AGAR AGAR

Agar agar = Kanten = Gum Agar = Japanese gelatin 

CAS Number: 9002-18-0
EC Number: 232-658-1
E number: E406

Agar agar, known as just agar in culinary circles, is a plant-based gelatin derived from seaweed. 
The white and semitranslucent vegetable gelatin is sold in flake, powder, bar, and strand form, and can be used in recipes as a stabilizing and thickening agent.
Agar agar is a mixture of two components: the linear polysaccharide agarose and a heterogeneous mixture of smaller molecules called agaropectin.
Agar agar forms the supporting structure in the cell walls of certain species of algae and is released on boiling. 
These algae are known as agarophytes, belonging to the Rhodophyta (red algae) phylum.
Agar agar has been used as an ingredient in desserts throughout Asia and also as a solid substrate to contain culture media for microbiological work. 
Agar agar can be used as a laxative, an appetite suppressant, a vegetarian substitute for gelatin, a thickener for soups, in fruit preserves, ice cream, and other desserts, as a clarifying agent in brewing, and for sizing paper and fabrics.
The gelling agent in Agar agar is an unbranched polysaccharide obtained from the cell walls of some species of red algae, primarily from tengusa (Gelidiaceae) and ogonori (Gracilaria). 
For commercial purposes, Agar agar is derived primarily from ogonori

Agar agar is a natural vegetable gelatin counterpart. 
Agar agar is white and semi-translucent when sold in packages as washed and dried strips or in powdered form. 
Agar agar can be used to make jellies, puddings, and custards. 
When making jelly, Agar agar is boiled in water until the solids dissolve. 
Sweetener, flavoring, coloring, fruits and or vegetables are then added, and the liquid is poured into molds to be served as desserts and vegetable aspics or incorporated with other desserts such as a layer of jelly in a cake.

Agar agar is used:
-Agar agar is used as an impression material in dentistry.
-Agar agar is used as a medium to precisely orient the tissue specimen and secure Agar agar by agar pre-embedding (especially useful for small endoscopy biopsy specimens) for histopathology processing
-Agar agar is used to make salt bridges and gel plugs for use in electrochemistry.
-Agar agar is used in formicariums as a transparent substitute for sand and a source of nutrition.
-Agar agar is used as a natural ingredient in forming modeling clay for young children to play with.
-Agar agar is used as an allowed biofertilizer component in organic farming.
-Agar agar is used as a substrate for precipitin reactions in immunology.
-Agar agar is used at different times as a substitute for gelatin in photographic emulsions, arrowroot in preparing silver paper and as a substitute for fish glue in resist etching.
-Agar agar is used as an MRI elastic gel phantom to mimic tissue mechanical properties in Magnetic Resonance Elastography
-Agar agar is used primarily for bacteriological plates. 
-Agar agar is used mainly in food applications.

Agar agar is approximately 80% dietary fiber, so it can serve as an intestinal regulator. 
Agar agars bulking quality has been behind fad diets in Asia, for example the kanten (the Japanese word for agar-agar) diet. 
Once ingested, kanten triples in size and absorbs water. 
This results in the consumers feeling fuller. 
This diet has recently received some press coverage in the United States as well. 
The diet has shown promise in obesity studies.

Agar agar also known as kanten, Japanese gelatin, vegetable gelatin, Chinese isinglass, China glass, and dai choy goh--is a vegan gelling agent derived from red algae, a type of seaweed. 
Agar agar has many uses but is used primarily in cooking. 
Agar agar is odorless, tasteless, and has only 3 calories per .035 ounces (0.99 g). 
This article will teach you how to prepare agar agar and some of the different ways it can be used.

Eden Agar Agar Flakes (Kanten) is a vegetable gelatin made of a variety of sea vegetables with strong thickening properties.  
The seaweeds are boiled to a gel, pressed, dried and crushed into flakes. 
Perfect for desserts, pie fillings, jellies, custards, puddings, parfaits, fruit or vegetable aspics and more. 
The flakes dissolve in hot liquids and thicken as they cool.

Asian culinary
One use of agar in Japanese cuisine (Wagashi) is anmitsu, a dessert made of small cubes of agar jelly and served in a bowl with various fruits or other ingredients. 
Agar agar is also the main ingredient in mizu yōkan, another popular Japanese food. 
In Philippine cuisine, Agar agar is used to make the jelly bars in the various gulaman refreshments like Sago't Gulaman, Samalamig, or desserts such as buko pandan, agar flan, halo-halo, fruit cocktail jelly, and the black and red gulaman used in various fruit salads. 
In Vietnamese cuisine, jellies made of flavored layers of agar agar, called thạch, are a popular dessert, and are often made in ornate molds for special occasions. 
In Indian cuisine, agar agar is known as "China grass" and is used for making desserts. 

Agar agar jelly is widely used in Taiwanese bubble tea. 
Agar, also called agar-agar, gelatin-like product made primarily from the red algae Gelidium and Gracilaria (division Rhodophyta). 
Best known as a solidifying component of bacteriological culture media. 
Agar agar is also used in canning meat, fish, and poultry; in cosmetics, medicines, and dentistry; as a clarifying agent in brewing and wine making; as a thickening agent in ice cream, pastries, desserts, and salad dressings; and as a wire-drawing lubricant. 
Agar agar is isolated from the algae as an amorphous and translucent product sold as powder, flakes, or bricks.
Although agar is insoluble in cold water, Agar agar absorbs as much as 20 times its own weight. 
Agar agar dissolves readily in boiling water; a dilute solution is still liquid at 42 °C (108 °F) but solidifies at 37 °C (99 °F) into a firm gel. 
In Agar agars natural state, agar occurs as a complex cell-wall constituent containing the polysaccharide agarose with sulfate and calcium.

Agar agar Powder vs Strands vs Flakes:
Powdered Agar agar is the easiest to use. 
You stir Agar agar into the liquid that needs to be gelled and bring to a boil. 
Agar agar dissolves quite easily.
Agar-agar is sold in three main forms: powder, strands or flakes. 
Kanten is mostly sold in sheets or blocks. 
Like gelatin, you may also see them being sold in flavoured forms. 
More often than not, the flavoured ones come with co-ordinating colours. 
So please make note of that while buying. 
If you are using Agar agar in a recipe that calls for clear jelly, the colors or flavour might put it off.

Health Benefits
Agar has no calories, no carbs, no sugar, not fat and is loaded with fiber. 
Agar agar’s free from starch, soy, corn, gluten, yeast, wheat, milk, egg and preservatives.
Agar agar absorbs glucose in the stomach, passes through digestive system quickly and inhibits the body from retaining and storing excess fat. 
Agar agars water absorbing properties also aids in waste elimination. 
Agar agar absorbs bile, and by doing so, causes the body to dissolve more cholesterol.

Other culinary
In Russia, Agar agar is used in addition to or as a replacement for pectin in jams and marmalades, as a substitute to gelatin for its superior gelling properties, and as a strengthening ingredient in souffles and custards. 
Another use of agar-agar is in ptich'ye moloko (bird's milk), a rich jellified custard (or soft meringue) used as a cake filling or chocolate-glazed as individual sweets. 
Agar-agar may also be used as the gelling agent in gel clarification, a culinary technique used to clarify stocks, sauces, and other liquids. 
Mexico has traditional candies made out of Agar gelatin, most of them in colorful, half-circle shapes that resemble a melon or watermelon fruit slice, and commonly covered with sugar. 
Agar agar is known in Spanish as Dulce de Agar (Agar sweets)
Agar-agar is an allowed nonorganic/nonsynthetic additive used as a thickener, gelling agent, texturizer, moisturizer, emulsifier, flavor enhancer, and absorbent in certified organic foods.

Motility assays
As a gel, an agar or agarose medium is porous and therefore can be used to measure microorganism motility and mobility. 
The gel's porosity is directly related to the concentration of agarose in the medium, so various levels of effective viscosity (from the cell's "point of view") can be selected, depending on the experimental objectives.
A common identification assay involves culturing a sample of the organism deep within a block of nutrient agar. 
Cells will attempt to grow within the gel structure. 
Motile species will be able to migrate, albeit slowly, throughout the gel, and infiltration rates can then be visualized, whereas non-motile species will show growth only along the now-empty path introduced by the invasive initial sample deposition.
Another setup commonly used for measuring chemotaxis and chemokinesis utilizes the under-agarose cell migration assay, whereby a layer of agarose gel is placed between a cell population and a chemoattractant. 
As a concentration gradient develops from the diffusion of the chemoattractant into the gel, various cell populations requiring different stimulation levels to migrate can then be visualized over time using microphotography as they tunnel upward through the gel against gravity along the gradient.

Plant biology
Physcomitrella patens plants growing axenically in vitro on agar plates (Petri dish, 9 cm, 3½" diameter).
Research grade agar is used extensively in plant biology as Agar agar is optionally supplemented with a nutrient and/or vitamin mixture that allows for seedling germination in Petri dishes under sterile conditions (given that the seeds are sterilized as well). 
Nutrient and/or vitamin supplementation for Arabidopsis thaliana is standard across most experimental conditions. 
Murashige & Skoog (MS) nutrient mix and Gamborg's B5 vitamin mix in general are used. 
A 1.0% agar/0.44% MS+vitamin dH2O solution is suitable for growth media between normal growth temps.
When using agar, within any growth medium, Agar agar is important to know that the solidification of the agar is pH-dependent. 
The optimal range for solidification is between 5.4 and 5.7.
Usually, the application of potassium hydroxide is needed to increase the pH to this range. 
A general guideline is about 600 µl 0.1M KOH per 250 ml GM. 
This entire mixture can be sterilized using the liquid cycle of an autoclave.
This medium nicely lends itself to the application of specific concentrations of phytohormones etc. to induce specific growth patterns in that one can easily prepare a solution containing the desired amount of hormone, add Agar agar to the known volume of GM, and autoclave to both sterilize and evaporate off any solvent that may have been used to dissolve the often-polar hormones. 
This hormone/GM solution can be spread across the surface of Petri dishes sown with germinated and/or etiolated seedlings.
Experiments with the moss Physcomitrella patens, however, have shown that choice of the gelling agent – agar or Gelrite – does influence phytohormone sensitivity of the plant cell culture.

Also Known As: Kanten
Sold As: Powder, flakes, bars, and strands
Use: Vegetarian substitute for gelatin

In the natural state, agar occurs as structural carbohydrate in the cell walls of agarophytes algae, probably existing in the form of its calcium salt or a mixture of calcium and magnesium salts. 
Agar agar is a complex mixture of polysaccharides composed of two major fractions – agarose, a neutral polymer, and agaropectin, a charged, sulfated polymer.
Agarose, the gelling fraction, is a neutral linear molecule essentially free of sulfates, consisting of chains of repeating alternate units of β-1,3-linked- D-galactose and α-1,4- linked 3,6 anhydro-L-galactose units. 
Agaropectin, the non gelling fraction, is a sulfated polysaccharide (3% to 10% sulfate), composed of agarose and varying percentages of ester sulfate, D-glucuronic acid, and small amounts of pyruvic acid. 
The proportion of these two polymers varies according to the species of seaweed. 
Agarose normally represents at least two-thirds of the natural agar-agar.

About Agar agar
Agar agar is colorless, odorless, and tasteless versatile thickener (Gel Strength: 700g/cm2)
Agar agar is great for making vegan cheese and vegan desserts, such as gummy bears, marshmallows, pudding, custard, panna cotta, ice cream, and more
Agar agar is useful for making sugar-free jam, jellies, and keto desserts, as well as for starch-free soup and gravy
Agar agar is suitable for vegan, vegetarian, keto, plant-based, halal, and kosher diets
Certified vegan, non-GMO, halal, and kosher

What Is Agar-Agar?
This jellylike substance is a mix of carbohydrates that have been extracted from red algae, a type of seaweed. 
Agar has several uses in addition to cooking, including as a filler in sizing paper and fabric, a clarifying agent in brewing, and certain scientific purposes. 
Agar agar is also known as China glass, China grass, China isinglass, Japanese kanten, Japanese gelatin, and dai choy goh, and is used in certain Japanese dessert recipes.

Agar is the perfect substitute to traditional gelatin. 
Agar agar’s made from a plant source rather than from an animal one. 
That makes it suitable for vegetarian and vegan diets, and other diet restrictions.
Agar has no taste, no odor and no color, which makes Agar agar pretty convenient to use. 
Agar agar sets more firmly than gelatin, and stays firm even when the temperature heats up.
Though agar is a great substitute to gelatin, don’t expect the same results when replacing gelatin with agar in a recipe. 
First, Agar agar doesn’t give the same texture. 
Gelatin can give a «creamy» texture whereas agar gives a firmer texture. 
And agar is much more powerful than gelatin : 1 teaspoon agar powder is equivalent to 8 teaspoon gelatin powder.

How to use Agar
The most important thing to know is that agar needs to be first dissolved in water (or another liquid like milk, fruit juices, tea, stock...) and then brought to a boil. It will set as the ingredients cool down. You can not add agar flakes or powder as it is in your food.

Agar may have been discovered in Japan in 1658 by Mino Tarōzaemon, an innkeeper in current Fushimi-ku, Kyoto who, according to legend, was said to have discarded surplus seaweed soup (Tokoroten) and noticed that it gelled later after a winter night's freezing.
Over the following centuries, agar became a common gelling agent in several Southeast Asian cuisines.
Agar was first subjected to chemical analysis in 1859 by the French chemist Anselme Payen, who had obtained agar from the marine algae Gelidium corneum.
Beginning in the late 19th century, agar began to be used as a solid medium for growing various microbes. 
Agar was first described for use in microbiology in 1882 by the German microbiologist Walther Hesse, an assistant working in Robert Koch's laboratory, on the suggestion of his wife Fanny Hesse.
Agar quickly supplanted gelatin as the base of microbiological media, due to its higher melting temperature, allowing microbes to be grown at higher temperatures without the media liquefying.
With its newfound use in microbiology, agar production quickly increased. 
This production centered on Japan, which produced most of the world's agar until World War II.
However, with the outbreak of World War II, many nations were forced to establish domestic agar industries in order to continue microbiological research.
Around the time of World War II, approximately 2,500 tons of agar were produced annually.
By the mid-1970s, production worldwide had increased dramatically to approximately 10,000 tons each year.
Since then, production of Agar agar has fluctuated due to unstable and sometimes over-utilized seaweed populations.

Agar agar vs. Gelatin
The main difference between agar and gelatin is from where they are derived. 
Whereas animal-based gelatins are made from livestock collagen (from the cartilage, bones, skin, and tendons), agar-agar is purely vegetarian, coming from the red algae plant. 
The two setting agents also behave differently and need to be prepared in distinct ways when incorporating into a recipe. 
Agar agar needs to boil in order to set, while gelatin can simply dissolve in warm water; that is because agar melts at 185 F, whereas gelatin melts at 95 F. 
Agar agar also sets more quickly than gelatin and doesn't need any refrigeration.

Agar (or Agar Agar), sometimes referred to as kanten, is a gelling agent coming from a South East Asian seaweed. 
Agar agar is used for scientific purposes (in biology for instance), as a filler in paper sizing fabric and as a clarifying agent in brewing. 
Agar can also be used as a laxative (it’s 80-percent fiber) and as an appetite suppressant.

Name: agar (E406)
Origin: polysaccharide obtained from red algae (several species)
Properties, texture: thermoreversible, heat resistant, brittle gel; high hysteresis
Clarity: clear to semi-opaque
Dispersion: in cold or hot water
Hydration (dissolution): > 90 °C; heating to boil necessary for gelling.
pH: 2.5-10
Setting: 35-45 °C, rapid (minutes)
Melting: 80-90 °C%
Promoter: sugar; sorbitol and glycerol improve elasticity, stronger gel at higher pH
Inhibitor: tannic acid (counteracted by add. of glycerol); prolonged heating at pH outside the range 5.5-8
Tolerates: salt, sugar, alcohol, acid, proteases
Viscosity of solution: low
Typical concentration: 0.2% will set, 0.5% gives firm jelly, [0.07-3%] *
Synergies: locust bean gum (only with certain agar types)
Syneresis: yes (can be prevented by replacing 0.1- 0.2% agar with locust bean gum)

Method of Extraction: Hot water extraction
Processing: Dried and milled
Parts Used: Red Seaweed
Appearance: Light cream to tan powder
Odor: Slight seaweed odor 
pH: 5-8
Preservation: N/A

Description: Agar agar is a gelling agent extracted from seaweed.
Alternative Names: Agar agar
Culinary Uses: Gelling, fluid gels, and clarification

Preparation Tips
Addition of glycerol or sorbitol can prevent dehydration of the gel.
When replacing gelatin or pectin for gels, use 2-3 and 10 times less agar respectively.
If left uncovered, agar gels dry out, but if immersed in water or other liquid it swells and retains its original shape.
A special property of agar is the large difference between the gelling temperature and the melting temperature, this is known as hysteresis.
The minute amounts of agar needed can be difficult to measure. 
One trick is to make a 0.1x strength agar by mixing of agar with 90 g of sugar. 
For a recipe that calls for 0.5 g agar you then use 5g of the 0.1x agar/sugar mixture. 
But keep in mind that you do add a small amount of sugar, so this is not suitable in every recipe.
Agar alone forms brittle gels, but in combination with locust bean gum elastic gels may be obtained.

Agar-agar is extracted from several types and species of red seaweeds belonging to the Rhodophyceae class. 
These agar-containing seaweeds are called agarophytes and the major commercial species are Gracilaria and Gelidium. 
The agar content of seaweeds varies according to the conditions of seawater. 
Carbon dioxide concentration, oxygen tension, water temperature and intensity of solar radiation can have significant influence.
Seaweeds are usually harvested manually by fishermen in low depths at low tides or by diving using appropriate equipment. 
After being harvested, seaweeds are placed under the sun to dry until they reach a humidity level that is ideal for processing. 
Gelidium is obtained from natural seaweed beds mainly in Morocco, Spain, Portugal, Japan and South Korea, as attempts to cultivate it have not been successful. 
On the other hand, Gracilaria seaweeds have been successfully cultivated on a commercial scale, particularly in China, Indonesia and Chile.

Agar-agar is one of the flagship additives of molecular gastronomy. 
Agar agar is used to make dishes with unusual shapes and textures such as pearls and spaghetti gels. 
There is simply to dissolve the powdered agar-agar in a boiling aqueous liquid, then let Agar agar set while cooling, using various techniques. 
Agar agar is also incorporated into preparations using a food siphon to produce very light foams. 
Agar-agar preparations are heat resistant, thereby making Agar agar possible to serve hot foams and gels.
Healthy cooking applications
Agar-agar has the advantage of being calorie-free. 
Agar agar is also 80% fibers and can therefore affect regularity of the bowel. 
In jams, agar-agar holds better than pectin and because of a very good release of flavor in the mouth, Agar agar amplifies the taste of fruit and thus reduces the amount of sugar needed in a recipe. 
Lastly, agar-agar is an ideal vegetable substitute for animal gelatin.
Tips and tricks The gelling properties of agar-agar are activated only if the solution is boiled for about two minutes. 
There is only then to let Agar agar rest in a cool place or at room temperature so that Agar agar gels.

Features: Some may form loose bunches of slender, cylindrical 'stems' about 15-20cm long. 
Each 'stem' has a few slender side branches that taper at the tips. 
Red, brownish or blackish. Sometimes green.
Others form dense bunch of many slender, cylindrical 'stems' about 5-10cm long. 
Each 'stem' branches many times into short slender side branches with tapering tips. 
Black, maroon sometimes purplish.
According to AlgaeBase: There are more than 180 current Gracilaria species. 
The species are difficult to differentiate based on external features alone. 
Except for Knobbly agar-agar red seaweed (Gracilaria salicornia) with distinctive club-shaped segments.
Some other species found on our shore that resemble Gracilaria include Hydropuntia edulis which also belongs to Family Gracilariaceae

Benefits of Agar Agar
-Promotes Digestive Health
-Supports Satiety and Weight Loss
-Strengthens Bones
-Helps Prevent Anemia
-May Regulate Blood Sugar
-Effective Vegan Gelatin Substitute

Human uses: The Gracilaria species are a major source of food-grade agar. 
The seaweed is both harvested from the wild and farmed for commercial applications. 
On farms, they are grown on ropes. 
A wide range of Gracilaria species have commercial uses. 
About 30,000 tons of Gracilaria species are produced a year, one-third of this from South America. 
China was one of the first countries to cultivate Gracilaria species.
History of agar-agar: Freezing removes impurities from the agar-agar. 
According to Japanese folklore, an innkeeper tossed out some leftover jelly during the winter. 
This froze at night then thawed the following day. 
The innkeeper came across the resulting white substance several days later. 
When he boiled Agar agar, he found that Agar agar produce a whiter jelly than the original. 
Thus was the method of agar production accidentally discovered.
Agar-agar was known in Japan and China for centuries, as a sweetened or flavoured gel, and was called 'kanten' by the Japanese and 'dongfen' by the Chinese. 
Agar agar is said that Chinese migrants brought Agar agar to South East Asia. 
'Agar-agar' is the Malay name for it, a name which even the Chinese in South East Asia used.
When the Europeans (via the Dutch) brought it to Europe Agar agar was called 'agar'. 
In 1882, the use of agar as a medium to culture bacteria was made famous by experiments on the tuberculosis bacteria.

The resulting recipe will also have subtle variances: Dishes made with agar will be firmer and less creamy and jiggly than those made with gelatin. 
Agar-agar recipes also stay firm when exposed to higher temperatures, while gelatin loses some of Agar agars stability.

Varieties
Agar-agar is sold as flakes, powder, bars, and strands. 
The seaweed is typically boiled into a gel, pressed, dried, and then crushed to form agar flakes, blended into a powder, freeze-dried into bars, or made into strands. 
The powder is less expensive than flakes and the easiest to work with as it dissolves almost immediately, whereas the flakes take a few minutes and need to be blended until smooth. 
The powder is also used in a 1:1 ratio when substituting for gelatin—when using flakes, 1/3 the amount of gelatin called for should be added. 
The agar bars, sticks, and flakes can be processed into powder form in a blender or food processor. 
Similar to gelatin, flavored and colored versions of agar are available.

If using powder, mix all the ingredients along with the agar and let Agar agar sit for 5 minutes.
Never mix agar powder with warm/hot water as it will clump and become impossible to dissolve. 
Stir into room temperature liquid and then bring Agar agar to a rolling boil, making sure the agar has dissolved. 
Pour into molds and let Agar agar set.

Both Agar and Gelatin are essential ingredients in the preparation of desserts worldwide. 
The main difference between agar and gelatin is the source from which they are derived. 
Agar is a vegetarian substitute for Gelatin since Agar agar is derived from a plant and has higher gelling properties.

Production Process
Powdered agar-agar is a product mostly used for industrial applications. 
Flakes, bars and threads are mostly used in cooking. 
The manufacture of powdered and flake-like agar-agar is accomplished by the Gel Press method by pressing the agar gel. 
Agar-agar in bar and strip forms is manufactured through a more traditional production method by freezing and thawing the agar gel.

Agar-Agar Uses
In cooking, agar-agar is used as a vegetarian alternative to gelatin in a variety of dishes, including puddings, mousses, and jellies, as well as ice cream, gummy candies, and cheesecake. 
Agar agar is an important ingredient in the Japanese dessert anmitsu, which calls for kanten jelly, a mixture of agar-agar, water, and sugar.

How to Cook With Agar-Agar
Before agar can be added to a recipe, Agar agar needs to be dissolved in water and then boiled; Agar agar cannot be simply dissolved in a liquid or added directly to food. 
Dissolve the agar in a liquid in a small saucepan over medium-high heat, bring to a boil, and then simmer until slightly thickened, about five to seven minutes. 
Agar powder dissolves more quickly than flakes and strands, which need extra soaking time and stirring to fully dissolve. 

To use agar flakes in a recipe, measure 1 tablespoon for every cup of liquid; for agar powder, use 1 teaspoon to thicken 1 cup of liquid. 
Once the dissolved agar is added to a recipe, it will take approximately an hour to set at room temperature. 
Most recipes using agar are eaten cold so the dish will need to be refrigerated.
Agar agar is important to note that foods high in acidity, such as citrus fruits, strawberries, and kiwi, may require additional amounts of agar to fully gel.

What Does Agar agar taste like?
Agar-agar is completely odorless and tasteless, making Agar agar an ideal gelling agent for adding to any type of recipe.
Agar-agar is insoluble in cold water, but Agar agar swells considerably, absorbing as much as twenty times its own weight of water. 
Agar agar dissolves readily in boiling water and sets to a firm gel at concentrations as low as 0.50%. 
Powdered dry agar-agar is soluble in water and other solvents at temperatures between 95º to 100º C. 
Moistened agar flocculated by ethanol, 2-propanol or acetone, or salted out by high concentrations of electrolytes, is soluble in a variety of solvents at room temperature. 
Special types of agar-agar that passes through additional processes are soluble at lower temperatures between 85º to 90º C. 
They are marketed as Quick Soluble Agar or Instant Agar.

Application    
Agar-agar granulated, purified and free from inhibitors for microbiology. 
CAS 9002-18-0, pH 6.8 (100 g/l, H₂O, 20 °C).

What is agar agar
Agar agar is a gelatinous substance derived from red algae that has been popular across Asia for centuries. 
As Agar agar is derived from plants, not animals, Agar agar is suitable for use by vegans as a substitute for gelatin.

Agar is a jelly-like substance derived from red algae. 
Agar agar is used to gel, thicken, and stabilize cosmetic formulations. 
Being insoluble in cold water, Agar is able to absorb as much as twenty times its weight and dissolves readily in boiling water. 
Agar agars high heat tolerance, solidifying at just under 100°F, makes Agar agar ideal for cosmetic uses. 
Agar Agar is able to form gels far below the melting temperature and is able to gel at concentrations as low as 0.04%, though Agar agar is ideally used at 1-2% concentrations in your final formulation.
Agar Agar, given its name from the Malay word for “Gelidium”. 
Agar agar was discovered that Agar was the ideal substrate to culture bacteria as it was unable to be digested by microorganisms, and had a much higher melting point than gelatin. 
Today, Agar is used in a wide variety of applications, from culinary, to dentistry, to cosmetic uses.

The binding power of agar agar is 4-5 stronger than of gelatin. 
You can use approximately 8 grams of powder for 1 liter fluid. 
Agar solidifies at room temperature so your dish doesn’t need to set in the fridge and last from the fridge longer in warm weather. 
If you use agar agar in products based on milk than we advise to place it in the fridge. 
Agar agar loses Agar agars binding powder after approx. 2 days.
Agar Agar has a gel strength of min 700 g/cm3 (based on Nikan / 1,5% 20°C). 
This product is colourless and tasteless.
A complete Vegan substitute for gelatin. 
When you use agar agar as a substitute for gelatin, slightly adjust your recipe. 
4 till 5 times less of what you need when you use gelatin.
Agar solidifies at room temperature so your dish doesn’t need to set in the fridge and last from the fridge longer in warm weather.

Why Use Agar To Grow Mushrooms?
Agar is used in the cultivation of mushrooms in order to store cultures for long-term use and create mono-cultures free from contamination. 
Agar agar’s strongly recommended to germinate spores on agar before use. 
Spores are often accompanied by pathogens like yeast and mould. 
By cultivating mycelium on agar plates we can visually identify contaminants with ease allowing for the cultivator to make a clean transfer to a new agar plate.
Agar plates are also used for making fungal clones. 
A clean fragment of the mushroom fruiting body can be placed on agar to grow rather than germinating spores. 
This gives the cultivator and advantage in isolating any potential contaminants if present. 

Synonyms:
Agar-agar, Gum agar

Agar-Agar acts as a gelatin, but is also used as an emulsifier, thickener and stabilizer in many commercial products such as ice cream and soups. 
Agar agar can also be used to clarify wine and beer.
Agar agar is preferred by vegetarians to gelatin which is made from cows’ hooves.
Agar agar is made from red and purple seaweed. 
The seaweed is harvested, dried and blanched, then boiled in water. 
The seaweed is then strained out of the water and discarded, and the water evaporated down to leave the powder. 
Other methods freeze dry and dehydrate the seaweed, then grind it. 
You can buy the resultant powder in flake, bar or powder form.

Agar agar Description: 
Agar-Agar is derived from certain red seaweed types belonging to the Rhodophyceae family. 
An alakai treatment method is used to extract Agar from the seaweed. 
The two main types of Agar include Gracilaria and Gelidium.    

Agar agar Properties: 
Agars produce a wide range of gelling and thickening effects. 
They require heat to completely solubilize and will gel upon cooling. 
Agars do not require any additional substances to gel.
Agars produced from Gracilaria show an increased gel strength when used in high sugar applications. 
Additionally, agars produced from Gelidium have been known to have synergistic effects with galactomannans such as locust bean gum.

Product Range:
Ingredients Solutions offers a broad range of Agar-Agar products.
G-Type Agar – Gracilaria – Soluble at boiling temperatures
RS-Type Agar – Gracilaria – Soluble at 90˚C
S-Type Agar – Gracilaria – Soluble at 90˚C
GA-Type Agar – Gelidium – Soluble at boiling temperatures

Agar agar’s high in iron, phosphorous, calcium, fiber, and vitamins A, Bs, C, and D.
While Agar agar can be derived from a handful of types of red algae, the agar-agar you’ll find at stores is mostly from ogonori and sold either in powder form or in long strips. 
Agar agar dissolves in water and can hold up to 20 times Agar agars own weight — and unlike gelatin, agar-agar doesn’t need to be refrigerated to set, which along with its lower calorie count and non-animal origin makes it far more versatile (some might say superior). 
One popular usage for agar-agar is in some boba tea pearls instead of tapioca.

Without taste, odour or colour, agar agar can safely be used in desserts and other cooking without altering the taste or smell. 
Agar agar sets more firmly than gelatin and can even set at room temperature.

Agar, or agar agar, is an extract from red algae that is often used to stabilize emulsions or foams and to thicken or gel liquids. 
While many people in America have only heard of Agar agar lately, Agar agar has been used for hundreds of years in Asian cooking. 
Agar is also relatively straightforward to work with and easy to find online, making Agar agar a great place to start experimenting with modernist cooking.

Agar-agar is a hydrocolloid extracted from red seaweeds that is widely used as a gelling  agent in the food industry. 
In Agar agars gelling power, agar is outstanding among the hydrocolloids. 
Among its major properties one can mention Agar agars high gel strength at low concentrations, low viscosity in solution, high transparency in solution, thermo-reversible gel and sharp melting/setting temperatures. 
Agar-agar may come in several forms: powdered, flakes, bars and threads. 
Besides Agar agars use as a food additive, Agar agar is also used on a lesser scale in other industrial applications.

Way to use agar agar
Agar agar can be used as a vegan-friendly substitute in any recipe that calls for gelatin as a thickening agent, including sauces, jelly-based desserts, custards and puddings.

How to use agar agar
Use 2 tsp of agar flakes to every cup of liquid in a recipe. 
Like gelatin, Agar agar needs to be dissolved in liquid by bringing Agar agar to a boil over medium heat and then simmering until thickened, approximately five minutes. 
Set and chill in refrigerator before use.
Use 0.9g agar agar powder to 100ml of neutral liquid
Use 1.3g of agar agar powder to 100ml of acidic liquid
 
Alternative Names
Agar-Agar
Agarose
Agarose Gel
Agaropectin
Agarweed
Algue de Java
Chinese Gelatin
Colle du Japon
Gelosa, Gélose
Japanese Isinglas
Kanten Diet
Kanten Jelly
Kanten Plan
Layor Carang
Mousse de Ceylan
Mousse de Jaffna
Qion Zhi
Seaweed Gelatin
Vegetable Gelatin
Vegetarian Gelatin

Scientific Name
Gracillaria Lichenoides

Why Do People Use Agar?
Orally, agar is for diabetes, weight loss and obesity, and constipation. 
In dentistry, agar is used to make dental impressions. 
In manufacturing processes, agar is used as an ingredient in emulsions, suspensions, gels, and hydrophilic suppositories.

Is Agar agar Safe To Use?
Possibly Safe - When used orally and appropriately. 
Pregnancy and Lactation - Insufficient reliable information available.

How Effective Is Agar?
There is insufficient reliable information available about the effectiveness of agar.

How Agar Works?
Agar consists of two major fibrous polysaccharides, neutral agarose and charged agaropectin. 
Agarose is the gelling fraction. 
Agar is thought to work as a bulk laxative by expanding in the gut and stimulating peristalsis in the intestines. 
There is interest in using agar for weight loss and obesity. 
The bulking effect of agar is theorized to increase feelings of fullness and therefore decrease food intake. 
So far, there is no reliable scientific support for this theory.

What Are The Side Effects /Adverse Reactions of Agar?
Orally, no side effects have been reported; however, theoretically, agar could potentially cause esophageal or bowel obstruction if taken with insufficient fluids.

How Agar Interacts With Other Herbs and Supplements?
None known.

How Agar Interacts With Drugs?
Oral Drugs - Theoretically, the fiber in agar might impair absorption of oral drugs.

How Agar Interacts With Foods?
None known.

How Agar Interacts With Lab Tests?
None known.

How Agar Interacts With Diseases and Conditions?
Bowel Obstruction - Theoretically, agar could potentially exacerbate esophageal or bowel obstruction, especially if taken with insufficient fluids.

What Should Be the Dose/Administration of Agar?
ORAL A typical dose is 4-16 grams, one to two times daily. 
Take each dose with at least 250 mL of water.

Comments
Agar, also known as kanten, is becoming a popular supplement for dieting in Japan. 
In Japan, Agar agar is referred to as the "kanten plan" or "kanten diet."
Agar's bulking effect in the gut is theorized to increase the feeling of fullness and therefore help reduce food intake.

General Certificate of Analysis (COA)
Specification sheet links below are a standard copy of the COA less the batch or lot number and manufactures dates. 
Specification sheet can be dated and should only be considered as a general information. 
Please contact and request an up to date COA if needed for specific updated information before placing order by filling out the contact form with product name and SKU number. 
If ordering quantities of twenty five kilos or more contact for availability.

Calorie Content
Agar is a fairly low-calorie food. 
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Nutrient Database reports that 1 tablespoon, or 7 grams, of dried agar provides about 21 calories. 
This is good news if you're seeking a vegan plant-based thickening agent, but want to avoid adding extra calories to your recipe. 
Other ingredients sometimes use as thickeners -- such as corn starch, potato starch, and flour contain more calories than agar.

Protein, Carbs, and Fat
Agar contains a small amount of protein and carbohydrates, but is fat-free. 
A 1-tablespoon portion of dried agar provides just over 5 grams of carbohydrates including about 0.5 grams of fiber and less than 1 gram of protein, according to the USDA.

Vitamins and Minerals
Dried agar provides a small amount of essential vitamins and minerals including calcium, iron, zinc, potassium, magnesium, and folate. 
While agar isn't an extremely rich source of any of these mircronutrients, getting a little bit here and there does help you meet daily nutritional needs.

Agar agar benefits
Agar agar gives a sensation of fullness, leading it to be used in some diet products. 
In Asia Agar agar is also sometimes used as a digestive remedy for upset stomachs. 
Agar agar can also be used as a laxative, or to thicken soups, sauces or preserves.

Agar has its origins in Japan in 1658. 
Agar agar was introduced first in the Far East and later in the rest of agarophyte seaweed producing countries. 
Agar agars use was introduced in Europe in 1859 and Agar agar was being used in bacteriological culture media in 1882. 
This chapter discusses the seaweeds used the world over as raw material for agar production (agarophyte seaweeds), and presents the industrial processes used for agar production. 
The chemical structure of agar and Agar agars fractions, such as agaroses and agaropectines, are presented, and the relation between its chemical structures and properties are also shown. 
The gelation and melting of agar and Agar agars fractions, such as agaroses and agaropectines, is based only in the formation of hydrogen bridges (physical gels), and thus gelation is extraordinarily reversible. 
The synergies and antagonisms among agar and other products in the gelation processes are studied. 
Various applications of agar are presented, in some of which agar is irreplaceable. 
Use formulations are shown in food preparations. 
Diverse applications are also presented, in the preparation of food for insects, for plant tissue culture, and in the preparation of culture media for microorganisms, as well as gels for denture moulding, the reproduction of archaeological remains or of fingerprinting in police work. 
Agar gels are important in food preparations with high content in soluble gross fibre, as agar is the food additive with the highest content in said fibre, superior to that of 94%. 
Lately the production of more easily soluble agars in water at temperatures below boiling point has been initiated, which proves to have noteworthy advantages for some of its applications. 
A comparative study is presented among the commercial products existing in the world market.

Description
Also known as China glass, Japanese Kanten, vegetable gelatin, our Redman Agar Agar Powder is from Singapore and is a plant-based gelatin which is made from seaweed. 
Agar agar is available in different colours such as Transparent White, Red, Blue, Green and Yellow, each available in packets of 100g.

Details
Our Agar Agar Powder is sugar-free and does not have a taste or smell. 
Agar agar is a jelly-like substance when boiled with water and food made with this product tend to be less jiggly and are also able to withstand warm temperatures better than traditional gelatin as it has a higher melting point. 
Agar agar also sets more quickly than gelatin. 
Agar agar is halal-certified. 
Store in an air tight container and keep away from light.

Agar-Agar Powder.
A high gel strength agar excellent for the culture of microorganisms. 
Agar is a non-nutritional seaweed derivative which after mixing with hot water and cooling, forms a firm gel. 
Excellent base for media formulas. 
Sterilization required.

How to Use
Agar agar can be used in many ways, including stabilising or thickening food, and creating colourful desserts. 
Agar agar is commonly used as a replacement for traditional gelatin in gluten-free, dairy free or vegan recipes. 
To use, boil the powder in water for a few minutes. 
Stir the powder evenly for a good mix. 
To replace traditional gelatin, agar agar powder should be used as a 1 to 1 replacement.

Suggested Recipes
Recipe suggestions include Rainbow Agar Agar Jelly, Coconut Pandan Agar Agar Layer Cake, Sweet Corn Pudding and Peanut Butter Milkshake.

Where to buy agar agar
Agar agar can generally be found in Asian supermarkets, health food stores or online, as flakes or powder.

Agar Agar is a gelatinous substance that is derived from the cell walls of red seaweed – most notably Tengusa (Gelidiaceae) and Ogonori (Gracilaria). 
Thought to have been discovered accidentally by a Japanese innkeeper in the 17th century, Agar is a mixture of two components – the linear polysaccharide agarose, and a heterogeneous mixture of smaller molecules known as agaropectin. 
Agar agar forms the supporting structure in the cell walls of certain species of red algae, and is released on boiling.
Since its discovery Agar Agar has been extensively used as an alternative to animal derived gelatine, and most famously in petri dishes to culture bacteria. 
Firmer and stronger than gelatine, Agar replaced gelatine as the preferable medium used in laboratories to grow bacteria as it was found that Agar isn’t degraded (eaten) by the bacteria.

What is Agar Used For?
Agar is an amazing culinary ingredient. 
Agar agar's a thickening agent for soups, fruits preserves, ice cream, sauces, jelly-based desserts, custards, puddings and other tasty treats. 
Agar easily gels most liquids and the gels can range from soft to hard, depending on the amount used. 
Agar agar is also great at making dense foams, especially when used in conjunction with the whipping siphon. 
If an agar gel is blended, Agar agar creates a thick fluid gel that is perfect for sauces.

Agar is suitable for vegans, vegetarians and is suitable for most religious diets. 
Agar agar is also used as a clarifying agent in brewing.
One common non-culinary use of agar is for scientific purposes in the labs to provide a growth medium for organisms in a petri dish. 
In small quantities, Agar agar is incorporated into modeling clay for young children to play with.
Agar agar is also used as an impression material in dentistry. 
Due to agar's high fiber content Agar agar can also be found in laxatives and appetite suppressants.

Is agar agar vegan
Given that agar agar is purely derived from plant-based ingredients, Agar agar is a vegan product and suitable for use in all vegan recipes.

Are Gelatin And Agar-Agar The Same?
Agar-agar can often be used as a substitute for gelatin or even cornstarch, another popular thickening agent. 
Agar agar should be noted that agar-agar does have a couple of major differences from gelatin: A liquid set with agar won't be a perfect replica of one set with gelatin. 
There's even a product called agar gel, which is surprisingly quite firm.

Agar-Agar Substitute
Of course, gelatin can be substituted for agar, but if a vegetarian alternative is needed, there are a few other options to consider. 
One is another type of seaweed called carrageen, which is used to produce carrageenan, a thickening agent extract. 
Agar agar sets more softly than gelatin, and Agar agar's best to use the whole dried form versus the powder. 
The dried seaweed should be rinsed well and soaked for 12 hours in water and then boiled and strained out. 
One ounce of carrageenan should be used per 1 cup of liquid.

Pectin powder, derived from citrus fruit and berries, is often used to thicken jams and jellies and can be used in place of agar. 
Agar agar does include sugar, so Agar agar is best in sweet recipes. 
A manufactured product available from a variety of brands is an unflavored vegan gel, a vegetarian gelling powder that is a combination of a variety of ingredients including carrageenan.

Storage
All forms of agar-agar should be stored in an airtight container in a cool, dry spot such as the pantry, where it will last at least eight months.
 

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