CAS Number: 7664-41-7 
EC Number: 231-635-3
Chemical formula: NH3
Molar mass: 17.031 g/mol

Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. 
A stable binary hydride, and the simplest pnictogen hydride, ammonia is a colourless gas with a distinct pungent smell. 
Biologically, it is a common nitrogenous waste, particularly among aquatic organisms, and it contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to 45 percent of the world's food and fertilizers. 
Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceutical products and is used in many commercial cleaning products. 

Ammonia is mainly collected by downward displacement of both air and water.
Although common in nature—both terrestrially and in the outer planets of the Solar System—and in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous in its concentrated form. 
In many countries it is classified as an extremely hazardous substance, and is subject to strict reporting requirements by facilities which produce, store, or use it in significant quantities.

The global industrial production of ammonia in 2018 was 175 million tonnes, with no significant change relative to the 2013 global industrial production of 175 million tonnes.
In 2021 this was 235 million tonnes, with very little being made within the United States.
Industrial ammonia is sold either as ammonia liquor (usually 28% ammonia in water) or as pressurized or refrigerated anhydrous liquid ammonia transported in tank cars or cylinders.

NH3 boils at −33.34 °C (−28.012 °F) at a pressure of one atmosphere, so the liquid must be stored under pressure or at low temperature. 
Household ammonia or ammonium hydroxide is a solution of NH3 in water. 
The concentration of such solutions is measured in units of the Baumé scale (density), with 26 degrees Baumé (about 30% (by weight) ammonia at 15.5 °C or 59.9 °F) being the typical high-concentration commercial product.

Ammonia is a colorless, poisonous gas with a familiar noxious odor. 
Ammonia occurs in nature, primarily produced by anaerobic decay of plant and animal matter; and it also has been detected in outer space. 
Some plants, mainly legumes, in combination with rhizobia bacteria, “fix” atmospheric nitrogen to produce ammonia.

Ammonia has been known by its odor since ancient times. 
Ammonia was isolated in the 18th century by notable chemists Joseph Black (Scotland), Peter Woulfe (Ireland), Carl Wilhelm Scheele (Sweden/Germany), and Joseph Priestley (England). 
In 1785, French chemist Claude Louis Berthollet determined its elemental composition.

Ammonia is produced commercially via the catalytic reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen at high temperature and pressure. 
The process was developed in 1909 by German chemists Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch. 
Both received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their work, but in widely separated years: Haber in 1918 and Bosch in 1931. 

The fundamental Haber–Bosch process is still in use today.
In 2020, the worldwide ammonia production capacity was 224 million tonnes (Mt). 
Actual production was 187 Mt. It ranks ninth among chemicals produced globally.

Most ammonia production—≈85%—is used directly or indirectly in agriculture. 
Chemical fertilizers made from ammonia include urea, ammonium phosphate, ammonium nitrate, and other nitrates. 
Other important chemicals produced from ammonia include nitric acid, hydrazine, cyanides, and amino acids.

Ammonia was once used widely as a refrigerant. 
Ammonia has largely been displaced by chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons, which are also under environmental scrutiny. 
Probably the most familiar household use of ammonia is in glass cleaners.

Ammonia is highly soluble in water; its exact solubility depends on temperature (see fast facts). 
Aqueous ammonia is also called ammonium hydroxide, but that molecule cannot be isolated. 
When ammonia is used as a ligand in coordination complexes, it is called “ammine”.

Currently ammonia is made from fossil fuel–derived hydrogen and is therefore not a “green” product, despite its widespread use in agriculture. 
But environmentally green ammonia may be on the horizon if the hydrogen is made by other means, such as wind- or solar-powered electrolysis of water.

Ammonia can be burned as a fuel in standard engines. 
A study by the catalyst company Haldor Topsoe (Kongens Lyngby, Denmark) concluded that replacing conventional ship fuels with green ammonia would be cost-efficient and would eliminate a significant source of greenhouse gases. 
Ammonia potentially can be used in aircraft fuels as well. 
During a transition period, ammonia could be mixed with conventional fuels

Ammonia (NH3) is one of the most commonly produced industrial chemicals in the United States. 
Ammonia is used in industry and commerce, and also exists naturally in humans and in the environment. 
Ammonia is essential for many biological processes and serves as a precursor for amino acid and nucleotide synthesis. 
In the environment, ammonia is part of the nitrogen cycle and is produced in soil from bacterial processes. 
Ammonia is also produced naturally from decomposition of organic matter, including plants, animals and animal wastes.

Some chemical/physical properties of ammonia are:
At room temperature, ammonia is a colorless, highly irritating gas with a pungent, suffocating odor.
In pure form, it is known as anhydrous ammonia and is hygroscopic (readily absorbs moisture).
Ammonia has alkaline properties and is corrosive.

Ammonia gas dissolves easily in water to form ammonium hydroxide, a caustic solution and weak base.
Ammonia gas is easily compressed and forms a clear liquid under pressure.
Ammonia is usually shipped as a compressed liquid in steel containers.
Ammonia is not highly flammable, but containers of ammonia may explode when exposed to high heat.

Ammonia occurs naturally and is produced by human activity. 
Ammonia is an important source of nitrogen which is needed by plants and animals. 
Bacteria found in the intestines can produce ammonia. 

Ammonia is a colorless gas with a very distinct odor. 
This odor is familiar to many people because ammonia is used in smelling salts, many household and industrial cleaners, and window-cleaning products. 
Ammonia gas can be dissolved in water. 

This kind of ammonia is called liquid ammonia or aqueous ammonia. Once exposed to open air, liquid ammonia quickly turns into a gas. 
Ammonia is applied directly into soil on farm fields, and is used to make fertilizers for farm crops, lawns, and plants. 
Many household and industrial cleaners contain ammonia.

Ammonia, anhydrous appears as a clear colorless gas with a strong odor. 
Shipped as a liquid under its own vapor pressure. Density (liquid) 6 lb / gal. 
Contact with the unconfined liquid can cause frostbite. 

Gas generally regarded as nonflammable but does burn within certain vapor concentration limits and with strong ignition. 
Fire hazard increases in the presence of oil or other combustible materials. 
Although gas is lighter than air, vapors from a leak initially hug the ground. 

Prolonged exposure of containers to fire or heat may cause violent rupturing and rocketing. 
Long-term inhalation of low concentrations of the vapors or short-term inhalation of high concentrations has adverse health effects. 
Used as a fertilizer, as a refrigerant, and in the manufacture of other chemicals. 
Rate of onset: Immediate Persistence: Minutes Odor threshold: 17 ppm Source/use/other hazard: Explosives manufacture; pesticides; detergents industry.

Ammonia is an inorganic compound composed of a single nitrogen atom covalently bonded to three hydrogen atoms that is an amidase inhibitor and neurotoxin. 
Ammonia is both manufactured and produced naturally from bacterial processes and the breakdown of organic matter. 
Ammonia is used in many industrial processes, and as a fertilizer and refrigerant. 
Ammonia is characterized as a colorless gas or compressed liquid with a pungent odor and exposure occurs by inhalation, ingestion, or contact.

What is ammonia’s mechanism of action?
Ammonia interacts immediately upon contact with available moisture in the skin, eyes, oral cavity, respiratory tract, and particularly mucous surfaces to form the very caustic ammonium hydroxide. 
Ammonium hydroxide causes the necrosis of tissues through disruption of cell membrane lipids (saponification) leading to cellular destruction. 
As cell proteins break down, water is extracted, resulting in an inflammatory response that causes further damage.

Uses of Ammonia:
About 80% is used in fertilizers; it also is used as a refrigerant gas, and in the manufacture of plastics, explosives, pesticides, detergents, and other chemicals. 
Small amounts of ammonia occur naturally from decomposition of organic matter. 
Also used in illicit methamphetamine labs; Anhydrous ammonia is the most commonly reported agent in accidental spill or release incidents. 

About 80% of the ammonia produced by industry is used in agriculture as fertilizer. 
Ammonia is also used as a refrigerant gas, for purification of water supplies, and in the manufacture of plastics, explosives, textiles, pesticides, dyes and other chemicals. 

Ammonia is found in many household and industrial-strength cleaning solutions. 
Household ammonia cleaning solutions are manufactured by adding ammonia gas to water and can be between 5 and 10% ammonia. 
Ammonia solutions for industrial use may be concentrations of 25% or higher and are corrosive.

Pharmacology and Biochemistry of Ammonia:

Absorption, Distribution and Excretion of Ammonia:    
Studies suggest that ammonia can be absorbed by the inhalation and oral routes of exposure, but there is less certainty regarding absorption through the skin. 
Absorption through the eye has been documented. 
Most of the inhaled ammonia is retained in the upper respiratory tract and is subsequently eliminated in expired air. 

Almost all of the ammonia produced endogenously in the intestinal tract is absorbed. 
Exogenous ammonia is also readily absorbed in the intestinal tract. 
Ammonia that reaches the circulation is widely distributed to all body compartments although substantial first pass metabolism occurs in the liver where it is transformed into urea and glutamine. 
Ammonia or ammonium ion reaching the tissues is taken up by glutamic acid, which participates in transamination and other reactions. 
The principal means of excretion of ammonia that reaches the circulation in mammals is as urinary urea; minimal amounts are excreted in the feces and in expired air.

Experiments with volunteers show that ammonia, regardless of its tested concentration in air (range, 57-500 ppm), is almost completely retained in the nasal mucosa (83-92%) during short-term exposure, i.e., up to 120 sec. 
However, longer-term exposure (10-27 min) to a concentration of 500 ppm resulted in lower retention (4-30%), with 350-400 ppm eliminated in expired air by the end of the exposure period, suggesting an adaptive capability or saturation of the absorptive process. 
Nasal and pharyngeal irritation, but not tracheal irritation, suggests that ammonia is retained in the upper respiratory tract. 

Unchanged levels of blood-urea-nitrogen (BUN), non-protein nitrogen, urinary-urea, and urinary-ammonia are evidence of low absorption into the blood. 
Exposure to common occupational limits of ammonia in air (25 ppm) with 30% retention (and assuming this quantity is absorbed into the blood stream) would yield an increase in blood ammonium concentration of 0.09 mg/L. 
This calculated rise is only 10% above fasting levels.

Animal data provide supporting evidence for high-percentage nasal retention, thus protecting the lower respiratory tract from exposure (rabbit, dog). 
Continuous exposure of rats for 24 hr to concentrations up to 32 ppm resulted in significant increase in blood ammonia levels. 
Exposures to 310-1,157 ppm led to significantly increased blood concentrations of ammonia within 8 hr of exposure initiation, but blood ammonia returned to pre-exposure values within 12 hr of continuous exposure and remained so over the remaining of the 24 hr exposure period. 
This suggests an adaptive response mechanism may be activated with longerterm exposure.

Absorption data from human inhalation exposure suggest that only small amounts of ammonia are absorbed into the systemic circulation. 
Initial retention of inhaled ammonia in the mucus of the upper respiratory tract may be 80% or more, but after equilibrium is established (within 30 min) 70-80% of inspired ammonia is expired in exhaled air. 
The lack of change in blood nitrogen compounds and urinary-ammonia compounds lends further support to a limited absorption into the systemic circulation. 

Toxic effects reported from inhalation exposure suggest local damage, or changes resulting from necrotic tissue degradation, rather than the presence of elevated levels of NH4+, per se, in tissues other than the respiratory/pharyngeal tissues. 
Information on the distribution of endogenously-produced ammonia suggests that any NH4+ absorbed through inhalation would be distributed to all body compartments via the blood, where it would be used in protein synthesis or as a buffer, and that excess levels would be reduced to normal by urinary excretion, or converted by the liver to glutamine and urea. 
If present in quantities that overtax these organs, NH4+ is distributed to other tissues and is known to be detoxified in the brain.

Metabolism/Metabolites of Ammonia:    
Human adults produce around 1000 mmol of ammonia daily. 
Some is reutilized in biosynthesis. 
The remainder is waste and neurotoxic. 

Eventually most is excreted in urine as urea, together with ammonia used as a buffer. 
In extrahepatic tissues, ammonia is incorporated into nontoxic glutamine and released into blood. 
Large amounts are metabolized by the kidneys and small intestine. 
In the intestine, this yields ammonia, which is sequestered in portal blood and transported to the liver for ureagenesis, and citrulline, which is converted to arginine by the kidneys. The amazing developments in NMR imaging and spectroscopy and molecular biology have confirmed concepts derived from early studies in animals and cell cultures. 

The processes involved are exquisitely tuned. When they are faulty, ammonia accumulates. 
Severe acute hyperammonemia causes a rapidly progressive, often fatal, encephalopathy with brain edema. 
Chronic milder hyperammonemia causes a neuropsychiatric illness. 

Survivors of severe neonatal hyperammonemia have structural brain damage. 
Proposed explanations for brain edema are an increase in astrocyte osmolality, generally attributed to glutamine accumulation, and cytotoxic oxidative/nitrosative damage. 
However, ammonia neurotoxicity is multifactorial, with disturbances also in neurotransmitters, energy production, anaplerosis, cerebral blood flow, potassium, and sodium. 

Around 90% of hyperammonemic patients have liver disease. Inherited defects are rare. 
They are being recognized increasingly in adults. 
Deficiencies of urea cycle enzymes, citrin, and pyruvate carboxylase demonstrate the roles of isolated pathways in ammonia metabolism. 
Phenylbutyrate is used routinely to treat inherited urea cycle disorders, and its use for hepatic encephalopathy is under investigation.

The inhibitory effects of ammonia on two different degradation pathways of methanogenic acetate were evaluated using a pure culture (Methanosaeta thermophila strain PT) and defined co-culture (Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus strain TM and Thermacetogenium phaeum strain PB), which represented aceticlastic and syntrophic methanogenesis, respectively. 
Growth experiments with high concentrations of ammonia clearly demonstrated that sensitivity to ammonia stress was markedly higher in M. thermophila PT than in the syntrophic co-culture. M. thermophila PT also exhibited higher sensitivity to high pH stress, which indicated that an inability to maintain pH homeostasis is an underlying cause of ammonia inhibition. 
Methanogenesis was inhibited in the resting cells of M. thermophila PT with moderate concentrations of ammonia, suggesting that the inhibition of enzymes involved in methanogenesis may be one of the major factors responsible for ammonia toxicity. 

Transcriptomic analysis revealed a broad range of disturbances in M. thermophila PT cells under ammonia stress conditions, including protein denaturation, oxidative stress, and intracellular cation imbalances. 
The results of the present study clearly demonstrated that syntrophic acetate degradation dominated over aceticlastic methanogenesis under ammonia stress conditions, which is consistent with the findings of previous studies on complex microbial community systems. 
Our results also imply that the co-existence of multiple metabolic pathways and their different sensitivities to stress factors confer resiliency on methanogenic processes.

Recently, spatial-temporal/metabolic mathematical models have been established that allow the simulation of metabolic processes in tissues. 
We applied these models to decipher ammonia detoxification mechanisms in the liver. 
An integrated metabolic-spatial-temporal model was used to generate hypotheses of ammonia metabolism. 

Predicted mechanisms were validated using time-resolved analyses of nitrogen metabolism, activity analyses, immunostaining and gene expression after induction of liver damage in mice. 
Moreover, blood from the portal vein, liver vein and mixed venous blood was analyzed in a time dependent manner. 
Modeling revealed an underestimation of ammonia consumption after liver damage when only the currently established mechanisms of ammonia detoxification were simulated. 
By iterative cycles of modeling and experiments, the reductive amidation of alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG) via glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was identified as the lacking component. 

GDH is released from damaged hepatocytes into the blood where it consumes ammonia to generate glutamate, thereby providing systemic protection against hyperammonemia. 
This mechanism was exploited therapeutically in a mouse model of hyperammonemia by injecting GDH together with optimized doses of cofactors. 
Intravenous injection of GDH (720 U/kg), alpha-KG (280 mg/kg) and NADPH (180 mg/kg) reduced the elevated blood ammonia concentrations (>200 uM) to levels close to normal within only 15 min. 
If successfully translated to patients the GDH-based therapy might provide a less aggressive therapeutic alternative for patients with severe hyperammonemia.

The rodent liver eliminates toxic ammonia. 
In mammals, three enzymes (or enzyme systems) are involved in this process: glutaminase, glutamine synthetase and the urea cycle enzymes, represented by carbamoyl phosphate synthetase. 
The distribution of these enzymes for optimal ammonia detoxification was determined by numerical optimization. This in silico approach predicted that the enzymes have to be zonated in order to achieve maximal removal of toxic ammonia and minimal changes in glutamine concentration. 

Using 13 compartments, representing hepatocytes, the following predictions were generated: glutamine synthetase is active only within a narrow pericentral zone. 
Glutaminase and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase are located in the periportal zone in a non-homogeneous distribution. 
This correlates well with the paradoxical observation that in a first step glutamine-bound ammonia is released (by glutaminase) although one of the functions of the liver is detoxification by ammonia fixation. 

The in silico approach correctly predicted the in vivo enzyme distributions also for non-physiological conditions (e.g. starvation) and during regeneration after tetrachloromethane (CCl4) intoxication. 
Metabolite concentrations of glutamine, ammonia and urea in each compartment, representing individual hepatocytes, were predicted. Finally, a sensitivity analysis showed a striking robustness of the results. 
These bioinformatics predictions were validated experimentally by immunohistochemistry and are supported by the literature. 
In summary, optimization approaches like the one applied can provide valuable explanations and high-quality predictions for in vivo enzyme and metabolite distributions in tissues and can reveal unknown metabolic functions.

Industry Uses of Ammonia:
A reactant in a Selective Catalytic Reduction system to lower NOx emissions from utility boilers.
Adsorbents and absorbents
Agricultural chemicals (non-pesticidal)
Agricultural use: pesticides

Ammonia Market
Ammonia used in production of nitric acid and ammonium nitrate solution for sale to wholesalers. 
Wholesalers distribute for miscellaneous industry uses.
Aqueous ammonia is converted to anhydrous ammonia in the vaporizer for the selective cathodic reduction system to control nitrous oxide emissions.

Distribution by independent wholesalers. Final product use unknown to Agrium.
Emission Control Equipment
Fuels and fuel additives

Functional fluids (closed systems)
Ion exchange agents
Oxidizing/reducing agents

Paint Manufacturing
Process regulators
Processing aids, not otherwise listed
Production of Aqua ammonia for sale to wholesalers providing chemical distribution to multiple industries.

Reactant for NOx control.
Sales to power utilities for use in plant air pollution control equipment
Selective Noncatalytic Reduction/Urea Injection System
Upgrade to ammonium nitrate

Urea (50% solution) is injected into the boiler from the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction system (SNCR)and coincidetally manufactures ammonia which reduces nitrogen oxides.
Used for Hexamine Production and Industrial Cooling
ammonia from urea for NOx control in coal-fired electric generating boiler

ammonia generated from urea for NOx control in coal-fired electric generating boiler
emission control equipment
excess production of pollution control agent
wastewater treatment

Consumer Uses of Ammonia:    
Agricultural products (non-pesticidal)
Air Pollution Control
Air pollution control
Air pollution control equipment - NAICS 221122

Anhydrous and aqua ammonia sold directly to wholesalers for distribution to multiple industrial clients and multiple industrial uses.
Chemical Production / Remarketing
Direct application: agriculture. Less than 2%
Distribution to independent wholesalers and industrial customers.

Emission control product
Explosive materials
Fabric, textile, and leather products not covered elsewhere
Flue gas treatment in power generation plants
Food packaging

Fuels and related products
Lawn and garden care products
Metal products not covered elsewhere

Paper products
Plastic and rubber products not covered elsewhere
Repackaging/chemical distribution
Selective Noncatalytic Reduction/Urea Injection System

The ammonia manufactured is commercially used at the site at which it was manufactured, in a Selective Catalytic Reduction air pollution control system to reduce NOx emissions from the facility's utility boilers.
Used in air pollution control equipment - NAICS 221112
Water treatment products

pollution control agent used in electricity generation
refrigeration, and other assorted industrial use

Biosynthesis of Ammonia:
In certain organisms, ammonia is produced from atmospheric nitrogen by enzymes called nitrogenases. 
The overall process is called nitrogen fixation. 
Intense effort has been directed toward understanding the mechanism of biological nitrogen fixation; the scientific interest in this problem is motivated by the unusual structure of the active site of the enzyme, which consists of an Fe7MoS9 ensemble.

Ammonia is also a metabolic product of amino acid deamination catalyzed by enzymes such as glutamate dehydrogenase 1. 
Ammonia excretion is common in aquatic animals. 
In humans, it is quickly converted to urea, which is much less toxic, particularly less basic. 
This urea is a major component of the dry weight of urine. 
Most reptiles, birds, insects, and snails excrete uric acid solely as nitrogenous waste.

Physiology of Ammonia:
Ammonia also plays a role in both normal and abnormal animal physiology. 
Ammonia is biosynthesised through normal amino acid metabolism and is toxic in high concentrations. 
The liver converts ammonia to urea through a series of reactions known as the urea cycle. 

Liver dysfunction, such as that seen in cirrhosis, may lead to elevated amounts of ammonia in the blood (hyperammonemia). 
Likewise, defects in the enzymes responsible for the urea cycle, such as ornithine transcarbamylase, lead to hyperammonemia. 
Hyperammonemia contributes to the confusion and coma of hepatic encephalopathy, as well as the neurologic disease common in people with urea cycle defects and organic acidurias.

Ammonia is important for normal animal acid/base balance. 
After formation of ammonium from glutamine, α-ketoglutarate may be degraded to produce two bicarbonate ions, which are then available as buffers for dietary acids. 
Ammonium is excreted in the urine, resulting in net acid loss. 
Ammonia may itself diffuse across the renal tubules, combine with a hydrogen ion, and thus allow for further acid excretion.

Excretion of Ammonia:
Ammonium ions are a toxic waste product of metabolism in animals. 
In fish and aquatic invertebrates, it is excreted directly into the water. 
In mammals, sharks, and amphibians, it is converted in the urea cycle to urea, which is less toxic and can be stored more efficiently. 
In birds, reptiles, and terrestrial snails, metabolic ammonium is converted into uric acid, which is solid and can therefore be excreted with minimal water loss.

Beyond Earth of Ammonia:
Ammonia has been detected in the atmospheres of the giant planets, including Jupiter, along with other gases such as methane, hydrogen, and helium. 
The interior of Saturn may include frozen ammonia crystals.
Ammonia is found on Deimos and Phobos – the two moons of Mars.

Interstellar space of Ammonia:
Ammonia was first detected in interstellar space in 1968, based on microwave emissions from the direction of the galactic core.
This was the first polyatomic molecule to be so detected. 
The sensitivity of the molecule to a broad range of excitations and the ease with which it can be observed in a number of regions has made ammonia one of the most important molecules for studies of molecular clouds.
The relative intensity of the ammonia lines can be used to measure the temperature of the emitting medium.

The following isotopic species of ammonia have been detected: NH3, 15NH3, NH2D, NHD2, and ND3. 
The detection of triply deuterated ammonia was considered a surprise as deuterium is relatively scarce. 
Ammonia is thought that the low-temperature conditions allow this molecule to survive and accumulate.

Since its interstellar discovery, NH3 has proved to be an invaluable spectroscopic tool in the study of the interstellar medium. 
With a large number of transitions sensitive to a wide range of excitation conditions, NH3 has been widely astronomically detected – its detection has been reported in hundreds of journal articles. 
Listed below is a sample of journal articles that highlights the range of detectors that have been used to identify ammonia.

The study of interstellar ammonia has been important to a number of areas of research in the last few decades. 
Some of these are delineated below and primarily involve using ammonia as an interstellar thermometer.

Interstellar formation mechanisms of Ammonia:
The interstellar abundance for ammonia has been measured for a variety of environments. 
The [NH3]/[H2] ratio has been estimated to range from 10−7 in small dark clouds up to 10−5 in the dense core of the Orion molecular cloud complex.
Although a total of 18 total production routes have been proposed, the principal formation mechanism for interstellar NH3 is the reaction:

NH+4 + e− → NH3 + H
The rate constant, k, of this reaction depends on the temperature of the environment, with a value of 5.2×10−6 at 10 K.
The rate constant was calculated from the formula {\displaystyle k=a(T/300)^{B}}{\displaystyle k=a(T/300)^{B}}. 
For the primary formation reaction, a = 1.05×10−6 and B = −0.47. Assuming an NH+4 abundance of 3×10−7 and an electron abundance of 10−7 typical of molecular clouds, the formation will proceed at a rate of 1.6×10−9 cm−3s−1 in a molecular cloud of total density 105 cm−3.[174]

All other proposed formation reactions have rate constants of between 2 and 13 orders of magnitude smaller, making their contribution to the abundance of ammonia relatively insignificant.
As an example of the minor contribution other formation reactions play, the reaction:
H2 + NH2 → NH3 + H has a rate constant of 2.2×10−15. 
Assuming H2 densities of 105 and [NH2]/[H2] ratio of 10−7, this reaction proceeds at a rate of 2.2×10−12, more than 3 orders of magnitude slower than the primary reaction above.

Some of the other possible formation reactions are:
H− + NH+4→ NH3 + H2PNH+3+ e− → P + NH3

Interstellar destruction mechanisms of Ammonia:
There are 113 total proposed reactions leading to the destruction of NH3. 
Of these, 39 were tabulated in extensive tables of the chemistry among C, N, and O compounds.
A review of interstellar ammonia cites the following reactions as the principal dissociation mechanisms:
NH3 + H+3→ NH+4+ H2
NH3 + HCO+ → NH+4+ CO

with rate constants of 4.39×10−9 and 2.2×10−9, respectively. 
The above equations (1, 2) run at a rate of 8.8×10−9 and 4.4×10−13, respectively. 
These calculations assumed the given rate constants and abundances of [NH3]/[H2] = 10−5, [H+3]/[H2] = 2×10−5, [HCO+]/[H2] = 2×10−9, and total densities of n = 105, typical of cold, dense, molecular clouds.[179] Clearly, between these two primary reactions, equation (1) is the dominant destruction reaction, with a rate ≈10,000 times faster than equation (2). 
This is due to the relatively high abundance of H+3.

Single antenna detections of Ammonia:
Radio observations of NH3 from the Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope reveal that the ammonia line is separated into two components – a background ridge and an unresolved core. 
The background corresponds well with the locations previously detected CO.
The 25 m Chilbolton telescope in England detected radio signatures of ammonia in H II regions, HNH2O masers, H-H objects, and other objects associated with star formation. 
A comparison of emission line widths indicates that turbulent or systematic velocities do not increase in the central cores of molecular clouds.

Microwave radiation from ammonia was observed in several galactic objects including W3(OH), Orion A, W43, W51, and five sources in the galactic centre. 
The high detection rate indicates that this is a common molecule in the interstellar medium and that high-density regions are common in the galaxy.

Interferometric studies of Ammonia:
VLA observations of NH3 in seven regions with high-velocity gaseous outflows revealed condensations of less than 0.1 pc in L1551, S140, and Cepheus A. Three individual condensations were detected in Cepheus A, one of them with a highly elongated shape. They may play an important role in creating the bipolar outflow in the region.[183]

Extragalactic ammonia was imaged using the VLA in IC 342. 
The hot gas has temperatures above 70 K, which was inferred from ammonia line ratios and appears to be closely associated with the innermost portions of the nuclear bar seen in CO.
NH3 was also monitored by VLA toward a sample of four galactic ultracompact HII regions: G9.62+0.19, G10.47+0.03, G29.96-0.02, and G31.41+0.31. 
Based upon temperature and density diagnostics, it is concluded that in general such clumps are probably the sites of massive star formation in an early evolutionary phase prior to the development of an ultracompact HII region.

Infrared detections of Ammonia:
Absorption at 2.97 micrometres due to solid ammonia was recorded from interstellar grains in the Becklin-Neugebauer Object and probably in NGC 2264-IR as well. 
This detection helped explain the physical shape of previously poorly understood and related ice absorption lines.
A spectrum of the disk of Jupiter was obtained from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, covering the 100 to 300 cm−1 spectral range. 
Analysis of the spectrum provides information on global mean properties of ammonia gas and an ammonia ice haze.

A total of 149 dark cloud positions were surveyed for evidence of 'dense cores' by using the (J,K) = (1,1) rotating inversion line of NH3. 
In general, the cores are not spherically shaped, with aspect ratios ranging from 1.1 to 4.4. 
Ammonia is also found that cores with stars have broader lines than cores without stars.
Ammonia has been detected in the Draco Nebula and in one or possibly two molecular clouds, which are associated with the high-latitude galactic infrared cirrus. 
The finding is significant because they may represent the birthplaces for the Population I metallicity B-type stars in the galactic halo that could have been borne in the galactic disk.

Observations of nearby dark clouds
By balancing and stimulated emission with spontaneous emission, it is possible to construct a relation between excitation temperature and density. 
Moreover, since the transitional levels of ammonia can be approximated by a 2-level system at low temperatures, this calculation is fairly simple. 
This premise can be applied to dark clouds, regions suspected of having extremely low temperatures and possible sites for future star formation. 

Detections of ammonia in dark clouds show very narrow lines – indicative not only of low temperatures, but also of a low level of inner-cloud turbulence. 
Line ratio calculations provide a measurement of cloud temperature that is independent of previous CO observations. 
The ammonia observations were consistent with CO measurements of rotation temperatures of ≈10 K. 

With this, densities can be determined, and have been calculated to range between 104 and 105 cm−3 in dark clouds. 
Mapping of NH3 gives typical clouds sizes of 0.1 pc and masses near 1 solar mass. 
These cold, dense cores are the sites of future star formation.

UC HII regions
Ultra-compact HII regions are among the best tracers of high-mass star formation. 
The dense material surrounding UCHII regions is likely primarily molecular. 

Since a complete study of massive star formation necessarily involves the cloud from which the star formed, ammonia is an invaluable tool in understanding this surrounding molecular material. 
Since this molecular material can be spatially resolved, it is possible to constrain the heating/ionising sources, temperatures, masses, and sizes of the regions. 
Doppler-shifted velocity components allow for the separation of distinct regions of molecular gas that can trace outflows and hot cores originating from forming stars.

Extragalactic detection of Ammonia:
Ammonia has been detected in external galaxies, and by simultaneously measuring several lines, it is possible to directly measure the gas temperature in these galaxies. 
Line ratios imply that gas temperatures are warm (≈50 K), originating from dense clouds with sizes of tens of pc. 
This picture is consistent with the picture within our Milky Way galaxy – hot dense molecular cores form around newly forming stars embedded in larger clouds of molecular material on the scale of several hundred pc (giant molecular clouds; GMCs).

Etymology of Ammonia:
Pliny, in Book XXXI of his Natural History, refers to a salt produced in the Roman province of Cyrenaica named hammoniacum, so called because of its proximity to the nearby Temple of Jupiter Amun (Greek Ἄμμων Ammon).
However, the description Pliny gives of the salt does not conform to the properties of ammonium chloride. 
According to Herbert Hoover's commentary in his English translation of Georgius Agricola's De re metallica, it is likely to have been common sea salt.
In any case, that salt ultimately gave ammonia and ammonium compounds their name.

Natural occurrence of Ammonia:
Ammonia is a chemical found in trace quantities in nature, being produced from nitrogenous animal and vegetable matter. 
Ammonia and ammonium salts are also found in small quantities in rainwater, whereas ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac), and ammonium sulfate are found in volcanic districts; crystals of ammonium bicarbonate have been found in Patagonia guano.
The kidneys secrete ammonia to neutralize excess acid.

Ammonium salts are found distributed through fertile soil and in seawater.
Ammonia is also found throughout the Solar System on Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto, among other places: on smaller, icy bodies such as Pluto, ammonia can act as a geologically important antifreeze, as a mixture of water and ammonia can have a melting point as low as 173 K (−100 °C; −148 °F) if the ammonia concentration is high enough and thus allow such bodies to retain internal oceans and active geology at a far lower temperature than would be possible with water alone.
Substances containing ammonia, or those that are similar to it, are called ammoniacal.

Properties of Ammonia:
Ammonia is a colourless gas with a characteristically pungent smell. 
Ammonia is lighter than air, its density being 0.589 times that of air. 
Ammonia is easily liquefied due to the strong hydrogen bonding between molecules; the liquid boils at −33.1 °C (−27.58 °F), and freezes to white crystals at −77.7 °C (−107.86 °F).

The crystal symmetry is cubic, Pearson symbol cP16, space group P213 No.198, lattice constant 0.5125 nm.

Liquid ammonia possesses strong ionising powers reflecting its high ε of 22. 
Liquid ammonia has a very high standard enthalpy change of vaporization (23.35 kJ/mol, cf. water 40.65 kJ/mol, methane 8.19 kJ/mol, phosphine 14.6 kJ/mol) and can therefore be used in laboratories in uninsulated vessels without additional refrigeration. 
See liquid ammonia as a solvent.

Solvent properties of Ammonia:
Ammonia readily dissolves in water. 
In an aqueous solution, it can be expelled by boiling. 
The aqueous solution of ammonia is basic. 
The maximum concentration of ammonia in water (a saturated solution) has a density of 0.880 g/cm3 and is often known as '.880 ammonia'.

Combustion of Ammonia:
Ammonia does not burn readily or sustain combustion, except under narrow fuel-to-air mixtures of 15–25% air. 
When mixed with oxygen, it burns with a pale yellowish-green flame. 
Ignition occurs when chlorine is passed into ammonia, forming nitrogen and hydrogen chloride; if chlorine is present in excess, then the highly explosive nitrogen trichloride (NCl3) is also formed.

Decomposition of Ammonia:
At high temperature and in the presence of a suitable catalyst or in a pressurized vessel with constant volume and high temperature (e.g. 1,100 °C (2,010 °F)), ammonia is decomposed into its constituent elements.
Decomposition of ammonia is a slightly endothermic process requiring 23 kJ/mol (5.5 kcal/mol) of ammonia, and yields hydrogen and nitrogen gas. 
Ammonia can also be used as a source of hydrogen for acid fuel cells if the unreacted ammonia can be removed. 
Ruthenium and platinum catalysts were found to be the most active, whereas supported Ni catalysts were less active.

Structure of Ammonia:
The ammonia molecule has a trigonal pyramidal shape as predicted by the valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR theory) with an experimentally determined bond angle of 106.7°.
The central nitrogen atom has five outer electrons with an additional electron from each hydrogen atom. 
This gives a total of eight electrons, or four electron pairs that are arranged tetrahedrally. 
Three of these electron pairs are used as bond pairs, which leaves one lone pair of electrons. 

The lone pair repels more strongly than bond pairs, therefore the bond angle is not 109.5°, as expected for a regular tetrahedral arrangement, but 106.8°.
This shape gives the molecule a dipole moment and makes it polar. 
The molecule's polarity, and especially, its ability to form hydrogen bonds, makes ammonia highly miscible with water. 

The lone pair makes ammonia a base, a proton acceptor. 
Ammonia is moderately basic; a 1.0 M aqueous solution has a pH of 11.6, and if a strong acid is added to such a solution until the solution is neutral (pH = 7), 99.4% of the ammonia molecules are protonated. 
Temperature and salinity also affect the proportion of NH4+.

The latter has the shape of a regular tetrahedron and is isoelectronic with methane.
The ammonia molecule readily undergoes nitrogen inversion at room temperature; a useful analogy is an umbrella turning itself inside out in a strong wind. 
The energy barrier to this inversion is 24.7 kJ/mol, and the resonance frequency is 23.79 GHz, corresponding to microwave radiation of a wavelength of 1.260 cm. 
The absorption at this frequency was the first microwave spectrum to be observed and was used in the first maser.

Amphotericity of Ammonia:
One of the most characteristic properties of ammonia is its basicity. 
Ammonia is considered to be a weak base. 
Ammonia combines with acids to form salts; thus with hydrochloric acid it forms ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac); with nitric acid, ammonium nitrate, etc. 

Perfectly dry ammonia gas will not combine with perfectly dry hydrogen chloride gas; moisture is necessary to bring about the reaction.
As a demonstration experiment under air with ambient moisture, opened bottles of concentrated ammonia and hydrochloric acid solutions produce a cloud of ammonium chloride, which seems to appear "out of nothing" as the salt aerosol forms where the two diffusing clouds of reagents meet between the two bottles.
NH3 + HCl → [NH4]Cl

The salts produced by the action of ammonia on acids are known as the ammonium salts and all contain the ammonium ion (NH4+).
Although ammonia is well known as a weak base, it can also act as an extremely weak acid. 
Ammonia is a protic substance and is capable of formation of amides (which contain the NH2^-ion). 
For example, lithium dissolves in liquid ammonia to give a blue solution (solvated electron) of lithium amide:
2Li + 2NH3 → 2LiNH2 + H2

Self-dissociation of Ammonia:
Like water, liquid ammonia undergoes molecular autoionisation to form its acid and base conjugates:
2NH3 ⇌ NH4+ + NH2−

Ammonia often functions as a weak base, so it has some buffering ability. 
Shifts in pH will cause more or fewer ammonium cations (NH4+) and amide anions (NH2−) to be present in solution. 
At standard pressure and temperature, K = [NH4+] × [NH2−] = 10^−30.

Combustion of Ammonia:
The combustion of ammonia to form nitrogen and water is exothermic:
4NH3 + 3O2 → 2N2 + 6H2O(g), ΔH°r = −1267.20 kJ (or −316.8 kJ/mol if expressed per mol of NH3)

The standard enthalpy change of combustion, ΔH°c, expressed per mole of ammonia and with condensation of the water formed, is −382.81 kJ/mol. 
Dinitrogen is the thermodynamic product of combustion: all nitrogen oxides are unstable with respect to N2 and O2, which is the principle behind the catalytic converter. 
Nitrogen oxides can be formed as kinetic products in the presence of appropriate catalysts, a reaction of great industrial importance in the production of nitric acid:
4NH3 + 5O2 → 4NO + 6H2O
A subsequent reaction leads to NO2:
2NO + O2 → 2NO2

The combustion of ammonia in air is very difficult in the absence of a catalyst (such as platinum gauze or warm chromium(III) oxide), due to the relatively low heat of combustion, a lower laminar burning velocity, high auto-ignition temperature, high heat of vaporization, and a narrow flammability range.
However, recent studies have shown that efficient and stable combustion of ammonia can be achieved using swirl combustors, thereby rekindling research interest in ammonia as a fuel for thermal power production.
The flammable range of ammonia in dry air is 15.15–27.35% and in 100% relative humidity air is 15.95–26.55%.
For studying the kinetics of ammonia combustion, knowledge of a detailed reliable reaction mechanism is required, but this has been challenging to obtain.

Formation of other compounds of Ammonia:
In organic chemistry, ammonia can act as a nucleophile in substitution reactions. 
Amines can be formed by the reaction of ammonia with alkyl halides, although the resulting −NH2 group is also nucleophilic and secondary and tertiary amines are often formed as byproducts. 

An excess of ammonia helps minimise multiple substitution and neutralises the hydrogen halide formed. 
Methylamine is prepared commercially by the reaction of ammonia with chloromethane, and the reaction of ammonia with 2-bromopropanoic acid has been used to prepare racemic alanine in 70% yield. 
Ethanolamine is prepared by a ring-opening reaction with ethylene oxide: the reaction is sometimes allowed to go further to produce diethanolamine and triethanolamine.

Amides can be prepared by the reaction of ammonia with carboxylic acid derivatives. 
Acyl chlorides are the most reactive, but the ammonia must be present in at least a twofold excess to neutralise the hydrogen chloride formed. 
Esters and anhydrides also react with ammonia to form amides. 

Ammonium salts of carboxylic acids can be dehydrated to amides so long as there are no thermally sensitive groups present: temperatures of 150–200 °C are required.
The hydrogen in ammonia is susceptible to replacement by a myriad of substituents. 
When dry ammonia gas is heated with metallic sodium it converts to sodamide, NaNH2.

With chlorine, monochloramine is formed.
Pentavalent ammonia is known as λ5-amine or, more commonly, ammonium hydride. 
This crystalline solid is only stable under high pressure and decomposes back into trivalent ammonia and hydrogen gas at normal conditions. 
This substance was once investigated as a possible solid rocket fuel in 1966.

Ammonia as a ligand of Ammonia:
Ammonia can act as a ligand in transition metal complexes. 
Ammonia is a pure σ-donor, in the middle of the spectrochemical series, and shows intermediate hard–soft behaviour (see also ECW model). 
Ammonias relative donor strength toward a series of acids, versus other Lewis bases, can be illustrated by C-B plots.
For historical reasons, ammonia is named ammine in the nomenclature of coordination compounds. 

Some notable ammine complexes include tetraamminediaquacopper(II) ([Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+), a dark blue complex formed by adding ammonia to a solution of copper(II) salts. 
Tetraamminediaquacopper(II) hydroxide is known as Schweizer's reagent, and has the remarkable ability to dissolve cellulose. 
Diamminesilver(I) ([Ag(NH3)2]+) is the active species in Tollens' reagent. 
Formation of this complex can also help to distinguish between precipitates of the different silver halides: silver chloride (AgCl) is soluble in dilute (2 M) ammonia solution, silver bromide (AgBr) is only soluble in concentrated ammonia solution, whereas silver iodide (AgI) is insoluble in aqueous ammonia.

Ammine complexes of chromium(III) were known in the late 19th century, and formed the basis of Alfred Werner's revolutionary theory on the structure of coordination compounds. 
Werner noted only two isomers (fac- and mer-) of the complex [CrCl3(NH3)3] could be formed, and concluded the ligands must be arranged around the metal ion at the vertices of an octahedron. 

This proposal has since been confirmed by X-ray crystallography.
An ammine ligand bound to a metal ion is markedly more acidic than a free ammonia molecule, although deprotonation in aqueous solution is still rare. 
One example is the Calomel reaction, where the resulting amidomercury(II) compound is highly insoluble.
HgCl2 + 2 NH3 → HgCl(NH2) + [NH4]Cl

Ammonia forms 1:1 adducts with a variety of Lewis acids such as I2, phenol, and Al(CH3)3. 
Ammonia is a hard base (HSAB theory) and its E & C parameters are EB = 2.31 and CB = 2.04. 
Ammonias relative donor strength toward a series of acids, versus other Lewis bases, can be illustrated by C-B plots.

Detection and determination of Ammonia:
This section is about detection in the laboratory. 
For detection in astronomy, see § In astronomy.

Ammonia in solution of Ammonia:
Main article: Ammonia solution
Ammonia and ammonium salts can be readily detected, in very minute traces, by the addition of Nessler's solution, which gives a distinct yellow colouration in the presence of the slightest trace of ammonia or ammonium salts. 
The amount of ammonia in ammonium salts can be estimated quantitatively by distillation of the salts with sodium (NaOH) or potassium hydroxide (KOH), the ammonia evolved being absorbed in a known volume of standard sulfuric acid and the excess of acid then determined volumetrically; or the ammonia may be absorbed in hydrochloric acid and the ammonium chloride so formed precipitated as ammonium hexachloroplatinate, [NH4]2[PtCl6].

Gaseous ammonia of Ammonia:
Sulfur sticks are burnt to detect small leaks in industrial ammonia refrigeration systems. 
Larger quantities can be detected by warming the salts with a caustic alkali or with quicklime, when the characteristic smell of ammonia will be at once apparent.

Ammonia is an irritant and irritation increases with concentration; the permissible exposure limit is 25 ppm, and lethal above 500 ppm.
Higher concentrations are hardly detected by conventional detectors, the type of detector is chosen according to the sensitivity required (e.g. semiconductor, catalytic, electrochemical). 
Holographic sensors have been proposed for detecting concentrations up to 12.5% in volume.

Ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N):
Ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) is a measure commonly used for testing the quantity of ammonium ions, derived naturally from ammonia, and returned to ammonia via organic processes, in water or waste liquids. 
Ammonia is a measure used mainly for quantifying values in waste treatment and water purification systems, as well as a measure of the health of natural and man-made water reserves. 
Ammonia is measured in units of mg/L (milligram per litre).

The ancient Greek historian Herodotus mentioned that there were outcrops of salt in an area of Libya that was inhabited by a people called the "Ammonians" (now: the Siwa oasis in northwestern Egypt, where salt lakes still exist).
The Greek geographer Strabo also mentioned the salt from this region. 
However, the ancient authors Dioscorides, Apicius, Arrian, Synesius, and Aëtius of Amida described this salt as forming clear crystals that could be used for cooking and that were essentially rock salt.

Hammoniacus sal appears in the writings of Pliny, although it is not known whether the term is identical with the more modern sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride).
The fermentation of urine by bacteria produces a solution of ammonia; hence fermented urine was used in Classical Antiquity to wash cloth and clothing, to remove hair from hides in preparation for tanning, to serve as a mordant in dying cloth, and to remove rust from iron.
Ammonia was also used by ancient dentists to wash teeth.

In the form of sal ammoniac, ammonia was important to the Muslim alchemists. 
Ammonia was mentioned in the Book of Stones, likely written in the 9th century and attributed to Jābir ibn Hayyān.
Ammonia was also important to the European alchemists of the 13th century, being mentioned by Albertus Magnus.

Ammonia was also used by dyers in the Middle Ages in the form of fermented urine to alter the colour of vegetable dyes. 
In the 15th century, Basilius Valentinus showed that ammonia could be obtained by the action of alkalis on sal ammoniac.
At a later period, when sal ammoniac was obtained by distilling the hooves and horns of oxen and neutralizing the resulting carbonate with hydrochloric acid, the name "spirit of hartshorn" was applied to ammonia.

Gaseous ammonia was first isolated by Joseph Black in 1756 by reacting sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride) with calcined magnesia (magnesium oxide).
Ammonia was isolated again by Peter Woulfe in 1767, by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1770 and by Joseph Priestley in 1773 and was termed by him "alkaline air".
Eleven years later in 1785, Claude Louis Berthollet ascertained its composition.

The Haber–Bosch process to produce ammonia from the nitrogen in the air was developed by Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch in 1909 and patented in 1910. 
Ammonia was first used on an industrial scale in Germany during World War I, following the allied blockade that cut off the supply of nitrates from Chile.
The ammonia was used to produce explosives to sustain war efforts.

Before the availability of natural gas, hydrogen as a precursor to ammonia production was produced via the electrolysis of water or using the chloralkali process.
With the advent of the steel industry in the 20th century, ammonia became a byproduct of the production of coking coal.

Safety of Ammonia:
The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set a 15-minute exposure limit for gaseous ammonia of 35 ppm by volume in the environmental air and an 8-hour exposure limit of 25 ppm by volume.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recently reduced the IDLH (Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health, the level to which a healthy worker can be exposed for 30 minutes without suffering irreversible health effects) from 500 to 300 based on recent more conservative interpretations of original research in 1943. 
Other organizations have varying exposure levels. U.S. Navy Standards [U.S. Bureau of Ships 1962] maximum allowable concentrations (MACs): continuous exposure (60 days): 25 ppm / 1 hour: 400 ppm.

Ammonia vapour has a sharp, irritating, pungent odour that acts as a warning of potentially dangerous exposure. 
The average odour threshold is 5 ppm, well below any danger or damage. 
Exposure to very high concentrations of gaseous ammoni can result in lung damage and death.
Ammonia is regulated in the United States as a non-flammable gas, but it meets the definition of a material that is toxic by inhalation and requires a hazardous safety permit when transported in quantities greater than 13,248 L (3,500 gallons).

Liquid ammonia is dangerous because it is hygroscopic and because it can cause caustic burns. 
See Gas carrier § Health effects of specific cargoes carried on gas carriers for more information.

Aquaculture of Ammonia:
Ammonia toxicity is believed to be a cause of otherwise unexplained losses in fish hatcheries. 
Excess ammonia may accumulate and cause alteration of metabolism or increases in the body pH of the exposed organism. 
Tolerance varies among fish species. 

At lower concentrations, around 0.05 mg/L, un-ionised ammonia is harmful to fish species and can result in poor growth and feed conversion rates, reduced fecundity and fertility and increase stress and susceptibility to bacterial infections and diseases.
Exposed to excess ammonia, fish may suffer loss of equilibrium, hyper-excitability, increased respiratory activity and oxygen uptake and increased heart rate.
At concentrations exceeding 2.0 mg/L, ammonia causes gill and tissue damage, extreme lethargy, convulsions, coma, and death.
Experiments have shown that the lethal concentration for a variety of fish species ranges from 0.2 to 2.0 mg/l.

During winter, when reduced feeds are administered to aquaculture stock, ammonia levels can be higher. 
Lower ambient temperatures reduce the rate of algal photosynthesis so less ammonia is removed by any algae present. 
Within an aquaculture environment, especially at large scale, there is no fast-acting remedy to elevated ammonia levels. 
Prevention rather than correction is recommended to reduce harm to farmed fish[132] and in open water systems, the surrounding environment.

Storage information of Ammonia:
Similar to propane, anhydrous ammonia boils below room temperature when at atmospheric pressure. 
A storage vessel capable of 250 psi (1.7 MPa) is suitable to contain the liquid. 
Ammonia is used in numerous different industrial application requiring carbon or stainless steel storage vessels. 

Ammonia with at least 0.2 percent by weight water content is not corrosive to carbon steel. 
NH3 carbon steel construction storage tanks with 0.2 percent by weight or more of water could last more than 50 years in service.
Experts warn that ammonium compounds not be allowed to come in contact with bases (unless in an intended and contained reaction), as dangerous quantities of ammonia gas could be released.

Production of Ammonia:
Ammonia is one of the most produced inorganic chemicals, with global production reported at 175 million tonnes in 2018.
China accounted for 28.5% of that, followed by Russia at 10.3%, the United States at 9.1%, and India at 6.7%.

Before the start of World War I, most ammonia was obtained by the dry distillation of nitrogenous vegetable and animal waste products, including camel dung, where it was distilled by the reduction of nitrous acid and nitrites with hydrogen; in addition, it was produced by the distillation of coal, and also by the decomposition of ammonium salts by alkaline hydroxides such as quicklime:
2 [NH4]Cl + 2 CaO → CaCl2 + Ca(OH)2 + 2 NH3(g)

For small scale laboratory synthesis, one can heat urea and calcium hydroxide:
(NH2)2CO + Ca(OH)2 → CaCO3 + 2 NH3

Role in biological systems and human disease
Ammonia is both a metabolic waste and a metabolic input throughout the biosphere. 
Ammonia is an important source of nitrogen for living systems. 
Although atmospheric nitrogen abounds (more than 75%), few living creatures are capable of using this atmospheric nitrogen in its diatomic form, N2 gas. 

Therefore, nitrogen fixation is required for the synthesis of amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. 
Some plants rely on ammonia and other nitrogenous wastes incorporated into the soil by decaying matter. 
Others, such as nitrogen-fixing legumes, benefit from symbiotic relationships with rhizobia that create ammonia from atmospheric nitrogen.

In humans, inhaling ammonia in high concentrations can be fatal. 
Exposure to ammonia can cause headaches, edema, impaired memory, seizures and coma as it is neurotoxic in nature.

Applications of Ammonia:

Electrochemical of Ammonia:
Ammonia can be synthesized electrochemically. 
The only required inputs are sources of nitrogen (potentially atmospheric) and hydrogen (water), allowing generation at the point of use. 
The availability of renewable energy creates the possibility of zero emission production.

In 2012, Hideo Hosono's group found that Ru-loaded C12A7:e− electride works well as a catalyst and pursued more efficient formation.
This method is implemented in a small plant for ammonia synthesis in Japan.

In 2019, Hosono's group found another catalyst, a novel perovskite oxynitride-hydride BaCeO3-xNyHz, that works at lower temperature and without costly Ruthenium.
Another electrochemical synthesis mode involves the reductive formation of lithium nitride, which can be protonated to ammonia, given a proton source. 
Ethanol has been used as such a source, although it may degrade. One study used lithium electrodeposition in tetrahydrofuran.

In 2021, Suryanto et al. replaced ethanol with a tetraalkyl phosphonium salt. This cation can stably undergo deprotonation–reprotonation cycles, while it enhances the medium's ionic conductivity.
The study observed NH3 production rates of 53 ± nanomoles/s/cm2 at 69 ± 1% faradaic efficiency experiments under 0.5-bar hydrogen and 19.5-bar nitrogen partial pressure at ambient temperature.

Lifting gas of Ammonia:
At standard temperature and pressure, ammonia is less dense than atmosphere and has approximately 45–48% of the lifting power of hydrogen or helium. 
Ammonia has sometimes been used to fill balloons as a lifting gas. 
Because of its relatively high boiling point (compared to helium and hydrogen), ammonia could potentially be refrigerated and liquefied aboard an airship to reduce lift and add ballast (and returned to a gas to add lift and reduce ballast).

Textile of Ammonia:
Liquid ammonia is used for treatment of cotton materials, giving properties like mercerisation, using alkalis. 
In particular, it is used for prewashing of wool.

Laboratory use of anhydrous ammonia (gas or liquid)
Anhydrous ammonia is classified as toxic (T) and dangerous for the environment (N). The gas is flammable (autoignition temperature: 651 °C) and can form explosive mixtures with air (16–25%). The permissible exposure limit (PEL) in the United States is 50 ppm (35 mg/m3), while the IDLH concentration is estimated at 300 ppm. Repeated exposure to ammonia lowers the sensitivity to the smell of the gas: normally the odour is detectable at concentrations of less than 50 ppm, but desensitised individuals may not detect it even at concentrations of 100 ppm. Anhydrous ammonia corrodes copper- and zinc-containing alloys which makes brass fittings not appropriate for handling the gas. Liquid ammonia can also attack rubber and certain plastics.

Ammonia reacts violently with the halogens. 
Nitrogen triiodide, a primary high explosive, is formed when ammonia comes in contact with iodine. 
Ammonia causes the explosive polymerisation of ethylene oxide. 
Ammonia also forms explosive fulminating compounds with compounds of gold, silver, mercury, germanium or tellurium, and with stibine. 
Violent reactions have also been reported with acetaldehyde, hypochlorite solutions, potassium ferricyanide and peroxides.

Ammonia adsorption followed by FTIR as well as temperature programmed desorption of ammonia (NH3-TPD) are very valuable methods to characterize acid-base properties of heterogeneous catalysts.

Solvent of Ammonia:
Liquid ammonia is the best-known and most widely studied nonaqueous ionising solvent. 
Ammonias most conspicuous property is its ability to dissolve alkali metals to form highly coloured, electrically conductive solutions containing solvated electrons. 

Apart from these remarkable solutions, much of the chemistry in liquid ammonia can be classified by analogy with related reactions in aqueous solutions. 
Comparison of the physical properties of NH3 with those of water shows NH3 has the lower melting point, boiling point, density, viscosity, dielectric constant and electrical conductivity; this is due at least in part to the weaker hydrogen bonding in NH3 and because such bonding cannot form cross-linked networks, since each NH3 molecule has only one lone pair of electrons compared with two for each H2O molecule. 
The ionic self-dissociation constant of liquid NH3 at −50 °C is about 10−33.

Solubility of salts of Ammonia:
Ammonium acetate: 253.2
Ammonium nitrate: 389.6
Lithium nitrate: 243.7
Sodium nitrate: 97.6
Potassium nitrate: 10.4
Sodium fluoride: 0.35
Sodium chloride: 157.0
Sodium bromide: 138.0
Sodium iodide: 161.9
Sodium thiocyanate: 205.5

Liquid ammonia is an ionising solvent, although less so than water, and dissolves a range of ionic compounds, including many nitrates, nitrites, cyanides, thiocyanates, metal cyclopentadienyl complexes and metal bis(trimethylsilyl)amides.
Most ammonium salts are soluble and act as acids in liquid ammonia solutions. 
The solubility of halide salts increases from fluoride to iodide. 
A saturated solution of ammonium nitrate (Divers' solution, named after Edward Divers) contains 0.83 mol solute per mole of ammonia and has a vapour pressure of less than 1 bar even at 25 °C (77 °F).

Solutions of metals of Ammonia:
Liquid ammonia will dissolve all of the alkali metals and other electropositive metals such as Ca,[64] Sr, Ba, Eu, and Yb (also Mg using an electrolytic process).
At low concentrations (<0.06 mol/L), deep blue solutions are formed: these contain metal cations and solvated electrons, free electrons that are surrounded by a cage of ammonia molecules.

These solutions are very useful as strong reducing agents. 
At higher concentrations, the solutions are metallic in appearance and in electrical conductivity. 
At low temperatures, the two types of solution can coexist as immiscible phases.

The range of thermodynamic stability of liquid ammonia solutions is very narrow, as the potential for oxidation to dinitrogen, E° (N2 + 6 NH+4+ 6 e− ⇌ 8 NH3), is only +0.04 V. 
In practice, both oxidation to dinitrogen and reduction to dihydrogen are slow. 
This is particularly true of reducing solutions: the solutions of the alkali metals mentioned above are stable for several days, slowly decomposing to the metal amide and dihydrogen. 
Most studies involving liquid ammonia solutions are done in reducing conditions; although oxidation of liquid ammonia is usually slow, there is still a risk of explosion, particularly if transition metal ions are present as possible catalysts.

Fertilizer of Ammonia:
In the US as of 2019, approximately 88% of ammonia was used as fertilizers either as its salts, solutions or anhydrously.
When applied to soil, it helps provide increased yields of crops such as maize and wheat.
30% of agricultural nitrogen applied in the US is in the form of anhydrous ammonia and worldwide 110 million tonnes are applied each year.

Precursor to nitrogenous compounds of Ammonia:
Ammonia is directly or indirectly the precursor to most nitrogen-containing compounds. 
Virtually all synthetic nitrogen compounds are derived from ammonia. 

An important derivative is nitric acid. 
This key material is generated via the Ostwald process by oxidation of ammonia with air over a platinum catalyst at 700–850 °C (1,292–1,562 °F), ≈9 atm. 
Nitric oxide is an intermediate in this conversion:
NH3 + 2 O2 → HNO3 + H2O

Nitric acid is used for the production of fertilizers, explosives, and many organonitrogen compounds.

Ammonia is also used to make the following compounds:
Hydrazine, in the Olin Raschig process and the peroxide process
Hydrogen cyanide, in the BMA process and the Andrussow process

Hydroxylamine and ammonium carbonate, in the Raschig process
Phenol, in the Raschig–Hooker process
Urea, in the Bosch–Meiser urea process and in Wöhler synthesis

Amino acids, using Strecker amino-acid synthesis
Acrylonitrile, in the Sohio process
Ammonia can also be used to make compounds in reactions which are not specifically named. 
Examples of such compounds include: ammonium perchlorate, ammonium nitrate, formamide, dinitrogen tetroxide, alprazolam, ethanolamine, ethyl carbamate, hexamethylenetetramine, and ammonium bicarbonate.

Cleansing agent of Ammonia:
Household "ammonia" (also incorrectly called ammonium hydroxide) is a solution of NH3 in water, and is used as a general purpose cleaner for many surfaces. 
Because ammonia results in a relatively streak-free shine, one of its most common uses is to clean glass, porcelain and stainless steel. 

Ammonia is also frequently used for cleaning ovens and soaking items to loosen baked-on grime. 
Household ammonia ranges in concentration by weight from 5 to 10% ammonia.
United States manufacturers of cleaning products are required to provide the product's material safety data sheet which lists the concentration used.

Solutions of ammonia (5–10% by weight) are used as household cleaners, particularly for glass. 
These solutions are irritating to the eyes and mucous membranes (respiratory and digestive tracts), and to a lesser extent the skin. 
Experts advise that caution be used to ensure the substance is not mixed into any liquid containing bleach, due to the danger of toxic gas. 
Mixing with chlorine-containing products or strong oxidants, such as household bleach, can generate chloramines.
Experts also warn not to use ammonia-based cleaners (such as glass or window cleaners) on car touchscreens, due to the risk of damage to the screen's anti-glare and anti-fingerprint coatings.

Fermentation of Ammonia:
Solutions of ammonia ranging from 16% to 25% are used in the fermentation industry as a source of nitrogen for microorganisms and to adjust pH during fermentation.

Antimicrobial agent for food products
As early as in 1895, it was known that ammonia was "strongly antiseptic it requires 1.4 grams per litre to preserve beef tea (broth)."In one study, anhydrous ammonia destroyed 99.999% of zoonotic bacteria in 3 types of animal feed, but not silage.
Anhydrous ammonia is currently used commercially to reduce or eliminate microbial contamination of beef.

Lean finely textured beef (popularly known as "pink slime") in the beef industry is made from fatty beef trimmings (c. 50–70% fat) by removing the fat using heat and centrifugation, then treating it with ammonia to kill E. coli. 
The process was deemed effective and safe by the US Department of Agriculture based on a study that found that the treatment reduces E. coli to undetectable levels.
There have been safety concerns about the process as well as consumer complaints about the taste and smell of ammonia-treated beef.[

Fuel of Ammonia:
The raw energy density of liquid ammonia is 11.5 MJ/L, which is about a third that of diesel. 
There is the opportunity to convert ammonia back to hydrogen, where it can be used to power hydrogen fuel cells, or it may be used directly within high-temperature solid oxide direct ammonia fuel cells to provide efficient power sources that do not emit greenhouse gases.
The conversion of ammonia to hydrogen via the sodium amide process, either for combustion or as fuel for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, is possible. 
Another method is the catalytic decomposition of ammonia using solid catalysts.
Conversion to hydrogen would allow the storage of hydrogen at nearly 18 wt% compared to ≈5% for gaseous hydrogen under pressure.

Ammonia engines or ammonia motors, using ammonia as a working fluid, have been proposed and occasionally used.
The principle is similar to that used in a fireless locomotive, but with ammonia as the working fluid, instead of steam or compressed air. 
Ammonia engines were used experimentally in the 19th century by Goldsworthy Gurney in the UK and the St. Charles Avenue Streetcar line in New Orleans in the 1870s and 1880s, and during World War II ammonia was used to power buses in Belgium.

Ammonia is sometimes proposed as a practical alternative to fossil fuel for internal combustion engines.
Ammonias high octane rating of 120 and low flame temperature allows the use of high compression ratios without a penalty of high NOx production. 
Since ammonia contains no carbon, its combustion cannot produce carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, or soot.

Ammonia production currently creates 1.8% of global CO2 emissions. 
"Green ammonia" is ammonia produced by using green hydrogen (hydrogen produced by electrolysis), whereas "blue ammonia" is ammonia produced using blue hydrogen (hydrogen produced by steam methane reforming where the carbon dioxide has been captured and stored).
However, ammonia cannot be easily used in existing Otto cycle engines because of its very narrow flammability range, and there are also other barriers to widespread automobile usage. 

In terms of raw ammonia supplies, plants would have to be built to increase production levels, requiring significant capital and energy sources. Although it is the second most produced chemical (after sulfuric acid), the scale of ammonia production is a small fraction of world petroleum usage. 
Ammonia could be manufactured from renewable energy sources, as well as coal or nuclear power. 
The 60 MW Rjukan dam in Telemark, Norway, produced ammonia for many years from 1913, providing fertilizer for much of Europe.

Despite this, several tests have been run. In 1981, a Canadian company converted a 1981 Chevrolet Impala to operate using ammonia as fuel.[95][96] In 2007, a University of Michigan pickup powered by ammonia drove from Detroit to San Francisco as part of a demonstration, requiring only one fill-up in Wyoming.[97]
Compared to hydrogen as a fuel, ammonia is much more energy efficient, and could be produced, stored, and delivered at a much lower cost than hydrogen, which must be kept compressed or as a cryogenic liquid.

Rocket engines have also been fueled by ammonia. 
The Reaction Motors XLR99 rocket engine that powered the X-15 hypersonic research aircraft used liquid ammonia. 
Although not as powerful as other fuels, it left no soot in the reusable rocket engine, and its density approximately matches the density of the oxidizer, liquid oxygen, which simplified the aircraft's design.

In early August 2018, scientists from Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) announced the success of developing a process to release hydrogen from ammonia and harvest that at ultra-high purity as a fuel for cars. 
This uses a special membrane. 
Two demonstration fuel cell vehicles have the technology, a Hyundai Nexo and Toyota Mirai.

In 2020, Saudi Arabia shipped forty metric tons of liquid "blue ammonia" to Japan for use as a fuel. 
Ammonia was produced as a by-product by petrochemical industries, and can be burned without giving off greenhouse gases. 
Ammonias energy density by volume is nearly double that of liquid hydrogen. 

If the process of creating it can be scaled up via purely renewable resources, producing green ammonia, it could make a major difference in avoiding climate change.
The company ACWA Power and the city of Neom have announced the construction of a green hydrogen and ammonia plant in 2020.
Green ammonia is considered as a potential fuel for future container ships. 
In 2020, the companies DSME and MAN Energy Solutions announced the construction of an ammonia-based ship, DSME plans to commercialize it by 2025.
The use of ammonia as a potential alternative fuel for aircraft jet engines is also being explored.

Japan is targeting to bring forward a plan to develop ammonia co-firing technology that can increase the use of ammonia in power generation, as part of efforts to assist domestic and other Asian utilities to accelerate their transition to carbon neutrality. 
In October 2021, the first International Conference on Fuel Ammonia (ICFA2021) was held.
In 2022, IHI Corporation succeeded in reducing greenhouse gases by over 99% during combustion of liquid ammonia in a 2,000-kilowatt-class gas turbine achieving truly CO₂-free power generation.

Remediation of gaseous emissions
Ammonia is used to scrub SO2 from the burning of fossil fuels, and the resulting product is converted to ammonium sulfate for use as fertilizer. 
Ammonia neutralises the nitrogen oxide (NOx) pollutants emitted by diesel engines. 
This technology, called SCR (selective catalytic reduction), relies on a vanadia-based catalyst.
Ammonia may be used to mitigate gaseous spills of phosgene.

As a hydrogen carrier
Due to its attributes, being liquid at ambient temperature under its own vapour pressure and having high volumetric and gravimetric energy density, ammonia is considered a suitable carrier for hydrogen, and may be cheaper than direct transport of liquid hydrogen.

Refrigeration of Ammonia:
Because of ammonia's vaporization properties, it is a useful refrigerant. 
Ammonia was commonly used before the popularisation of chlorofluorocarbons (Freons). 
Anhydrous ammonia is widely used in industrial refrigeration applications and hockey rinks because of its high energy efficiency and low cost. 

Ammonia suffers from the disadvantage of toxicity, and requiring corrosion resistant components, which restricts its domestic and small-scale use. 
Along with its use in modern vapor-compression refrigeration it is used in a mixture along with hydrogen and water in absorption refrigerators. 
The Kalina cycle, which is of growing importance to geothermal power plants, depends on the wide boiling range of the ammonia–water mixture. 
Ammonia coolant is also used in the S1 radiator aboard the International Space Station in two loops which are used to regulate the internal temperature and enable temperature dependent experiments.

The potential importance of ammonia as a refrigerant has increased with the discovery that vented CFCs and HFCs are extremely potent and stable greenhouse gases.

Stimulant of Ammonia:
Ammonia, as the vapor released by smelling salts, has found significant use as a respiratory stimulant. 
Ammonia is commonly used in the illegal manufacture of methamphetamine through a Birch reduction. 
The Birch method of making methamphetamine is dangerous because the alkali metal and liquid ammonia are both extremely reactive, and the temperature of liquid ammonia makes it susceptible to explosive boiling when reactants are added.

Household Products of Ammonia:
Household & Commercial/Institutional Products
Information on 123 consumer products that contain Ammonia in the following categories is provided:

Auto Products
Commercial / Institutional
Home Maintenance
Inside the Home

Methods of Manufacturing of Ammonia:    
Ammonia is produced as a by-product in coal distillation and by the action of steam on calcium cyanamide, and from the decomposition of nitrogenous materials.
Ammonia is manufactured primarily by a modified Haber reduction process using atmospheric nitrogen and a hydrogen source, for example, methane, ethylene or naphtha, at high temperatures (400 to 6500 °C) and pressures (100 to 900 atm) in the presence of an iron catalyst.
From synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen (from air) obtained by steam reforming or by partial combustion of natural gas (U.S.). or from the action of steam on hot coke (Haber-Bosch process).
Manufactured from water gas (obtained by blowing steam through incandescent coke) as source of hydrogen, and from producer gas (obtained from steam and air through incandescent coke), as source of nitrogen by the Haber-Bosch process.

Identifiers of Ammonia:
CAS Number: 7664-41-7 
3DMet: B00004
Beilstein Reference: 3587154
ChEBI: CHEBI:16134 
ChEMBL: ChEMBL1160819 
ECHA InfoCard: 100.028.760
EC Number: 231-635-3
Gmelin Reference: 79
KEGG: D02916 
MeSH: Ammonia
RTECS number: BO0875000
UNII: 5138Q19F1X
UN number: 1005
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID0023872 

CAS Reg. No.: 7664-41-7
SciFinder nomenclature: Ammonia
Empirical formula: H3N
Molar mass: 17.03 g/mol
Appearance: Colorless gas
Boiling point: –33.3 ºC
Water solubility: 
≈530 g/L (20 ºC)
≈320 g/L (25 ºC)

Molecular Weight: 17.031
XLogP3-AA: -0.7    
Hydrogen Bond Donor Count: 1    
Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count: 1
Rotatable Bond Count: 0    
Exact Mass: 17.026549100    
Monoisotopic Mass: 17.026549100    
Topological Polar Surface Area: 1 Ų
Heavy Atom Count: 1    
Formal Charge: 0    
Complexity: 0    
Isotope Atom Count: 0    
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0    
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0    
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0    
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0    
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count: 1    
Compound Is Canonicalized: Yes

Properties of Ammonia:
Chemical formula: NH3
Molar mass: 17.031 g/mol
Appearance: Colourless gas
Odor: strong pungent odour
0.86 kg/m3 (1.013 bar at boiling point)
0.769  kg/m3 (STP)
0.73 kg/m3 (1.013 bar at 15 °C)
681.9 kg/m3 at −33.3 °C (liquid) See also Ammonia (data page)
817 kg/m3 at −80 °C (transparent solid)
Melting point: −77.73 °C (−107.91 °F; 195.42 K) (Triple point at 6.060 kPa, 195.4 K)
Boiling point: −33.34 °C (−28.01 °F; 239.81 K)
Critical point (T, P): 132.4 °C (405.5 K), 111.3 atm (11,280 kPa)
Solubility in water: 
47% w/w (0 °C)
31% w/w (25 °C)
18% w/w (50 °C)
Solubility: soluble in chloroform, ether, ethanol, methanol
Vapor pressure: 857.3 kPa
Acidity (pKa): 32.5 (−33 °C),[6] 9,24 (of ammonium)
Basicity (pKb): 4.75
Conjugate acid: Ammonium
Conjugate base: Amide
Magnetic susceptibility (χ): −18.0·10−6 cm3/mol
Refractive index (nD): 1.3327
10.07 µPa·s (25 °C)
0.276 mPa·s (−40 °C)

Structure of Ammonia:
Point group: C3v
Molecular shape: Trigonal pyramid
Dipole moment: 1.42 D

Related compounds of Ammonia:
Other cations:
Related nitrogen hydrides:
Hydrazoic acid
Related compounds: Ammonium hydro

Names of Ammonia:

IUPAC name: Ammonia[1]
Systematic IUPAC name: Azane

Other names
Hydrogen nitride
R-717, R717 (refrigerant)

Synonyms of Ammonia:    
Ammonia gas
Spirit of hartshorn
Ammonia, anhydrous
Ammonia solution
Ammonia anhydrous
Anhydrous ammonia
Liquid Ammonia
Ammoniak Kconzentrierter
Amoniak [Polish]
Ammoniac [French]
Ammoniak [German]
Ammoniaca [Italian]
Caswell No. 041
Ammonia (conc 20% or greater)
CCRIS 2278
HSDB 162
Ammonia solution, strong
UN 2073 (>44% solution)
Aminomethyl Polystyrene Resin
Refrigerent R717
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 005302
Strong Ammonia Solution
R 717
UN 1005 (anhydrous gas or >50% solution)
UN 2672 (between 12% and 44% solution)
Ammonia, 7M in methanol
Ammonia anhydrous, 99.98%
Ammonia solution, strong (NF)
Ammonia solution, strong [NF]
EINECS 231-635-3
tertiaeres Amin
Aminyl radical
ammonia ca
primaeres Amin
Ammonia inhalant
Ammoniacum gummi
sekundaeres Amin
anyhydrous ammonia
Ammonium causticum
(Aminomethyl)polystyrene, 100-200 mesh, extent of labeling: ~0.5 mmol/g amine loading
Strong-ammonia solution
R 717 (ammonia)
Ammonia (8CI,9CI)
Ammonia water (JP15)
Aromatic ammonia vaporole
Ammonia, 2M in methanol
Dowex(R) 66 free base
Ammonia, 0.5M in THF
Aromatic Ammonia, Vaporole
EC 231-635-3
Ammonia solution strong (NF)
Ammonia solution strong [usan]
INS NO.527
N H3
ammonium isovalerate 30% in pg
Ammonia solution, 0.4 M in THF
Ammonia solution, 4 M in methanol
Ammonia solution, 7 N in methanol
Ammonia, anhydrous, >=99.98%
Ammonia solution 2.0 M in ethanol
Ammonia solution 2.0 M in methanol
Ammonia solution, 0.5 M in dioxane
Ammonia solution, 2.0 M in ethanol
Ammonia anhydrous 170g Lecture bottle
Ammonia solution, 2.0 M in methanol
Ammonia solution 2.0 M in isopropanol
Ammonia 0.5M solution in 1,4-Dioxane
Ammonia solution, 2.0 M in isopropanol
Ammonia (includes anhydrous ammonia and aqueous ammonia from water dissociable ammonium salts and other sources; 10% of total aqueous ammonia is reportable under this listing)
Ammonia, anhydrous, liquefied or ammonia solutions, relative density <0.880 at 15 C in water, with >50% ammonia [UN1005] [Nonflammable gas]
Ammonia, anhydrous, liquefied or ammonia solutions, relative density <0.880 at 15 C in water, with >50% ammonia [UN1005] [Poison gas, Corrosive]
Ammonia, puriss., anhydrous, >=99.9%
Ammonia solution 0.25M in tetrahydrofuran
Ammonia, puriss., anhydrous, >=99.95%
Dowex(R) Marathon(TM) WBA free base, free base
(Aminomethyl)polystyrene, 100-200 mesh, extent of labeling: ~2 mmol/g amine loading
(Aminomethyl)polystyrene, 200-400 mesh, extent of labeling: ~0.6 mmol/g amine loading
(Aminomethyl)polystyrene, 200-400 mesh, extent of labeling: ~1.5 mmol/g amine loading
(Aminomethyl)polystyrene, 400-500 mum, extent of labeling: 1-2 mmol/g amine loading
(Aminomethyl)polystyrene, 100-200 mesh, extent of labeling: 0.5-1.0 mmol/g N loading, 1 % cross-linked
(Aminomethyl)polystyrene, 100-200 mesh, extent of labeling: 1.0 mmol/g N loading, 1 % cross-linked
(Aminomethyl)polystyrene, 200-400 mesh, extent of labeling: 1.0-1.5 mmol/g N loading, 1 % cross-linked
(Aminomethyl)polystyrene, 200-400 mesh, extent of labeling: 1.0-2.0 mmol/g loading, 2 % cross-linked
(Aminomethyl)polystyrene, 200-400 mesh, extent of labeling: 4.0 mmol/g loading, 2 % cross-linked
(Aminomethyl)polystyrene, 50-100 mesh, extent of labeling: 2.0 mmol/g loading, 1 % cross-linked
(Aminomethyl)polystyrene, 70-90 mesh, extent of labeling: 1.0-1.5 mmol/g N loading, 1 % cross-linked
(Aminomethyl)polystyrene, 70-90 mesh, extent of labeling: 1.5-2.0 mmol/g N loading, 1 % cross-linked
(Aminomethyl)polystyrene, macroporous, 30-60 mesh, extent of labeling: 1.5-3.0 mmol/g loading
(Aminomethyl)polystyrene, macroporous, 70-90 mesh, extent of labeling: 1.5-3.0 mmol/g loading
Ammonia (includes anhydrous ammonia and aqueous ammonia from water dissociable ammonium salts and other sources 10% of total aqueous ammonia is reportable under this listing)
Ammonia, anhydrous, liquefied or ammonia solutions, relative density <0.880 at 15 C in water, with >50% ammonia
Ammonia, anhydrous, liquefied or ammonia solutions, relative density <0.880 at 15 C in water, with >50% ammonia [UN1005] [Nonflammable gas]
Ammonia, anhydrous, liquefied or ammonia solutions, relative density <0.880 at 15 C in water, with >50% ammonia [UN1005] [Poison gas, Corrosive]
StratoSpheres(TM) PL-AMS resin, 100-200 mesh, extent of labeling: ~1.0 mmol/g loading, 1 % cross-linked with divinylbenzene
StratoSpheres(TM) PL-AMS resin, 100-200 mesh, extent of labeling: 2.0 mmol/g loading, 1 % cross-linked
StratoSpheres(TM) PL-AMS resin, 30-40 mesh, extent of labeling: 1.0 mmol/g loading, 1 % cross-linked
StratoSpheres(TM) PL-AMS resin, 30-40 mesh, extent of labeling: 2.0 mmol/g loading, 1 % cross-linked
StratoSpheres(TM) PL-AMS resin, 50-100 mesh, extent of labeling: 2.0 mmol/g loading, 1 % cross-linked

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