 100nm. In this grade, titanium dioxide is transparent (colourless) and boasts improved UV scattering and absorbing properties compared with larger particle-size, pigment-grade TiO2.

What is titanium dioxide made of?
Titanium is one of the most common metals on earth, but it does not occur naturally in this elemental form. Titanium dioxide – also known as titanium (IV) oxide or titania – is the naturally occurring compound created when titanium reacts with the oxygen in the air. As an oxide, titanium is found in minerals in the earth’s crust. It also found with other elements, including calcium and iron.
Its chemical formula is TiO2, which means it consists of one titanium atom and two oxygen atoms (hence dioxide). It has a CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service) registration number of 13463-67-7.
TiO2 is typically thought of as being chemically inert, meaning it doesn’t react with other chemicals and is, therefore, a stable substance that can be used in many different industries and for a variety of applications.

Where does titanium dioxide come from?
Titanium dioxide itself was officially first named and created in a laboratory in the late 1800s. It wasn’t mass manufactured until the early 20th century, when it started to take over as a safer alternative to other white pigments.
The element titanium and the compound TiO2 are found around the world, linked to other elements such as iron, in several kinds of rock and mineral sands (including a component of some beach sands). Titanium most commonly occurs as the mineral ilmenite (a titanium-iron oxide mineral) and sometimes as the mineral rutile, a form of TiO2. These inert molecular compounds must be separated through a chemical process to create pure titanium dioxide.

How is titanium dioxide extracted?
How pure titanium dioxide is extracted from titanium-containing molecules depends on the composition of the original mineral ores or feedstock. Two methods are used to manufacture pure TiO2: a sulphate process and a chloride process.
The principal natural source of titanium dioxide is mined ilmenite ore, which contains 45-60 percent TiO2. From this, or an enriched derivative (known as titanium slag), pure TiO2 can be produced using the sulphate or chloride process.

Sulphate and chloride methods
Of the two methods of extraction, the sulphate process is currently the most popular method of producing TiO2 in the European Union, accounting for 70 percent of European sources. The remaining 30 percent is the result of the chloride process. On a global level, it is estimated about 40-45 percent of the world’s production is based on the chloride process.
As a widely used substance with multiple applications, research is being carried out to improve the production process to reduce the levels of chemicals used and waste produced, and to recycle any by-products.

The future of titanium dioxide
For a substance that is relatively unknown to the public, it’s amazing how many everyday products titanium dioxide can be found in. Because of its many varied properties, our skin, cities, cars, homes, food and environment are made brighter, safer, more resilient and cleaner by titanium dioxide. With a legacy of 100 years of safe commercial use, titanium dioxide is only going to become more vital as our environment faces greater challenges from a growing population.

Where does Titanium dioxide come from and why do we need Titanium dioxide?
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a bright white substance used primarily as a vivid colourant in a wide array of common products. 
Titanium dioxide also has a number of lesser-known qualities that make it an extremely useful and important ingredient in our battle to fight climate change and prevent skin cancer.
Prized for Titanium dioxides ultra-white colour, ability to scatter light and UV-resistance, TiO2 is a popular ingredient, appearing in hundreds of products we see and use every day, bringing significant benefits to our economy and overall quality of life.
-Across the EU, applications for TiO2 include paints, plastics, paper, pharmaceuticals, sunscreen and food.
-As a photocatalyst, titanium dioxide can be added to paints, cements, windows and tiles in order to decompose environmental pollutants.
-As a white pigment, TiO2 is one of the most important raw materials for paints and coatings.

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most widely used white pigment in the world. 
Titanium dioxide's the mainstay of our range and we’re proud to be a front-runner in this highly specialized sector.
Titanium is the 9th most abundant element in the world and titanium dioxide is the oxide of the metal, which occurs naturally in two main forms: rutile and anatase. 
Titanium dioxide is then processed to remove any impurities, creating an incredibly useful, multi-purpose, white pigment.
Odorless and absorbent, TiO2 has a high refractive index – meaning it has excellent light scattering capabilities. 
Ideal for inclusion in a variety of consumer and industrial products, TiO2 is particularly well suited to applications that need to deliver high levels of opacity, brightness and ultraviolet (UV) protection.

Why is TiO2 used in cosmetics and personal care products?
Titanium dioxide is used as a colorant to make cosmetics and personal care products that are applied to the skin (including the eye area), nails, and lips white in color.  
TiO2 helps to increase the opaqueness, and reduce the transparency of product formulas. 
Titanium dioxide also absorbs, reflects, or scatters light (including ultraviolet radiation from the sun), which can cause products to deteriorate.
Titanium dioxide is an important active ingredient used in some sunscreen products. 
Sunscreens are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. 
As such, they must be shown to be safe and effective and must comply with all other requirements listed in the FDA's OTC sunscreen monograph.  
Individual sunscreen active ingredients are reviewed by FDA and only those that are on FDA's monograph approved list may be used in sunscreen products marketed in the U.S.
Titanium dioxide is generally a white powder that gives products a white color. 
When TiO2 is made into a very fine powder, it no longer gives the product a white color. 
TiO2 is this fine material, sometimes called microfine or nanoscale titanium dioxide that is used in many OTC sunscreen products.  
Use of this ultrafine material enables the sunscreens to be applied as a clear film that consumers prefer over the antiquated, white opaque lotions.  
The availability of microfine titanium dioxide in sunscreen products helps increase consumer acceptance and usage. Practicing sun safety, including proper sunscreen use, is important in helping to reduce the incidence of skin cancer.
As a pigment, titanium dioxide is an FDA-approved food additive that is used to enhance the white color of certain foods, such as dairy products and candy, and to add brightness to toothpaste and some medications.  
TiO2 is also used as a flavor enhancer in a variety of non-white foods, including dried vegetables, nuts, seeds, soups, and mustard, as well as beer and wine.
Titanium Dioxide is used as an opacifying agent and a colorant. 
In OTC drug products, TiO2 is used as a sunscreen agent.

Titanium dioxide is a mineral composed of titanium and oxygen in the form of a white powder. 
Titania can be found in cosmetic products like sunscreen.
To identify titanium dioxide in our products, take a look at the ingredients list on packaging. 
Titania can be found under the names TITANIUM DIOXIDE, TITANIUM DIOXIDE [NANO], CI 77891.

Production of Titanium dioxide:
The production method depends on the feedstock. 
The most common mineral source is ilmenite. 
The abundant rutile mineral sand can also be purified with the chloride process or other processes. 
Ilmenite is converted into pigment grade titanium dioxide via either the sulfate process or the chloride process. 
Both sulfate and chloride processes produce the titanium dioxide pigment in the rutile crystal form, but the Sulfate Process can be adjusted to produce the anatase form. 
Anatase, being softer, is used in fiber and paper applications. 
The Sulfate Process is run as a batch process; the Chloride Process is run as a continuous process.
Plants using the Sulfate Process require ilmenite concentrate (45-60% TiO2) or pretreated feedstocks as suitable source of titanium.
In the sulfate process, ilmenite is treated with sulfuric acid to extract iron(II) sulfate pentahydrate. 
The resulting synthetic rutile is further processed according to the specifications of the end user, i.e. pigment grade or otherwise.
In another method for the production of Titanium dioxide, synthetic rutile from ilmenite the Becher Process first oxidizes the ilmenite as a means to separate the iron component.
An alternative process, known as the chloride process converts ilmenite or other titanium sources to titanium tetrachloride via reaction with elemental chlorine, which is then purified by distillation, and reacted with oxygen to regenerate chlorine and produce the titanium dioxide. 
Titanium dioxide pigment can also be produced from higher titanium content feedstocks such as upgraded slag, rutile, and leucoxene via a chloride acid process.
The five largest TiO2 pigment processors are in 2019 Chemours, Cristal Global, Venator, Kronos, and Tronox, which is the largest one.
Major paint and coating company end users for pigment grade titanium dioxide include Akzo Nobel, PPG Industries, Sherwin Williams, BASF, Kansai Paints and Valspar.
Global TiO2 pigment demand for 2010 was 5.3 Mt with annual growth expected to be about 3-4%.

Classification of the substance or mixture:
Not a hazardous substance or mixture according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008.
Label elements:
Not a hazardous substance or mixture according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008.
Other hazards
This substance/mixture contains no components considered to be either persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT), or very persistent and very bioaccumulative (vPvB) at levels of 0.1% or higher.
Description of first-aid measures
If inhaled:
If breathed in, move person into fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration.
In case of skin contact:
Wash off with soap and plenty of water.
In case of eye contact:
Flush eyes with water as a precaution.
If swallowed:
Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Rinse mouth with water.

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a naturally occurring mineral that is mined from the earth, processed and refined, and added to a variety of foods, as well as other consumer products. 
White in color, Titanium dioxide is used to enhance the color and sheen of certain foods and is also key for food safety applications. 
In Titanium dioxides natural state it exists in different bulk crystalline forms, such as anatase and rutile, but during processing it is ground into a very fine powder.

Applications:
-Inks
-Plastics
-Paper
-Coatings
-We also offer a Titanium Dioxide paint pigment
Benefits:
-High durability
-Good dispersibility
-Low oil absorption
-Strong tinting strength
-Outstanding machining performance
-Blue undertone
-Good whiteness, brightness and gloss
-Outstanding weather resistance
-Interior coatings
-Leather
-Interior plastics
-Paper
-Films
-Waxes
-Rubber
-PU resin
-PE resin

Titanium dioxide is a naturally occurring mineral that's used in a variety of products, including sunscreens. 
Because of Titanium dioxides ability to help protect the skin from the widest spectrum of UV light, including both UVA and UVB rays, sunscreens with titanium dioxide are ideal for both daily and prolonged sun exposure. 
Titanium dioxide is often used in combination with zinc oxide.

A sunscreen with titanium dioxide can be used by anyone for daily use as well as during times of prolonged sun exposure. 
Sunscreen products with this ingredient can be suitable for all skin types, including babies and those with sensitive skin.

Thin films:
When deposited as a thin film, TiO2's refractive index and colour make it an excellent reflective optical coating for dielectric mirrors; TiO2 is also used in generating decorative thin films such as found in "mystic fire topaz".
Some grades of modified titanium based pigments as used in sparkly paints, plastics, finishes and cosmetics - these are man-made pigments whose particles have two or more layers of various oxides – often titanium dioxide, iron oxide or alumina – in order to have glittering, iridescent and or pearlescent effects similar to crushed mica or guanine-based products. 
In addition to these effects a limited colour change is possible in certain formulations depending on how and at which angle the finished product is illuminated and the thickness of the oxide layer in the pigment particle; one or more colours appear by reflection while the other tones appear due to interference of the transparent titanium dioxide layers.
In some products, the layer of titanium dioxide is grown in conjunction with iron oxide by calcination of titanium salts (sulfates, chlorates) around 800 °C. 
One example of a pearlescent pigment is Iriodin, based on mica coated with titanium dioxide or iron (III) oxide.
The iridescent effect in these titanium oxide particles is unlike the opaque effect obtained with usual ground titanium oxide pigment obtained by mining, in which case only a certain diameter of the particle is considered and the effect is due only to scattering.

TiO2 can form several different shapes, which have different properties. Some shapes can be converted to nanomaterials. 
Micronized TiO2 (also called “nano”) was introduced in the early 1990s.
Nanotechnology and micronization both refer to the practice of creating very small particles sizes of a given material. 
Nano usually refers to particles smaller than 100 nanometers; a nanometer is 1/1 billionth of a meter. 
At these small sizes, and at low concentrations, Titanium dioxide appears transparent, allowing for effective sunscreens that do not appear white.
TiO2 will be listed on product labels, but companies are not required to list ingredient size or structure. 
When Titanium dioxide is used in sunscreens, TiO2 is considered an active ingredient, which means the concentration must also be listed.

Titanium dioxide has been used as a bleaching and opacifying agent in porcelain enamels, giving them brightness, hardness, and acid resistance. 
In modern times Titanium dioxide is used in cosmetics, such as in skin care products and sunscreen lotions, with claims that titanium dioxide protects the skin from ultraviolet radiation because of its property to absorb ultraviolet light.
The photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide results in thin coatings exhibiting self-cleaning and disinfecting properties under exposure to ultraviolet radiation. 
Alloys are characterized by being lightweight and having very high tensile strength (even at high temperatures), high corrosion resistance, and an ability to withstand extreme temperatures and thus are used principally in aircraft, pipes for power plants, armour plating, naval ships, spacecraft, and missiles.
Titanium dioxide is a white inorganic compound, which has been used for around 100 years in a vast number of diverse products.
Titanium dioxide is depended on it for its non-toxic, non-reactive and luminous properties, which safely heighten the whiteness and brightness of many materials.
Titanium dioxide is the whitest and brightest of known pigments, with reflective qualities; it can also both scatter and absorb UV rays.

What Is Titanium dioxide?
Titanium dioxide is a naturally occurring mineral that is mined from the earth then further processed and purified for use in consumer products.  
Also known as titanium (IV) oxide or titania, Titanium dioxide is the naturally occurring compound comprised of the metal titanium and oxygen. 
Titanium dioxide is safely used in many products from paint and food to drugs and cosmetics. 
Titanium dioxide also plays a critical role in some sunscreen products as a way to protect skin from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet radiation. 

Titanium Dioxide is used to enhance patent (visible) ridge detail or other patterns found on relatively smooth dark surfaces.  
Titanium Dioxide is a suspension of Titanium Dioxide in a carrier liquid.  
The most common use for Titanium Dioxide at scenes is for the enhancement of patterns of dried blood.  
Enhancement occurs through the adherence of Titanium Dioxide to blood (and potentially other materials) stuck to the smooth surface.  
The white color of the Titanium Dioxide makes it appropriate for enhancement of patterns observed on relatively smooth dark surfaces, where it provides additional contrast. 
The methanol-based solution is preferred when the surface in question is suitable.

CAS Registry No.: 13463-67-7
Other Names: TiO2, Titanium white
Main Uses: Pigment, filler, opacifying agent
Appearance: White powder.
Odour: Odourless
Flash Point: Noncombustible
Vapor Pressure: 0 mm Hg at 68'F (20oC)
Specific Gravity: 3.9 to 4.2 (water = 1)
Water Solubility: Insoluble
Boiling Point: 4,532' to 5,432'F (2,500' to 3,000'C)
Melting Point: 3,326' to 3,362'F (1,830' to 1,850'C)
Molecular Weight: 79.9

TiO2 occurs in many silicates in nature, accounting for over 1% of the earth's crust. 
Titanium dioxide is manufactured using a variety of materials and processes. 
Titanium dioxide power is very fine-grained and it agglomerates, so glazes containing it need to be sieved to break down the small lumps (even a high speed propeller mixer often won't do it).
Although titanium is the strongest white pigment known for many uses, in ceramics the whiteness (and opacity) it imparts to glazes is due to its tendency to crystallize during cooling. 
While titanium dioxide is used in glazes as an opacifier, it is not as effective and easy-to-use as tin oxide or zircon. 
Titanium dioxide can be used as an additive to enliven (variegate, crystallize) the color and texture of glazes by introducing crystallization. 
Rutile works in a similar manner, typically both become saturated in the melt beyond about 5-6%, producing a dry and unstable glaze surface. 
In moderate amounts it encourages strong melts, durable surfaces and rich visual textures.
Titanium is available both as raw and surface treated products. 
Non-pigmentary grades flow more freely in the dry state. 
Self opacified enamels are made by adding titanium during smelting to super saturation. 
Upon firing the enamel, the titanium crystallizes or precipitates to produce the opacity. 
Titania is also used in dry process enameling on cast iron appliances for its effect on acid resistance, color and texture. 
In glass, non-pigmentary titanium dioxide increases refractive index, intensifies color.

Inhalation: At high concentrations: can irritate the nose and throat.
Skin Contact: May cause mild irritation.
Eye Contact: May cause slight irritation as a "foreign object". 
Tearing, blinking and mild temporary pain may occur as particles are rinsed from the eye by tears.
Ingestion: Not harmful.
Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure: Conclusions cannot be drawn from the limited studies available.
Carcinogenicity: Possible carcinogen. May cause cancer based on animal information. Has been associated with: lung cancer.
Teratogenicity / Embryotoxicity: Not known to harm the unborn child.
Reproductive Toxicity: Not known to be a reproductive hazard.
Mutagenicity: Not known to be a mutagen.
Inhalation: Take precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment). 
Move victim to fresh air.
Skin Contact: Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. 
Wash gently and thoroughly with lukewarm, gently flowing water and non-abrasive soap for 5 minutes.
Eye Contact: Quickly and gently blot or brush chemical off the face. 
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes, while holding the eyelid(s) open. 
If irritation or pain persists, see a doctor.
Ingestion: Have victim rinse mouth with water. 
Call a Poison Centre or doctor if the victim feels unwell.
First Aid Comments: If exposed or concerned, see a doctor for medical advice. 
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the chemical and its conditions of use in the workplace.
Chemical Stability: Normally stable.
Conditions to Avoid: Generation of dust.
Incompatible Materials: Chemically stable. Not corrosive to metals.
Hazardous Decomposition Products: None known.
Possibility of Hazardous Reactions: None known.

Sunscreen and UV blocking pigments
In cosmetic and skin care products, titanium dioxide is used as a pigment, sunscreen and a thickener. 
As a sunscreen, ultrafine TiO2 is used, which is notable in that combined with ultrafine zinc oxide, it is considered to be an effective sunscreen that lowers the incidence of sun burns and minimizes the premature photoaging, photocarcinogenesis and immunosuppression associated with long term excess sun exposure.
Sometimes these UV blockers are combined with iron oxide pigments in sunscreen to increase visible light protection.
Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are generally considered to be less harmful to coral reefs than sunscreens that include chemicals such as oxybenzone, octocrylene and octinoxate.
Nanosized titanium dioxide is found in the majority of physical sunscreens because of its strong UV light absorbing capabilities and its resistance to discolouration under ultraviolet light. 
This advantage enhances Titanium dioxides stability and ability to protect the skin from ultraviolet light. 
Nano-scaled (particle size of 20–40 nm) titanium dioxide particles are primarily used in sunscreen lotion because they scatter visible light much less than titanium dioxide pigments, and can give UV protection.
Sunscreens designed for infants or people with sensitive skin are often based on titanium dioxide and/or zinc oxide, as these mineral UV blockers are believed to cause less skin irritation than other UV absorbing chemicals. 
Nano-TiO2 blocks both UV-A and UV-B radiation, which is used in sunscreens and other cosmetic products. 
Titanium dioxide is safe to use and it is better to environment than organic UV-absorbers.
The risk assessment of different titanium dioxide nanomaterials in sunscreen is currently evolving as nano-sized TiO2 is different from the well-known micronized form.
Titanium dioxide's rutile form is generally used in cosmetic and sunscreen products due to it not possessing any observed ability to damage the skin under normal conditions and having a higher UV absorption.
In 2016 Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) tests concluded that the use of nano Titanium Dioxide (95%-100% rutile, ≦5% anatase) as a UV filter can be considered to not pose any risk of adverse effects in humans post-application on healthy skin, except in the case the application method would lead to substantial risk of inhalation (ie; powder or spray formulations). 
This safety opinion applied to nano TiO2 in concentrations of up to 25%.
Initial studies indicated that nano-TiO2 particles could penetrate the skin causing concern over the use of nano-TiO2.
These studies were later refuted, when it was discovered that the testing methodology couldn’t differentiate between penetrated particles and particles simply trapped in hair follicles and that having a diseased or physically damaged dermis could be the true cause of insufficient barrier protection.
SCCS research found that when nanoparticles had certain photostable coatings (eg. alumina, silica, cetyl phosphate, triethoxycaprylylsilane, manganese dioxide) the photocatalytic activity was attenuated and no notable skin penetration was observed; the sunscreen in this research was applied at amounts of 10mg/cm2 for exposure periods of 24 hours.
Coating TiO2 with alumina, silica, zircon or various polymers can minimizing avobenzone degradation and enhance UV absorption by adding an additional light diffraction mechanism.
TiO2 is used extensively in plastics and other applications as a white pigment or an opacifier and for its UV resistant properties where the powder disperses light – unlike organic UV absorbers – and reduces UV damage, due mostly to the particle's high refractive index.

Titanium dioxide (titania, TiO2) is chemically inert, semiconducting material that also exhibits photocatalytic activity in the presence of light with an energy equal to or higher than its band-gap energy. 
These characteristics offer a wide range of applications. 
For these reasons, and because of the relatively low price of the raw material and its processing, titania has gained widespread attention over recent decades.
TiO2 has been classified in humans and animals as biologically inert, and is widely considered to be a “natural” material, which at least partially contributes to its relatively positive acceptance by the public. 
In fact, most TiO2 has been synthesized from the mineral illmenite, FeTiO3, using the “sulphate” or “chloride” process for nearly 100 years. 
The annual worldwide production of titania powder in 2005 has been estimated to be around 5 million tons, provoking the question as to its abundance in the environment. 
The proportion of nano-sized titania is estimated to have been approximately 2.5 % in 2009, increasing to 10 % by 20154, with an exponential increase over the past decade.
During recent decades, TiO2 powders have begun to appear in many applications, mainly due to their ability to confer whiteness and opacity on various products, such as paints, papers and cosmetics. 
Its high technological attractiveness originates from its light-scattering properties and very high refractive index, which mean that relatively low levels of the pigment are required to achieve a white, opaque coating. 
The range of light that is scattered depends on the particle size. 
Numerous technological improvements, based on nano-sized TiO2, have been introduced that enable its use for antifogging and self-cleaning coatings on glass, for building facades, in confectionary, in the plastics industry, and so on. 
Furthermore, TiO2 is accepted as a food and pharmaceutical additive.
In the United States Titanium dioxide is included in FDA Inactive Ingredients Guide for dental paste, oral capsules, suspensions, tablets, dermal preparations and in non-parenteral medicines.
The increasing production of nano-sized TiO2 powder has led to growing concerns about the consequences of exposure of humans and the environment.
In the present paper we review and discuss the latest findings on potential hazard of exposure to nano-sized TiO2 for humans and environment, in regard to the particle size and the crystal structure of TiO2, the route of exposure as well as the effect of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced photocatalysis.

Eye/face protection:
Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU).

Skin protection:
Handle with gloves. 
Gloves must be inspected prior to use. 
Use proper glove removal technique (without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. 
Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. 
Wash and dry hands.
The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of Regulation (EU) 2016/425 and the standard EN 374 derived from it.

Body Protection:
Choose body protection in relation to its type, to the concentration and amount of dangerous substances, and to the specific work-place.
The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace.

Respiratory protection:
Respiratory protection is not required. 
Where protection from nuisance levels of dusts are desired, use type N95 (US) or type P1 (EN 143) dust masks. 
Use respirators and components tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or CEN (EU).
Handling: Before handling, it is important that all engineering controls are operating and that protective equipment requirements and personal hygiene measures are being followed. 
Immediately report leaks, spills or failures of the safety equipment (e.g. ventilation system). 
Avoid generating dusts. 
Keep containers tightly closed when not in use or empty. 
Prevent accidental contact with incompatible chemicals.
Storage: Store in tightly closed, properly labelled containers.

Titanium Dioxide can affect you when inhaled.
Titanium Dioxide should be handled as a CARCINOGEN.
Titanium Dioxide can irritate the lungs. 

Personal Precautions: Keep unnecessary and unprotected personnel out of spill area. 
Use personal protective equipment as required.
Methods for Containment and Clean-up: Avoid generating dust. 
Collect using shovel/scoop or approved HEPA vacuum and place in a suitable container for disposal. 
Avoid dry sweeping. 
If necessary, use a dust suppressant such as water. 
Do not use compressed air for clean-up.

What are the different forms of titanium dioxide in beauty and personal care products?
Titanium dioxide is produced at pigment grade or nano grade.

Pigment grade titanium dioxide is produced at a much larger particle size than nano grade. 
Titanium dioxide is used as a colourant to whiten and brighten product formulations. 
Nano grade titanium dioxide is manufactured into very fine (nano) particles and is transparent and colourless. 
Titanium dioxide is commonly used in sunscreens to provide effective protection from potentially harmful UV rays.

Are there any alternatives to toothpastes with titanium dioxide?
A number of our toothpastes do not contain titanium dioxide, including some of our Signal products (Signal Bio, Signal Nature Element, Signal White System, Signal Kids (Baby & Junior), Signal White Now Detox, Signal Anti-Cavity), Love Beauty and Planet and Schmidt’s Naturals.

Are there any other products where you use titanium dioxide? 
We use titanium dioxide as a colourant in some home care products, including in laundry detergents, dishwasher tablets and toilet blocks. 
We also use it as a colourant in a limited number of food products, for example in some of our dressings and ice creams.

How do I know if a Unilever product contains titanium dioxide?
Titanium dioxide is often listed in the ingredients list on the product label when used in food products and home, beauty and personal care products.
In food products, titanium dioxide appears on the product label as ‘E171’or titanium dioxide depending on the local regulations. 
In beauty and personal care products, the ingredient is listed with its colour index (CI) number ‘CI 77891’.
When nano grade titanium dioxide is used in our sunscreens, this is referenced as ‘titanium dioxide’ [nano] in the ingredients list.

Titanium dioxide is a naturally occurring oxide of titanium. 
Titanium dioxide has the highest refractive index of any material known to man, even the diamond, and is one of the whitest materials on earth.
When ground into a fine powder, Titanium dioxide transforms into a pigment that provides maximum whiteness and opacity. 
TiO2 pigments are used in paints and coatings, plastics, paper, building materials, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, foods and many other commercial products.

Usage Instructions: 
For melt and pour soap, mix 1 teaspoon with 1 tablespoon of 99 percent isopropyl alcohol. 
Add 0.25 tsp. of dispersed pigment at a time to the melted soap. 
For cold process, mix 1 teaspoon with 1 tablespoon of lightweight oil. 
Add 1 tsp. of dispersed pigment at a time to the melted soap. 
Not recommended for lotion or bath bombs.

Sunscreens are used to protect the skin from the harmful effects of the sun. 
They help to prevent sunburn and premature aging (such as wrinkles, leathery skin). 
Sunscreens also help to decrease the risk of skin cancer and also of sunburn-like skin reactions (sun sensitivity) caused by some medications (including tetracyclines, sulfa drugs, phenothiazines such as chlorpromazine).
The active ingredients in sunscreens work either by absorbing the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation, preventing it from reaching the deeper layers of the skin, or by reflecting the radiation.
Wearing sunscreen does not mean that you can stay out longer in the sun. Sunscreens cannot protect against all of the sun's radiation.
There are various types of sunscreens available in many forms (e.g., cream, lotion, gel, stick, spray, lip balm). 
See the Notes section for information about selecting a sunscreen.

TiO2 is a white pigment and because of its brightness and very high refractive index it is most widely used. 
Approximately four million tons of this pigment are consumed annually worldwide. 
In addition, TiO2 accounts for 70% of the total production volume of pigments worldwide, and is in the top five NPs used in consumer products. 
TiO2 can be used in paints, coatings, plastics, papers, inks, medicines, pharmaceuticals, food products, cosmetics, and toothpaste. 
Titanium dioxide can even be used as a pigment to whiten skim milk. 
TiO2 NPs are also used in sunscreens. 
In addition, TiO2 has long been used as a component for articulating prosthetic implants, especially for the hip and knee. 
These implants occasionally fail due to degradation of the materials in the implant or a chronic inflammatory response to the implant material.
Currently, TiO2 NPs are produced abundantly and used widely because of their high stability, anticorrosive and photocatalytic properties. 
Some have attributed this increased catalytic activity to TiO2 NPs to their high surface area, while others attribute it to TiO2 NPs being predominantly anatase rather than rutile. 
TiO2 NPs can be used in catalytic reactions, such as semiconductor photocatalysis, in the treatment of water contaminated with hazardous industrial by-products, and in nanocrystalline solar cells as a photoactive material. 
Industrial utilization of the photocatalytic effect of TiO2 NPs has also found its way into other applications, especially for self-cleaning and anti-fogging purposes such as self-cleaning tiles, self-cleaning windows, self-cleaning textiles, and anti-fogging car mirrors. 
In the field of nanomedicine, TiO2 NPs are under investigation as useful tools in advanced imaging and nanotherapeutics. 
For example, TiO2 NPs are being evaluated as potential photosensitizers for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT). 
In addition, unique physical properties make TiO2 NPs ideal for use in various skin care products. 
Nano-preparations with TiO2 NPs are currently under investigation as novel treatments for acne vulgaris, recurrent condyloma accuminata, atopic dermatitis, hyperpigmented skin lesions, and other non-dermatologic diseases. 
TiO2 NPs also show antibacterial properties under UV light irradiation.

Health and safety:
Titanium dioxide is incompatible with strong reducing agents and strong acids.
Violent or incandescent reactions occur with molten metals that are electropositive, e.g. aluminium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, zinc and lithium.
Many sunscreens use nanoparticle titanium dioxide (along with nanoparticle zinc oxide) which, despite reports of potential health risks, is not actually absorbed through the skin.
Other effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on human health are not well understood.
Titanium dioxide dust, when inhaled, has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as an IARC Group 2B carcinogen, meaning it is possibly carcinogenic to humans.
The findings of the IARC are based on the discovery that high concentrations of pigment-grade (powdered) and ultrafine titanium dioxide dust caused respiratory tract cancer in rats exposed by inhalation and intratracheal instillation.
The series of biological events or steps that produce the rat lung cancers (e.g. particle deposition, impaired lung clearance, cell injury, fibrosis, mutations and ultimately cancer) have also been seen in people working in dusty environments. 
Titanium dioxide production workers may be exposed to high dust concentrations during packing, milling, site cleaning and maintenance, if there are insufficient dust control me sures in place. 
The human studies conducted so far do not suggest an association between occupational exposure to titanium dioxide and an increased risk for cancer. 
The safety of the use of nano-particle-sized titanium dioxide, which can penetrate the body and reach internal organs, has been criticized.
Studies have also found that titanium dioxide nanoparticles cause inflammatory response and genetic damage in mice.
The mechanism by which TiO2 may cause cancer is unclear. 
Molecular research suggests that cell cytotoxicity due to TiO2 results from the interaction between TiO2 nanoparticles and the lysosomal compartment, independently of the known apoptotic signalling pathways.
The body of research regarding the carcinogenicity of different particle sizes of titanium dioxide has led the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to recommend two separate exposure limits. 
NIOSH recommends that fine TiO2 particles be set at an exposure limit of 2.4 mg/m3, while ultrafine TiO2 be set at an exposure limit of 0.3 mg/m3, as time-weighted average concentrations up to 10 hours a day for a 40-hour work week.
These recommendations reflect the findings in the research literature that show smaller titanium dioxide particles are more likely to pose carcinogenic risk than the larger titanium dioxide particles.
There is some evidence the rare disease yellow nail syndrome may be caused by titanium, either implanted for medical reasons or through eating various foods containing titanium dioxide.
Nanoparticles are typically smaller than 100 nanometres in diameter, yet most of the particles in food grade titanium dioxide are much larger.
Still, size distribution analyses showed that batches of food-grade TiO₂ always comprise a nano-sized fraction as inevitable byproduct of the manufacturing processes.

HEALTH CONCERNS: 
The International Agency for Research on Cancer designates TiO2 as a carcinogen, largely due to studies that have found increased lung cancers due to inhalation exposure in animals.
Exposure: TiO2 does not penetrate through healthy skin and poses no local or systemic risk to human health from skin exposure. 
In response to concerns that nano TiO2 might more readily penetrate damaged skin, researchers applied nano-based sunscreens to pigs ears that had been sunburnt. 
TiO2 did not reach the deeper levels of the skin in the sunburnt tissue.
Most concerns arise when TiO2 is inhalable or respirable. 
In order for TiO2 to be inhaled, particles must be small enough to reach the alveoli (where oxygen exchange happens) of the lungs. 
Sampling methods have been developed to estimate the airborne mass concentration of respirable particles, and inhalable dust.
Inhalation & Cancer: The data suggests nanoized TiO2 can be inhaled by some mammals, leading to concerns about human inhalation. 
Existing studies have suggested TiO2 nanoparticles may be more toxic than traditional larger particles of TiO2.

Trade Names:
AERODISP®
AEROPERL
AEROXIDE TiO2
AEROXIDE® TiO2
ANATASA
ANATASA 98% MIN
ANATASA 98.5% MIN
ANATASA A-X
ANATASA BAJA EN NEOBIO
ANATASA E
ANATASA ENAMEL GRADE
ANATASA FIBRA
ANATASA GRADO ESMALTES
ANATASA GRADO FRITA
ANATASA I
ANATASA PAPEL
ANATASA R
Anatase
Anatase Titanium Dioxide
biel tytanowa
C47051
C475001
CathayCoat White TA41, TA42, TA45, TA46, TA49
Cosmetica® Super White 9000SReflexTM Rutile Fine R-901DAutomotiveTM Dazzling White A-901S
Cristal
CSB
CSP
DHA-100
DHA-130
DIOXIDO DE TITANIO
DIOXIDO DE TITANIO ANATASA
DIOXIDO DE TITANIO DJ240
DIOXIDO DE TITANIO DJ2400
DIOXIDO DE TITANIO ORIGEN CHINA
DIOXIDO DE TITANIO ORIGEN REPUBLICA CHECA
DIOXIDO DE TITANIO ORIGEN RUSIA
DIOXIDO DE TITANIO ORIGEN UKRANIA
DIOXIDO DE TITANIO R-203
DIOXIDO DE TITANIO R-221
DIOXIDO DE TITANIO R-222
DIOXIDO DE TITANIO R-223
DIOXIDO DE TITANIO R-606
DIOXIDO DE TITANIO R216
DIOXIDO DE TITANIO R248
DIOXIDO DE TITANIO R258
DIOXIDO DE TITANIO R298
DIOXIDO DE TITANIO R500
DIOXIDO DE TITANIO R501
DIOXIDO DE TITANIO R601
DIOXIDO DE TITANIO R621
DIOXIDO DE TITANIO RUTILO
DIOXIDO DE TITANIO RUTILO R996
Dwutlenek tytanu
FerroTint White F31
HOMBITAN
HTR-100AP
HTR-100SA
HTR-100W
HTR-15Z
KA-100
KR-1000
KR-2000
KRONOS Titanium dioxide
KRONOS TITANIUM DIOXIDE KA-10
KRONOS TITANIUM DIOXIDE KR-310
Kronox
Lavanya Chaandani
MPT-350
MT(Micro Titanium Dioxide)
MTW
RFC
Rutile
Rutile Titanium Dioxide
SACHTLEBEN
SHT-R114
SHT-R420
SHT-R422
SHT-R610
SHT-R615
SHT-R621
SHT-R722
SSP
STR
STR-100C
STR-100C-LF
STR-40C
SUMTITAN
SUMTITAN R-202
SUMTITAN R-203
SUMTITAN R-204
SUMTITAN R-206
T-Lite
Tego
Ti-Catalyst C-94
Ti-Pure®
TIO2
Tiona
Tiona(r)
TiOx
TiOx-220
TiOx-230
TiOx-270
TiOx-271
TiOx-280

Typical Properties: Value
TIO2 content,%: ≥91.5
Color(compared with standard sample): no lower than
Tint Reducing Power(compared with standard sample): ≥100
Water Soluble Object,%: ≤0.50
Volatile at 105°C,g/100g: ≤0.50
PH Value of Aqueou Suspension: 6.5-9.0
Oil Absorption,g/100g: ≤23.0
Mesh residue 45Um,%: ≤0.05
Resistivity,Ω·m: ≥50.0
Other cations:
Zirconium dioxide
Hafnium dioxide
Related Titanium oxides    Titanium(II) oxides:
Titanium(III) oxide
Titanium(III,IV) oxide
Related compounds:
Titanic acid
Chemical formula: TiO2
Magnetic susceptibility (χ): +5.9·10−6 cm3/mol
Refractive index (nD):    
2.488 (anatase)
2.583 (brookite)
2.609 (rutile)    
CHEBI:32234 
ChEMBL: ChEMBL1201136 
ChemSpider: 24256 
ECHA InfoCard: 100.033.327
E number: E171 (colours)
KEGG: C13409 
PubChem CID: 26042
RTECS number: XR2775000
UNII: 15FIX9V2JP 

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