ALOE VERA

Aloe vera (/ˈæloʊiː/ or /ˈæloʊ/) is a succulent plant species of the genus Aloe.
An evergreen perennial, it originates from the Arabian Peninsula, but grows wild in tropical, semi-tropical, and arid climates around the world.
It is cultivated for agricultural and medicinal uses.
The species is also used for decorative purposes and grows successfully indoors as a potted plant.

It is found in many consumer products including beverages, skin lotion, cosmetics, ointments or in the form of gel for minor burns and sunburns. 
There is little clinical evidence for the effectiveness or safety of Aloe vera extract as a cosmetic or medicine.

Aloe Vera is used extensively in cosmetic, personal care, and other products for its known rejuvenating and healing action. 
It achieves this in several different ways.

EC / List no.: 287-390-8
CAS no.: 85507-69-3


Aloe Barbadensis

Aloe Vera

Aloe vera extract

Aloe vera, ext.

aloe vera, extract

Trade names
Aloe estratto


Synonyms
Aloe barbadensis Mill.
Aloe barbadensis var. chinensis Haw.
Aloe chinensis (Haw.) Baker
Aloe elongata Murray
Aloe flava Pers.
Aloe indica Royle
Aloe lanzae Tod.
Aloe maculata Forssk. (illegitimate)
Aloe perfoliata var. vera L.
Aloe rubescens DC.
Aloe variegata Forssk. (illegitimate)
Aloe vera Mill. (illegitimate)
Aloe vera var. chinensis (Haw.) A. Berger
Aloe vera var. lanzae Baker
Aloe vera var. littoralis J.Koenig ex Baker
Aloe vulgaris Lam.

ALOE BARBADENSIS LEAF EXTRACT
Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract is an extract of the leaves of the aloe, Aloe barbadensis, Liliaceae.
ALOE BARBADENSIS LEAF EXTRACT is classified as :
Emollient
Humectant
Oral care
Skin conditioning


CAS Number    85507-69-3 / 94349-62-9
EINECS/ELINCS No:    287-390-8 / 305-181-2


Aloe Vera, Organic is the perfect solution for that carry around spot treatment, where the healing activity can help to soothe any number of skin issues, from after sun treatments to dry skin.

Aloe Vera Gel, Organic is also the perfect base for 'do it yourself' serums or as additions to emulsions where it will help to thicken and stabilize, while offering it's host of skin loving benefits to your products. We've tested this base with up to 25% oils, and it does go opaque but is stable. The perfect way to feed oils to your thirsty skin without any of the greasiness of oils.

ATTRIBUTES

acts as a moisturizer hydrating the skin
stimulates fibroblasts to replicate themselves faster improving collagen and elasticity
cohesive effect softens and smooths skin
interfere with the enzyme that produces melanin deposits helping to prevent the formation of 'dark spots'
activates immune cells speeds healing
enzymes and fatty acids reduce inflammation and speed the breakdown of damaged tissues
lignans improve absorption into the tissues
saponins anti-septic cleansing of wounds

GUIDELINES
may be used as a base for, straight, topical treatment
may be used as an ingredient, at any ratio, to improve the moisture, healing, anti-aging, activity of products
skin care
body care
hair care

APPLICATIONS
moisturizers
shower gels
bubble baths
treatment products
skin care products
bath and body products
baby care products
pet care products


SPECIFICATION

Appearance:    Clear to light Cream, Slightly Viscous Fluid
Odor:    Characteristic, Very Low
Solubility:    Water
Storage:    Tightly Sealed, Protected from Heat / Moisture
Shelf:    12 Months when Properly Stored / Handled
pH:    3.5 - 5.5

Description
Aloe vera is a stemless or very short-stemmed plant growing to 60–100 centimetres (24–39 inches) tall, spreading by offsets.
The leaves are thick and fleshy, green to grey-green, with some varieties showing white flecks on their upper and lower stem surfaces.
The margin of the leaf is serrated and has small white teeth. The flowers are produced in summer on a spike up to 90 cm (35 in) tall, each flower being pendulous, with a yellow tubular corolla 2–3 cm (3⁄4–1 1⁄4 in) long.
Like other Aloe species, Aloe vera forms arbuscular mycorrhiza, a symbiosis that allows the plant better access to mineral nutrients in soil.

Aloe vera leaves contain phytochemicals under study for possible bioactivity, such as acetylated mannans, polymannans, anthraquinone C-glycosides, anthrones, and other anthraquinones, such as emodin and various lectins.[10][11]

Taxonomy and etymology

Spotted forms, also named Aloe vera var. chinensis

Historical image from Acta Eruditorum, 1688
The species has a number of synonyms: A. barbadensis Mill., Aloe indica Royle, Aloe perfoliata L. var. vera and A. vulgaris Lam.
Common names include Chinese Aloe, Indian Aloe, True Aloe, Barbados Aloe, Burn Aloe, First Aid Plant.
The species epithet vera means "true" or "genuine".
Some literature identifies the white-spotted form of Aloe vera as Aloe vera var. chinensis and it has been suggested that the spotted form of Aloe vera may be conspecific with A. massawana.
The species was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 as Aloe perfoliata var. vera, and was described again in 1768 by Nicolaas Laurens Burman as Aloe vera in Flora Indica on 6 April and by Philip Miller as Aloe barbadensis some ten days after Burman in the Gardener's Dictionary.

Techniques based on DNA comparison suggest Aloe vera is relatively closely related to Aloe perryi, a species endemic to Yemen.
Similar techniques, using chloroplast DNA sequence comparison and ISSR profiling have also suggested it is closely related to Aloe forbesii, Aloe inermis, Aloe scobinifolia, Aloe sinkatana, and Aloe striata. With the exception of the South African species A. striata, these Aloe species are native to Socotra (Yemen), Somalia, and Sudan.
The lack of obvious natural populations of the species has led some authors to suggest Aloe vera may be of hybrid origin.

Distribution
A. vera is considered to be native only to the south-east Arabian Peninsula in the Al-Hajar mountains in north-eastern Oman.
However, it has been widely cultivated around the world, and has become naturalized in North Africa, as well as Sudan and neighboring countries, along with the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, and Madeira Islands.
It has also naturalized in the Algarve region of Portugal, and in wild areas across southern Spain, especially in the region of Murcia.

The species was introduced to China and various parts of southern Europe in the 17th century.
It is widely naturalized elsewhere, occurring in arid, temperate, and tropical regions of temperate continents.
The current distribution may be the result of cultivation.

Cultivation

As an ornamental plant
Aloe vera has been widely grown as an ornamental plant. The species is popular with modern gardeners as a putatively medicinal plant and for its interesting flowers, form, and succulence. 
This succulence enables the species to survive in areas of low natural rainfall, making it ideal for rockeries and other low water-use gardens. 
The species is hardy in zones 8–11, and is intolerant of heavy frost and snow.
The species is relatively resistant to most insect pests, though spider mites, mealy bugs, scale insects, and aphid species may cause a decline in plant health.
This plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

In pots, the species requires well-drained, sandy potting soil and bright, sunny conditions. 
Aloe plants can burn under too much sun or shrivel when the pot does not drain water. 
The use of a good-quality commercial propagation mix or packaged "cacti and succulent mix" is recommended, as they allow good drainage.
Terra cotta pots are preferable as they are porous.
Potted plants should be allowed to completely dry before rewatering. 
When potted, aloes can become crowded with "pups" growing from the sides of the "mother plant". 
Plants that have become crowded should be divided and repotted to allow room for further growth and help prevent pest infestations. 
During winter, Aloe vera may become dormant, during which little moisture is required. 
In areas that receive frost or snow, the species is best kept indoors or in heated glasshouses.

There is large-scale agricultural production of Aloe vera in Australia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, China, Mexico, India, Jamaica,Spain, where it grows even well inland, Kenya, Tanzania, and South Africa, along with the USA to supply the cosmetics industry

Uses
Two substances from Aloe vera – a clear gel and its yellow latex – are used to manufacture commercial products.
Aloe gel typically is used to make topical medications for skin conditions, such as burns, wounds, frostbite, rashes, psoriasis, cold sores, or dry skin.
Aloe latex is used individually or manufactured as a product with other ingredients to be ingested for relief of constipation.
Aloe latex may be obtained in a dried form called resin or as "aloe dried juice".

Research
There is conflicting evidence regarding whether Aloe vera is effective as a treatment for wounds or burns.
There is some evidence that topical use of aloe products might relieve symptoms of certain skin disorders, such as psoriasis, acne, or rashes.

Aloe vera gel is used commercially as an ingredient in yogurts, beverages, and some desserts, but at certain high doses, its toxic properties could be severe when taken orally.
Use of topical aloe vera in small amounts is likely to be safe.

Topical medication and potential side effects
Aloe vera may be prepared as a lotion, gel, soap or cosmetics product for use on skin as a topical medication.
For people with allergies to Aloe vera, skin reactions may include contact dermatitis with mild redness and itching, difficulty with breathing, or swelling of the face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Dietary supplement
Aloin, a compound found in the semi-liquid latex of some Aloe species, was the common ingredient in over-the-counter (OTC) laxative products in the United States until 2002 when the Food and Drug Administration banned it because manufacturers failed to provide the necessary safety data.
Aloe vera has potential toxicity, with side effects occurring at some dose levels both when ingested and when applied topically.
Although toxicity may be less when aloin is removed by processing, Aloe vera ingested in high amounts may induce side effects, such as abdominal pain, diarrhea or hepatitis.
Chronic ingestion of aloe (dose of 1 gram per day) may cause adverse effects, including hematuria, weight loss, and cardiac or kidney disorders.

Aloe vera juice is marketed to support the health of the digestive system, but there is neither scientific evidence nor regulatory approval to support this claim.
The extracts and quantities typically used for such purposes appear to be dose-dependent for toxic effects.

Traditional medicine
Aloe vera is used in traditional medicine as a skin treatment. 
Early records of Aloe vera use appear in the Ebers Papyrus from the 16th century BC, and in Dioscorides' De Materia Medica and Pliny the Elder's Natural History – both written in the mid-first century AD.
It is also written of in the Juliana Anicia Codex of 512 AD.

Commodities
Aloe vera is used on facial tissues where it is promoted as a moisturizer and anti-irritant to reduce chafing of the nose. 
Cosmetic companies commonly add sap or other derivatives from Aloe vera to products such as makeup, tissues, moisturizers, soaps, sunscreens, incense, shaving cream, or shampoos.
A review of academic literature notes that its inclusion in many hygiene products is due to its "moisturizing emollient effect".

Toxicity
Orally ingested non-decolorized aloe vera leaf extract was listed by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, along with goldenseal, among "chemicals known to the state to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity".[52]

Use of topical aloe vera is not associated with significant side effects.
Oral ingestion of aloe vera is potentially toxic, and may cause abdominal cramps and diarrhea which in turn can decrease the absorption of drugs

Interactions with prescribed drugs
Ingested aloe products may have adverse interactions with prescription drugs, such as those used to treat blood clots, diabetes, heart disease and potassium-lowering agents (such as Digoxin), and diuretics, among others.[


A. vera is one of the most widely explored folk medicines, and its use for skin disorders dates back to thousands of years. The Aloe plant-derived medicinal and cosmetic products are among the biggest natural product-based industries all over the world. This succulent herb belongs to the family of Alliaceae. Many a times also referred as Aloe barbadensis Miller, it is native to Southern and Eastern Africa. In India and China, since ancient times Aloe has been an important medicine for its cathartic, stomachic, and emmenagogue properties (Grindley and Reynolds 1986). The therapeutic and medicinal uses of A. vera have been reviewed in detail by Sahu et al. (2013), which describe the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-helminthic, antiseptic, emollient, purgative, laxative, and aphrodisiac properties of the plant’s leaves. Aloe vera gel is known for its healing properties for skin injury and as a remedy for sunburns, burns and cuts, acne, injury to epithelial cells, and even skin cancer (Shelton 1991). Its antiviral, antidiabetic, and stress-reducing effects are also well documented (Noor et al. 2008; Sahu et al. 2013). Among the various active components of Aloe are anthraquinones; chromones; monosaccharides; polysaccharides; vitamins B1, B2, B6, and C; niacinamide; choline and enzymes like acid and alkaline phosphatase; amylase; lactate dehydrogenase; lipase; and many inorganic ingredients, but most important among them is the long chain of acetylated mannose (Hayes 1999; Djeraba and Quere 2000).
The anticancer activity of A. vera gel is also being explored. The glycoproteins present in the gel have antiulcer and antitumor activities (Yagi et al. 2003). Aloe vera gel was tested for its efficacy in the management of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), a potentially malignant disorder frequently associated with gutkha and betel nut chewing. The topical application of gel for 3 months significantly improved the clinical symptoms in all studied subjects with reduced burning and improved mouth opening or cheek flexibility (Sudarshan et al. 2012). The gel has also shown promising results in reducing oral mucositis, which is a frequent complication in radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients (Ahmadi 2012). Because of its antifungal properties, topical application of A. vera gel is also effective in oral candidiasis, another risk factor in such patients. In another study, the gel polysaccharides were tested on oral ulcer animal models for its antioxidant activity. Results, as described by investigators, demonstrated enhanced innate immune response and suppressed oxidative injury as compared to control group animals (Yu et al. 2009). The gel polysaccharide has inhibitory effect on ornithine decarboxylase activity in Balb/3T3 mice and on tyrosine kinase activity in human leukemic cells (Kim et al. 1999).

aloe vera is an emollient and film-forming gum resin with hydrating, softening, healing, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory proper ties. It is most widely recognized for its moisturizing capacity. Aloe vera supplies moisture directly to the skin tissue. other properties include moisture regulation and an apparent ability to absorb uV light. It has a slightly relaxing effect on the skin, making it valuable for sensitive, sunburned, and sun-exposed skins. Aloe vera was popular in traditional medicine to heal burns. It is often used in gels to refresh and calm irritated skin, hence its popularity in sun preparations for cooling and soothing. In addition, it is found to be effective in emulsions formulated for regulating dry skin. There is some indication that aloe vera has a synergistic effect when used in conjunction with other anti-inflammatory substances. Concentrations over 50 percent have been shown to increase the blood supply to the area of application. Although aloe vera’s important constituents are minerals, polysaccharides, amino acids, and carbohydrates, it is about 99.5 percent water. Its benefit in a skin care product depends on the appropriate concentration, as different concentrations result in different benefits and end products. An almost odorless and nearly colorless extract, it is derived from the sap of the aloe leaf. It is used in cosmetics in a gel form (also referred to as an extract) or in a diluted version referred to as aloe vera juice.

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