TRISODIUM CITRATE

Trisodium citrate = Sodium citrate = E331 = Citrosodine

CAS number: 68-04-2 
E number: E331
Chemical formula: Na3C6H5O7
Molar mass: 258.06 g/mol

In food industry, Trisodium citrate is used as a flavor and stabilizer. 
In pharmaceutical industry, Trisodium citrate is used as anticoagulant, reducer of phlegm and diuretic.
Trisodium citrate has the chemical formula of Na3C6H5O7. 
Trisodium citrate is sometimes referred to simply as "Trisodium citrate", though Trisodium citrate can refer to any of the three sodium salts of citric acid. 
Trisodium citrate possesses a saline, mildly tart flavor, and is a mild alkali.

Trisodium citrate is often referred to as Trisodium citrate, though Trisodium citrate can refer to any of the three sodium salts of citric acid. 
Trisodium citrate has a saline, mildly tart flavor. 
Trisodium citrate is mildly basic and can be used along with citric acid to make biologically compatible buffers.
Trisodium citrate is primarily used as a food additive, usually for flavor or as a preservative. 
In certain varieties of club soda, Trisodium citrate is employed as a flavoring agent. 
Trisodium citrate is a common ingredient in Bratwurst, and is also used to contribute a tart flavor in commercial, ready-to- drink beverages and drink mixes. 
Trisodium citrate is found in gelatin mix, ice-cream, jams, sweets, milk powder, processed cheeses, carbonated beverages, and wine.
Trisodium citrate is also used as an emulsifier for oils in the cheesemaking process. 
Trisodium citrate allows cheese to melt without becoming greasy. 
Historically, sodium phosphate was used to keep water and fat droplets mixed when cheese is melted.

Trisodium citrate, also known as Trisodium citrate, is an organic compound that has white to colorless crystals. 
Trisodium citrate is odourless, with a cool salty taste. 
Stable in room temperature and air, slightly soluble in wet air, weathering in hot air. 
Lose crystal water heated to 150 ℃. 
Trisodium citrate is easily soluble in water, glycerol, alcohol and other organic solvents. 
Trisodium citrate is decomposed by overheating, slightly deliviate in humid environment and slightly weathering in hot air.

Application of Trisodium citrate
Trisodium citrate is used as acidity regulator, flavor agent and stabilizer in food and beverage industry. 
Trisodium citrate used as an anticoagulant, phlegm dispersant and diuretic in the pharmaceutical industry; In detergent industry, sodium tripolyphosphate can be substituted as non-toxic detergent additive. 
Trisodium citrate is also used in brewing, injection, photographic medicine and electroplating.

Trisodium citrate is colorless or white crystal and crystalline powder. 
Trisodium citrate is inodorous and taste salt, cool. It will loss crystal water at 150° C and decompose at more high temperature. 
Trisodium citrate dissolves in ethanol.
Trisodium citrate E331, Food Additives Trisodium citrate Application
Trisodium citrate is used to enhance flavor and maintain stability of active ingredients in food and beverage in detergent industry, it can replace Sodium tripolyphosphate as a kind of safe detergent it can aloe be used in fermentation, injection, photography and metal plating.
Trisodium citrate is sometimes used as an acidity regulator in drinks, and also as anemulsifier for oils when making cheese. 
Trisodium citrate allows the cheeses to melt without becoming greasy.

Chemical Properties of Trisodium citrate:
Trisodium citrate is colorless crystals or white crystalline powder, and is odorless, cool and salty. 
Trisodium citrate has no melting point with a relative density of 1.857. 
Trisodium citrate is stable in air at room temperature with loss of crystal water when being heated to 150 °C loss of crystal water; further heating will cause its decomposition. 
Trisodium citrate is insoluble in ethanol but highly soluble in water. 5% aqueous solution has a pH value of 7.6 to 8.6. 

Uses of Trisodium citrate:
Trisodium citrate can be used as Ph adjusting agents and emulsifying enhancers applied to jam, candy, jelly and ice cream; its combination with citric acid has an effect of alleviating tour; it also has effects on forming complex with metal ions. 
China rules that Trisodium citrate can be applied to various types of food with appropriate usage according to the absolute necessity.
Trisodium citrate can be used as a food additive, as complex agent and buffering agent in electroplating industry; at the field of pharmaceutical industry, it is used for the manufacturing of anti-clotting drugs; and used as the detergent additives in light industry.
Trisodium citrate is used as the analysis agents used for chromatography analysis and can also used for preparing bacterial culture medium; moreover, it can also be applied into pharmaceutical industry.
Trisodium citrate can be used for the flavoring processing of food, as stabilizers, buffers and deputy complex-forming agents in non-toxic electroplating industry; at pharmaceutical industry, it is used as anti-clotting agent, phlegm drugs and diuretics drugs. 
Trisodium citrate can also be used in brewing, injection, newspaper and movies medicines.

Applications of Trisodium citrate:

Foods
Trisodium citrate is chiefly used as a food additive, usually for flavor or as a preservative. 
Trisodium citrates E number is E331. 
Trisodium citrate is employed as a flavoring agent in certain varieties of club soda. 
Trisodium citrate is common as an ingredient in bratwurst, and is also used in commercial ready-to-drink beverages and drink mixes, contributing a tart flavor. 
Trisodium citrate is found in gelatin mix, ice cream, yogurt, jams, sweets, milk powder, processed cheeses, carbonated beverages, and wine[citation needed], amongst others.
Trisodium citrate can be used as an emulsifying stabilizer when making cheese. 
Trisodium citrate allows the cheese to melt without becoming greasy by stopping the fats from separating.
As a conjugate base of a weak acid, citrate can perform as a buffering agent or acidity regulator, resisting changes in pH. 
Trisodium citrate is used to control acidity in some substances, such as gelatin desserts. 
Trisodium citrate can be found in the milk minicontainers used with coffee machines. 
Trisodium citrate is the product of antacids, such as Alka-Seltzer, when they are dissolved in water.
The pH of a solution of 5 g/100 ml water at 25 °C is 7.5 – 9.0. 
Trisodium citrate is added to many commercially packaged dairy products to control the PH impact of the gastrointestinal system of humans, mainly in processed products such as cheese and yogurt.

Medicine
In 1914, the Belgian doctor Albert Hustin and the Argentine physician and researcher Luis Agote successfully used Trisodium citrate as an anticoagulant in blood transfusions, with Richard Lewisohn determining its correct concentration in 1915. 
Trisodium citrate continues to be used today in blood-collection tubes and for the preservation of blood in blood banks. 
The citrate ion chelates calcium ions in the blood by forming calcium citrate complexes, disrupting the blood clotting mechanism. 
Recently, triTrisodium citrate has also been used as a locking agent in vascath and haemodialysis lines instead of heparin due to its lower risk of systemic anticoagulation.

Trisodium citrate is used to relieve discomfort in urinary-tract infections, such as cystitis, to reduce the acidosis seen in distal renal tubular acidosis, and can also be used as an osmotic laxative. 
Trisodium citrate is a major component of the WHO oral rehydration solution.
Trisodium citrate is used as an antacid, especially prior to anaesthesia, for caesarian section procedures to reduce the risks associated with the aspiration of gastric contents.

Boiler descaling
Trisodium citrate is a particularly effective agent for removal of carbonate scale from boilers without removing them from operation and for cleaning automobile radiators.

IUPAC name:
TriTrisodium citrate
Preferred IUPAC name
Trisodium 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate
Other names:
Citrosodine
Citric acid, trisodium salt
Trisodium citrate
E331

Trisodium citrate, Anhydrous, USP is used to treat certain metabolic problems (acidosis) caused by kidney disease. 
All Spectrum Chemical USP products are manufactured, packaged and stored under current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) per 21CFR part 211 in FDA registered and inspected facilities

Excellent performance
Trisodium citrate is currently the most important citrate. 
Trisodium citrate is produced by two steps: first starch food is fermented to generate citric acid; secondly, citric acid is neutralized by alkali to generate the final products. 
Trisodium citrate has the following excellent performance:
Safe and nontoxic properties; Since the basic raw material for the preparation of Trisodium citrate mainly comes from the food, Trisodium citrate is absolutely safe and reliable without causing harm to human health. 
The United Nations Food and Agriculture and the World Health Organization has no restriction in its daily intake, which means that this product can be considered as non-toxic food.
Trisodium citrate is biodegradable. 
After subjecting to the dilution of a large amount of water, Trisodium citrate is partially converted into citrate, which coexists with Trisodium citrate in the same system. 
Citrate is easy to subject to biological degradation at water by the action of oxygen, heat, light, bacteria and microbes. 
Trisodium citrates decomposition pathways are generally going through aconitic acid, itaconic acid, citraconic acid anhydride to be further converted to carbon dioxide and water.
The ability of forming complex with metal ions. 
Trisodium citrate has a good capability of forming complex with some metal ions such as Ca2+, Mg2+; for other ions such as Fe2+, Trisodium citrate also has a good complex-forming ability.
Excellent solubility, and the solubility increases with increasing temperature of water.
Trisodium citrate has a good capability for pH adjustment and a good buffering property. 
Trisodium citrate is a weak acid-strong alkali salt; When combined with citrate, they can form a pH buffer with strong compatibility; therefore, this is very useful for some cases in which it is not suitable to have large change of pH value. 
In addition, Trisodium citrate also has excellent retardation performance and stability.

Heavy Metal (PB) ≤ 0.001%
Arsenic ≤ 0.0001%
Ferric ≤ 0.001%
Oxalate ≤ 0.03%
Sulfate ≤ 0.015%
Readily carbonizable substance Meet the rule
Chloride ≤ 0.005%
Water 11.0-13.0%
Appearance of the solution clear and transparent solution, colorless
Pyrogen consistent with the test

Effect and application of Trisodium citrate:
During the process of clinically taking fresh blood, adding some amount of sterile Trisodium citrate can play a role in prevent blood clotting.
Trisodium citrate is exactly taking advantage of the features that calcium citrate can form soluble complexes with calcium ion.
In the field of medicine, Trisodium citrate is used for the in vitro anti-clotting drugs and anticoagulants drugs, phlegm drugs, and diuretics drugs during blood transfusions.
Trisodium citrate can also used for cyanide-free electroplating industry; also used as developer for photographic industry. 
Trisodium citrate can be used as flavoring agents, buffering materials, emulsifiers, and stabilizer in the food industry. 
Trisodium citrate is also widely used in chemical, metallurgical industry, the absorption of sulfur dioxide exhaust with the absorption rate of 99% and regenerate liquid sulfur dioxide citrate for recycle application. 
Trisodium citrate has a good water solubility and a excellent cheating capability with Ca2 +, Mg2 + and other metal ions.
Trisodium citrate is biodegradable and has a strong dispersing ability and anti-redeposition ability.
Daily-applied chemical detergents use it as alternative to trimer sodium phosphate for production of non-phosphorus detergent and phosphate-free liquid detergent. 
Adding a certain amount Trisodium citrate to the detergent can significantly increase the cleaning ability of detergent cleaning. 
The large scale of application of sodium tripolyphosphate as a builder in detergents is an important discovery in synthetic detergent industry. 
Trisodium citrate is non-toxic without environmental pollution.
Trisodium citrate can also be acted as a buffer for the production of cosmetics.

Assay Percent Range: 99.0%
Beilstein: 6104939
Solubility Information: 
Soluble in water. 
Insoluble in alcohol.
Formula Weight: 294.10 (258.07 Anhydrous)
Physical Form: Crystalline
Grade: ACS Reagent
Melting Point: 150°C-2H2O
Quantity: 500g
Chemical Name or Material: TriTrisodium citrate dihydrate, For analysis ACS

Trisodium citrate is used as a natural food preservative. 
Some of the benefits of using Trisodium citrate as a Food additive include better circulation and blow flow as well as balancing out Ph levels in the body. 
Trisodium citrate is also a powerful source of antioxidants.
Trisodium citrate is a non-toxic, neutral salt with low reactivity. 
Trisodium citrate is chemically stable if stored at ambient temperatures. 
Trisodium citrate is fully biodegradable and can be disposed of with regular waste or sewage. 
Trisodium citrate is widely used in foods, beverages, and various technical applications mainly as buffering, sequestering, or emulsifying agent. 
Trisodium citrate may be stored for 36 months from the date of manufacture in the unopened original container. 
Relative humidity of 50% and a temperature range of 10–30°C are the most suitable conditions for storage.

CAS Number    
68-04-2 
6132-04-3 (dihydrate)
6858-44-2 (pentahydrate)
ChEMBL: ChEMBL1355
ChemSpider: 5989
ECHA InfoCard: 100.000.614 
E number: E331iii (antioxidants, ...)
PubChem CID: 6224
RTECS number: GE8300000
UNII: 
RS7A450LGA 
B22547B95K (dihydrate) 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID2026363

What is Trisodium citrate?
Trisodium citrate is a tribasic salt of citric acid. 
Trisodium citrate has a sour taste similar to citric acid, and is salty as well. 
Trisodium citrate is often used as a food preservative, and as a flavoring in the food industry. 
In the pharmaceutical industry Trisodium citrate is used to control pH. 
Trisodium citrate may be used as an alkalizing agent, buffering agent, emulsifier, or sequestering agent.
According to the FDA Select Committee on Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) food substances, citrate salts, including Trisodium citrate, are generally regarded as safe when used in normal quantities.

Chemical formula: Na3C6H5O7
Molar mass: 258.06 g/mol (anhydrous), 294.10 g/mol (dihydrate)
Appearance: White crystalline powder
Density: 1.7 g/cm3
Melting point: > 300 °C (572 °F; 573 K) (hydrates lose water ca. 150 °C)
Boiling point: Decomposes
Solubility in water: Pentahydrate form: 92 g/100 g H2O (25 °C)

Trisodium citrate
TRITrisodium citrate
68-04-2
Natrocitral
Trisodium citrate anhydrous
Trisodium citrate, anhydrous
Citric acid, trisodium salt
TriTrisodium citrate, anhydrous
1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-, trisodium salt
Sodium 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate
TriTrisodium citrate anhydrous
FEMA No. 3026
Citric acid trisodium salt
UNII-RS7A450LGA
Trisodium citrate,anhydrous
MFCD00012462
RS7A450LGA
Citrosodine
CHEBI:53258
Citric acid trisodium salt, anhydrous
CITRIC ACID, SODIUM SALT
Citrosodina
Citnatin
Citreme
Citrosodna

General description of Trisodium citrate:
Trisodium citrate, (molecular formula: Na3C6H5O7 • 2H2O) has molecular weight of 294.1, is a colorless crystal or white crystalline powder product.
Trisodium citrate is odorless, salty taste, and cool.
Trisodium citrate will lose its crystal water at 150 °C and will be decomposed at even higher temperature. 
Trisodium citrate also has slight deliquescence in wet air and has weathering property upon hot air. 
Trisodium citrate is soluble in water and glycerol, but insoluble in alcohol and some other organic solvents. 
Trisodium citrate has no toxic effect, and has pH adjusting capability as well as having a good stability, and therefore can be used in the food industry. 
Trisodium citrate has the greatest demand when being used as a food additive.
As food additives, Trisodium citrate is mainly used as flavoring agents, buffers, emulsifiers, bulking agents, stabilizers and preservatives.
in addition, combination between Trisodium citrate and citric acid can be used in a variety of jams, jelly, juice, drinks, cold drinks, dairy products and pastries gelling agents, flavoring agents and nutritional supplements.

Assay (%) Not less than 99.0 (anhydrous basis)
Water (%) 10.0 – 13.0
Identification Positive for sodium and citrate
Alkalinity Passes USP and FCC tests
Tartrate Passes USP test
Heavy Metals (as Pb) Not more than 10mg/kg
Lead Passes FCC test

CAS number: 6132-04-3
EC number: 200-675-3
Grade: Ph Eur,BP,JP,USP,E 331
Hill Formula: C₆H₅Na₃O₇ 
Molar Mass: 294.10 g/mol
HS Code: 2918 15 00

TriTrisodium citrate has the chemical formula of Na3C6H5O7. 
Trisodium citrate is sometimes referred to simply as Trisodium citrate, though Trisodium citrate can refer to any of the three sodium salts of citric acid. 
Trisodium citrate possesses a saline, mildly tart flavor. 
For this reason, citrates of certain alkaline and alkaline earth metals (e.g. sodium and calcium citrates) are commonly known as "sour salt" (occasionally citric acid is erroneously termed sour salt).

Trisodium citrate hydrate
trisodium;2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate
1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-, sodium salt (1:3)
CCRIS 3293
Trisodium citrate (Na3C6H5O7)
HSDB 5201
anhydrous Trisodium citrate
994-36-5
Citric acid, trisodium salt, 98%, pure, anhydrous
EINECS 200-675-3
trisodium-citrate
tri-Trisodium citrate
Trisodium 2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylate
Trisodium citrate salt

What is Trisodium citrate?
Trisodium citrate is a natural ingredient that is commonly found in citrus fruits, like lemon juice. 
Trisodium citrate is a salt of citric acid also known as sour salt.

What does Trisodium citrate do?
Trisodium citrate is used to balance pH levels and as a water softener. 
Trisodium citrate is also used in cosmetics such as make-up and lipstick, in baby products like wipes, in soaps and, of course, laundry detergents.

Trisodium citrate is a small white crystal or powder, soluble in water with a slight acidic or sour taste. 
Trisodium citrate is mainly used in soft drinks, frozen deserts, meat products, diuretic and expectorant and an anti coagulant for blood withdrawn from the body. 
Trisodium citrate is a pure product small clumps may form over time, simply crush them with a spoon. 
Trisodium citrate will have no effect on the functionality of the product.

sodium (iii) citrate
Trisodium citrate (USP)
Anhydrous triTrisodium citrate
EC 200-675-3
C6H5Na3O7
Anticoagulant Trisodium citrate
trisodium 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate
CHEMBL1355
INS NO.331(III)
INS-331(III)
DTXSID2026363

Production methods of Trisodium citrate:
Trisodium citrate is produced by the neutralization of citric acid by sodium hydroxide or sodium bicarbonate. 
Dissolve sodium bicarbonate in water upon stirring and heating; add citric acid, continue to heat up to 85-90 °C; adjust the pH to 6.8; adjust active carbon for bleaching. 
Filter when the mixture is still hot; condense the filtrate under reduced pressure; cool and the crystal comes out; filter, wash, dry to obtain the final products of Trisodium citrate.
C6H8O7 + 3NaHCO3 → C6H5Na3O7 • 2H2O + 3CO2 ↑ + H2O

Chemical Properties of Trisodium citrate:
white powder or colourless crystals
Trisodium citrate dihydrate consists of odorless, colorless, monoclinic crystals, or a white crystalline powder with a cooling, saline taste. 
Trisodium citrate is slightly deliquescent in moist air, and in warm dry air it is efflorescent. 
Although most pharmacopeias specify that Trisodium citrate is the dihydrate, the USP 32 states that Trisodium citrate may be either the dihydrate or anhydrous material.

Uses of Trisodium citrate:
Trisodium citrate is chiefly used as a food additive, usually for flavor or as a preservative.
Anticoagulant for collection of blood. 
In photography; as sequestering agent to remove trace metals; as emulsifier, acidulant and sequestrant in foods.
An anticoagulant also used as a biological buffer

Definition of Trisodium citrate:
ChEBI: The dihydrate of triTrisodium citrate.

Production Methods of Trisodium citrate:
Trisodium citrate is prepared by adding sodium carbonate to a solution of citric acid until effervescence ceases. 
The resulting solution is filtered and evaporated to dryness.

Pharmaceutical Applications of Trisodium citrate:
Trisodium citrate, as either the dihydrate or anhydrous material, is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations.
Trisodium citrate is used in food products, primarily to adjust the pH of solutions. 
Trisodium citrate is also used as a sequestering agent. 
The anhydrous material is used in effervescent tablet formulations. 
Trisodium citrate is additionally used as a blood anticoagulant either alone or in combination with other citrates such as disodium hydrogen citrate.
Therapeutically, Trisodium citrate is used to relieve the painful irritation caused by cystitis, and also to treat dehydration and acidosis due to diarrhea.

Biological Activity
Commonly used laboratory reagent

Safety of Trisodium citrate:
After ingestion, Trisodium citrate is absorbed and metabolized to bicarbonate.
Although Trisodium citrate is generally regarded as a nontoxic and nonirritant excipient, excessive consumption may cause gastrointestinal discomfort or diarrhea. 
Therapeutically, in adults, up to 15 g daily of Trisodium citrate dihydrate may be administered orally, in divided doses, as an aqueous solution to relieve the painful irritation caused by cystitis.
Citrates and citric acid enhance intestinal aluminum absorption in renal patients, which may lead to increased, harmful serum aluminum levels. 
Trisodium citrate has therefore been suggested that patients with renal failure taking aluminum compounds to control phosphate absorption should not be prescribed citrate- or citric acid-containing products.

storage
Trisodium citrate dihydrate is a stable material. 
Aqueous solutions may be sterilized by autoclaving. 
On storage, aqueous solutions may cause the separation of small, solid particles from glass containers.
The bulk material should be stored in an airtight container in a cool, dry place.

Purification Methods
Crystallise the salt from warm water by cooling to 0o.

Incompatibilities
Aqueous solutions are slightly alkaline and will react with acidic substances. 
Alkaloidal salts may be precipitated from their aqueous or hydro-alcohol solutions. 
Calcium and strontium salts will cause precipitation of the corresponding citrates. 
Other incompatibilities include bases, reducing agents, and oxidizing agents.

Regulatory Status
GRAS listed. Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. 
Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (inhalations; injections; ophthalmic products; oral solutions, suspensions, syrups and tablets; nasal, otic, rectal, topical, transdermal, and vaginal preparations). 
Included in nonparenteral and parenteral medicines licensed in the UK. 
Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.

What Is Trisodium citrate?
Trisodium citrate is a salt of citric acid. 
Citric acid is an organic acid that occurs naturally in plants and animals.
Trisodium citrate occurs as colorless crystals or white powder, and is commonly found in citrus fruits, corn, and other foods.
Two ounces of orange juice has about 500 mg, according to the FDA.
Citric acid is an alpha-hydroxy acid and a beta-hydroxy acid.

What Does Trisodium citrate Do in Our products?
Trisodium citrate is often used as a pH adjuster and water softener. 
Trisodium citrate is common in liquid laundry detergent, though it is also often used in food and medical products.
In food, Trisodium citrate helps control the acidity of ice cream, candy, jelly, and gelatin desserts.
Trisodium citrate is also in dozens of personal care products, such as shampoo, conditioner, sunscreen, facial moisturizer, makeup, baby wipes, soap, and other products.

Why Puracy Uses Trisodium citrate
We use Trisodium citrate as a water softener and to adjust the acidity of products. 
The FDA has deemed the ingredient Generally Recognized as Safe, and Whole Foods has deemed the ingredient acceptable in its body care and cleaning product quality standards.
The Cosmetics Ingredient Review has also deemed the ingredient safe for use in cosmetic products.
Studies show the ingredient is not a skin irritant or sensitizer.

How Trisodium citrate Is Made
Trisodium citrate production occurs by neutralizing citric acid with sodium hydroxide.
Citric acid may be produced from fruits or other foods, through yeast fermentation, and by solvent extraction.
Most large-scale production occurs by fermenting molasses or other sugar stocks with Aspergillus niger.
The liquid is separated by filtration, and the citric acid is separated by precipitation.
Trisodium citrate is usually offered commercially as the white, crystalline triTrisodium citrate dihydrate.

2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid, trisodium salt
Citric acid sodium salt anhydrous
Citric acid trisodium salt, 99%
E-331(III)
CS-B1704
AKOS015915009
FEMA NO. 3026, ANHYDROUS-
Citrate Solution, pH ~3.0, 30 mM
DB09154
AC-15008
E331
K121
Trisodium citrate dihydrate USP Fine Granular
B7298
FT-0623960
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The dehydration processes of triTrisodium citrate (Na3C6H5O7) hydrates were investigated using thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). 
Trisodium citrate was found that the temperature of dehydration of triTrisodium citrate dihydrate was at 430.99 K. 
For triTrisodium citrate pentahydrate, there is a two-step dehydration process and the endothermal peaks appear at 337.23 K and 433.83 K, respectively. 
During the first step of dehydration process, the structure of triTrisodium citrate pentahydrate changed into the structure of triTrisodium citrate dihydrate. 
In addition, the kinetics of dehydration for trisoidum citrate hydrates was also investigated using TG data. 
According to the activation energies of dehydration calculated by Ozawa equation, it was found that the dehydration mechanisms of the two hydrates were different.

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Trisodium citrate is the sodium salt of citric acid. 
Trisodium citrate is white, crystalline powder or white, granular crystals, slightly deliquescent in moist air, freely soluble in water, practically insoluble in alcohol. 
Like citric acid, Trisodium citrate has a sour taste. 
From the medical point of view, Trisodium citrate is used as alkalinizing agent. 
Trisodium citrate works by neutralizing excess acid in the blood and urine. 
Trisodium citrate has been indicated for the treatment of metabolic acidosis.

Pharmacodynamics
Citrate prevents activation of the clotting cascade by chelating calcium ions. 
Citrate neutralizes acid in the stomach and urine, raising the pH 8.

Mechanism of action
Citrate chelates free calcium ions preventing them from forming a complex with tissue factor and coagulation factor VIIa to promote the activation of coagulation factor X 1 2. This inhibits the extrinsic initiation of the coagulation cascade. 
Citrate may also exert an anticoagulant effect via a so far unknown mechanism as restoration of calcium concentration does not fully reverse the effect of citrate 1. 
Citrate is a weak base and so reacts with hydrochloric acid in the stomach to raise the pH. 
Trisodium citrate further metabolized to bicarbonate which then acts as a systemic alkalizing agent, raising the pH of the blood and urine 8. 
Trisodium citrate also acts as a diuretic and increases the urinary excretion of calcium.

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Differences between sodium triscide and citric acid in chemical structure
The chemical structure of citric acid (a triabasic acid) is HOOCCH2.C (OH) COOH.CH2COOH. 
Citric acid trisodium salt is commonly called Trisodium citrate, in which all carboxylic hydrogens are replaced by sodium.

Alternative uses: 
Trisodium citrate can be used in cleaning; Trisodium citrate has been found to be a particularly effective agent in the removal of carbonate scale from kettles, as well as the cleaning of automobile radiators. 
Trisodium citrate is also used in detergents and dishwasher tablets. 
Trisodium citrate acts as a pH regulator and water softener.

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Yogurt
Citric acid adds sour taste to dairy products, but Trisodium citrates sour taste is strong, and the sour taste can be eased with the combination of Trisodium citrate, so these two ingredients are often used together in yogurt to adjust and improve the sour taste.

Cheese
Cheese is an emulsion of dairy fat, protein and water, and Trisodium citrate tends to break down at high temperatures. 
While Trisodium citrate is melting, Trisodium citrate works as an emulsifier to prevent cheese curdling or the separation of fat and protein by keeping fat and protein together and binding calcium ions in the cheese. 
The usage of Trisodium citrate in cheese is around 3%, depending on your recipes.
Cheese with Trisodium citrate can melt evenly and produce a smooth & creamy sauce. 
This property makes Trisodium citrate possible to obtain portable and sliceable cheese (in mold, can take everywhere) in home cooking.

Following cheese products may contain with Trisodium citrate:
-Cheese sauce 
-Nacho cheese
-Macaroni and Cheese

Beverage
Trisodium citrate is used to adjust the tartness in Coca Cola’s beverages. 
And you can find Trisodium citrate in the ingredient lists of Sprite, Vitamin water and other drinks. 
Trisodium citrate is also added in sports and energy drinks for such purposes, such as in the products of Redbull and Monster.

Is Trisodium citrate Safe to Eat?
Yes, Trisodium citrate has been approved safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), as well as the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). 

FDA
Trisodium citrate is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) when used in food with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. 

Trisodium citrate can be used in following products:
-Milk and cream 
-Cheeses and related cheese products 
-Artificial sweet fruit jelly, jam, and preserves

EFSA
MonoTrisodium citrate E331(i), diTrisodium citrate E331(ii) and triTrisodium citrate E331(iii) are listed in Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012 as an authorised food additive and categorized in “ additives other than colours and sweeteners”.

Approved uses of Trisodium citrate:
Trisodium citrates are classified into “Group I” with the maximum use levels “quantum satis”, and also listed in its separate uses. The following food may contain it: 
-UHT goat milk, dehydrated milk 
-Edible caseinates
-Cheese
-Frozen fruit and vegetables
-Canned or bottled fruit and vegetables
-Jam, jellies and marmalades 
-Meat preparations, unprocessed fish
-Table-top sweeteners in liquid, powder or tablet form

Infant formulae 
Processed cereal-based foods and baby foods

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Melting Point: 300°C
Molar Mass: 258.07 g/mol
Molecular Formula: Na3C6H5O7
NFPA 704: H-1,F-0,R-0,C-NA
RTECS Number: GE8300000
Related Compounds: MonoTrisodium citrate;DiTrisodium citrate;Calcium Citrate;Citric Acid
Solubility: 42.5 g/100 ml

Trisodium citrate is the sodium salt of citric acid with the chemical formula of Na3C6H5O7. 
Trisodium citrate possesses a saline, mildly tart, flavor. 
For this reason, citrates of certain Alkaline and Alkaline Earth metals (e.g. sodium and calcium citrates) are commonly known as sour salt (occasionally citric acid is erroneously termed sour salt). 
Trisodium citrate is chiefly used as a food additive, usually for flavor or as a preservative. 
Trisodium citrate is employed as a flavoring agent in certain varieties of club soda.
Trisodium citrate is common as an ingredient in lemon-lime and citrus soft drinks such as Ting, contributing to their tart tastes, and can also be found in such energy drinks as Rockstar and Red Bull.
In 1914, the Belgian doctor Albert Hustin and the Argentine physician and researcher Luis Agote successfully used Trisodium citrate as an anticoagulant in blood transfusions. 
Trisodium citrate continues to be used today in blood collection tubes and for the preservation of blood in blood banks. 
The citrate ion chelates calcium ions in the blood, disrupting the blood clotting mechanism.
As a conjugate base of a weak acid, citrate can perform as a buffering agent, resisting changes in pH. 
Trisodium citrate is used to control acidity in some substances, such as gelatin desserts. 
Trisodium citrate can be found in the mini milk containers used with coffee machines. 
The compound is the product of antacids such as Alka-Seltzer when they are dissolved in water.
Recently, Oopvik, et al. showed that use of Trisodium citrate (approx. 37 grams) improved running performance over 5 km by 30 seconds.
Trisodium citrate is used to relieve discomfort in urinary tract infections such as cystitis, to reduce the acidosis seen in distal renal tubular acidosis, and can also be used as an osmotic laxative.
Trisodium citrate was used by chef Heston Blumenthal in his television series In Search of Perfection as a key ingredient in making cheese slices

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Types of Trisodium citrate
As there are three carboxyl groups in the molecule of citric acid, so there can be three types of Trisodium citrates (mono, di and triTrisodium citrate) based on the partial or total neutralization of citric acid. 
Among them, triTrisodium citrate is the most used one in food, while diTrisodium citrate is seldom to see in food.

MonoTrisodium citrate
Also known as sodium dihydrogen citrate, is a monobasic salt of citric acid with a slightly salty and acidulous taste. 
Less prone to caking than citric acid and can be used as an acidulant (PH 3.5 to 3.8 of 1 % aqueous solution) or buffering agent in combination with free acidulants in dry blends, jellies and beverages, also can be used as a tablet disintegrant. 

DiTrisodium citrate
Also known as disodium hydrogen citrate with the PH from 4.9 to 5,2 (1 % aqueous solution), used less as a direct food additive.

Trisodium citrate
Trisodium citrate has two forms, triTrisodium citrate dihydrate and anhydrous. 
Trisodium citrate commonly refers to the dihydrate type when used as a flavoring agent, buffer, chelating agent, emulsifier, stabilizer, and preservative in food.

With the capability of absorbing water and free-flowing, triTrisodium citrate anhydrous can be used as a carrier in moisture-sensitive formulations by providing a longer shelf life for its low water content. 

How is Trisodium citrate made?
Trisodium citrate can be directly synthesized by the neutralization of sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide with citric acid, but several disadvantages may occur, such as the speed of reaction and quality of the final product.

The following manufacturing process was came up by a China manufacturer with better output:
Obtain calcium citrate by reacting calcium carbonate and/or calcium hydroxide with citric acid.
Calcium citrate reacts with citric acid further to produce calcium hydrogen citrate and/or calcium dihydrogen citrate.
Then neutralize with the sodium carbonate and/or the sodium hydroxide to produce Trisodium citrate.

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Trisodium citrate consists of colourless crystals, with a salty taste and barely perceptible odour.
Trisodium citrate is also known as citrosodine and trisodium salt.  
Monarch Chemical's TriTrisodium citrate products are non-toxic and fully biodegradable. 
Our Trisodium citrate is chemically stable if stored at ambient temperatures.
Trisodium citrate is manufactured when making citric acid and is used in similar applications including photography, soft drinks, and foods as it buffers PH levels to control acidity and also as a sequestering agent when Trisodium citrate attaches to calcium ions in water to stop lime scale interfering with soaps and detergents.

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Trisodium citrate, 0.5M buffer solution, pH 5.0
Trisodium citrate, 0.5M buffer solution, pH 5.5
Trisodium citrate, 0.5M buffer solution, pH 6.0
Trisodium citrate, 0.5M buffer solution, pH 6.5
Q409728
J-520101
Citric acid trisodium salt, anhydrous, >=98% (GC)
Citrate Solution, pH 3.6+/-0.1 (25 C), 27 mM
Citric acid trisodium salt, Vetec(TM) reagent grade, 98%
UNII-1Q73Q2JULR component HRXKRNGNAMMEHJ-UHFFFAOYSA-K
2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanenetricarboxylic acid trisodium salt dihydrate
Citrate Concentrated Solution, BioUltra, for molecular biology, 1 M in H2O
Buffer solution pH 5.0 (20 C), citric acid ~0.096 M, sodium hydroxide ~0.20 M
Citrate Concentrated Solution, BioReagent, suitable for coagulation assays, 4 % (w/v)

Appearance: White crystals or crystalline powder
Odor: Characteristic
Clarity and color of Solution: Conforms
Loss on drying: 11.0 - 13.0%
Usage: acidity regulator etc.
Pb: < 10ppm
Assay: 99.0 - 101.0%
Chemical formula: C6H5­O7Na3.2H2O
Sulfate (SO4): 150 ppm max
Chloride (Cl): 50 ppm max
Alkalinity: Conforms
Oxalate: 300 ppm max
Storage: in the shade cool
 

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