TRISODIUM CITRATE DIHYDRATE

SODIUM CITRATE DIHYDRATE = Sodium citrate (dihydrate) = Trisodium citrate dihydrate = E331 = SODIUM CITRATE


Other names    
Sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate or dehydrate

CAS number    
68-04-2 (anhydrous)
6132-04-3 (dihydrate)

Chemical formula    
C6H5O7Na3 (anhydrous)
C6H5O7Na3·2H2O (dihydrate)

Molecular weight    
258.07 (anhydrous)
294.10 (dihydrate)

Sodium citrate dihydrate is used as a buffer, pH controlling agent, emulsifier, sequestrant and complexing agent in food industry.
Trisodium citrate dihydrate is a tribasic salt of citric acid. It is produced by complete neutralisation of citric acid with high purity sodium hydroxide or carbonate and subsequent crystallisation. Citric acid is the product of a microbial fermentation using carbohydrate substrates.
Trisodium citrate dihydrate is widely used in foods, beverages and various technical applications mainly as buffering, sequestering or emulsifying agent. 

As there are three carboxyl groups in the molecule of citric acid, so there can be three types of sodium citrates (mono, di and trisodium citrate) based on the partial or total neutralization of citric acid. 
Among them, trisodium citrate is the most used one in food, while disodium citrate is seldom to see in food.


Sodium citrate is a derivative of citric acid; the name may refer to any of the sodium salts of citric acid but usually to trisodium citrate dihydrate. 
Trisodium citrate has the chemical formula of Na3C6H5O7. 
It is sometimes referred to simply as "sodium citrate", though sodium citrate can refer to any of the three sodium salts of citric acid. It possesses a saline, mildly tart flavor, and is a mild alkaline.


EC / List no.: 612-118-5
CAS no.: 6132-04-3

IUPAC name: Trisodium citrate
Preferred IUPAC name: Trisodium 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate

Other names
Citrosodine
Citric acid, trisodium salt
Sodium citrate
E331
Identifiers

CAS Number    
6132-04-3 (dihydrate) 

1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-, sodium salt, hydrate (1:3:2)

IUPAC names
Sodium citrate
sodium citrate
trisodium 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate dihydrate
TRISODIUM CITRATE DIHYDRATE
Trisodium citrate dihydrate
trisodium;2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate;dihydrate


Other names
1,2,3-Propanetricaboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-, trisodium salt, dihydrate
tri-Sodium citrate dihydrate
Trisodium citrate
Trisodium citrate di hydrate
Trisodium citrate dihydrate
Trisodum citrate

Synonyms : 2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propane tricarboxylic acid trisodium salt, dihydrate / citnatin, dihydrate /citreme, dihydrate / citric acid sodium salt, dihydrate / citric acid, trisodium salt, dihydrate /citrosodina, dihydrate / citrosodine, dihydrate / natrocitral, dihydrate / sodium citrate, dihydrate /
trisodium citrate, dihydrate / trisodium-2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxyate, dihydrate

Trisodium citrate dihydrate (C6H5Na3O7.2H2O) is a tribasic salt of citric acid. It has a sour taste similar to citric acid, and is salty as well. It is often used as a food preservative, and as a flavoring in the food industry. In the pharmaceutical industry it is used to control pH. It may be used as an alkalizing agent, buffering agent, emulsifier, or sequestering agent

Trisodium citrate dihydrate, is widely applied in food, beverages and fillers as a buffering, sequestering or an emulsifying agent. It used as an anticoagulant in blood transfusions, osmotic laxative, functional fluids, solvents cleaning, furnishing care products, laundry dishwashing products and cleaning automobile radiators.


Trisodium citrate dihydrate is a tribasic salt of citric acid. It is produced by complete neutralisation of citric acid with high purity sodium hydroxide or carbonate and subsequent crystallisation. Trisodium citrate dihydrate is widely used in foods, beverages and various technical applications mainly as buffering, sequestering or emulsifying agent.

Trisodium citrate dihydrate occurs as white, granular crystals or as white, crystalline powder with a pleasant, salty taste. It is slightly deliquescent in moist air, freely soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol (96 %).

Trisodium citrate dihydrate is a non-toxic, neutral salt with low reactivity. It is chemically stable if stored at ambient temperatures. Trisodium citrate dihydrate is fully biodegradable and can be disposed of with regular waste or sewage.

Trisodium citrate dihydrate is a tribasic salt of citric acid. It is produced by complete neutralisation of citric acid with high purity sodium hydroxide or carbonate and subsequent crystallisation. Citric acid is the product of a microbial fermentation using carbohydrate substrates. Trisodium citrate dihydrate is widely used as an excellent pH regulator and odourless buffering agent for bath and shower gels, creams, styling or decorative products.

2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid, trisodium salt, dihydrate
SODIUM CITRATE DIHYDRATE    
Trisodium citrate dihydrate

Alternate Names:Citric acid trisodium salt dihydrate; Trisodium citrate dihydrate
Application:Sodium Citrate, Dihydrate is an anticoagulant also used as a biological buffer
CAS Number:6132-04-3

SYNONYMS: Citric Acid Trisodium Salt Dihydrate; Trisodium citrate dihydrate; Citronensaeure-tri-na-salz-dihydrat; Natriumcitrat-Dihydrat; 1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-, trisodium salt, dihydrate; Sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate; Sodium Citrate, trisodium salt
CAS NUMBER: 6132-04-3
MOLECULAR FORMULA: C6H5O7Na3·2H2O
BEILSTEIN REGISTRY NUMBER: 6104939
EC NUMBER: 200-675-3

Sodium Citrate (E331) is the sodium salt of citric acid. Like citric acid, it has a sour taste. Like other salts, it also has a salty taste. It is commonly known as sour salt and is mainly used as a food additive, usually for flavor or as a preservative. It gives club soda both its sour and salty flavors. It reduces the acidity of foods, so it allows spherification with strongly acidic ingredients. Sodium citrate is also used as an antioxidant in food as well as a sequestrant. It dissolves easily and acts instantaneously.

Sodium Citrate is used as anticoagulin,chemical reagent,food additive,developer,buffer emulsifying agent, stabilizing agent and used in nonhydrogen electroplation as well as widely in tail gas absorption process of sulfur dioxide for chemical and metallurgy industries. Sodium citrate may refer to any of the sodium salts of citric acid (though most commonly the third): Monosodium citrate Disodium citrate Trisodium citrate The 3 forms of the salt are also collectively known as food additive E331.

Sodium citrate dihydrate is the dihydrate of trisodium citrate. It has a role as an anticoagulant. It contains a sodium citrate.

ChEBI
Sodium salts of citric acid that are used as buffers and food preservatives. They are used medically as anticoagulants in stored blood, and for urine alkalization in the prevention of KIDNEY STONES.

Sodium citrate, the sodium salts of citric acid with the European food additive number E331. 
This ingredient is usually added together with citric acid to enhance flavor or reduce the PH level in food and drinks, also it can act as an emulsifier in cheese making. 
It commonly refers to trisodium citrate (E331) when we talk about sodium citrate.

What’re the Uses of Sodium citrate?
Sodium citrate is a multi-functional ingredient that is commonly used in carbonated drinks, powdered drinks, jams, jellies, ice cream, yogurts, processed cheeses, meat, sausage, and ham. 

It is mainly used for the following purposes:

Flavoring agent: enhance taste by imparting both a salty and a tart flavor in beverages.
Buffer: commonly used together with citric acid to adjust the PH by reducing the acidity of foods. 
Chelating agent: the power of chelating metal ions, e.g. Ca2+, Mg 2+, and Fe2+ in dishwashing and laundry detergents.
Emulsifier: prevent the separation of oil and protein in the cheesemaking process.
Preservative: prevent food spoilage.
Anticoagulant: used as an anticoagulant and prevent blood from clotting by combining calcium ion.
Yogurt
Citric acid adds sour taste to dairy products, but its sour taste is strong, and the sour taste can be eased with the combination of sodium citrate, so these two ingredients are often used together in yogurt to adjust and improve the sour taste.

Cheese
Cheese is an emulsion of dairy fat, protein and water, and it tends to break down at high temperatures. 

While it is melting, sodium citrate works as an emulsifier to prevent cheese curdling or the separation of fat and protein by keeping fat and protein together and binding calcium ions in the cheese. The usage in cheese is around 3%, depending on your recipes.

Cheese with sodium citrate can melt evenly and produce a smooth & creamy sauce. This property makes it possible to obtain portable and sliceable cheese (in mold, can take everywhere) in home cooking.

Following cheese products may contain with it:

Cheese sauce 
Nacho cheese
Macaroni and Cheese
Beverage

It can be used in following products (7):

Milk and cream 
Cheeses and related cheese products 
Artificial sweet fruit jelly, jam, and preserves
EFSA
Monosodium citrate E331(i), disodium citrate E331(ii) and trisodium citrate E331(iii) are listed in Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012 as an authorised food additive and categorized in “ additives other than colours and sweeteners” (8).

Approved uses
Sodium citrates are classified into “Group I” with the maximum use levels “quantum satis”, and also listed in its separate uses. The following food may contain it (9): 

UHT goat milk, dehydrated milk 
Edible caseinates
Cheese
Frozen fruit and vegetables
Canned or bottled fruit and vegetables
Jam, jellies and marmalades 
Meat preparations, unprocessed fish
Table-top sweeteners in liquid, powder or tablet form
Infant formulae 
Processed cereal-based foods and baby foods

Trisodium citrate Function Class: food additives, acidity regulator, sequestrant, stabilizer

Trisodium citrate dihydrate Chemical Properties, Uses, Production
General description
Sodium citrate, (molecular formula: Na3C6H5O7 • 2H2O) has molecular weight of 294.1, is a colorless crystal or white crystalline powder product; it is odorless, salty taste, and cool.It will lose its crystal water at 150 °C and will be decomposed at even higher temperature. It also has slight deliquescence in wet air and has weathering property upon hot air. It is soluble in water and glycerol, but insoluble in alcohol and some other organic solvents. Sodium citrate has no toxic effect, and has pH adjusting capability as well as having a good stability, and therefore can be used in the food industry. Sodium citrate has the greatest demand when being used as a food additive; As food additives, it is mainly used as flavoring agents, buffers, emulsifiers, bulking agents, stabilizers and preservatives; in addition, combination between sodium citrate and citric acid can be used in a variety of jams, jelly, juice, drinks, cold drinks, dairy products and pastries gelling agents, flavoring agents and nutritional supplements.

Excellent performance
Sodium citrate is currently the most important citrate. It is produced by two steps: first starch food is fermented to generate citric acid; secondly, citric acid is neutralized by alkali to generate the final products. Sodium citrate has the following excellent performance:
Safe and nontoxic properties; Since the basic raw material for the preparation of sodium citrate mainly comes from the food, it is absolutely safe and reliable without causing harm to human health. The United Nations Food and Agriculture and the World Health Organization has no restriction in its daily intake, which means that this product can be considered as non-toxic food.
It is biodegradable. After subjecting to the dilution of a large amount of water, sodium citrate is partially converted into citrate, which coexists with sodium citrate in the same system. Citrate is easy to subject to biological degradation at water by the action of oxygen, heat, light, bacteria and microbes. Its decomposition pathways are generally going through aconitic acid, itaconic acid, citraconic acid anhydride to be further converted to carbon dioxide and water.
The ability of forming complex with metal ions. Sodium citrate has a good capability of forming complex with some metal ions such as Ca2+, Mg2+; for other ions such as Fe2+, it also has a good complex-forming ability.
Excellent solubility, and the solubility increases with increasing temperature of water.
It has a good capability for pH adjustment and a good buffering property. Sodium citrate is a weak acid-strong alkali salt; When combined with citrate, they can form a pH buffer with strong compatibility; therefore, this is very useful for some cases in which it is not suitable to have large change of pH value. In addition, sodium citrate also has excellent retardation performance and stability.
The above information is edited by the chemicalbook of Dai xiongfeng.
Reference quality standards
British Pharmacopoeia BP98 Edition
Quality Item Technical Index
Content 99.0-101.0%
PH Meet the rule
Heavy Metal (PB) ≤ 0.001%
Arsenic ≤ 0.0001%
Ferric ≤ 0.001%
Oxalate ≤ 0.03%
Sulfate ≤ 0.015%
Readily carbonizable substance Meet the rule
Chloride ≤ 0.005%
Water 11.0-13.0%
Appearance of the solution clear and transparent solution, colorless
Pyrogen consistent with the test
Effect and application
During the process of clinically taking fresh blood, adding some amount of sterile sodium citrate can play a role in prevent blood clotting; this is exactly taking advantage of the features that calcium citrate can form soluble complexes with calcium ion; In the field of medicine, it is used for the in vitro anti-clotting drugs and anticoagulants drugs, phlegm drugs, and diuretics drugs during blood transfusions; it can also used for cyanide-free electroplating industry; also used as developer for photographic industry. It can be used as flavoring agents, buffering materials, emulsifiers, and stabilizer in the food industry. Moreover, it is also widely used in chemical, metallurgical industry, the absorption of sulfur dioxide exhaust with the absorption rate of 99% and regenerate liquid sulfur dioxide citrate for recycle application. Sodium citrate has a good water solubility and a excellent cheating capability with Ca2 +, Mg2 + and other metal ions; it is biodegradable and has a strong dispersing ability and anti-redeposition ability; Daily-applied chemical detergents use it as alternative to trimer sodium phosphate for production of non-phosphorus detergent and phosphate-free liquid detergent. Adding a certain amount sodium citrate to the detergent can significantly increase the cleaning ability of detergent cleaning. The large scale of application of sodium tripolyphosphate as a builder in detergents is an important discovery in synthetic detergent industry. It is non-toxic without environmental pollution; it can also be acted as a buffer for the production of cosmetics.

Chemical Properties
It is colorless crystals or white crystalline powder, and is odorless, cool and salty. It has no melting point with a relative density of 1.857. It is stable in air at room temperature with loss of crystal water when being heated to 150 °C loss of crystal water; further heating will cause its decomposition. It is insoluble in ethanol but highly soluble in water. 5% aqueous solution has a pH value of 7.6 to 8.6. Rats by intraperitoneal injection: LD50: 1549 mg/kg; ADI without any special provisions (FAOWHO, 1994).

Uses
Trisodium citrate can be used as Ph adjusting agents and emulsifying enhancers applied to jam, candy, jelly and ice cream; its combination with citric acid has an effect of alleviating tour; it also has effects on forming complex with metal ions. China rules that it can be applied to various types of food with appropriate usage according to the absolute necessity.
Trisodium citrate can be used as a food additive, as complex agent and buffering agent in electroplating industry; at the field of pharmaceutical industry, it is used for the manufacturing of anti-clotting drugs; and used as the detergent additives in light industry.
Trisodium citrate is used as the analysis agents used for chromatography analysis and can also used for preparing bacterial culture medium; moreover, it can also be applied into pharmaceutical industry.
Trisodium citrate can be used for the flavoring processing of food, as stabilizers, buffers and deputy complex-forming agents in non-toxic electroplating industry; at pharmaceutical industry, it is used as anti-clotting agent, phlegm drugs and diuretics drugs. It can also be used in brewing, injection, newspaper and movies medicines.

Production methods
Trisodium citrate is produced by the neutralization of citric acid by sodium hydroxide or sodium bicarbonate. Dissolve sodium bicarbonate in water upon stirring and heating; add citric acid, continue to heat up to 85-90 °C; adjust the pH to 6.8; adjust active carbon for bleaching. Filter when the mixture is still hot; condense the filtrate under reduced pressure; cool and the crystal comes out; filter, wash, dry to obtain the final products of sodium citrate.
C6H8O7 + 3NaHCO3 → C6H5Na3O7 • 2H2O + 3CO2 ↑ + H2O

Chemical Properties
white powder or colourless crystals

Chemical Properties
Sodium citrate dihydrate consists of odorless, colorless, monoclinic crystals, or a white crystalline powder with a cooling, saline taste. It is slightly deliquescent in moist air, and in warm dry air it is efflorescent. Although most pharmacopeias specify that sodium citrate is the dihydrate, the USP 32 states that sodium citrate may be either the dihydrate or anhydrous material.

Uses
Sodium citrate is chiefly used as a food additive, usually for flavor or as a preservative.

Uses
Anticoagulant for collection of blood. In photography; as sequestering agent to remove trace metals; as emulsifier, acidulant and sequestrant in foods.

Uses
An anticoagulant also used as a biological buffer

Definition
ChEBI: The dihydrate of trisodium citrate.

Production Methods
Sodium citrate is prepared by adding sodium carbonate to a solution of citric acid until effervescence ceases. The resulting solution is filtered and evaporated to dryness.

Pharmaceutical Applications
Sodium citrate, as either the dihydrate or anhydrous material, is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations.
It is used in food products, primarily to adjust the pH of solutions. It is also used as a sequestering agent. The anhydrous material is used in effervescent tablet formulations. Sodium citrate is additionally used as a blood anticoagulant either alone or in combination with other citrates such as disodium hydrogen citrate.
Therapeutically, sodium citrate is used to relieve the painful irritation caused by cystitis, and also to treat dehydration and acidosis due to diarrhea.

Biological Activity
Commonly used laboratory reagent

Safety
After ingestion, sodium citrate is absorbed and metabolized to bicarbonate. Although it is generally regarded as a nontoxic and nonirritant excipient, excessive consumption may cause gastrointestinal discomfort or diarrhea. Therapeutically, in adults, up to 15 g daily of sodium citrate dihydrate may be administered orally, in divided doses, as an aqueous solution to relieve the painful irritation caused by cystitis.
Citrates and citric acid enhance intestinal aluminum absorption in renal patients, which may lead to increased, harmful serum aluminum levels. It has therefore been suggested that patients with renal failure taking aluminum compounds to control phosphate absorption should not be prescribed citrate- or citric acid-containing products.

storage
Sodium citrate dihydrate is a stable material. Aqueous solutions may be sterilized by autoclaving. On storage, aqueous solutions may cause the separation of small, solid particles from glass containers.
The bulk material should be stored in an airtight container in a cool, dry place.

Purification Methods
Crystallise the salt from warm water by cooling to 0o. [Beilstein 3 III 1100, 3 IV 1274.]

Incompatibilities
Aqueous solutions are slightly alkaline and will react with acidic substances. Alkaloidal salts may be precipitated from their aqueous or hydro-alcohol solutions. Calcium and strontium salts will cause precipitation of the corresponding citrates. Other incompatibilities include bases, reducing agents, and oxidizing agents.

Regulatory Status
GRAS listed. Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (inhalations; injections; ophthalmic products; oral solutions, suspensions, syrups and tablets; nasal, otic, rectal, topical, transdermal, and vaginal preparations). Included in nonparenteral and parenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.
Trisodium citrate dihydrate Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials
LIMONIN(SH) Calcium carbonate Sodium hydroxide Sulfuric acid Sodium carbonate Citric acid

Preparation Products
Deoxynucleotide Thrombin 6-bromo-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromen-4-ol


Properties
Dihydrate
White
Granular crystals or crystalline powder
Typical, practically odourless
Pleasantly salty
Freely soluble in water
Practically insoluble in ethanol (96 %)
Non-toxic
Low reactive
Chemically and microbiologically stable
Fully biodegradable
Main functions
pH regulator
Chelating agent
Buffering agent
Flavour enhancer
Stabiliser
Emulsifying agent

Sodium citrate Uses

Sodium citrate is used in ice cream to keep the fat globules from sticking together. Citrates and phosphates both have this property. It is also an anti-coagulant. As a buffering agent, sodium citrate helps maintain pH levels in soft drinks. As a sequestering agent, sodium citrate attaches to calcium ions in water, keeping them from interfering with detergents and soaps.

Sodium citrate dİhydrate is an anticoagulant and also used as a buffer and food preservatives.
It is a tribasic salt of citric acid. It is produced by complete neutralisation of citric acid with high purity sodium hydroxide or carbonate and subsequent crystallisation. It is widely used in foods, beverages and various technical applications mainly as buffering, sequestering or emulsifying agent. It occurs as white, granular crystals or as white, crystalline powder with a pleasant, salty taste. It is slightly deliquescent in moist air, freely soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol (96 %). Applications: food, beverages, personal care, cleaners & detergents, industrial applications, healthcare, feed & pet food.


Sodium Citrate Dihydrate
Excipient (pharmacologically inactive substance)

Sodium citrate dihydrate (C6H5Na3O7•2H2O) is the sodium salt of citric acid combined with 2 water molecules. 
Sodium citrate dihydrate has a sour taste similar to citric acid, and is salty as well. 
Sodium citrate dihydrate is often used as a food preservative, and as a flavoring in the food industry. 
In the pharmaceutical industry Sodium citrate dihydrate is used to control pH. Sodium citrate dihydrate may be used as an alkalizing agent, buffering agent, emulsifier, or sequestering agent.

According to the FDA Select Committee on Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) food substances, citrate salts, including sodium citrate, are generally regarded as safe when used in normal quantities.

Sodium Citrate
Chemical Name: Sodium citrate (Trisodium citrate)

CAS Registry Number: 68-04-2

Synonyms:

1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-, trisodium salt; Citric acid, trisodium salt; Sodium citrate; Sodium citrate anhydrous; Trisodium citrate; Citrato de trisodio, dihidrato; Citrate de trisodium, dihydrate; Trisodio citrato diidrato; Trinatriumcitraatdihydraat

Applications
Foods
Sodium citrate is chiefly used as a food additive, usually for flavor or as a preservative. Its E number is E331. Sodium citrate is employed as a flavoring agent in certain varieties of club soda. It is common as an ingredient in bratwurst, and is also used in commercial ready-to-drink beverages and drink mixes, contributing a tart flavor. It is found in gelatin mix, ice cream, yogurt, jams, sweets, milk powder, processed cheeses, carbonated beverages, and wine[citation needed], amongst others.

Sodium citrate can be used as an emulsifying stabilizer when making cheese. It allows the cheese to melt without becoming greasy by stopping the fats from separating.

Buffering

Speciation diagram for a 10-millimolar solution of citric acid. The violet curve corresponds to the trisodium citrate.
As a conjugate base of a weak acid, citrate can perform as a buffering agent or acidity regulator, resisting changes in pH. It is used to control acidity in some substances, such as gelatin desserts. It can be found in the milk minicontainers used with coffee machines. The compound is the product of antacids, such as Alka-Seltzer, when they are dissolved in water.[citation needed] The pH of a solution of 5 g/100 ml water at 25 °C is 7.5 – 9.0. It is added to many commercially packaged dairy products to control the PH impact of the gastrointestinal system of humans, mainly in processed products such as cheese and yogurt.

Medicine
In 1914, the Belgian doctor Albert Hustin and the Argentine physician and researcher Luis Agote successfully used sodium citrate as an anticoagulant in blood transfusions, with Richard Lewisohn determining its correct concentration in 1915. It continues to be used today in blood-collection tubes and for the preservation of blood in blood banks. The citrate ion chelates calcium ions in the blood by forming calcium citrate complexes, disrupting the blood clotting mechanism. Recently, trisodium citrate has also been used as a locking agent in vascath and haemodialysis lines instead of heparin due to its lower risk of systemic anticoagulation

Sodium citrate is used to relieve discomfort in urinary-tract infections, such as cystitis, to reduce the acidosis seen in distal renal tubular acidosis, and can also be used as an osmotic laxative. It is a major component of the WHO oral rehydration solution.

It is used as an antacid, especially prior to anaesthesia, for caesarian section procedures to reduce the risks associated with the aspiration of gastric contents.

Boiler descaling
Sodium citrate is a particularly effective agent for removal of carbonate scale from boilers without removing them from operation and for cleaning automobile radiators.

Applications
 Industrial Applications
 Adhesives, Sealants
 Agrochemicals, Fertilisers
 Construction
 Fine Chemicals
 Inks, Paints, Coatings
 Oil Drilling
 Paper
 Plastics, Polymers
 Textile, Leather
 Beverages
 Alcoholic Beverages
 Carbonated Soft Drinks
 Instant Drinks, Syrups
 Juice Drinks
 Plant-based
 RTD Tea and Coffee
 Sports and Energy Drinks
 Waters
 Food
 Baby Food, Infant Formula
 Bakery
 Cereals, Snacks
 Confectionery
 Dairy
 Dairy Alternatives
 Desserts, Ice Cream
 Flavours
 Fruit Preparations, Sweet Spreads
 Fruits, Vegetables
 Meat Alternatives
 Meat, Seafood
 Plant-based Products
 Ready Meals, Instant Food
 Sauces, Dressings, Seasonings
 Pharma
 Buffering agent
 Chelating agent
 Mineral source
 Healthcare
 Clinical Nutrition
 Medical Devices
 OTC, Food Supplements
 Pharmaceutical Products
 Personal Care
 Colour Cosmetics
 Fragrances
 Hair Care
 Oral Care
 Skin Care
 Soap and Bath Products
 Cleaners & Detergents
 Dish Washing
 Industrial Cleaners
 Laundry Care
 Surface Care
 Feed & Pet Food
 Feed
 Pet Food


Applications
Food & Beverage

Sodium citrate dihydrate is the most widely used emulsifying salt in sliced processed cheese products. It is commonly used as a buffering agent in combination with citric acid to provide precise pH control required in many food and beverage applications.

Trisodium citrate is often referred to as sodium citrate, though sodium citrate can refer to any of the three sodium salts of citric acid. Sodium citrate has a saline, mildly tart flavor. It is mildly basic and can be used along with citric acid to make biologically compatible buffers.

Sodium citrate is primarily used as a food additive, usually for flavor or as a preservative. In certain varieties of club soda, sodium citrate is employed as a flavoring agent. Sodium citrate is a common ingredient in Bratwurst, and is also used to contribute a tart flavor in commercial, ready-to- drink beverages and drink mixes. It is found in gelatin mix, ice-cream, jams, sweets, milk powder, processed cheeses, carbonated beverages, and wine.

Sodium Citrate is also used as an emulsifier for oils in the cheesemaking process. Sodium citrate allows cheese to melt without becoming greasy. Historically, sodium phosphate was used to keep water and fat droplets mixed when cheese is melted.
-Use a small amount to make a melty cheese sauce out of any cheese
-Add to spherification liquids to neutralize the pH when needed
-Commonly used as a sequestrant and pH buffer in food and beverages 
-Cold/hot soluble, practically insoluble in ethanol (96%)


Soy Products Bakery Flavors
Dairy Confectionery
Fruits, Vegetables Meat, Seafood , Cereals, Snacks Desserts, Ice Cream Ready Meals, Instant Food
Fruit Preparations, Sweet Spreads Baby Food, Infant Formula
Sauces, Dressings, Seasoning

The main functions of citric acid and the citrates in foods and beverages can be summarized as follows:

as a flavor adjunct, to improve taste
as a pH control agent, e.g., for gelation control, buffering and preservative enhancement
as a chelating agent to improve the action of antioxidants and prevent spoilage of foods such as seafood
Beverages

Alcoholic Beverages Carbonated Soft Drinks
Instant Drinks, Syrups, Juice Drinks
Tea and Coffee, Sports and Energy Drinks
Waters

Within this market, citric acid or its salts perform several functions. The dominant application is for flavor enhancement. 
Many of the lemon, lime or citrus soft drinks available today use citric acid as a way of enhancing the tangy, zesty flavor consumers associate with these tropical fruit flavors. Additionally, citric acid can help provide consistency in acidity and flavor of fruit juices or fruit cordials.
If used together with sodium citrate, it is possible for citric acid to help maintain the flavor of other types of soft drinks without adding to the tanginess. 
Sodium citrate can also provide a cool saline taste.

Healthcare
Effervescent tablets and preparations: The reaction of citric acid and bicarbonate liberates carbon dioxide, which aids the dissolution of active ingredients and improves palatability. Effervescent systems are widely used in denture-cleaning products, as well as pain relief and vitamin tablets.


Pharmaceutically active substances — many are supplied as their citrate salt.


pH control: Citric acid, with sodium or potassium citrate, is an efficient buffering system used in a variety of pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications for improving stability and (where appropriate) enhancing the activity of preservatives.


Flavor: The sharp, acid taste of citric acid (which is often used to enhance fruit flavors) can help mask the unpleasant, medicinal taste of pharmaceuticals.


Antioxidant: The citrate ion is a powerful chelating agent for trace metal ions.


Blood anticoagulant: The citrate ion will chelate calcium, thereby reducing the tendency for blood to clot.


Diuretic – potassium citrate has diuretic properties.


Clinical Nutrition Medical Devices
OTC, Food Supplements Pharmaceutical Products

Color Cosmetics Deodorants
Fragrances Hair Care
Oral Care Skin Care Soap and Bath Products

Cleaners & Detergents
The major components of cleaning products are surfactants and builders. Other ingredients are added to provide a variety of functions, e.g., increasing cleaning performance for specific soils/surfaces, ensuring product stability, and supplying a unique identity to a product.
Complex phosphates and sodium citrate are common sequestering builders. Builders enhance or maintain the cleaning efficiency of the surfactant. The primary function of builders is to reduce water hardness. This is done either by sequestration or chelation (holding hardness minerals in solution); by precipitation (forming an insoluble substance); or by ion exchange (trading electrically charged particles). Builders can also supply and maintain alkalinity, which assists cleaning, especially of acid soils; help keep removed soil from redepositing during washing, and emulsify oily and greasy soils.
Dish Washing Industrial Cleaners

Laundry Care Surface Care

Industrial
Citric acid is employed as an industrial cleaner to clear steam blocks and hot water systems of calcium and rust layers. As a chemical polish, citric acid is used to treat aluminum, copper and other metal surfaces. Citric acid and citrates are used as buffering and complexing agents in electro-plating baths. The building and textile industries also take advantage of citric acid’s outstanding chelating ability as well as its non-toxicity. Examples include set retarding of gypsum plasters and textile finishing. Further industrial applications of citric acid and citrates range from desulphurisation of flue gas and oil recovery to the decontamination of radioactive nuclear reactor materials.
Adhesives, Sealants, Agrochemicals, Fertilizers
Construction, Fine Chemicals
Inks, Paints, Coatings, Metal Surface Treatment
Oil Drilling Ore Mining and Refining
Paper, Plastics, Polymers
Textile, Leather

Sodium citrate dihydrate 
1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-, sodium salt, hydrate (1:3:2) [ACD/Index Name]
200-675-3 [EINECS]
6104939 [Beilstein] [MDL number]
6132-04-3 [RN]
Citrate de sodium, hydrate (1:3:2) [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Citric acid trisodium salt dihydrate
HOC(COONa)(CH2COONa)2 · 2H2O [Beilstein] [Formula] [MDL number]
MFCD00150031 [MDL number]
Natrium-2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propantricarboxylathydrat (3:1:2) [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Sodium 2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylate hydrate (3:1:2) [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Sodium 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate hydrate (3:1:2)
Sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate
Trisodium citrate dihydrate
1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-, sodium salt, dihydrate
1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-, trisodium salt, dihydrate
2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid trisodium salt dihydrate
2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid trisodium salt dihydrateCitronensaeure,Trinatrium-Salz-DihydratSodium citrate hydrate
2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate
CITRIC ACID, TRISODIUM SALT, DIHYDRATE
Citronensaeure,Trinatrium-Salz-Dihydrat
Natrii citras
sodium 2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylate hydrate(3:1:2)
Sodium Citrate [JAN] [USAN] [Wiki]
sodium citrate di-hydrate
Sodium citrate hydrate [JP15]
trisodium 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate dihydrate
tri-sodium citrate dihydrate
trisodium;2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate;dihydrate
Trisodiumcitratedihydrate


Sodium citrate hydrate (JP17);
Trisodium citrate dihydrate;
Sodium citrate (TN);
Tricitrasol

Sodium Citrate, Dihydrate, a conjugate base of a weak acid, can perform as a biological buffering agent because it resists changes in pH. 
Citric acid is one of a series of compounds responsible for the physiological oxidation of fats, carbohydrates and proteins to carbon dioxide and water. 
Sodium Citrate, Dihydrate is often used to prepare sodium citrate buffer for antigen retrieval of tissue samples. 
The citrate solution is designed to break protein cross-links; thus, unmasking antigens and epitopes in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded tissue sections, resulting in enhancing staining intensity of antibodies. 
Citrate has anticoagulant activity and as a calcium chelator, it forms complexes that disrupt the tendency of blood to clot.
Additional forms available:
Citric Acid Monohydrate (sc-203327)
Citric Acid, Anhydrous (sc-211113)
Citric Acid Trisodium Salt (sc-214745)
Sodium citrate monobasic (sc-215869)
Sodium citrate tribasic hydrate (sc-236898)
Citrate Concentrated Solution (sc-294091)

Application Notes
Citric Acid, Trisodium Salt, Dihydrate is used as a substrate for citrate lyase, a buffer component; an anticoagulant. For anticoagulation use it is typically used at a concentration of approximately 0.129 M (i.e. for 4.5 mL blood use 16.0 mg sodium citrate and 2.1 mg citric acid).

Trisodium citrate dihydrate is a tribasic salt of citric acid. 
Trisodium citrate dihydrate  is produced by complete neutralization of citric acid with high purity sodium source and subsequent crystallization.
Trisodium citrate dihydrate is used in toothpastes & dental creams, effervescent denture cleansers, mouth rinses and oral hygiene products.


Sodium citrate is the sodium salt of citric acid. It is white, crystalline powder or white, granular crystals, slightly deliquescent in moist air, freely soluble in water, practically insoluble in alcohol. Like citric acid, it has a sour taste. From the medical point of view, it is used as alkalinizing agent. It works by neutralizing excess acid in the blood and urine. It has been indicated for the treatment of metabolic acidosis.

Mechanism of action
Citrate chelates free calcium ions preventing them from forming a complex with tissue factor and coagulation factor VIIa to promote the activation of coagulation factor X 1 2. This inhibits the extrinsic initiation of the coagulation cascade. Citrate may also exert an anticoagulant effect via a so far unknown mechanism as restoration of calcium concentration does not fully reverse the effect of citrate 1. Citrate is a weak base and so reacts with hydrochloric acid in the stomach to raise the pH. It it further metabolized to bicarbonate which then acts as a systemic alkalizing agent, raising the pH of the blood and urine 8. It also acts as a diuretic and increases the urinary excretion of calcium.


Food & Beverage
Sodium citrate dihydrate is the most widely used emulsifying salt in sliced processed cheese products. It is commonly used as a buffering agent in combination with citric acid to provide precise pH control required in many food and beverage applications.
Trisodium citrate is often referred to as sodium citrate, though sodium citrate can refer to any of the three sodium salts of citric acid. Sodium citrate has a saline, mildly tart flavor. It is mildly basic and can be used along with citric acid to make biologically compatible buffers.
Sodium citrate is primarily used as a food additive, usually for flavor or as a preservative. In certain varieties of club soda, sodium citrate is employed as a flavoring agent. Sodium citrate is a common ingredient in Bratwurst, and is also used to contribute a tart flavor in commercial, ready-to- drink beverages and drink mixes. It is found in gelatin mix, ice-cream, jams, sweets, milk powder, processed cheeses, carbonated beverages, and wine.
Sodium Citrate is also used as an emulsifier for oils in the cheesemaking process. Sodium citrate allows cheese to melt without becoming greasy. Historically, sodium phosphate was used to keep water and fat droplets mixed when cheese is melted.

Soy Products Bakery Flavors
Dairy Confectionery
Fruits, Vegetables Meat, Seafood , Cereals, Snacks Desserts, Ice Cream Ready Meals, Instant Food
Fruit Preparations, Sweet Spreads Baby Food, Infant Formula
Sauces, Dressings, Seasoning

The main functions of citric acid and the citrates in foods and beverages can be summarized as follows:

as a flavor adjunct, to improve taste
as a pH control agent, e.g., for gelation control, buffering and preservative enhancement
as a chelating agent to improve the action of antioxidants and prevent spoilage of foods such as seafood

Beverages
Alcoholic Beverages Carbonated Soft Drinks
Instant Drinks, Syrups, Juice Drinks
Tea and Coffee, Sports and Energy Drinks
Waters

Within this market, citric acid or its salts perform several functions. The dominant application is for flavor enhancement. Many of the lemon, lime or citrus soft drinks available today use citric acid as a way of enhancing the tangy, zesty flavor consumers associate with these tropical fruit flavors. Additionally, citric acid can help provide consistency in acidity and flavor of fruit juices or fruit cordials.

If used together with sodium citrate, it is possible for citric acid to help maintain the flavor of other types of soft drinks without adding to the tanginess. Sodium citrate can also provide a cool saline taste.

Healthcare
Effervescent tablets and preparations: The reaction of citric acid and bicarbonate liberates carbon dioxide, which aids the dissolution of active ingredients and improves palatability. Effervescent systems are widely used in denture-cleaning products, as well as pain relief and vitamin tablets.
Pharmaceutically active substances — many are supplied as their citrate salt.

pH control: Citric acid, with sodium or potassium citrate, is an efficient buffering system used in a variety of pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications for improving stability and (where appropriate) enhancing the activity of preservatives.

Flavor: The sharp, acid taste of citric acid (which is often used to enhance fruit flavors) can help mask the unpleasant, medicinal taste of pharmaceuticals.

Antioxidant: The citrate ion is a powerful chelating agent for trace metal ions.

Blood anticoagulant: The citrate ion will chelate calcium, thereby reducing the tendency for blood to clot.

Diuretic – potassium citrate has diuretic properties.
Clinical Nutrition Medical Devices

OTC, Food Supplements Pharmaceutical Products

Color Cosmetics Deodorants
Fragrances Hair Care
Oral Care Skin Care Soap and Bath Products

Cleaners & Detergents
The major components of cleaning products are surfactants and builders. Other ingredients are added to provide a variety of functions, e.g., increasing cleaning performance for specific soils/surfaces, ensuring product stability, and supplying a unique identity to a product.

Complex phosphates and sodium citrate are common sequestering builders. Builders enhance or maintain the cleaning efficiency of the surfactant. 
The primary function of builders is to reduce water hardness. This is done either by sequestration or chelation (holding hardness minerals in solution); by precipitation (forming an insoluble substance); or by ion exchange (trading electrically charged particles). Builders can also supply and maintain alkalinity, which assists cleaning, especially of acid soils; help keep removed soil from redepositing during washing, and emulsify oily and greasy soils.

Dish Washing Industrial Cleaners
Laundry Care Surface Care

Industrial

Citric acid is employed as an industrial cleaner to clear steam blocks and hot water systems of calcium and rust layers. 
As a chemical polish, citric acid is used to treat aluminum, copper and other metal surfaces. 
Citric acid and citrates are used as buffering and complexing agents in electro-plating baths. 
The building and textile industries also take advantage of citric acid’s outstanding chelating ability as well as its non-toxicity. 
Examples include set retarding of gypsum plasters and textile finishing. 
Further industrial applications of citric acid and citrates range from desulphurisation of flue gas and oil recovery to the decontamination of radioactive nuclear reactor materials.

Adhesives, Sealants, Agrochemicals, Fertilizers
Construction, Fine Chemicals
Inks, Paints, Coatings, Metal Surface Treatment
Oil Drilling Ore Mining and Refining
Paper, Plastics, Polymers
Textile, Leather

Sodium Citrate is the sodium salt of citrate with alkalinizing activity. Upon absorption, sodium citrate dissociates into sodium cations and citrate anions; organic citrate ions are metabolized to bicarbonate ions, resulting in an increase in the plasma bicarbonate concentration, the buffering of excess hydrogen ion, the raising of blood pH, and potentially the reversal of acidosis. 
In addition, increases in free sodium load due to sodium citrate administration may increase intravascular blood volume, facilitating the excretion of bicarbonate compounds and an anti-urolithic effect.

Sodium citrate is the trisodium salt of citric acid. It has a role as a flavouring agent and an anticoagulant. 
It contains a citrate(3-)

Sodium citrate is the sodium salt of citric acid. It is white, crystalline powder or white, granular crystals, slightly deliquescent in moist air, freely soluble in water, practically insoluble in alcohol. Like citric acid, it has a sour taste. From the medical point of view, it is used as alkalinizing agent. 
It works by neutralizing excess acid in the blood and urine. It has been indicated for the treatment of metabolic acidosis.

USES AND APPLICATIONS FOR SODIUM CITRATE
Food and Beverage: Trisodium citrate dihydrate is primarily used as a preservative, a flavoring agent, or both. 
Trisodium citrate dihydrates tartness adds flavor to a range of foods and drinks such as bratwurst, club soda, powdered drink mixes, gelatins, jams, wines, carbonated drinks, ice cream, processed cheeses, milk powders, and yogurt. Furthermore, Trisodium citrate dihydrate is added as an emulsifying salt in almost all processed sliced cheese foods to prevent them from becoming over0ly greasy when melted.
Pharmaceuticals: Trisodium citrate dihydrate is used as a flavoring agent, Trisodium citrate dihydrate helps with the palatability of such products. 
These combined effects also make Trisodium citrate dihydrate a useful ingredient in foaming vitamin tablets, denture cleaners, and pain relievers. 
Trisodium citrate dihydrate is used in blood transfusions; sodium citrate has been a known anticoagulant. 
Trisodium citrate dihydrate is used in coating in tubes used for blood collection and preservative in blood banks.
HI&I: Trisodium citrate dihydrate is used as a sequestering builder. 
Trisodium citrate dihydrate influences the alkalinity of solutions and bonds with minerals found in water in order to soften it.
Personal Care: Trisodium citrate dihydrate is used as anti-aging creams & lotions, bar soap, body wash, hair care, moisturizing creams, shampoo and sunscreens
Others: From reducing rust and calcium in boiler systems to decontaminating radioactive materials in nuclear settings, Trisodium citrate dihydrate is prized for its cleaning and polishing abilities as well as its lack of toxicity. Trisodium citrate dihydrate can be used as a descaler that does not require the equipment being cleaned to stop operating.

Sodium citrate has been verified to be of low concern based on experimental and modeled data for use as a chelating agent (anticoagulant), a preservative, an antioxidant, a processing aid and an additive (EPA Safer chemical ingredients list). 
Sodium citrate is included in the FDA list of substances generally regarded as safe. 
It is the sodium salt of citric acid prepared by fermentation and neutralization of citric acid with sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. 
The product occurs as colorless crystals or a white crystalline powder. 
It may be prepared in an anhydrous state or may contain two moles of water per mole of sodium citrate (21 CFR 184.1751). 
Sodium citrate is listed in the National List as an allowed synthetic for use in organic handling (§205.605b). 
The sodium salts of citric acid – monosodium citrate, disodium citrate and trisodium citrate – are collectively listed as “sodium citrate
These substances are used similarly as pH control/buffering agents and stabilizers in food products.

risodium citrate dihydrate is commonly used in various technical and industrial applications mainly as a pH buffering, sequestering or emulsifying agent. 
Also used as a retarder for mortar mixes.

  

Properties of Trisodium citrate:

Other names: Sodium citrate dihydrate; Trisodium citrate, trisodium salt of 2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricar­boxylic acid; trisodium salt of -hydroxy-tricarballylic acid; Natrocitral; Citrate sodique;


Easily soluble in hot water. Soluble in cold water. Insoluble in alcohol. Soluble in 1.3 parts water. 
Soluble in 0.6 parts boiling water.

Uses of Trisodium Citrate
Buffering agent.
Manufacture of household cleaners, degreasers and detergents.
Industrial applications

In the cleaning industry trisodium citrate is commonly used because of its excellent cleaning characteristics and its unusual property of being almost neutral yet portraying the characteristics of an acid as in descalers and an alkali as in degreasers. 
Cleaning products include laundry powders and detergents, toilet cleaners, hard surface cleaners, carpet cleaners, dish washing liquids, powder and liquid degreasers and presoaks. 
It is becoming more and more popular now as it is considered environmentally friendly, it substitutes phosphates and is readily biodegradable.

In industry trisodium citrate finds many uses including alkaline degreaser baths, electroplating chemicals for copper and nickel etc, photo chemicals. 
It is also used in the paper and pulp indstries and the textiles industry.

sodium citrate is effective to retard plaster mixes. It must be used carefully as adding too much will prevent the plaster curing properly. 
Premix the citrate in water first and add to the plaster mix.


Sodium Citrate Dihydrate is derived from citric acid and is available in either free-flowing colorless granular or powder forms. 
It is odorless and freely soluble in water, but insoluble in alcohol. 
Storage at room temperature in tightly sealed containers is recommended. 
Sodium citrate anhydrous may be used for the same applications as the widely used dihydrate salt, but can provide particular benefit in dry products where the absence of moisture and/or a long shelf life is required.

Trisodium citrate dihydrate
Sodium citrate dihydrate
6132-04-3
Sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate
1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-, trisodium salt, dihydrate
Citric acid trisodium salt dihydrate
MFCD00150031
Sodium citrate hydrate
trisodium;2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate;dihydrate
UNII-B22547B95K
B22547B95K
trisodium 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate dihydrate
Trisodium citrate dihydrate;Citric acid trisodium salt dihydrate
tri-sodium citrate dihydrate
Citric acid, trisodium salt dihydrate, ACS reagent
sodium 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate dihydrate
Sodiumcitrate
Citric acid, trisodium salt dihydrate, 99%, for biochemistry
Natrum citricum
Tricitrasol (TN)
ACMC-20ajao
Sodium citrate (TN)
C6H9Na3O9
Sodium citrate [USP:JAN]
DTXSID1049437
Sodium citrate hydrate (JP17)
CHEBI:32142
Trisodium citrate dihydrate, ACS
AKOS025293920
Citric acid, trisodium salt, dihydrate
Citronensaeure,Trinatrium-Salz-Dihydrat
Sodium citrate dihydrate, >=99%, FG


•    ANTI-BABOON IGM, BIOTIN
•    BETA-HYDROXY-TRICARBOXYLIC ACID MONOHYDRATE
•    HYDROXYTRICARBALLYLIC ACID MONOHYDRATE
•    CITRIC ACID NA3-SALT 2H2O
•    CITRIC ACID H2O
•    CITRIC ACID TRISODIUM SALT DIHYDRATE
•    CITRIC ACID, 3NA, DIHYDRATE
•    CITRIC ACID-1-HYDRATE
•    2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanenetricarboxylicacidtrisodiumsaltdihydrate
•    Citric acid, trisodiuM salt dihydrate, ACS reagent
•    Citric acid, trisodiuM salt dihydrate, 99%, for biocheMistry
•    TRI-SODIUM CITRATE DIHYDRATE P.A. EMSURE
•    SodiuM Citrate (AS)
•    Sodium Citrate (1 g) (AS)
•    SODIUM CITRATE、SODIUM CITRATE DEHYDRATE
•    sodiuM 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate dihydrate
•    Sodium Citrate (1 g)
•    Sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate ACS reagent, >=99.0%
•    Sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, >=99.0% (NT)
•    Sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate Vetec(TM) reagent grade, 98%
•    ACIDUM CITRICUM MONOHYDRICUM
•    2-HYDROXY-1,2,3-PROPANETRICARBOXYLIC ACID, MONOHYDRATE
•    2-HYDROXY-1,2,3-PROPANETRICARBOXYLIC ACID, TRISODIUM SALT, DIHYDRATE
•    SODIUM CITRATE 2H2O
•    SODIUM CITRATE, DIHYDRATE
•    SODIUM CITRATE TRIBASIC DIHYDRATE
•    SODIUM CITRATE TRISODIUM SALT DIHYDRATE
•    SODIUM CITRADE DIHYDRATE
•    NATRII CITRAS
•    SODIUM CITRATE, USP, DIHYDRATE POWDER
•    CITRIC ACID MONO BP93
•    CITRIC ACID ANHYDROUS 40-120 MESH
•    CITRIC ACID MON
•    CITRIC ACID MONOHYDRATE BP93
•    CITRIC ACID MONO
•    CITRIC ACID MONO AND ANH
•    CITRIC ACID MONO BP-93 & BP-98
•    CITRIC ACID BP93
•    CITRIC ACID ANHYDROUS USP
•    CITRIC ACID MONODYRATE BP93
•    CITRIC ACID FOOD GRADE
•    CITRIC ACID MONO BP98
•    CITRIC ACID MONOHYDRATE FOOD GRADE
•    Cit acid monohydrate
•    Citratic acid
•    SODIUM CITRATE TRIBASIC DIHYDRATE USP
•    TRI-SODIUM CITRATE DIHYDRATE, FOR MOLECU LAR BIOLOGY
•    SODIUM CITRATE TRIBASIC DIHYDRATE, REAGENT GRADE, 99%
•    TRI-SODIUM CITRATE DIHYDRATE, FOR LUMINE SCENCE
•    Sodium citrate tribasic Dihydrate, Eluent additive for LC-MS
•    CITRIC ACID TRISODIUM DIHYDRATESIGMAULTR A
•    SODIUM CITRATE DIHYDRATE, 99+%, A.C.S. REAGENT
•    CITRIC ACID TRISODIUM DIHYDRATE
•    CITRIC ACID, TRISODIUM SALT DIHYDRATE, 9 9%
•    SODIUM CITRATE DIHYDRATE 99+%
•    TRI-SODIUM CITRATE-2-HYDRATE R. G., REAG . ACS, REAG. ISO, REAG. PH. EUR.
•    SODIUM CITRATE TRIBASIC DIHYDRATE, PH EUR
•    SodiumCitrateBp93

Sodium citrate is excellent chelating agent and complexing agent in chemistry.Its industrial application is due to this characteristic.
Sodium citrate is used as favoring agent and stabilizer in food and beverage industry. 
Also as anticoagulant, expectorant and diuretic in medical industry and as the auxiliary of non-toxic washing agent instead of sodium trypolyphosphate in detergent industry.
Sodium citrate is applied in brewing, injection, photography drug and plating etc.


WHAT IS SODIUM CITRATE
The term sodium citrate is most commonly used to refer to trisodium citrate. 
However, it can also refer to other sodium salts from citrate — such as disodium citrate and monosodium citrate.
Food grade sodium citrate — identified by the E number E331 — has many commercial applications. 
One of its primary uses is to prolong the shelf life of food products. 
In addition to its widespread use as a preservative, its flavoring characteristic makes it a popular ingredient in many beverages — especially those with citrus flavors. 
Though few people are aware of sodium citrate’s formal name, they rely on its strength as an alkalizer when they use Alka Seltzer tablets — making it quite a popular compound found in many households.

Sodium Citrate is used as a natural food preservative. 
Some of the benefits of using Sodium Citrate as a Food additive include better circulation and blow flow as well as balancing out Ph levels in the body. 
It is also a powerful source of antioxidants.
It is a non-toxic, neutral salt with low reactivity. 
It is chemically stable if stored at ambient temperatures. 
Trisodium citrate dihydrate is fully biodegradable and can be disposed of with regular waste or sewage. 
Trisodium citrate dihydrate is widely used in foods, beverages, and various technical applications mainly as buffering, sequestering, or emulsifying agent. 
Trisodium Citrate Dihydrate may be stored for 36 months from the date of manufacture in the unopened original container. 
Relative humidity of 50% and a temperature range of 10–30°C are the most suitable conditions for storage.

Trisodium citrate is widely used in the food industry, usually as flavor or as  preservative.  
As such it is used as an ingredient in meat and dairy preparations. In ready to drink beverages and mixes, it contributes a tart flavor.  
It is also widely used in buffer systems, where trisodium citrate together with citric acid are used to keep the pH at a given value.
 It is used in medical preparations to prevent blood from clotting. In technical applications it is also used to prevent or remove scaling, to change the hardening of concrete and numerous other applications.

 
Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (TriSodium Citrate) is commonly used to improve exercise performance and as a food additive. 
It's naturally a strong source of antioxidants and typically used as a natural preservative. 
Some have also used the ingredient in beverages to increase acidity or to emulsify cheese during the aging process. 
This ingredient may be added to foods and beverages or smoothies and green drinks


Citric acid and citrates provide important functional benefits across a range of applications—flavor/tartness, high solubility, buffering capacity, chelation of metals, and antioxidant benefits.

Production of detergent-grade trisodium citrate
Chung Y. Shen 
Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society volume 61, pages1126–1130(1984)Cite this article
Abstract
An efficient process to produce a technical-grade trisodium citrate suitable for detergent use has been demonstrated. 
Ammonium citrate is produced as an intermediate by a continuous fermentation approach usingCandiada lipolytica yeast and C10–C20 linear paraffin. 
After removing yeast cells and residual oil by centrifuge, ammonia is distilled off with addition of sodium hydroxide. 
Trisodium citrate is recovered by methanol precipitation. 
Impurities, e.g., isocitrate, coloring materials and odorous substances dissolve in methanol and are removed. 
The methanol is recovered and recycled. 
A simple approach to convert the trisodium citrate solution directly to a solid for possible use in detergents failed because of the objectionable color, odor and high hygroscopicity.


Trisodium citrate dihydrate is a tribasic salt of citric acid. 
It is produced by complete neutralisation of citric acid with high purity sodium hydroxide or carbonate and subsequent crystallisation. 
Citric acid is the product of a microbial fermentation using carbohydrate substrates. 
Trisodium citrate dihydrate is widely used as an excellent pH regulator and odourless buffering agent for bath and shower gels, creams, styling or decorative products. 


Trisodium citrate E331 – Food grade
Trisodium citrate food E331 – is a flavoring and preservative food additive in the form of white crystalline powder. 
It is used as an acidity regulator, emulsifying salt, as a sequestrant or carrier. Used for the production of beverages, confectionery, pastry, dairy, delicatessen. 
Trisodium citrate is sold in 25 kg packs.


Trisodium citrate E331 is a food additive that is widely used in the food industry. 
Occurs as a preservative with the designation E331, sequestrant, as a flavoring additive for carbonated drinks with lemon flavor. 
It is considered a harmless product in the food industry. 
Added to dairy products such as UHT goat milk, concentrated milk, milk desserts; for confectionery, concentrates for cakes and desserts, ice cream, dessert toppings; crisps, chips and delicatessen products, including dinner concentrates, canned vegetables and meat, spirit drinks, non-alcoholic drinks and many other everyday products. 
Sodium citrate E331 has a slightly alkaline pH (7.5 – 9.0 pH).

OTHER PRODUCTS OF ATAMAN THAT MAY BE OF INTEREST:
Acesulfame K
Agar Agar Powder
Ammonium Sulphate
Ascorbic Acid
Aspartame
Carrageenans
Caustic Calcined Magnesia
Citric acid
DL Malic Acid
Dolomite
Fumaric Acid
Gelatin
Guar Gum
Konjac Gum
Perlite
Phosphoric acid 85%
Potassium chloride
Potassium sorbate
Saccharine
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate (SAPP)
Sodium Benzoate
Sodium Bicarbonat
Sodium citrate
Sodium cyclamate
Sodium metabisulfite
Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP)
Stevia
Sucralose
Tricalcium phosphate (TCP)
Xanthan gum
 

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