TRICHLOROACETIC ACID

Trichloroacetic acid = TCA = TCAA = trichloroethanoic acid

CAS Number: 76-03-9
EC Number: 200-927-2
Molecular Weight: 163.39

Trichloroacetic acid (TCA; TCAA; also known as trichloroethanoic acid) is an analogue of acetic acid in which the three hydrogen atoms of the methyl group have all been replaced by chlorine atoms. 
Salts and esters of trichloroacetic acid are called trichloroacetates.
Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is a chemical peel agent used to treat changes in the papillary dermis. 
Trichloroacetic acid is primarily used in preparing medium peels and can be present in lower concentrations in superficial peels. 
A TCA peel involves 4 to 7 days desquamation.
TCA coagulates epidermal proteins, causing frosting on the skin (whitish colour) upon application. 
Trichloroacetic acid accelerates cellular renewal in the dermis and specifically stimulates collagen production by inducing collagenation.

Trichloroacetic acid uses:
Trichloroacetic acid is widely used in biochemistry for the precipitation of macromolecules, such as proteins, DNA, and RNA. 
TCA and DCA are both used in cosmetic treatments (such as chemical peels and tattoo removal) and as topical medication for chemoablation of warts, including genital warts. 
Trichloroacetic acid can kill normal cells as well. 
Trichloroacetic acid is considered safe for use for this purpose during pregnancy.
The sodium salt (sodium trichloroacetate) was used as an herbicide starting in the 1950s but regulators removed it from the market in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

TCA is used as a soil sterilizer and a laboratory intermediate or reagent in the synthesis of a variety of medicinal products and organic chemicals. 
Medical applications of TCA include use as a reagent for the detection of albumin, application as an antiseptic, and use as a skin peeling agent. 
TCA is also used industrially as an etching and pickling agent for the surface treatment of metals and (in solution) as a solvent in the plastics industry.
TCA can be formed as a combustion byproduct of organic compounds in the presence of chlorine. 
Stack gases of municipal waste incinerators have been reported to contain 0.37–3.7 µg/m3 TCA. 
TCA could be a photooxidation product of tetrachloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane in the atmosphere. 
Sidebottom and Franklin (1996) suggested that atmospheric degradation of chlorinated solvents could contribute only a minor amount of TCA to the atmosphere, based on the mechanistic and kinetic evidence, as well as the observed global distribution of TCA in precipitation. 
However, TCA has been detected in rainwater at a concentration range of 0.01–1 µg/L.
TCA is formed from organic material during water chlorination and has been detected in groundwater, surface water distribution systems, and swimming pool water. 
TCA concentrations were measured in samples of disinfected drinking water collected under EPA’s Information Collection Rule. 
The mean concentrations of TCA (averaged across four distinct locations in the distribution system) were 3.28 and 13.25 μg/L in treated groundwater and surface water, respectively. 
TCA concentrations in drinking water are affected by water disinfection method, influent bromide concentration, influent total organic carbon (TOC) concentration, and temperature. 

Synthesis of Trichloroacetic acid:
Trichloroacetic acid is prepared by the reaction of chlorine with acetic acid in the presence of a suitable catalyst such as red phosphorus. 
Trichloroacetic acid reaction is Hell–Volhard–Zelinsky halogenation.
CH3COOH + 3 Cl2 → CCl3COOH + 3 HCl
Another route to trichloroacetic acid is the oxidation of trichloroacetaldehyde.

Trichloroacetic acid applications:
Trichloroacetic acid has been used for the precipitation of sLRP (soluble circulating low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1) isolated from plasma.
Trichloroacetic acid has been used for the extraction of ascorbic acid from plant samples. 
Trichloroacetic acid has also been used for the preparation of ascorbate standards for ascorbate assay.
Trichloroacetic acid has been used for the precipitation of IMAC (immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography)-isolated phosphoproteins.
Trichloroacetic acid traditionally used to precipitate protein. 
TCA has been used to determine protein concentration by quantitative precipitation. 
Trichloroacetic acid used as decalcifier and fixative in microscopy.

TCA is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract in experimental animals and humans and its clearance from blood is relatively slow relative to other HAAs. 
Approximately half of the administered dose was eliminated unchanged. 
There are substantial differences in this clearance by different species. 
Clearance is much faster in mice than in rats and human clearance is very slow. 
TCA produces same metabolites as DCA with or without being converted to DCA.

About:
TCA peels are cosmetic treatments that use trichloroacetic acid (TCA) to improve your skin’s appearance.
The peels come in a variety of strengths or concentrations of acid.
A TCA peel works by removing dead skin cells and stimulating new skin cell growth.
People use TCA peels to try to get younger looking skin, and to treat certain skin conditions, like melasma and acne scarring.

TCA peeling is an easy-to-perform, inexpensive, stable procedure with good results in proper indications and done with an appropriate technique and causes no systemic toxicity.
The correct knowledge of these procedure and the percentages that can be used makes TCA peeling the best ally for dermatologists.

Trichloroacetic acid safety:
Nearly 130,000 chemical peels were performed by dermatologists in 2018, many using TCA.
The TCA peel application process sometimes causes temporary side effects such as burning and discomfort.
After a chemical peel, you may experience redness and skin sensitivity. In rare cases, there is a risk of scarring and infection from a TCA peel.
Finding a licensed and certified health practitioner to perform the TCA peel will lower your risks of negative side effects.

Convenience:
The peel itself typically takes about 30 minutes to apply.
You can resume your regular activities after the peel has been applied, but protecting your skin from the sun is essential as you heal.
This procedure is available through dermatologists trained in the procedure.

Trichloroacetic acid Efficacy:
TCA peel results vary according to the results you expect and the reason you’re using the peels.
Studies show that peels containing TCA have been found to be effective for the treatment of acne and melasma,

What is a TCA peel?
A TCA peel is a noninvasive skin treatment used to treat skin discolorations, scarring, and wrinkles. 
These peels get their name from trichloroacetic acid (TCA), which is used to clear away dead skin cells to reveal the newer and smoother skin layers below.
TCA peels are part of the group of skin treatments called chemical peels, which are used to exfoliate your skin by using different strengths and combinations of nontoxic acid ingredients.

Trichloroacetic acid is also called Trichloroethanoic acid or Aceto-caustin. 
Esters and salts of trichloroacetic acid are termed as trichloroacetates. 
The chemical formula of Trichloroacetic acid is C2HCl3O2.

Trichloroacetic acid was discovered by Jean-Baptiste Dumas in the year 1839. 
Aceto-caustin in its solid form, is a crystalline solid without colour. 
Trichloroacetic acid forms a syrup by absorbing the moisture from the air. 
Trichloroacetic acid dissolves in water by liberating heat. 
Trichloroacetic acid is corrosive. 
Trichloroacetic acid is a powerful acid which is widely used in clinical chemistry as a protein precipitant. 
Also, Trichloroacetic acid has a wide application in removing warts.

Trichloroacetic Acid, Crystal, Reagent, ACS, also known as TCA, is used in biochemistry to help the precipitation of macromolecules. 
Trichloroacetic acid is also used in the cosmetic industry as a chemical peel and also as a wart remover. 
As an ACS grade Reagent, Spectrum Chemical manufactured trichloroacetic acid is used as the quality standard against which other substances are graded and has met the toughest regulatory standards for quality and pureness.

CAS Number: 76-03-9
ChEMBL: ChEMBL14053
ChemSpider: 10772050
ECHA InfoCard: 100.000.844 
KEGG: C11150 
PubChem CID: 421
RTECS number: AJ7875000
UNII: 5V2JDO056X 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID1021378

TCA is a colorless to white crystalline solid with a sharp, pungent odor.
The dissociation constant (pKa) for TCA at 25°C is 0.51. 
In aqueous solutions, TCA occurs almost exclusively in the ionized form as trichloroacetate anion. 
Common synonyms include trichloroethanoic acid and trichloro-methanecarboxylic acid.

Trichloroacetic Acid is a colorless, crystalline (sand-like) solid which is used in liquid solutions. 
Trichloroacetic acid is used in making medicines, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides.

REASON FOR CITATION Trichloroacetic acid:
-Trichloroacetic Acid is on the Hazardous Substance List because it is cited by ACGIH, DOT, NIOSH, IARC and IRIS.
-Trichloroacetic acid is on the Special Health Hazard Substance List because it is CORROSIVE. 

Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) has been used historically in dermatology in different concentrations of hemostasis, treatment of genital warts, xanthelasma, keratoses, and other lesions. 
In cosmetics Trichloroacetic acid has been used as peeling agents in photodamage treatments and in cross peeling technique mainly in acne depressed scar management.

How did Trichloroacetic Acid get in my water?
Trichloroacetic Acid is widely used in biochemistry for the precipitation of macromolecules, such as proteins, DNA, and RNA. 
TCA and DCA are both used in cosmetic treatments (such as chemical peels and tattoo removal) and as topical medication for chemoablation of warts, including genital warts. 
Trichloroacetic acid can kill normal cells as well. 
Trichloroacetic acid is considered safe for use for this purpose during pregnancy. 
Trichloroacetic acids sodium salt was used as an herbicide starting in the 1950s but regulators removed Trichloroacetic acid from the market in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
Trichloroacetic acid, one of the group of five haloacetic acids regulated by federal standards, is formed when chlorine or other disinfectants are used to treat drinking water. 
Haloacetic acids and other disinfection byproducts increase the risk of cancer and may cause problems during pregnancy.

Trichloroacetic acid Effects on Skin
In high concentrations over a short period of time, exposure to haloacetic acids in drinking water can cause severe irritation to the skin. 
Trichloroacetic acid, a type of haloacetic acid, is used clinically as a chemical skin peel. 
Exposure to high levels of this acid causes loss of skin, inflammation and degeneration of the structural protein collagen. 
In some cases, the skin damage can last from two to 15 weeks.

Trichloroacetic acid and Cancer Risk
The Environmental Protection Agency has classified the acid as a Group 2B cancer classification, which means it may cause cancer in humans. 
However, this classification is based on studies performed on animals, and the evidence to support its carcinogenicity in humans is limited. 
Experiments on mice exposed to varying levels of haloacetic acid showed an increase in the development of liver tumors and liver cancer.

Birth Defects
Exposure to high levels of haloacetic acid also may increase the risk of birth defects. 
However, as with cancer, only animal studies have been conducted. 
Fetal rats exposed to high doses of haloacetic acid in their mother's diets had poor fetal growth and a higher incidence of malformation of the heart and kidneys. 
Pregnant rats exposed to the contaminant also had poor overall maternal weight gain during gestation.

Trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), or trichloroethanoic acid, is a chemical analogue of acetic acid where three methyl group hydrogen atoms are replaced by chlorine. 
TCAAs are also abbreviated and referred to as TCAs, causing confusion with the psychiatric antidepressant drug class, especially among patients. 
TCAAs exist in dermatological treatments such as chemical peels or wart chemoablation medication. 
TCAA ingestion or overdose can cause gastric irritation symptoms including vomiting, diarrhea, or lassitude. 
This symptomatology is less severe than TCA overdose, where symptoms may include elevated body temperature, blurred vision, dilated pupils, sleepiness, confusion, seizures, rapid heart rate, and cardiac arrest. 
Owing to the vast difference in symptoms, the need for clinical intervention differs greatly. 
While overdose of either in a self-harm attempt can warrant psychiatric hospital admission, the risk of death in TCAA ingestion is far less. 
Case Report. A patient ingested TCAA in the form of a commercially available dermatological chemical peel as a self-harm attempt, thinking that it was a more injurious TCA. Conclusion. 
Awareness among physicians, particularly psychiatrists, regarding this relatively obscure chemical compound (TCAA) and its use by suicidal patients mistakenly believing it to be a substance that can be significantly more lethal (TCA), is imperative.

Uses of Trichloroacetic acid (C2HCl3O2)
Trichloroacetic acid is used in biochemistry to precipitate macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins.
Trichloroacetic acid is used in microscopy as a fixative and decalcifier.
Trichloroacetic acid used as a reagent in organic synthesis to detect albumin, medicine, and herbicides.
Trichloroacetic acid used in the chemoablation of warts.
DCA and TCA are used in cosmetic treatments.

Preparation of Trichloroacetic acid
Trichloroacetic acid is synthesized by reacting chlorine (Cl) with acetic acid (CH3COOH ) in the presence of a catalyst.
CH3COOH + 3Cl2 → CCl3COOH +3HCl
Trichloroacetic acid can also be produced by oxidation of trichloroacetaldehyde.

Effects on Health
Trichloroethanoic acid acts as a metabolite, a mouse metabolite, and a carcinogenic agent. 
Trichloroacetic acid is an organochlorine compound as well as a monocarboxylic acid. 
Trichloroacetic acid is derived from acetic acid (CH3COOH).

Frequently Asked Questions
Is trichloroacetic acid a strong acid?
From a chemical ionization point of view, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is a much stronger acid than acetic acid because electronegative chlorine atoms remove electron density from the carboxyl end of the molecule, producing a partial positive charge on the carboxyl ring.

Is Trichloroacetic Acid carcinogenic?
The skin peels of TCA contain about 15 percent -50 percent of the carcinogenic chemicals according to product labels. 
In addition to cancer, TCA has been related to genetic damage, birth defects, decreased fertility and other serious health problems in animal studies.

What is the use of trichloroacetic acid?
Trichloroacetic acid is commonly used for the precipitation of macromolecules, such as proteins, DNA, and RNA in biochemistry. 
TCA and DCA are also used in cosmetic procedures (such as chemical peels and removal of tattoos) and as topical wart chemoablation drugs, including genital warts. 
Trichloroacetic acid can kill even normal cells.

Is Trichloroacetic Acid Safe?
According to study findings released in JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery, trichloroacetic acid peelings are healthy and effective for light and dark skin.

Chemical Background
TCA occurs naturally as a colorless crystal and is easily formulated by mixture with distilled water. 
TCA is stable under normal conditions with a melting point of 54 deg Celsius. 
Trichloroacetic acid is not light sensitive; however, it is hygroscopic so the crystals should be stored in a closed container to limit its absorption of water. 
Once mixed, TCA has a shelf life of at least 2 years.

Chemical formula: C2HCl3O2
Molar mass: 163.38 g·mol−1
Appearance: Colorless to white, crystalline solid
Odor: sharp, pungent
Density: 1.63 g/cm3
Melting point: 57 to 58 °C (135 to 136 °F; 330 to 331 K)
Boiling point: 196 to 197 °C (385 to 387 °F; 469 to 470 K)
Solubility in water: 1000g/100mL
Vapor pressure: 1 mmHg (51.1°C)
Acidity (pKa): 0.66
Magnetic susceptibility (χ): -73.0·10−6 cm3/mol

HOW TO DETERMINE IF YOU ARE BEING EXPOSED
The New Jersey Right to Know Act requires most employers to label chemicals in the workplace and requires public employers to provide their employees with information and training concerning chemical hazards and controls. 
The federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard, 1910.1200, requires private employers to provide similar training and information to their employees.
-Exposure to hazardous substances should be routinely evaluated. 
This may include collecting personal and area air samples. 
You can obtain copies of sampling results from your employer. 
You have a legal right to this information under OSHA 1910.1020. 

CCl3COOH is a haloacetic acid (organic). 
A colourless to white, crystalline solid with a sharp, pungent odor and very soluble in water. 
Trichloroacetic acid is an irritant and corrosive. 
Inhalation of trichloroacetic acid vapour may lead to a sore throat and cause fluid to fill the lungs (pulmonary oedema). 
Trichloroacetic acid can burn the skin and eyes. 
Blurred vision and permanent eye damage can occur. 
Long term exposures may lead to a chronic cough and bronchial pneumonia may also occur. 
Teeth may erode. 
Trichloroacetic acid is also corrosive on ingestion.

Chemical Formulations
TCA concentrations are correctly formulated using a weight-in-volume (W/V) method. 
Simply stated a 30% TCA solution is made by adding 30 g of TCA with enough water to make 100 ml solution. 
This should not be mistaken by adding 30 g to 100 ml of water thus yielding a weaker concentration. 
Other methods including a weight in weight formulation, used in topical ointments and creams, is not accurate.
Also, dilution of existing TCA with water should not be employed as the resulting concentration is higher than one would expect. 
TCA is readily obtained in a number of concentrations from suppliers such as Delasco who specialize in its production.
Recently there have been a variety of suppliers with chemical peel kits claiming ease of use and increased efficacy. 
These proprietary kits vary from the vehicle used in delivering the TCA to having color indicators to inform the physician of a peel’s completion. 
Caution should be used when using such kits as many times the physician loses the ability to easily assess the degree of frosting and in turn the depth and safety of the chemical peel.

TRICHLOROACETIC ACID
76-03-9
Trichloroethanoic acid
Aceto-caustin
Trichloracetic acid
Acetic acid, trichloro-
Trichloressigsaeure
Konesta
Acide trichloracetique
Acido tricloroacetico
Amchem grass killer
Trichloorazijnzuur
2,2,2-trichloroacetic acid
TCA

Advantages/Disadvantages of TCA Peels
TCA peels confer several advantages for both the patient and physician.
TCA is an inexpensive solution that can be easily prepared, is stable, and has a long shelf life. 
TCA, as opposed to peels such as Baker’s phenol, does not have any systemic toxicity. 
In addition,as noted previously, it is a versatile agent that can be used for superficial, medium and deep chemical peeling.
The frosting reaction can be a utilized as a reliable indicator for the depth of the chemical peel, making this a safe agent in the hands of the experienced dermatologist. 
However, TCA in concentrations >40% has an unreliable penetration depth and can result in scarring

Trichloroacetic acid is used as a laboratory reagent but its main use is in the production of its sodium salt, which is used in many industries, for example, as a herbicide, etching agent and antiseptic. 
In the environment, very small quantities of trichloroacetic acid are found in chlorinated drinking water as a disinfection by product as a consequence of the reaction of chlorine with natural organic matter and bromide ions in the raw water supply (from lake, reservoirs, rivers, etc.).

Trichloroacetic Acid (TCA) is a much stronger acid than Acetic Acid, from a chemical ionization standpoint, because the electronegative Chlorine atoms draw electron density away from the carboxyl end of the molecule, creating a partial positive charge on the carboxyl group, and allowing easier removal of the positively charged Hydrogen ion, H+. 
A 0.03 Molar solution of TCA is almost 90% ionized, while a comparable strength of Acetic Acid is less than 3% ionized. 
The strong electron pull of the Chlorine atoms also gives TCA the undesirable tendency to cleave, producing Chloroform (CHCl3) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2).

Concentration or Composition (by Analyte or Components): 6.12M (100% w/v)
Assay Percent Range: 99.5 to 101.0 %
UN Number: 2564
Density: 1.62g/cm³
Formula Weight: 163.39
Physical Form: Liquid
Percent Purity: 99.5 to 101.0%
Identification: Pass Test
Packaging: Glass Bottle
Melting Point: 54°C
Color: Colorless
Boiling Point: 196°C
Quantity: 500mL
Chemical Name or Material: Trichloroacetic Acid

Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is used as a reagent for the precipitation of proteins1,2 and nucleic acids3. 
The addition of 10% TCA solution will precipitate most proteins and the DNA can be precipitated with 5-10% ice cold TCA solution. 
Trichloroacetic acid is designed for research use only and must not be used for therapeutic purposes.
 
Trichloroacetic acid features
Trichloroacetic acid can be used for protein precipitation
Trichloroacetic acid is ready to use solution, filter sterilized
Trichloroacetic acid can also be used for DNA precipitation: Trichloroacetic acid precipitates nucleic acid polymers longer than 20 nucleotides and can be used to separate radio-labeled nucleotides incorporated into nucleic acid from unincorporated label.
 
Trichloroacetic acid applications
Precipitation of DNA polymers
Precipitation of proteins

Tricholoracetic acid chemical peel
Tricholoracetic acids (TCAs):
-Come in many concentrations
-May require pre-treatment with Retin-A or AHA creams
-Act as an anesthetic, so extra pain relief is not usually required — though we can use sedation beforehand or afterward to help you relax
-Might require 2 or more peels over several months to achieve the desired result (mild TCA peels may be repeated more frequently)

A trichloroacetic acid (TCA) peel is a medium-depth peel that can effectively treat fine surface wrinkles, superficial blemishes, and pigment problems. 
Typically performed on the face, neck, chest and hands, a TCA peel can be customized, with the depth of the peel adjusted as needed, for each patient. 
A TCA peel can be used on any skin type, and is considered ideal for those with darker skin. 
A TCA peel usually takes only 10 to 15 minutes to perform, and is considered safe for most people.

During a TCA peel, the skin is thoroughly cleaned, and the peel solution is evenly applied to the targeted areas. 
Some patients may be given Retin-A or hydroquinone to apply to the skin prior to treatment to maximize results. 
No anesthesia is required with a TCA peel because the peel solution itself acts as an anesthetic, mildly numbing the skin. 
Although there may be a slight stinging sensation when the peel is first applied, it goes away quickly.

Kyselina trichloroctova
Acetic acid, trichloro- (solid)
CCl3COOH
Trichloorazijnzuur [Dutch]
TKhU
Trichloressigsaeure [German]
Trichloroacetic acid solution
UNII-5V2JDO056X
MFCD00004177
TKhUK
NSC 215204
Acide trichloracetique [French]
Acido tricloroacetico [Italian]
Acetic acid, 2,2,2-trichloro-
5V2JDO056X
CHEBI:30956

What is Trichloroacetic acid?
Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is a treatment for genital and anal warts caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). 
Trichloroacetic acid is a powerful chemical that kills warts by destroying the proteins in the cells. 
After repeated application, Trichloroacetic acid will cause the warts to shrink and eventually disappear.

How to take this medication:
TCA is a liquid that is applied directly to the wart. 
Only trained health care providers should apply TCA to genital and anal warts. 
Trichloroacetic acid can also destroy normal skin surrounding the warts. 
Trichloroacetic acid is usually applied once a week for several weeks depending on the number and size of warts. 
TCA is most effective on small, moist areas of warts.

Trichloroacetic acid is used as a soil sterilizer and a laboratory intermediate or reagent in the synthesis of a variety of medicinal products and organic chemicals. 
Medical uses of trichloroacetic acid include application as an antiseptic and a peeling agent.
Trichloroacetic acid is also used industrially as an etching and pickling agent for the surface treatment of metals and as a solvent in the plastics industry.

CAS Number: 76-03-9
Formula Weight: 163.39
Formula: CCl3COOH
Density (g/mL): 1.6
Boiling Point (°C): 198
Freezing Point (°C): 58
Solubility: Water and Alcohol
Synonyms: TCA, Trichloroethanoic Acid
Shelf Life (months): 36
Storage: White

Trichloroacetic acid is a common agent of chemical peeling in the medicine. 
Traditionally your application is made through aqueous solution. 
With the purpose of improving the use of this acid many vehicles and associations were created, but showed to be of hight cost or did not reach your objectives appropriately. 
Author presents a new vehicle for the trichloroacetic acid, of low cost, and excellent result.

The production volume of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is ca. 1000 t/a in Germany. 
TCA is mostly used in the production of TCA Na-salt used as a herbicide. 
TCA is also used as an auxiliary in textile dying processes.
TCA is stable in neutral solution and is classified as "non biodegradable" with a "low bioaccumulation potential" for fish and a "high bioaccumulation potential" for terrestrial plants.
The most sensitive environmental species to TCA is the alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa (14d-NOEC = 0.01 mg/l) and pine (60d-EC10 = 0.12 mg/kg).

Trichloroacetic acid side effects:
TCA usually causes a few minutes of mild to moderate discomfort at the site where it is applied. 
Other common side effects that you may experience with TCA treatment include:
-Mild to moderate skin irritation
-Burning
-Pain
-Swelling and tenderness
-Skin ulcerations

Points to remember:
TCA is an effective treatment for the removal of genital warts, but it does not cure the infection with HPV. 
Once warts are removed, the virus remains in the body and can still be spread to another person through unprotected sexual contact. 
Using latex condoms can reduce the risk of HPV infection, but the virus can still be spread by intimate skin-to-skin contact with areas not covered by the condom.
TCA is often made from old crystals that have lost some of their potency, or by using incorrect formulas, such as weight/weight or other non-standard calculations.

Consent for Treatment:
The nurse and/or doctor has reviewed the information on this fact sheet with me.

Trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) is an analogue of acetic acid used topically in the treatment of condylomata acuminata (genital warts), common warts and plantar warts (verrucas).  
TCAA is also used in cosmetic chemical facial peels. 
Formerly used as a herbicide and soil sterilant, TCAA is a common drinking water contaminant formed from organic material during the process of chlorination.

What is TCA?
TCA is an abbreviation for trichloroacetic acid, which is typically used in low concentration (20–35%) for a chemical peel and improves the appearance of facial scars and skin ageing. 

Formula: C2HCl3O2 / CCl3COOH
Molecular mass: 163.4
Boiling point: 198°C
Melting point: 58°C
Density: 1.6 g/cm³
Solubility in water: very good
Vapour pressure, Pa at 51°C: 133
Relative vapour density (air = 1): 5.6
Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: 1.7  

Pharmacies use varying methods to create a TCA solution. 
When the weight of the solute is dissolved into the total volume of the solution, this method is referred to as weight by volume (w/v). 
When the weight of the solute is dissolved into the total weight of the solution, it is referred to as weight by weight (w/w).
For example, in a TCA 35% (w/v) solution, 35 g of TCA is dissolved in 100 mL total solution volume. 
To achieve this, water is slowly added to 35 g of TCA crystals. 
Approximately 80.4 mL of water is used to create the 100 mL final solution. 
Note that the amounts are not additive. 
In a TCA 35% (w/w) solution, 35 g of TCA is combined with 65 g of water to create a solution weighing 100 g. 
The volume of this solution is approximately 87 mL.
Disparate methods of preparation and lack of standardization in the preparation of TCA (w/v vs w/w) causes confusion. 
A 35% TCA w/w solution is stronger than a 35% TCA w/v solution: the former is more concentrated. 

Inaccurate understanding of TCA compounding methods can compromise patient safety. 
Thus, we sought to understand the relationship between TCA w/w versus w/v solutions.
Two methods of TCA solution preparation were used: w/w and w/v. 
Anhydrous TCA crystals were dissolved to achieve a total of 100 mL or 100 g of the final solution, corresponding to w/v and w/w formulations, respectively. 
A collection of 124 TCA w/v formulations were used to derive the corresponding strength when expressed as a w/w preparation. 
The best-fit line for conversion of w/w to w/v is.

Trichloroacetic acid is registered under the REACH Regulation and is manufactured in and / or imported to the European Economic Area, at ≥ 100 to < 1 000 tonnes per annum.
Trichloroacetic acid is used by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites and in manufacturing.

Widespread Trichloroacetic acid uses by professional workers
Trichloroacetic acid is used in the following products: laboratory chemicals, pharmaceuticals, pH regulators and water treatment products and cosmetics and personal care products. This substance is used in the following areas: health services and scientific research and development. Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners), indoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. cooling liquids in refrigerators, oil-based electric heaters) and outdoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. hydraulic liquids in automotive suspension, lubricants in motor oil and break fluids).

Formulation or re-packing of Trichloroacetic acid:
Trichloroacetic acid is used in the following products: laboratory chemicals, coating products, non-metal-surface treatment products, washing & cleaning products and pharmaceuticals.
Release to the environment of Trichloroacetic acid can occur from industrial use: formulation of mixtures.

Uses at industrial sites
Trichloroacetic acid is used in the following products: laboratory chemicals, pH regulators and water treatment products, pharmaceuticals, metal surface treatment products and non-metal-surface treatment products.
Trichloroacetic acid is used in the following areas: health services, scientific research and development and formulation of mixtures and/or re-packaging.
Trichloroacetic acid is used for the manufacture of: chemicals, machinery and vehicles and fabricated metal products.
Release to the environment of this substance can occur from industrial use: of substances in closed systems with minimal release, as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates), in processing aids at industrial sites and as processing aid.

Trichloroacetic acid manufacture
Release to the environment of Trichloroacetic acid can occur from industrial use: manufacturing of the substance.

TRICHLOROACETIC acid (TCA) is widely used as a protein coagulant in the preparation of protein-free sera; but there is little information concerning its mode of action. 
Rowland has shown that the complete separation of protein from milk requires a concentration of 8 percent TCA at room temperature. 
We have determined little amounts of TCA bound by milk proteins at this concentration 

What Happens During a TCA Peel?
During this treatment, our professional will apply a solution to your skin and wait for it to dry. 
Your skin will slowly begin to peel over the days that follow before new skin appears. 
Before you leave our office, you may receive advice about how to care for your skin in the days and weeks after the treatment.

Who Is a Good Candidate for a TCA Peel?
If you are looking for a skin fix that improves tone and texture and reduces signs of aging, a TCA peel might be a good option. 
This treatment can help to improve sun-damaged skin, melasma, and hyperpigmentation. 
To find out if you are a good candidate for a TCA peel, an initial consultation is required.

When Will the Results Be Seen?
TCA peels are a non-surgical procedure that can take as little as a minutes to carry out. 
Individual results will vary, but you may notice results within days as old skin peels off and fresh, new skin appears. 
Typically, this new skin will appear smooth and more youthful.

A series of treatment sessions may be necessary in order to achieve the best results. 
During a consultation, our professional can give you an idea of how many treatments you may need to achieve your goals for your skin.

NSC-215204
NCGC00091021-02
WLN: QVXGGG
Tecane
Trichloroacetic acid solid
DSSTox_CID_1378
Trichloorazijnzuur (DUTCH)
DSSTox_RID_76121
DSSTox_GSID_21378
Trichloressigsaeure (GERMAN)
Acide trichloracetique (FRENCH)
Acido tricloroacetico (ITALIAN)

Trichloroacetic acid can be formed as a combustion by-product of organic compounds in the presence of chlorine. 
Stack gases of municipal waste incinerators have been reported to contain trichloroacetic acid at concentrations in the range 0.37–3.7 µg/m3. 
Trichloroacetic acid could be a photooxidation product of tetrachloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane in the atmosphere. 
However, Sidebottom & Franklin suggested that atmospheric degradation of chlorinated solvents contributes only a minor amount of trichloroacetic acid to the atmosphere, based on mechanistic and kinetic evidence as well as the observed global distribution of trichloroacetic acid in precipitation.

Trichloroacetic acid (TCA), a chemical that is commonly used in cosmetic treatments such as chemical peels and for the removal of tattoos and treatment of skin tags, warts and moles, is now subject to Proposition 65’s warning requirement.  

Quality Level: 200
grade: ACS reagent
vapor density: <1 (vs air)
vapor pressure: 1 mmHg ( 51 °C)
assay: ≥99.0%
impurities:
Substances darkened by sulfuric acid, passes test
≤0.01% insoluble matter
ign. residue: ≤0.03%
refractive index: n20/D 1.62 (lit.)
bp: 196 °C (lit.)
mp: 54-58 °C (lit.)
solubility: H2O: 1 g/10 mL
density: 1.62 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)

As chlorine is used in food production and processing — including disinfection of chicken in poultry plants; processing seafood, poultry and red meats; sanitizing equipment and containers; cooling heat-sterilized foods; and oxidizing and bleaching in the flour industry.
Trichloroacetic acid can also be taken up from cooking water.
In addition, there is evidence that trichloroacetic acid may be taken up by plants via the roots or by leaves via uptake from the air.

Physical State; Appearance
COLOURLESS HYGROSCOPIC CRYSTALS WITH PUNGENT ODOUR. 

Trichloroacetic acid chemical dangers
-Decomposes on heating. 
-Trichloroacetic acid produces toxic and corrosive fumes including hydrogen chloride and chloroform. 
-The solution of Trichloroacetic acid in water is a strong acid. 
-Trichloroacetic acid reacts violently with bases and is corrosive to many metals. 

Trichloroacetic acid anion traces:
chloride (Cl-): ≤0.002%
nitrate (NO3-): ≤0.002%
phosphate (PO43-): ≤5 ppm
sulfate (SO42-): ≤0.02%
cation traces:
Fe: ≤0.001%
heavy metals (as Pb): ≤0.002%
storage temp.: 2-8°C
SMILES string: OC(=O)C(Cl)(Cl)Cl
InChI: 1S/C2HCl3O2/c3-2(4,5)1(6)7/h(H,6,7)
InChI keY: YNJBWRMUSHSURL-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Caswell No. 870
Trichloroacetic acid, 99%, extra pure
CAS-76-03-9
SMR000059159
Trichloroacetic acid (IUPAC)
Trichloromethanecarboxylic acid
TCAA
trichloro acetic acid
CCRIS 4015
Kyselina trichloroctova [Czech]
HSDB 1779
EINECS 200-927-2
C2HCl3O2
UN1839
UN2564
TCA [BSI:ISO]
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 081002
Trichloroacetic acid [USP]
BRN 0970119
AI3-24157
TCA solution

Trichloroacetic acid Eye protection
Face shield and safety glasses Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU).

Trichloroacetic acid Skin and body protection
Complete suit protecting against chemicals, The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace.

Trichloroacetic acid Hygiene measures
Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. 
Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday.


Trichloressigsaure
Tricloroacetic acid
perchloroacetic acid
trichloroacetic-acid
trichloro-acetic acid
Varitox (Salt/Mix)
CCl3CO2H
NA TA (Salt/Mix)
ACMC-1BK0N
EC 200-927-2
Acido tricloroacetico (TN)
SCHEMBL3220
SODIUMTRICHLOROACETATE
NCIOpen2_000772
4-02-00-00508 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
MLS001066365
MLS001336033
MLS001336034
UN 2564 (Salt/Mix)
CHEMBL14053
Trichloroacetic acid, solution
2,2,2-Trichloro-Acetic acid
[O]C(=O)C(Cl)(Cl)Cl
Trichloroacetic acid-[2-13C]
DTXSID1021378
Trichloroacetic acid solid (DOT)
s221
Trichloroacetic acid, >=99.5%
Trichloroacetic acid, ACS reagent
HMS2233M06
HMS3374M09
NSC77363

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of intra-lesional injection of Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) 10% in patients with conjunctival inclusion cysts.

Methods: This prospective case series study included all patients with conjunctival inclusion cyst who were referred to our referral center from August 2016 to August 2018. 
All patients received TCA 10% injection into the conjunctival cyst, and outcomes of the intervention were evaluated at least 6 months later.

Results: Ten patients with mean age of 24 ± 17.6 (range 6–65) years including three children received TCA 10% injection into the conjunctival cyst. 
We included 6 anophthalmic and 4 ophthalmic cases. 
All patients were treated successfully and no recurrence of the lesion was observed in any case. 
Mean follow up duration was 18.1 ± 8.3 (range 6–28) months.

Conclusion: Intra-lesional injection of TCA 10% is a safe, simple, and effective treatment in patients with conjunctival inclusion cysts including ophthalmic cases and anophthalmic cases, both in adults and in children. 
This concentration may avoid ocular surface complications.

pH 1 at 81.7 g/l at 25 °C (77 °F)
Melting
point/freezing point
Melting point/range: 54 - 58 °C (129 - 136 °F) - lit.
Boiling point 196 °C (385 °F) - lit.
Flash point > 113 °C (> 235 °F) - closed cup
Ignition temperature no data available
Auto-ignition
temperature
no data available
Lower explosion limit no data available
Upper explosion limit no data available
Vapour pressure 1 hPa (1 mmHg) at 51 °C (124 °F)
1.6 hPa (1.2 mmHg) at 50 °C (122 °F)
Density 1.62 g/cm3 at 25 °C (77 °F)
Water solubility 81.7 g/l at 20 °C (68 °F) - completely soluble
Partition coefficient:
n-octanol/water
log Pow: 1.645
Relative vapour
density
5.64- (Air = 1.0)
Odour no data available
Odour Threshold no data available
Evapouration rate no data available

Despite their great potential, medium and deep trichloroacetic acid peels are underused in light-skinned patients and are rarely used in darker-skinned patients because of the widespread fear of pigmentary complications and scarring. 
This concern has led many physicians to opt for the use of lighter types of peels (glycolic acid peel, Jessner peel, etc) and different lasers and intense light technologies. 
Trichloroacetic acid peels have been described in numerous publications. 
However, no study to date has described the precise technique and the practical pearls of a successful trichloroacetic acid peel approach in a clear, detailed, and reproducible manner.

STR02719
ZINC3791092
Tox21_111060
Tox21_201632
Tox21_300187
Trichloroacetic acid solution (DOT)
ANW-13593
BBL012209
NSC-77363
NSC215204
STL163550
AKOS000118939
Trichloroacetic acid (ACD/Name 4.0)
Trichloroacetic acid solution, 0.6 N
Trichloroacetic acid solution, 6.1 N
MCULE-1368734775
UN 1839

TCA (commonly used to treat genital warts) is inexpensive, easy for a clinician to apply to the cervix, and seems safe. 
Because the TCA solution has low viscosity (and rapidly damages tissue), meticulous attention to avoid dripping from the swab during application is required. 

NCGC00091021-01
NCGC00091021-03
NCGC00091021-04
NCGC00254060-01
NCGC00259181-01
NCI60_006100
Trichloroacetic acid, reagent grade, 98%
Trichloroacetic acid, 99+%, ACS reagent
Trichloroacetic acid, BioXtra, >=99.0%
FT-0645145
T0369
Trichloroacetic acid, >=99.0% (titration)
Trichloroacetic acid [UN1839] [Corrosive]
Trichloroacetic acid, 5% w/v aqueous solution
Trichloroacetic acid, 80% (w/v) in solution
Trichloroacetic acid, ACS reagent, >=99.0%

The active ingredient in a TCA facial peel is trichloroacetic acid – a non-toxic, safe chemical used for facial skin peel treatments. 
The “acid” is very mild, similar to vinegar. 
When the TCA is applied to the skin’s epidermis, the top layers of cells dry and peel over a period of 5-7 days, resulting in smoother, rejuvenated, and younger- looking skin. 
TCA peels provide exfoliation that is deeper and more extensive than a typical cosmetic peel, cosmetic facial, or microdermabrasion. 
However, Trichloroacetic acid is not as invasive as laser resurfacing or dermabrasion so the recovery time is shorter. 

WHAT Trichloroacetic acid IS:
Trichloroacetic Acid, also known as TCA, is an effective chemical agent used to exfoliate and renew skin. 
Trichloroacetic acid can be used to exclusively peel isolated areas of the skin. 
Trichloroacetic acid is important to note that with applying the 20% TCA peel, it is highly recommended to first begin building up the skin's tolerance by using the TCA 10% Peel first with good result. 
The TCA 20% Peel is not recommended for darker skin tones due to increased risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.

WHAT Trichloroacetic acid IS FORMULATED TO DO:
TCA is a deeper penetrating peel than AHA or BHA peels as it exfoliates the skin more rapidly upon initial contact. 
TCA peels are recommended for a range of skin conditions from breakouts, expression lines, wrinkles, discoloration, stretch marks and tone concerns. 
Trichloroacetic acid is a highly effective acid that addresses most aging and environmental skin issues.

2361-EP2270015A1
2361-EP2270018A1
2361-EP2275102A1
2361-EP2275404A1
2361-EP2277876A1
2361-EP2280011A1
2361-EP2280012A2
2361-EP2289893A1
2361-EP2292614A1
2361-EP2298780A1
2361-EP2301928A1
2361-EP2305655A2
2361-EP2305689A1
2361-EP2311815A1
2361-EP2311837A1
2361-EP2371802A1
2361-EP2371823A1
C11150
D08633
Trichloroacetic acid, 10% w/v aqueous solution

HAZARD SUMMARY
-Trichloroacetic Acid can affect you when breathed in.
-Trichloroacetic Acid is a CORROSIVE CHEMICAL and contact can severely irritate and burn the skin and eyes with possible eye damage.
-Breathing Trichloroacetic Acid can irritate the nose and throat.
-Breathing Trichloroacetic Acid can irritate the lungs causing coughing and/or shortness of breath. 
-Higher exposures can cause a build-up of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema), a medical emergency, with severe shortness of breath.
-Trichloroacetic Acid may affect the liver. 

Trichloroacetic acid General advice
Consult a physician. 
Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.
Move out of dangerous area.

If inhaled
If breathed in, move person into fresh air. 
If not breathing, give artificial respiration. 
Consult a physician.

In case of skin contact
Take off contaminated clothing and shoes immediately. 
Wash off with soap and plenty of water. 
Consult a physician.

In case of Trichloroacetic acid eye contact
Rinse thoroughly with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes and consult a physician.Continue rinsing eyes during transport to hospital.

If swallowed
Do NOT induce vomiting. 
Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. 
Rinse mouth with water. 
Consult a physician.

Trichloroacetic acid (TCA; TCAA; also known as trichloroethanoic acid) is an analogue of acetic acid in which the three hydrogen atoms of the methyl group have all been replaced by chlorine atoms. 
Salts and esters of trichloroacetic acid are called trichloroacetates.

38899-EP2270018A1
38899-EP2275404A1
38899-EP2277875A2
38899-EP2280000A1
38899-EP2281818A1
38899-EP2284169A1
38899-EP2287152A2
38899-EP2287160A1
38899-EP2287161A1
38899-EP2287162A1
38899-EP2289893A1
38899-EP2295441A2
38899-EP2295503A1
38899-EP2298772A1
38899-EP2298780A1
38899-EP2298783A1
38899-EP2301911A1
38899-EP2301918A1
38899-EP2305689A1
38899-EP2305808A1
38899-EP2308510A1
38899-EP2308833A2
38899-EP2308839A1
38899-EP2311804A2
38899-EP2311837A1
TCA Deblock, 3 % (w/v) in methylene chloride
Trichloroacetic acid, BioUltra, >=99.5% (T)
Q410116
Trichloroacetic acid, purum p.a., >=99.0% (T)
J-525058
Trichloroacetic acid, JIS special grade, >=99.0%
F1908-0096
Trichloroacetic acid, PESTANAL(R), analytical standard
Trichloroacetic acid, solution [UN2564] [Corrosive]
Z1270446580
Trichloroacetic acid solution, ~6.25 % (w/v), 0.38 N
Trichloroacetic acid solution, 6.1 N (approx. 100% w/v)
Trichloroacetic acid, biotech. grade, redistilled, >=99%
Trichloroacetic acid, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, >=99.5%
Deblock trichloroacetic acid solution, 3% w/w in dichloromethane
Deblock trichloroacetic acid solution, 3 % (w/v) in methylene chloride
Trichloroacetic acid solution, certified reference material, 1000 mug/mL in methyl tert-butyl ether
Trichloroacetic acid, ACS reagent, for the determination of Fe in blood according to Heilmeyer, >=99.5%
Trichloroacetic acid, for electrophoresis, suitable for fixing solution (for IEF and PAGE gels), >=99%
Trichloroacetic acid, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., USP 21, 99-100.5% (calc. to the dried substance)

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