TRIAZINE

Oil-soluble triazine sulfide scavenger
Triazine: Sulfide-scavenging agent

Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine (MEA-triazine) is by far the most ubiquitous H2S scavenger used globally and occupies at least 80% of the available oilfield market.
Triazine is the most ubiquitous H2S scavenger used globally and occupies at least 80% of the available oilfield market.

Our Triazine is oil-soluble sulfide-scavenging composition operable for reducing or essentially eliminating H2S and other objectionable sulfides from hydrocarbon streams or transmission lines and equipment for such products.

Triazine H2S Scavenger
Longer-Lasting Formula
The number one highest spend for an operator at the well is a hydrogen sulfide scavenger. 
Our superior Triazine H2S scavenger effectively remove hydrogen sulfide from process systems to ensure personnel safety, protect equipment from corrosion, and to meet requirements of the oil and gas industry.



Hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine; 1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-hexahydro-striazine is low toxicity biocide and it is effective against bacteria, fungi and yeast.
Triazine is specifically developed for the complete microbiological protection of water-based products against bacterial and fungal spoilage in the wet state.


EC / List no.: 225-208-0
CAS no.: 4719-04-4
Mol. formula: C9H21N3O3


H2S scavenging, or “gas sweetening,” is both a safety-critical and economic concern for ensuring trouble free upstream and downstream operations

H2S Remediation Methods 
Water injection for enhanced oil recovery always carries some risk of reservoir souring, whether produced water or sea water is injected. Various mitigation strategies can be employed to reduce this risk, including nitrate injection, low salinity (LoSal) sea water injection, and the use of sulfate removal units (SRUs). Various remediation strategies also exist for dealing with soured production, including catalyst scavenger beds, precipitator chemicals, amine units, and liquid scavenger chemicals. Selection of the most appropriate treatment strategy will depend on a variety of factors, including H2S concentration & gas volume, residence time, space & weight considerations, resources, process conditions, and CAPEX/OPEX. Mitigation, remediation, or a combination may be necessary to achieve export and safety specifications. Operating conditions will also influence the selection of treatment strategies and ultimate application locations.

Solid Scavengers Solid scavengers are very effective in stripping H2S from gas streams down to trace levels; however, they require significant capital expenditure, and are often labor intensive during media change out. They generally have low OPEX, are predictable in their removal rates, usually do not require additional chemicals, and generally do not impact downstream processes or overboard water. As the spent waste of the non-regenerative solid options require removal or disposal, this can be impractical for offshore applications. The large footprint and limited capacity of regenerative solid options, combined with the production of a concentrated sour waste gas stream during regeneration, also make them less practical for offshore use. Liquid Scavengers Liquid scavengers, in general, take up less space and weight than solid scavengers, but are significantly less efficient at removing the H2S from the gas stream; the OPEX is significantly higher compared to solid scavengers. Liquid scavengers offer more options for retrofitting H2S scavenging to an existing facility. Possible liquid scavenging options include, but are not limited to the following: Triazine Triazine, the most commonly used liquid H2S scavenger, is a heterocyclic structure similar to benzene, but with three carbons replaced by nitrogen atoms. Three variations of triazine exist, based on the location of the substitution of nitrogen atoms, as shown in Figure 1. Further variations involving substitutions of the hydrogen atoms with other functional groups are used in various industries. This can be seen in Figure 2, with the substitutions occurring at any number of the “R” locations. Different substitutions result in different reactivity with H2S, changes in solubility of triazine, and changes in the solubility of the reactant products (the “R” groups). Consequently, triazine can be “tailored” to better suit the application or disposal considerations.

 Regenerative Scavengers
•Amine Wash 
•Reduction Oxidation 

Non-Regenerative Scavengers
•Aldehydes 
•Triazine
 •Sodium Nitrate 

Triazine
 Triazine, the most commonly used liquid H2S scavenger, is a heterocyclic structure similar to benzene, but with three carbons replaced by nitrogen atoms. Three variations of triazine exist, based on the location of the substitution of nitrogen atoms, as shown in Figure 1. Further variations involving substitutions of the hydrogen atoms with other functional groups are used in various industries. This can be seen in Figure 2, with the substitutions occurring at any number of the “R” locations. Different substitutions result in different reactivity with H2S, changes in solubility of triazine, and changes in the solubility of the reactant products (the “R” groups). Consequently, triazine can be “tailored” to better suit the application or disposal considerations.

Application Methods 
Direct Injection 

In direct-injection applications, the triazine is sprayed directly into the gas or mixed fluid stream, usually with an atomizing quill. 
Removal rate is dependent upon the H2S dissolution into the triazine solution, rather than the reaction rate. 
As a result, gas flow rate, contact time, and misting size & distribution contribute to the final scavenger performance. 
This method is excellent for removing H2S when there is good annular-mist flow and sufficient time to react. 
Most suppliers recommend a minimum of 15 – 20 seconds of contact time with the product for best results. 
Typical efficiencies are lower due to the H2S dissolution into the product, but ~40% removal efficiency can reasonably be expected. 
In order for direct injection to be effective, careful consideration of injection location and product selection must be used. 
Contactor Tower In a contactor tower, the feed gas is bubbled through a tower filled with triazine. 
As the gas bubbles up through the liquid, gas dissolves into the triazine and H2S is removed. 
The limiting factors in this application are the surface area of the bubble, the concentration of the solution, and bubble path time (contact time). 
Finer bubbles give a better reaction rate, but they can produce unwanted foaming. 
This application is not appropriate for high gas flow rates. Contactor towers have much greater H2S removal efficiencies, up to 80%. 
As a result, far less chemical is used and a significant reduction in OPEX can be realized. 
However, the contactor tower and chemical storage take up significant space and weight, making them less practical for offshore application.
 
Reaction Process 

One mole of triazine reacts with two moles of H2S to form dithiazine, the main byproduct. 
An intermediate product is formed, but rarely seen. The reaction is shown in Figure 3. 
The R-groups that are released during the two-step reaction vary by the supplier, and can be tailored for solubility. 
Continued reaction can result in the formation of an insoluble trithiane product. 

Downstream & Environmental Impacts 
Reacted triazine byproducts are readily biodegradable and relatively non-toxic. 
Unreacted, excess triazine has very high aquatic toxicity and a tendency to form carbonate scale with produced water or sea water; this can result in emulsion stabilization, and increased overboard oil-in-water (OIW) content. 
Unreacted triazine is also problematic for refineries as it impacts the desalting process and can cause accelerated corrosion within crude oil distillation units. 
It can also cause foaming in glycol and amine units and cause discoloration of glycol units. 
Unpleasant odor has also been reported with excess triazine usage, but some suppliers offer low-odor versions. 
Triazine itself is relatively safe to handle, but it can cause chemical burns upon contact. 
Other Considerations Triazine has been used successful around the globe by many operators and facilities. 
It has been used in various other applications where control of lowconcentration H2S is vital, including scale remediation and reservoir stimulation. 
It is commonly used with sour shale gas production in the US. 
Triazine is primarily used for removing low (200 ppmv/mmscf will require the use of an amine-based sweetening unit. 
Triazine is also preferred in situations where the acid gas stream contains high levels of CO2 in addition to H2S. 
The triazine reacts preferentially with the H2S and the reaction is not inhibited by the CO2 , avoiding unnecessary chemical consumption. 
It is also preferred where a concentrated sour waste gas streams cannot be accommodated or disposed. 
Triazine is typically supplied in standard transportable totes, which can be unloaded into a larger storage tank on-site. 

Conclusion 
For offshore applications, direct injection of triazine is often the most economical and feasible method of H2S removal for gas and oil export lines; care needs to be taken to optimize the removal rates by selecting the optimal injection location and triazinebased product, keeping byproducts and disposal considerations in mind. 
For onshore applications where space and weight are typically not an issue, contactor towers are far superior at H2S removal per volume of chemical used, and result in significantly lower OPEX. Ensuring contactor towers are appropriately sized and the bubble size is optimized for the gas production rate will make the maintenance and operation of the towers much easier and improve the realized OPEX savings over direct triazine injection. 
For very high H2S levels (>200ppmv/mmscf), amine towers or solid media beds may have to be used for sufficient removal of H2S for the process and export considerations.



Hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine; 1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-hexahydro-striazine is low toxicity biocide and it is effective against bacteria, fungi and yeast.
Specifically developed for the complete microbiological protection of water-based products against bacterial and fungal spoilage in the wet state.

Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris-(-2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine
Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris-(-2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine is a light-yellow liquid. 
It is a formaldehyde condensate product that is used as an antimicrobial agent in metal working fluids.

Ataman has triazine always stock.
Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris-(-2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine is used as a formaldehyde-releasing biocide in metalworking fluids; An antimicrobial (possesses some fungicidal activity) used to preserve adhesives, metalworking fluids, indoor construction materials, lubricants, aqueous mineral slurries, paints, stains, coatings, fuel and oil in storage, oil field drilling muds, inks and dyes, chemical and clinical reagents, industrial water systems, and household and industrial cleansers and detergents
Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris-(-2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine is a low to moderate hazard material and the risk of adverse health effects associated with both occupational and consumer use of this chemical is anticipated to be low to moderate. 

1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-hexahydro-striazine, low toxicity biocide. Effective against bacteria, fungi and yeast. Specifically developed for the complete microbiological protection of water-based products against bacterial and fungal spoilage in the wet state.

Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris-(-2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine is an in-can biocide basen on Hexahydrotriazine (HHT).
Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris-(-2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine is an aqueous based low toxicity biocide developed for the complete in-can protection of water based products. 
Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris-(-2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine is effective against a wide range of microorganisms including gram positive and gram negative bacteria, yeast and fungi. 
Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris-(-2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine can be used over a wide pH and temperature range.


Benefits
provides head-space protection
pH stable from 7-12
temperature stable up to 40°C
bactericide
fungicide

Exposure controls in the workplace serve to prevent adverse health effects to workers. 
This material is not directly sold to consumers and has no known intended use in consumer products. 
Therefore, consumer exposure and subsequent risk associated with such exposure is unlikely.

Chemical Identity
Name: Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris-(-2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine
Brand Names: Not applicable
Chemical name (IUPAC): 2,2',2''-(1,3,5-triazinane-1,3,5-triyl)triethanol
CAS number(s): 4719-04-4
EC number: 225-208-0
Molecular formula: C9H21N3O3
Structure:

Uses and Applications
Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris-(-2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine is a product that is used for the formulation of antimicrobial products for use in metalworking cutting fluids, gas/oil drilling muds/packer fluids and industrial adhesives.

Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris-(-2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine by Ataman Kimya is widely used as an antimicrobial agent in metal working fluids.
This material is not directly sold to consumers and has no known intended use in consumer products. 
Industrial products that contain significant levels of this material should include necessary safety labeling and provide appropriate handling and disposal methods. 
When handled responsibly, the potential for toxicity can be minimized, allowing workers to use materials containing hexahydro-1,3,5-tris-(-2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine safely.

In chemistry, hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine is a class of heterocyclic compounds with the formula (CH2NR)3. 
They are reduced derivatives of 1,3,5-triazine, which have the formula (CHN)3, a family of aromatic heterocycles. 
They are often called triazacyclohexanes or TACH's.
The parent hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine ((CH2NH)3) has been detected as an intermediate in the condensation of formaldehyde and ammonia, a reaction that affords hexamethylene tetraamine.
The N-substituted derivatives are more stable. 
These N,N',N''-trisubstituted hexahydro-1,3,5-triazines arise from the condensation of the amine and formaldehyde as illustrated by the route to 1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane:

3 CH2O + 3 H2NMe → (CH2NMe)3 + 3 H2O

The C-substituted derivatives are obtained by reaction of aldehydes and ammonia

3 RCHO + 3 NH3 → (RCHNH)3 + 3 H2O

Known as aldehyde ammonias, these compounds characteristically crystallize with water. 
1-Alkanolamines are intermediates in these condensation reactions.
The N,N',N"-triacyltriazines are trizines with acyl groups attached to the three nitrogen centers of the ring. 

These triacyltriazines arise from the reaction of hexamethylene tetraamine with acid chlorides or the condensation of amides with formaldehyde.

Trimers of isocyanates are sometimes labeled as 2,4,6-trioxohexahydro-1,3,5-triazines. They have the formula RNC(O))3.

Nipacide BK is an in-can biocide basen on Hexahydrotriazine (HHT).

Nipacide BK is an aqueous based low toxicity biocide developed for the complete in-can protection of water based products. 

Nipacide BK is effective against a wide range of microorganisms including gram positive and gram negative bacteria, yeast and fungi. 
Nipacide BK can be used over a wide pH and temperature range.


Nipacide BK is a low toxicity biocide specifically developed for the complete microbiological protection of water based products against bacterial and fungal spoilage in the wet state, particularly where it is to be used at high ambient temperatures. 
Nipacide BK is a water based liquid. 
It is recommended for a wide range of applications including adhesives, cleaning, industrial systems, polymer emulsions, fountain solutions, MWF and paint where protection against fungi and bacteria is required in the wet state.


DIRECTIONS FOR USE
It is a violation of Federal Law to use this product in a manner inconsistent with its labeling. 

In Industrial Emulsions. Adhesives & Inks Non-food Use): To effectively control bacteria in resin, latex or other water-based emulsions, for use in adhesives and other industrial applications, add 0.1-0.3% (1,000-3,000 ppm) of NIPACIDE BK at any convenient point during the manufacturing operation.
In Water-Based Metalworking Fluids: To inhibit the growth of bacteria, add 0.04-0.2% (400-2,000 ppm) of NIPACIDE BK directly to the use-diluted fluid. 
Not for use in non-aqueous concentrates.

In Oilfield Water Systems INot for use in California):
For controlling aerobic slime-forming bacteria (Pseudomonas sp.) or iron-oxidizing bacteria (Gal/ionel/a sp.) and anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) in oilfield water systems, such as subsurface injection water, add 5-150 ppm NIPACIDE BK depending on the severity of the contamination. 
Additions should be made with a metering pump at the free water knockouts before or after the injection pumps and injection well headers.
Continuous-feed method: If this system is noticeably fouled, add 20-150 ppm NIPACIDE BK (1.7-12.8 gal per 2000 barrels of water) continuously until the desired degree of control is achieved. Subsequently, treat with 5-150 ppm NIPACIDE BK (0.43-12.8 gal per 2000 barrels of water) continuously as needed to maintain control.

Intermittent or slug method: If the system is noticeably fouled or to maintain control of the system, add 20-150 ppm NIPACIDE BK (1.7-12.8 gal per 2000 barrels of water) intermittently for 2-8 hours per day on from 1-4 days per week, depending on the severity of the contamination.
In Preserving Drilling Muds and Workover and Completion Fluids INot for use in California): Determine the volume of NIPACIDE BK necessary to provide a concentration of 500-1000 ppm by weight of NIPACIDE BK in the drilling mud system, workover and completion fluid. 
For example, 21-42 gallons of NIPACIDE BK per each 1000 barrels of drilling mud provides this concentration. 
As the system circulates, add NIPACIDE BK in a thin stream. 
Add additional NIPACIDE BK to the system to maintain the proper concentration as the total volume of the system increases.

In Construction Materials:
NIPACIDE BK may be used to increase the shelf life of indoor use type construction materials and control the growth of bacteria and fungi in water-based wallpaper pastes and strippers, basement masonry waterproofers, joint compounds and fillers, glue, adhesives, grouting, caulking, spackling compounds and other indoor-application products for construction use.

To control microbial spoilage, add a 0.05-0.30% (0.4 to 2.4 pints per 100 gallons of product) concentration of NIPACIDE BK directly to the manufactUring batch with minor agitation.

For In-Can Paints:
NIPACIDE BK may be used to increase shelf life, control the growth of bacteria and fungi, prevent slime formation andodors, and control changes In viscosity for waterbased polyurethanes, acrylic latex, cellulose-thickened latex and other types of water based paints.
To control microbial spoilage, add a 0.05-0.30% (0.4 to 2.4 pints per 100 gallons of product) concentration of NIPACIDE BK directly to the manufactUring batch with minor agitation.


In Chain Lubricants:
NIPACIDE BK may be used to preserve, control and/or inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi and prevent slime formation and odors for natural, synthetic and semi-synthetic chain lubricants used on inanimate, non-food contact surfaces.


To control and/or inhibit microbial spoilage, add a 0.05-0.30% (0.4 to 2.4 pints per ,_J gallons of product) concentration of NIPACIDE BK in the final use dilution.


In Fuel Oils:
NIPACIDE BK may be used to preserve and control and/or inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi for distillate fuel oils during storage at industrial, utility and commercial sites.

To control and/or inhibit microbial spoilage, add a 0.03-0.10% (0.4 to 1.25 pints per 100 gallons of fuel oil) concentration of NIPACIDE BK directly to the distillate fuel oil during transfer.


In Commercial and Industrial Products:

NIPACIDE BK may be used to preserve commercial, household and industrial and institutional (I&I) products, including laundry detergents, dish detergents, fabric softeners, all-purpose cleaners, hard-surface cleaners, heavy duty degreasers, floor finishes, silicone concentrates, emulsions and antifoams, window cleaners, surfactant/detergent solutions (non-food use only), glues and adhesives (non-food use only), and starch applications used to make corrugated cardboard boxes (non-food use only).
To control microbial spoilage, add a 0.05-0.20% (0.4 to 1.8 pints per 100 gallons of product) concentration of NIPACIDE BK directly to the manufacturing batch with minor agitation


Benefits
provides head-space protection
pH stable from 7-12
temperature stable up to 40°C
bactericide
fungicide


HEXAHYDRO-1,3,5-TRIS(HYDROXYETHYL)-5-TRIAZINE(4719-04-4) is an amine and an alcohol. 
Amines are chemical bases. 
They neutralize acids to form salts plus water. 
These acid-base reactions are exothermic. 
The amount of heat that is evolved per mole of amine in a neutralization is largely independent of the strength of the amine as a base. 
Amines may be incompatible with isocyanates, halogenated organics, peroxides, phenols (acidic), epoxides, anhydrides, and acid halides. 
Flammable gaseous hydrogen is generated by amines in combination with strong reducing agents, such as hydrides.


GHS Classification:
Acute toxicity (Oral) - Category 4
Acute toxicity (Inhalation) - Category 2
Acute toxicity (Dermal) - Category 5
Serious eye damage - Category 1
Skin sensitization - Category 1
Acute aquatic toxicity - Category 3
Chronic aquatic toxicity - Category 3

Hazard Statements:
H302: Harmful if swallowed.
H313: May be harmful in contact with skin.
H317: May cause an allergic skin reaction.
H318: Causes serious eye damage.
H330: Fatal if inhaled.
H412: Harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effects.
Signal Word: Danger

Precautionary Statements:
P260: Do not breathe dust/ fume/ gas/ mist/ vapours/ spray.
P264: Wash skin thoroughly after handling.
P270: Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.
P271: Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.
P272: Contaminated work clothing should not be allowed out of the workplace.
P273: Avoid release to the environment.
P280: Wear eye protection/ face protection.
P280: Wear protective gloves.
P284: Wear respiratory protection.


CAS No.4719-04-4
Chemical Name:Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine
Synonyms: eta75;KM 200;Roksol;actane;Trizin;grotanb;Cobate C;grotanbk;kalpurte;Bioban GKC
N,N,N-Tris (b-hydroxyethyl) hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine; 
1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine

2,2',2''-(hexahydro-1,3,5- triazine-1,3,5-triyl)triethanol

2,2',2''-(hexahydro-1,3,5- triazine-1,3,5-triyl)triethanol;1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine

2,2',2''-(hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine-1,3,5-triyl)triethanol

2,2′,2′′-(hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine-1,3,5- triyl)triethanol (HHT)


Triazinetriethanol
Translated names
1,3,5-tri(2-hidroksietil)heksahidro-1,3,5-triazinas (lt)
1,3,5-triazin-1,3,5(2H, 4H, 6H)trietanol (no)
1,3,5-tris(2-hidroksietil)heksahidro-1,3,5-triacīns (lv)
1,3,5-tris(2-hidroksietil)heksahidro-1,3,5-triazin (hr)
1,3,5-tris(2-hidroxietil)hexahidro-1,3,5-triazine (ro)
1,3,5-tris(2-hydroksyetylo)heksahydro-1,3,5-triazyna (pl)
1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxietyl)-1,3,5-triazin (sv)
1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-1,3,5-triazin (cs)
1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-1,3,5-triazin (HHT) (cs)
Biocidal active substances
1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyetyl)hexahydro-1,3,5-triazín (sk)
1,3,5-tris(2-hüdroksüetüül)heksahüdro-1,3,5-trasiin (et)
1,3,5-trisz(2-hidroxietil)hexahidro-1,3,5-triazin (hu)
1,3,5-трис(2-хидроксиетил)хексахидро-1,3,5-триазин (bg)
2,2',2""-(heksahidro-1,3,5-triazin-1,3,5-triil)trietanol (hr)
2,2',2"-(esaidro-1,3,5-triazin-1,3,5-triil)trietanolo (it)
2,2',2"-(heksahydro-1,3,5-triatsiini-1,3,5-triyyli)trietanoli (fi)
2,2',2"-(hexahidro-1,3,5-triazina-1,3,5-triil)trietanol (es)
2,2',2"-(hexahydro-1,3,5-triazin-1,3,5-triyl)trietanol (sv)
2,2',2"-(hexahydro-1,3,5-triazin-1,3,5-triyl)triethanol (da)
2,2',2"-(hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine-1,3,5-triyl)triethanol (nl)
2,2',2"-(hexahydro-1,3,5-triazín-1,3,5-triyl)trietanol (sk)
2,2',2"-(хексахидро-1,3,5-триазин-1,3,5-триил)триетанол (bg)
2,2',2"-heksahidro-1,3,5-triazan-1,3,5-triil)trietanolis (lt)
2,2',2''-(heksahidro-1,3,5-triazin-1,3,5-triil)trietanol (sl)
2,2',2''-(heksahidro-1,3,5-triazīn-1,3,5-triil)trietanols (lv)
2,2',2''-(heksahydro-1,3,5-triazin-1,3,5-triyl)trietanol (no)
2,2',2''-(hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine-1,3,5-triyl)triéthanol;1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyéthyl)hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (fr)
2,2',2:-(εξαϋδρο-1,3,5-τριαζινο-1,3,5-τριυλο)τριαιθανόλ (el)
2,2`,2``-(heksahydro-1,3,5-triazyno-1,3,5-triylo)trietanol (pl)
2,2´,2´´-heksahüdro-1,3,5-triasiin-1,3,5-triüül)trietanool (et)
2,2’,2”-(hexahidro-1,3,5-triazin-1,3,5-triil)trietanol (hu)
2,2′,2′′-(esaidro-1,3,5-triazin 1,3,5-triil)trietanolo (HHT) (it)
2,2′,2′′-(Eżaiidro-1,3,5-triażin-1,3,5-triil)trietanol (HHT) (mt)
2,2′,2′′-(heksahidro-1,3,5-triazin-1,3,5- triil)trietanol (HHT) (hr)
2,2′,2′′-(heksahidro-1,3,5-triazin-1,3,5-triil)trietanol (HHT) (sl)
2,2′,2′′-(heksahidro-1,3,5-triazin-1,3,5-triil)trietanolis (HHT) (lt)
2,2′,2′′-(Heksahidro-1,3,5-triazīn-1,3,5-triil)trietanols (HHT) (lv)
2,2′,2′′-(heksahydro-1,3,5-triatsiini-1,3,5-triyyli)trietanoli (HHT) (fi)
2,2′,2′′-(heksahüdro-1,3,5-triasiin-1,3,5-triüül)trietanool (HHT) (et)
2,2′,2′′-(hexa-hidro-1,3,5-triazina-1,3,5-triil)trietanol (HHT) (pt)
2,2′,2′′-(hexahidro-1,3,5-triazin-1,3,5-triil)trietanol (HHT) (hu)
2,2′,2′′-(Hexahidro-1,3,5-triazina-1,3,5-triil)trietanol (HHT) (es)
2,2′,2′′-(hexahydro-1,3,5-triazin-1,3,5-triyl)trietanol (HHT) (sv)
2,2′,2′′-(Hexahydro-1,3,5-triazin-1,3,5-triyl)triethanol (HHT) (de)
2,2′,2′′-(Hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine-1,3,5-triyl)triethanol (HHT) (nl)
2,2′,2′′-(hexahydro-1,3,5-triazín-1,3,5-triyl)trietanol (HHT) (sk)
2,2′,2′′-(εξαϋδρο-1,3,5-τριαζινο-1,3,5-τριυλο)τριαιθανόλη (HHT) (el)
2,2′,2′′-(хексахидро-1,3,5-триазин-1,3,5-триил)триетанол (HHT) (bg)
2,2′,2″-(heksahydro-l,3,5-triazyn-l,3,5-triylo)trietanol (HHT) (pl)
2,2′,2″-(hexahydro-1,3,5-triazin-1,3,5-triyl)triethanol (HHT) (da)
2,2′,2″-(hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine-1,3,5-triyl)triéthanol (HHT) (fr)
grotan BK (no)
hexahydro-1,3,5-triazin-1,3,5-triethanol (cs)
CAS names
1,3,5-Triazine-1,3,5(2H,4H,6H)-triethanol
IUPAC names
1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine 2,2',2"-(hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine-1,3,5-triyl)triethanol
2,2',2"-(1,3,5-triazinane-1,3,5-triyl)triethanol
2,2',2"-(hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine-1,3,5-triyl)triethanol;
2,2',2''-(1,3,5-triazinane-1,3,5-triyl)triethanol
2,2',2''-(hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine-1,3,5-triyl)triethanol (IUC4 D SN 432) / 2,2',2''-(1,3,5-triazinane-1,3,5-triyl)triethanol / HHT
2,2',2''-(Hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine-1,3,5-triyl)triethanol; 1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine
2,2,2"-(Hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine-1,3,5-triyl)triethanol
2-[3,5-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3,5-triazinan-1-yl]ethan-1-ol
2-[3,5-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3,5-triazinan-1-yl]ethanol
2-[4,6-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3,5-triazinan-2-yl]ethanol
MELA Triazine, HHT
S-TRIAZINE-1,3,5(2H,4H,6H)-TRIETHANOL
Triadine 10
1,3,5-Triazine-1,3,5(2H,4H,6H)-triethanol (9CI)
1,3,5-Tris-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3,5-hexahydrotriazine (chemical name)
Grotan
Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine
Hexahydrotriazine
Hexahydrotriazine (common name)
HHT (abbreviation)
MELA Triazine (Acroym)
N,N',N''-Tris(2-hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-s-triazine
Nuosept 78
Prosweet
Protectol
Protectol HT
Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Description
Grotan BK is a triazine derivative contained in cutting fluids. It is a formaldehyde releaser.

Chemical Properties
Light Yellow Solid

Uses: Hexahydro-l,3,5-tris-(2-hydroxyethyl)triazin is used in organic synthesis; as a bactericide in cooling fluids and various cosmetic products; formaldehyde liberator.
General Description: Viscous yellow liquid.
Air & Water Reactions: Water soluble.

 EC number
•  225-208-0
 CAS number
•  4719-04-4
 Common name
•  2,2',2''-(hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine-1,3,5-triyl)triethanol
 Trade name
•  1,3,5-Triazine-1,3,5(2H,4H,6H)-triethanol (9CI)
•  1,3,5-Tris(2-hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine
•  1,3,5-Tris(2-hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-s-triazine
•  1,3,5-Tris-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3,5-hexahydrotriazine (chemical name)
•  Grotan
•  HHT (abbreviation)
•  Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine
•  Hexahydrotriazine (common name)
•  MELA Triazine
•  MELA Triazine (Acroym)
•  N,N',N''-Tris(2-hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-s-triazine
•  Nuosept 78
•  Prosweet
•  Protectol
•  Protectol HT
•  SYNTAN OXB
•  Scavtreat
•  T00W1
•  TIS # O1644
•  s-Triazine-1,3,5(2H,4H,6H)-triethanol (8CI)
 Other identifiers
LAMOX TR


4719-04-4
Grotan
1,3,5-Triazine-1,3,5(2H,4H,6H)-triethanol
Actane
Triazinetriethanol
2,2',2''-(1,3,5-triazinane-1,3,5-triyl)triethanol
Grotan BK
Grotan B
Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine
Kalpur TE
Onyxide 200
Grotan HD
Rancidity control agent
Roksol T 1-7
KM 200 (alcohol)
Busan 1060
s-Triazine-1,3,5-triethanol
ETA 75
Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine
UNII-OU2JEB22IE
OU2JEB22IE
NSC 516387
Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(hydroxyethyl)triazine
1,3,5-Tris(hydroxy-ethyl)s-hexahydrotriazine
1,3,5-Tris(2-hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-s-triazine
tris(N-hydroxyethyl) hexahydrotriazine
1,3,5-Tris(2-hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine
s-Triazine-1,3,5(2H,4H,6H)-triethanol
Nipacide BK
Miliden X-2
KM 200
Appolo-207
DSSTox_CID_5394
DSSTox_GSID_25394
SCHEMBL125784
CHEMBL3561636
DTXSID7025394
CTK1D5986
2-[3,5-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3,5-triazinan-1-yl]ethanol
KS-00000F9N
Tox21_303727
MFCD01678788
NSC516387
ZINC19319196
AKOS024462548
Tris-hydroxyethyl-hexahydro-S-triazine
NSC-516387
Hexahydro-1,5-tris(hydroxyethyl)triazine
NCGC00357283-01
s-Triazine-1,5(2H,4H,6H)-triethanol
CAS-4719-04-4
Hexahydro-1,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)triazine
1,3,5-tris-hydroxyethyl perhydro-s-triazine
FT-0675394
1,3,5-TRIHYDROXYETHYLHEXAHYDROTRIAZINE
1,5-Tris(2-hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-s-triazine
Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)triazine
1,3,5-tris(2-Hydroxyethyl)perhydro-s-triazine
1,5-Triazine-1,3,5(2H,4H,6H)-triethanol
EC 225-208-0
Hexahydro-1,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine
1,3,5-Tris(2-hydroxyethyl)perhydro-s-tria-zine
Hexahydro-1,5-tris(2-hydroxypropyl)-s-triazine
4-26-00-00010 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
719H044
1,5-Tris(2-hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine
Q27285845
1,3,5-tris-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3,5-hexahydrotriazine
Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine, 74% solution in water


     acticide GR
     bactraclean
     busan 1060
     busan 1506
     grotan B
     grotan BK
     hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine
2-[3,5-bis(2-    hydroxyethyl)-1,3,5-triazinan-1-yl]ethanol
1,3,5-tris(2-    hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine
1,3,5-tris(2-    hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-S-triazine
     onyxide 200
     ottaform 204
     rRoksol T 1-7
     surcide D
     surcide P
     triadine 3
1,3,5-    triazine-1,3,5(2H,4H,6H)-triethanol
tris(N-    hydroxyethyl)hexahydrotriazine

METALWORKING FLUID ADDITIVES DIVISION
Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine
Broad spectrum biocide for Metalworking Fluid Applications 
Water dilutable soluble oil, semi-synthetic and synthetic metalworking fluid systems are highly susceptible to the growth of microorganisms. 
Microbial contamination can result in slime generation, gas formation, malodors and the reduction or drift of pH in the fluid concentrate and the working dilution. 
This contamination can diminish fluid performance and system efficiency, which can increase costs, decrease tool life, reduce productivity and cause machine shut-down. 
The use of Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine, a proven high quality preservative to control biodeterioration, will help maintain product functionality and increase the life of the metalworking fluid.

For use in concentrates during manufacturing and for use in post addition applications.


•    Cost effective
•    Proven efficacy against a broad range of bacteria and fungi at recommended use levels
•    More than 40 years history of use
•    Extends life of metalworking fluids
•    Easy to use liquid, at 0.15% (1500 ppm) concentration in end use dilution
•    For use in individual sumps as well as large central systems

The following are typical properties of Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine; they are not to be considered product specifications.
Active Ingredient: Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine.    78.5%
Appearance: Water white to pale yellow liquid, clear to slight haze
Color, Gardner:    2
Odor: Light amine; odorless in end-use dilution
Refractive Index, 25°C: 1.483
Specific Gravity, 25°C:    1.152 g/cc
Lbs/Gal: 9.62
Viscosity, 25°C:275 cps
Flow Point: -28°C (-18°F)
Freezing Point:    -28°C (-18°F)
pH of concentrate, 25°C    10.8
Solubility: Miscible with water in all proportions
Miscible with alcohol and acetone in all proportions
Insoluble in ether, benzene, petroleum and chloroform
 
Antimicrobial Activity
 
The following are examples of the broad range of organisms against which Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine has demonstrated efficacy:

Bacteria    
Bacillus subtilis    
Proteus vulgaris
Desulfovibrio desulfuricans    
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Enterobacter aerogenes    
Staphylococcus aureus
Escherichia coli    
Streptococcus faecalis 
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
 
 
Function/ Activity
Formulating Considerations


Regulatory Considerations
 
Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine is a liquid, organic broad spectrum preservative designed for use in both the concentrate and working dilutions of soluble oil, semi-synthetic and synthetic metalworking fluid systems which may be subject to microbial degradation.

Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine, at appropriate use levels in both laboratory and field evaluations, inhibits the growth of microorganisms. 
Products protected with Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine can generally resist the long-term, repeated challenge of microorganisms.
Compounders: Add Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine to the concentrate, in order to obtain 1500 ppm in the final dilution. 

Our Technical Service Laboratory will be pleased to assist formulators in the formulation and/or evaluation of preserved concentrates based on Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine.
Metalworking Fluid Users: Add 1500 ppm Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine to the in-use dilution of the metalworking fluid at regular intervals.

Toxicity
Acute Oral Effects:
LD50 (oral, rat) - 535-580 mg/kg.
Acute Skin Effects:
LD50 (dermal, rabbit) >2000 mg/kg. Mild skin irritation.

Acute Eye Effects: Moderate to severe irritation (rabbit). Corneal damage may be irreversible if not washed from eyes promptly.
Acute Inhalation Effects: Not determined.
Skin sensitization reactions associated with this product have been reported. However, the number of sensitization responses is very low. 
There is also information that allergic sensitivity, if it occurs, is lost at a fairly rapid rate.
 
Environmental Effects
 
Ecotoxicity
This product is toxic to fish and may cause adverse environmental impact.
 


Shipping And Packaging
 
DANGER: CORROSIVE TO EYES. Wear eye protection when handling. Do not get in eyes. Harmful if swallowed. Avoid skin contact. Keep out of reach of children and unauthorized persons.

Avoid contact with skin, eyes, or clothing. Avoid breathing vapor or mist. Wash thoroughly after handling. Keep container tightly closed. Use only with adequate ventilation. Store away from incompatible substances in a cool, dry, ventilated area. Prolonged contact with brass, copper, or aluminum piping, containers or equipment should be avoided to prevent possible corrosive effects to these metals. Do not contaminate water, food, or feed by storage or disposal.

Observe all Federal, Provincial, and Local Regulations when storing or disposing of this substance.
Shelf Life: Two years from date of manufacture.
Emergency Overview: Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine is a water white to pale yellow viscous liquid with a mild characteristic odor. 
Highly alkaline, pH = 10.8. May be harmful if swallowed. 
May cause severe eye irritation and irreversible corneal damage. 
Excessive heat greater than 147°C (297°F) will result in decomposition to formaldehyde. 
Avoid contamination of streams and sewers.

TDG, IATA, IMDG
This product does not meet the definition of any hazard class and therefore is not subject to TDG, IATA and IMDG Regulations.

Triazinetriethanol; 1,3,5-Trihydroxyethylhexahydrotriazine; 1,3,5-Tris(2-hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine; 1,3,5-Tris(2-hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-s-triazine; Actane; Busan 1060; ETA 75; Grotan; Grotan B; Grotan HD; Hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine-1,3,5-triethanol; Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine; Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(hydroxyethyl)triazine; KM 200 (alcohol); Kalpur TE; Onyxide 200; Ottaform 204; Rancidity control agent; Roksol T 1-7; 1,3,5-Triazine-1,3,5(2H,4H,6H)-triethanol; 2,2',2''-(Hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine-1,3,5-triyl)triethanol; s-Triazine-1,3,5(2H,4H,6H)-triethanol; [ChemIDplus] HHT; Triadine; Onyxide; Proxel; Myacide; Nipacide; Surcide-P; [Reference #2]


Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris-(-2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine biocide is a reliable storage tank side antimicrobial chemical. 
People usually put it directly into the sump of a badly fouled, high smell system. 
It works well against both gram-positive and also gram-negative microorganisms. 
The effectiveness of Grotan bk biocide is not influenced by either the water hardness or various other chemicals. 
This micro biocide can also boost the efficiency of the liquid. 
As well as additionally manages fungal development and also prevents the growth of germs.


Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris-(-2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine mostly applied as desulfurizer and anti-mildew agent.

As desulfurizer, Triazine is mainly to remove the H2S generated from the exploitation of crude oil and natural gas, thus guaranteeing the health in the production field and reducing the H2S corrosion to equipment.

By injecting into the desulfuration process, IR-Triazine has the following advantages in low H2S situation: convenient operation, low cost, and less operation area. 
It is suitable for offshore and onshore oilfield with stricter requirements in space and investment.

Being an anti-mildew agent, Triazine is definitely the main ingredient of Grotan BK. This Grotan BK is widely used in metal processing (cutting and grinding fluid), papermaking (paper coating), painting and coating, electroplating and leather (lustering agent).


Usage
As desulfurizer, Triazine can be directly put into the desulfurization process. For high-sulfur crude, the advised the amount to use is 0.3-0.5%.


• 1,3,5-Tris(2-hydroxyethyl)hexahydro- 1,3,5-triazine
• 1,3,5-Tris(2-hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-striazine
• 4-26-00-00010 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
• Actane
• BRN 0124982
• Busan 1060
• CCRIS 6246
• Caswell No. 481C
• EINECS 225-208-0
• EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 083301
• ETA 75
• Grotan
• Grotan B
• Grotan BK
• Grotan HD
• Hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine-1,3,5-triethanol
• Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-striazine
• Hexahydro-1,3,5- tris(hydroxyethyl)triazine
• KM 200 (alcohol)
• Kalpur TE
• NSC 516387
• Onyxide 200
• Ottaform 204
• Rancidity control agent
• Roksol T 1-7


Chemical name:    s-Triazine-1,3,5-triethanol
CAS Number:
4719-04-4
Category:    miscellaneous compounds
Synonyms:    1,3,5-Tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane; 1,3,5-Tris(2-hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine; 1,3,5-Tris(2-hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-s-triazine; Actane; Acticide GR; Bactraclean; Bioban GK; Busan 1060; Busan 1506; Cobate C; Grotan B; Grotan BK; Hexahydro-1,3,5-tri(2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine; Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine; Kalpur TE; N,N’,N’’-Tris(2-hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-s-triazine; N,N’,N’’-Tris(β-hydroxyethyl)hexahydro-s-triazine; Nipacide BK; Onyxide 200; Permachem OB 2; Protectol HT; Roksol T 1-7; Surcide D; Surcide P; Triadine 3
Molecular form:    C9H21N3O3
Appearance:    Yellow Oil to Pale Beige Low Melting Solid
Mol. Weight:    219.28
Storage:    2-8°C Refrigerator
Shipping Conditions:    Ambient
Applications:    NA
BTM:    NA

Characteristics:
•s-Triazine-1,3,5-triethanol is water-soluble, broad-spectrum microbicide based on the well established active ingredient,
• s-Triazine-1,3,5-triethanol is widely used by both manufacturers of metalworking fluids and by end-users to control the growth of microorganisms in water-soluble coolants.


Natural gas is a naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gases found in geologic formations beneath the earth's surface, often in association with petroleum. 
As obtained from oil and gas wells, raw or sour natural gas contains a number of impurities which must be removed before being introduced into a pipeline. 
The principal impurities in natural gas are water, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and condensable hydrocarbons, such as propane, butane and pentane. 
These undesirable components are conventionally removed from raw natural gas streams in gas processing plants. The processing plants are normally located in the field and vary in size from small units to large, centrally located plants.
The composition of raw natural gas varies widely from field to field. For example, the methane content can vary between 45 percent and 96 percent by volume, while the hydrogen sulfide content may range from 0.1 ppm to 150,000 ppm. Since hydrogen sulfide is corrosive in the presence of water and poisonous in very small concentrations, it must be almost completely removed from natural gas streams before use and preferably before transport. As a result, many pipeline specifications limit the amount of hydrogen sulfide to less than 0.25 gr per 100 cu. ft. of gas.
The technology known in the art for removing hydrogen sulfide from raw natural gas was developed for large processing plants to remove hydrogen sulfide in continuous processes. 
These large processing plants are fed by one or more natural gas wells, each of which produces over 10 million cubic feet of natural gas per day. 
Many of these processes utilize commodity chemicals or proprietary materials to lower the hydrogen sulfide levels in natural gas to pipeline specifications. 
Also, many of these processes not only sweeten sour natural gas to pipeline specifications, but also regenerate most, if not all, of the sweetening compositions involved.
Generally, there are several methods for sweetening sour gas, i.e., for reducing the hydrogen sulfide content of new gas. 
For example, various chemicals may be added or injected “in-line” to natural gas pipelines. 
For example, these sweetening products may be injected at the well head, separators, glycol units, coolers, compressors, etc., to provide contact with the natural gas.
Materials used with such “in-line” injection systems include, e.g., various aldehydes. 
The hydrogen sulfide reacts rapidly with the aldehyde compounds producing various types of addition products, such as polyethylene sulfide, polymethylene disulfide and trithiane. Such a process is disclosed, e.g., in Walker, J. F., Formaldehyde, Rheinhold Publishing Company, New York, page 66 (1953).
U.S. Pat. No. 4,748,011 discloses a method for the separation and collection of natural gas comprising the use of a sweetening solution. 
The sweetening solution consists of an aldehyde, a ketone, methanol, an amine inhibitor, sodium or potassium hydroxides and isopropanol. 
The amine inhibitor includes alkanolamines to adjust the pH.

Although the aldehydes (e.g., formaldehyde) are effective in the reduction of the hydrogen sulfide level of natural gas and selective for sulfide compounds, they are known to form trithiane compounds upon reaction with the sulfides. 
The trithianes are solids which do not easily dissolve and therefore, clog gas lines.
Also, aldehydes are unstable, temperature sensitive and have the tendency to polymerize.
Moreover, aldehydes are known carcinogens and environmental hazards. Accordingly, the use of aldehydes for sweetening natural gas has come under disfavor.
Alkanolamines may also be used to sweeten sour gas streams, e.g., in such “in-line” injection systems. 
Various alkanolamines may be used in such systems, e.g., monoethanolamine, diethanolamine, methyldiethanolamine and diglycolamine. 

For example, U.S. Pat. No. 2,776,870 discloses a process for separating acid components from a gas mixture comprising adding to the gas an absorbent containing water-soluble alphatic amines an alkanolamines, preferably ethanolamine.
However, the alkanolamines are not selective in their reaction with hydrogen sulfide. 
That is, alkanolamines absorb the total acid-gas components present in the gas stream, e.g., carbon dioxide, as well as H2S. 
Such non-selectivity is not desirable in many applications and therefore, the usage of alkanolamines has also come under disfavor for this reason.
Another method used for the reduction of the hydrogen sulfide level in gas streams is the use of an H2S scrubber tower which causes the gas to contact a sweetening medium. The scrubber/bubble tower processes are batch or one-step processes which increase the opportunity for contact between the natural gas and the sweetening product by providing a gas diffusion zone by way of, e.g., disparges, pall rings, wood chips, etc.
Sweetening materials used in such scrubber tower apparatuses include, e.g., the so-called “iron-sponges.” 
The iron-sponge is actually a sensitive, hydrated iron oxide supported on wood chips or shavings. 
The iron oxide selectively reacts with the hydrogen sulfide in the gas to form iron sulfide. 
Although effective, the iron-sponge method is disadvantageous in that the final product is not easily disposed of (see, e.g., The Field Handling of Natural Gas, p 74, 3rd Ed (1972)).
Slurries of zinc oxide and iron oxides have also been used in such scrubber towers to effect sweetening in much the same way as the iron-sponge. 
However, disposal problems also exist with these slurries.

Caustic-based systems, such as those containing nitrites, may also be used in scrubber towers. 
Although effective, such systems produce elemental sulfur solids. 
Such systems are described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,515,759. 
Such caustic-based sweetening materials are undesirable since, as noted above, they produce solids (i.e., elemental sulfur). 
Accordingly, such systems cannot be used in “in-line” injection systems and may only be used in bubble towers. Moreover, such caustic-based sweetening systems are not regenerable, i.e., they must be used in a batch process.
Another known method for sweetening natural gas is the chemical solvent process. 
The chemical solvent process is a continuous process, whereby a sweetening solution is contacted with the gas stream in an absorber tower. 
In such a process, the total acid gases, including hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide are stripped off of the sweetening solution which is then regenerated. 
The chemical solvent processes cannot be performed in-line.
Alkanolamines of various types may also be used in these chemical solvent processes. 
However, as discussed above, the use of alkanolamines is limited due to their lack of selectivity for hydrogen sulfide and other organic sulfides in the gas streams.
Other chemical solvents known in the art and used for sweetening gas streams include piperazinone, as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,112,049; 1-formylpiperidine, as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,107,270; iron (III) complexes of N-(2-hydroxyethyl) EDTA, as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,107,270; and iron complexes of nitriloacetic acid, as disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,436,713 and 4,443,423.

U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,978,512 and 7,438,877 describe triazine-based sweetening compositions which preferably utilize the reaction products of a reaction between an alkanolamine and an aldehyde as the triazine source.
Generally, these triazine products have from 40-70% by volume water therein. 
This is a problem when the compositions are used as a part of in-line systems or spray systems to scavenge sulfides from petroleum transmission lines and equipment. 
Specifically, the high moisture contents of the compositions significantly contribute to corrosion of the transmission lines and equipment. 
In short, while adequate sulfide scavenging can be obtained, this can be largely offset by the concomitant issue of corrosion.

The easy to extract sweet oil and gas deposits of the past have evolved into technically advanced new plays requiring extensive horizontal fracturing. 
New fields and existing fields 
with different zones have been exploited all over North America, and much of the resulting new production contains hydrogen sulphide (H2S).

A strict regulatory environment, including regulations for pipeline specifications, flaring, transportation safety, corrosion, venting and other emissions, has necessitated more innovative and exceptional H2S treatment methods. 
In turn, stronger demands on H2S removal has ensured that suppliers of traditional triazine scavengers develop more competitive pricing and improve chemistry formulations, making many more applications cost effective.

H2S is associated with methane and other hydrocarbons in all phases of production and all over the world, including land based production, transportation, storage and processing and offshore production and storage facilities. With much of current global production having a level of H2S as part of its composition, producers, midstream companies and facility operators require improved chemistry formulations and more cost effective H2S treatments.

This article discusses how inexpensive triazine based liquid scavengers, coupled with more efficient equipment options, provide a more economical and comprehensive solution to H2S problems in every phase of production.

H2S scavenger overview
H2S is a light, volatile compound that must be eliminated from hydrocarbon gases and liquids in order to produce consumable products. 
Historically, H2S scavenging has been used at pipelines and well sites to remove H2S during the gas phase of production, but today’s scavenging chemistries and processes can effectively remove this poisonous and corrosive compound from both hydrocarbon gas and liquids throughout production and processing stages.

Lower hydrocarbon pricing mandates either less expensive production costs or shutting in production in regions entirely. 
There are both economic and technical limitations to removing H2S, but with regulations and emission limits, as well as ever present safety requirements, H2S treatments are increasingly required and often mandated. 
Governmental bodies, environmental bodies and the more intricate midstream and custody transfer network tend to require H2S treatments earlier in the production process and in many more application types.

Globally, triazine is the most common chemical to be used for H2S removal. 
More than 400 million kg of this alkanolamine/aldehyde condensate are consumed annually (315 million kg in North America), and increased consumption from North America’s shale boom has eroded triazine pricing to commodity levels – a benefit to producers needing cost effective H2S removal to compete in a market with marginal oil and gas pricing. 
In addition, evolved liquid scavenger processes more efficiently treat a wider array of operating conditions, sources and compositions.

Triazine chemistry
Used with current liquid scavenging technologies, triazine can efficiently and effectively reduce H2S concentrations to as low as 0 ppm and partially remove some light mercaptans (methyl, ethyl, and propyl) as well. 
Most inorganic sulphur compounds and other heavier sulphur compounds are not reactive with the current triazine chemistry.

Different triazine formulations contain additives to help enhance cold temperature operations, to reduce scale formation, to provide varying mass transfer characteristics and to maintain different capacities of reaction. Strengths of the chemical and the economics of storage and transportation vary with the application, and formulations differ by supplier. 
MEA triazine is the most common chemical used with current liquid methodologies.

The triazine reaction is a non-
reversible chemical substitution reaction with limited uptake capacity. 
The capacity varies with each chemical strength, but most commercially available formulations have a stoichiometric uptake capacity of approximately 1.0-1.2 lb H2S per US gallon (0.15 kg/l). The maximum practical capacity limit of triazine is approximately 80% of the stoichiometric value and can routinely be attained in practice in the field with the current process technologies. Other commercially available chemical formulations have different uptake capacities, and each formula should be evaluated independently.

The efficiency of a process is defined as the percentage of the potential reaction that has taken place during the process compared to the actual reaction completion. 
For example, if a specific chemical can remove 1 lb H2S/gal, but the process actually removes 0.8 lb/gal, then we would consider this to be 80% efficient. 
The triazine reaction with H2S is strongly kinetically favoured and therefore not meaningfully affected by pressure. 
Temperature is best in the 80-120°F (27-49°C) range, but practical applications have stretched the range from 50-160°F (10-70°C) with some losses of efficiency.

Controlled contact between triazine and H2S is critical, as either excessive contact, even with low H2S concentrations, or lesser contact but with high concentrations of H2S can over-react the triazine and lead to polymerisation and precipitation of the chemical. 

The over-reacted product then built up in the low points of the pipeline.

While certain operating conditions may not be conducive to achieving the desired efficiency, more specialised technologies are now able to reach practical efficiency limits and minimise the risk of chemical overspending and solid material precipitation in the processes and downstream equipment. 
Additionally, processes developed to treat unusual operating conditions, wide swing variations in operating parameters, exceptionally high H2S concentrations, large gas flows and hydrocarbon liquids are available.

The spent chemical in all the processes is a liquid waste product that is water dispersible and requires proper disposal. 
To date, there is no secondary use for the spent chemical, and it is most often disposed of in salt water 
disposal wells with produced water generated at the facility.

Chemical suppliers have discussed alternatives to triazine and conducted many proprietary trials, but the H2S uptake capacity, speed of reaction, corrosivity or cost of treatment have limited the use of these chemicals to very specialised applications or trials. 
Chemical trials include proprietary triazine formulations, formaldehyde, caustic solution, glyoxal and sodium nitrite, but none have become a competitive product in the scavenging market. So for the time being, triazine is the most cost effective and widespread chemistry for low level H2S removal.


 

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