AMMONIUM BICARBONATE

CAS Number: 1066-33-7
Molecular Weight: 79.06
EC Number: 213-911-5

Ammonium bicarbonate is an inorganic compound with bicarbonateh formula (NH4)HCO3, simplified to NH5CO3. 
Ammonium bicarbonate has many names, reflecting Ammonium bicarbonates long history. 
Chemically speaking, Ammonium bicarbonate is the bicarbonate salt of the ammonium ion. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is a colourless solid that degrades readily to carbon dioxide, water and ammonia.

Ammonium bicarbonate is an inorganic salt commonly used in the food industry. 
Ammonium bicarbonate can be generated by the interaction of gaseous carbon dioxide and aqueous ammonia. 
The add Ammonium bicarbonateion of ammonium bicarbonate to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been reported to improve Ammonium bicarbonates functioning by altering the porosity and pore distribution of catalyst layers.
A recent study reports the use of bubble column evaporator (BCE) based analysis of Ammonium bicarbonates thermal degradation in aqueous solution.

Ammonium bicarbonate, a natural chemical, has a faint ammonia smell because Ammonium bicarbonate slowly decomposes to ammonia, carbon dioxide, and water. 
As a pesticide active ingredient, Ammonium bicarbonate acts as a feeding attractant for insects. 
In Ammonium bicarbonates first approved end use products, ammonium bicarbonate is combined with two other active ingredients to control olive flies in olive orchards. 
When used according to label directions on products, Ammonium bicarbonate is not expected to harm people or the environment. 

Uses of Ammonium bicarbonate:
Ammonium bicarbonate is used in the food industry as a leavening agent for flat baked goods, such as cookies and crackers. 
Ammonium bicarbonate was commonly used in the home before modern-day baking powder was made available. 
Many baking cookbooks, especially from Scandinavian countries, may still refer to Ammonium bicarbonate as hartshorn or hornsalt, while Ammonium bicarbonate is known as "hirvensarvisuola" in Finnish, "hjortetakksalt" in Norwegian, "hjortetakssalt" in Danish, "hjorthornssalt" in Swedish, and "Hirschhornsalz" in German. 
Although there is a slight smell of ammonia during baking, this quickly dissipates, leaving no taste. 

Ammonium bicarbonate is used in, for example, Swedish "drömmar" biscuites and Danish "brunkager" Christmas biscuites, and German Lebkuchen. 
In many cases Ammonium bicarbonate may be replaced with baking soda or baking powder, or a combination of both, depending on the recipe composAmmonium bicarbonateion and leavening requirements.
Compared to baking soda or potash, hartshorn has the advantage of producing more gas for the same amount of agent, and of not leaving any salty or soapy taste in the finished product, as Ammonium bicarbonate completely decomposes into water and gaseous products that evaporate during baking. 
Ammonium bicarbonate cannot be used for moist, bulky baked goods however, such as normal bread or cakes, since some ammonia will be trapped inside and will cause an unpleasant taste. 
Ammonium bicarbonate has been assigned E number E503 for use as a food additive in the European Union.

Ammonium bicarbonate is commonly used as an inexpensive Ammonium bicarbonaterogen fertilizer in China, but is now being phased out in favor of urea for quality and stabilAmmonium bicarbonatey. 
This compound is used as a component in the production of fire-extinguishing compounds, pharmaceuticals, dyes, pigments, and Ammonium bicarbonate is also a basic fertilizer, being a source of ammonia. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is still widely used in the plastics and rubber industry, in the manufacture of ceramics, in chrome leather tanning, and for the synthesis of catalysts.
Ammonium bicarbonate is also used for buffering solutions to make them slightly alkaline during chemical purification, such as high-performance liquid chromatography. 
Because Ammonium bicarbonate entirely decomposes to volatile compounds, this allows rapid recovery of the compound of interest by freeze-drying.
Ammonium bicarbonate is also a key component of the expectorant cough syrup "Senega and Ammonia".

A white powder made for use as a leavening agent which is added as an ingredient when preparing many different types of baked goods that will have thin shells or crusts such as puff pasteries, flat breads, crackers, and some cookies. 
Ammonium Biocarbonate is typically used with smaller baked goods that can quickly disperse and evaporate the ammonia gas as Ammonium bicarbonate builds up within the baked Ammonium bicarbonateem. 
During the baking process, an ammonia aroma may be present, but Ammonium bicarbonate will not remain and will not be noticed in the baked goods when they are eaten. 
The result of using Ammonium Bicarbonate is a baked good that will have an light, airy, crispy, and somewhat fluffy texture. 
The term Ammonium Bicarbonate is actually an old term that is now more commonly referred to and replaced in recipes Ammonium bicarbonateh the substance known as baking powder or baking soda. 
However, the use of actual Ammonium Bicarbonate substance is still preferred by some who want a lighter or crispier texture than can be achieved by using baking powder or soda. 

Ammonium Bicarbonate (or baking ammonia or hartshorn salt) is used as a leavening agent in baking of cookies and other edible treats. 
Ammonium bicarbonate gives an explosive and fast leavening for baked goods that are baked for a short time. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is specially suitable for thin, dry cookies. 
When heated Ammonium bicarbonate releases ammonia and carbon dioxide gases, but no water. 
The lack of water allows the cookies to cook and dry out faster.

Ammonium bicarbonate may also be used as a substitute to remove the alkaline-like flavor that at times occurs in some baked goods when baking powder or baking soda is added. 
Many older European and Scandinavian recipes may use the term Baker's Ammonia instead of Ammonium Biocarbonate when referring to this substance. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is also often referred to as Hartshorn or Harts Horn which is a substance that is removed from deer antlers. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is important to understand that Ammonia and leaving agents such as Baker's Ammonia, baking powder or baking soda are not the same as household ammonia which is a poisonous substance and should not be used with foods or baked goods.
Ammonium Biocarbonate is activated when Ammonium bicarbonate is added to a dough or batter mixture and warms to room temperature or is baked, since heat is the catlyst to activate the chemical reaction and the gases. 
The chemical reaction releases an ammonia gas that causes the baked goods to rise. 
Ammonium Biocarbonate should be stored in an airtight sealed container such as a glass jar with an airtight lid. 

When properly stored in a cool dry area, Ammonium Bicarbonate can last for several years. 
If stored in a warm or damp area where air can reach the powder, this substance begins to clump together as the particles go through a chemical reaction, which will affect the flavor adversely when baked goods use the air-exposed Bicarbonate. 
In addition, when exposed to air, the Ammonia may begin to evaporate from the powdered Bicarbonate substance. 
When a recipe suggests the use of Ammonium Bicarbonate, equal amounts of baking powder can be substituted if necessary. 
To determine if Bicarbonate is still active, add a spoonful of the powder to a cup containing lemon juice or vinegar and see if Ammonium bicarbonate fizzes. 
Stale Ammonium Bicarbonate will be flat and will not fizz when combined with the vinegar or lemon juice.

Ammonium bicarbonate will decompose during baking and release ammonia and carbon dioxide leavening gases without reacting with a leavening acid. 
Unlike sodium bicarbonate, which leaves a residue of alkaline sodium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate leaves no residue when Ammonium bicarbonate decomposes by heat. 
Ammonium bicarbonate, therefore, has no effect on the pH of the baked product. 
If there is more than about 5% moisture in the baked product, however, the ammonia gas will dissolve in this water and impart an ammoniacal flavor to the product. 
For this reason, ammonium bicarbonate is used only in low-moisture products such as crackers.

USES AND APPLICATIONS FOR AMMONIUM BICARBONATE
INDUSTRIES
-Pharma
-Lubricants
-Water Treatment
-Cleaning
-Animal NutrAmmonium bicarbonateion
-Coatings & Construction
-Food and NutrAmmonium bicarbonateion
-Agriculture
-Cosmetics
-Polymers

A BITTER TASTE
Ammonium bicarbonate was used in things like cookies because Ammonium bicarbonate did not impart a bitter taste the way some early version of baking soda and powder did. 

ONLY USED IN COOKIES THAT ARE FLAT
The ammonia gas gets trapped in baked goods like a cake where Ammonium bicarbonate cannot escape and will make the cake smell bad, so Ammonium bicarbonate is only used in cookies that are flat and porous where the surface area allows to ammonia to disappear. 

Ammonia powder is ammonium bicarbonate, a leavening agent that is a precursor of today's baking powder and baking soda; Ammonium bicarbonate must be ground to a powder before using. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is also known as hartshorn, carbonate of ammonia or powdered baking ammonia. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is still called for in some recipes especially for cookies.

STORING
If you don't store Ammonium bicarbonate in an airtight jar Ammonium bicarbonate will evaporate. 

PRESERVED THE FLOUR
Baking powders were invented in Germany during a famine when food was scarce and people were dying. 
Using baking powder instead of yeast preserved the flour in the baking process instead of Ammonium bicarbonate being eaten by the yeast. 

Ammonium bicarbonate is an inorganic chemical compound which is usually used as a raising or leavening agent in the food industry. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is utilized as a source of carbon in low-moisture baked foods. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is generally produced by coursing the carbon dioxide through a stream of aqua ammonia. 
The result of the reaction is unstable and thus Ammonium bicarbonate is kept in a cold atmosphere.

The powdered baking ammonia cannot be used for bulky baked foods; however, Ammonium bicarbonates applications are not only bounded to the food industry. 
Ammonium bicarbonates use can found in the agricultural, pharmaceutical, textile, and ceramic industries, among others. 
Ammonium bicarbonate has bestowed the new entrants and emerging players with lucrative opportunities and untapped new avenues for them.

AN OTHER NAME
Ammonium bicarbonate is also called Hartshorn, or Horn Salts. 

A DEER STORY
Hartshorn lAmmonium bicarbonateerally means ground deer horn which was supposedly used before ammonium bicarbonate went into commercial production - not clear if Ammonium bicarbonate has the same properties though, so don't bother trying to grind up antlers. 

SMELLING SALTS
Harsthorn, Horn Salts or ammonium bicarbonate were used as smelling salts. 

Ammonium bicarbonate is a common leavening agent used in the baking industry and has been reported to be used in Guangdong-style steamed breads. 
Ammonium bicarbonate releases carbon dioxide and ammonia gas when the dough temperature reaches 40°C. 
If used at the correct addition rate, Ammonium bicarbonate significantly improves steamed bread color and volume. 
In addition, Ammonium bicarbonate can function as a buffering agent. 
Overuse of ammonium bicarbonate can result in ammoniacal taints in the final steamed bread. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is more commonly used in low-moisture products such as English-style biscuites.

Application
Ammonium bicarbonate (AMBIC) was used in the following studies:
To derivatize histone proteins from human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) by propionylation.
Destaining of silver-stained proteins in polyacrylamide gel bands during the peptide mass profiling using a mass spectrometer.
Digestion of proteins isolated from Xenopus egg extracts in coomassie blue-stained gel bands during the analysis of microtubule-binding proteins.

What are the uses of Ammonium Bicarbonate?
Food Industry
Fertilizer
Pharmaceuticals
Plastic and Rubber
Ceramics
Other Industries

Boiling Point:
N/A
Specific gravity:
N/A
Appearance / Odor:
white crystalline powder
solubility in Water:
17.4 g / 100 mL at 20 °C
Melting Point:
41.9 °C (107.4 °F)
pH:
8.2 at 1 percent solution
Molecular Weight:
79.05

Reactions
Ammonium bicarbonate dissolves in water to give a mildly alkaline solution. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is insoluble in acetone and alcohols.

Ammonium bicarbonate decomposes above about 36 °C into ammonia, carbon dioxide, and water in an endothermic process and so causes a drop in the temperature of the water:
NH4HCO3 → NH3 + H2O + CO2.

When treated with acids, ammonium salts are also produced:
NH4HCO3 + HCl → NH4Cl + CO2 + H2O.
Reaction with base produces ammonia.

Ammonium bicarbonate reacts with sulfates of alkaline-earth metals precipitating their carbonates:
CaSO4 + 2 NH4HCO3 → CaCO3 + (NH4)2SO4 + CO2 + H2O.

Ammonium bicarbonate also reacts with alkali metal halides, giving alkali metal bicarbonate and ammonium halide:
NH4HCO3 + NaCl → NH4Cl + NaHCO3;
NH4HCO3 + KI → NH4I + KHCO3;
NH4HCO3 + NaBr → NH4Br + NaHCO3.
Natural occurrence
The compound occurs in nature as an exceedingly rare mineral teschemacherite.

What is Ammonium Bicarbonate?
Ammonium bicarbonate, NH4HCO3, is a common leavening agent which releases CO2 without the need for an acid. 
Unlike baking powder or soda, Ammonium bicarbonate does not leave an alkaline taste, characteristic of soda or baking powder.

This ingredient is not used in high volume cakes, but mostly in:
-Extra crisp cookies
-Cream-puff pastries
-Crackers

Ammonium bicarbonate (NH₄HCO₃) has been shown to contribute, promote, and speed up acrylamide formation in baked products. 
A proposed mechanism is that NH₄HCO₃ fragments sugars, forming the highly reactive glyoxal and methylglyoxal species, which can react with asparagine, thereby increasing acrylamide levels.

Ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) is an important raising agent for the biscuit and cracker industry and bakers also use Ammonium bicarbonate in some strongly flavored products like gingerbread. 
ABC decomposes on heating at 60°C in a temperature-driven reaction releasing carbon dioxide, ammonia, and water vapor. 
ABC offers major technical benefits, as Ammonium bicarbonate is used for rapid, early expansion in the oven. 
Since ABC does not start acting before the oven, Ammonium bicarbonate means that products do not gas when the dough is mixing or standing which can be important during plant breakdowns. 
Biscuit makers also value the consistent stack height Ammonium bicarbonate gives, and Ammonium bicarbonate leaves no residue and no adverse flavors in low moisture products. 
Another complexity revolves around the fact that the level added to a recipe may change daily because of normal raw material variations. 
In this situation using ABC allows the adaptation of only one, stand-alone, ingredient, whereas other raising agents—that require acids for their action—would be more complicated to adapt. 
Unfortunately, the tendency to promote acrylamide formation is now a major drawback of using ABC.

Origin and Commercial Production
Historically, ammonium bicarbonate was produced in Northern Europe from dry distillation of hair, horn or other nitrogenous organic matter. 
Today, Ammonium bicarbonate is produced commercially by dissolving carbon dioxide in ammonia:
NH4OH + CO2 → NH4HCO3

In gingerbread, NH₄HCO₃ additions of 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 g/100 g dough increased acrylamide formation to acrylamide levels to 170, 501, and 880 μg/kg in the final products. 
In shortbread, acrylamide levels increased from 76 to 162 μg/kg when the ABC level was increased from 3.0 to 11.9 g in shortbread paste.
Conversely, reducing or removing ABC can reduce acrylamide formation.

Properties1
Colorless or white crystals
Faint odor of ammonia
Melting point: 95 °F (35 °C)
solubility: Freely soluble in water. 
Insoluble in ethanol
Decomposes above 34 °C with formation of ammonia gas

Function
Ammonium bicarbonate can release ammonia and carbon dioxide, leavening gases without reacting with a leavening acid. 
Ammonium bicarbonate spontaneously decomposes into this ingredient and ammonia first and in a later step into ammonia and carbon dioxide gas:
NH4HCO3→ NH4HCO3+NH3
NH4HCO3→H2O+CO2+NH3
Baking soda can replace this ingredient in low-moisture products like dry cookies or some cracker products although this may not reproduce the unique texture.

Application
Ammonium bicarbonate is listed in Old World baking recipes. 
Especially, in Scandinavian gingerbread, Polish ammonia cookies and tranditional German Spekulatius Christmas cookies.

Advantages of using this in baked goods include:
The absence of alkaline taste residue often encountered with sodium bicarbonate
Ammonium bicarbonate doesn’t affect the pH of the baked goods
In high moisture baked goods (in excess of 5%), ammonium bicarbonate may lead to the development of ammoniacal flavor. 
This is why Ammonium bicarbonate’s most suited for low-moisture products such as biscuites, crackers, cookies, and waffle cones.

Typically, this ingredient is mixed in with the liquid ingredients to ensure Ammonium bicarbonates dissolution prior to incorporating into the dry mix. 
In some formulas, Ammonium bicarbonate is used in combination with 30-50% baking soda.

IUPAC name
Ammonium hydrogen carbonate
Other names
Bicarbonate of ammonia, ammonium hydrogen carbonate, hartshorn, AmBic, powdered baking ammonia

Production
Ammonium bicarbonate is produced by combining carbon dioxide and ammonia:
CO2 + NH3 + H2O → (NH4)HCO3
Since ammonium bicarbonate is thermally unstable, the reaction solution is kept cold, which allows the precipitation of the product as white solid. 
About 100,000 tons were produced in this way in 1997.
Ammonia gas passed into a strong aqueous solution of the sesquicarbonate (a 2:1:1 mixture of (NH4)HCO3, (NH4)2CO3, and H2O) converts Ammonium bicarbonate into normal ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3), which can be obtained in the crystalline condition from a solution prepared at about 30 °C. 
This compound on exposure to air gives off ammonia and reverts to ammonium bicarbonate.

Formula: CH5NO3 / NH4HCO3
Molecular mass: 79.1
Decomposes at 35-60°C
density: 1.58 g/cm³
solubility in water, g/100ml at 20°C: 17.4 (good) 

Ammonium Bicarbonate is a widely used ingredient in bakery industry because of Ammonium bicarbonates leavening and stabilizing properties and acid regulating capacity.

Common applications of Ammonium Bicarbonate:
Cookies
Crackers
Pastas
Frozen dairy products
Bakery ingredients
Pigments and paints
Agriculture
Fire extinguishers
A leavening agent is a substance that releases gas in baked goods to impart a light texture.

Salt of Hartshorn
compositions containing ammonium carbonate have long been known. 
They were once produced commercially, formerly known as sal volatile or salt of hartshorn. 
Ammonium bicarbonate was obtained by the dry distillation of nitrogenous organic matter such as hair, horn, leather. 
In addition to ammonium bicarbonate, this material contains ammonium carbamate (NH4CO2NH2), and ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3). 
Ammonium bicarbonate is sometimes called ammonium sesquicarbonate. 
Ammonium bicarbonate possesses a strong ammoniacal smell, and on digestion with alcohol, the carbamate is dissolved leaving a residue of ammonium bicarbonate.
A similar decomposition takes place when the sesquicarbonate is exposed to air.

NAmmonium bicarbonaterogen fertilizer
Ammonium bicarbonate is mainly used as fertilizers. 
After being applied to the soil, the ammonium ion (NH4 +) contained in ammonium bicarbonate can be absorbed by soil colloid or lattice-fixed or transformed into nitrate nitrogen. 
After being absorbed by plants, there are no accessory constituents remaining in the soil with a small impact on the soil pH. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is applicable to all kinds of soil and crops, soil without leaving any harmful substance residue for the soil and crops. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer and can be subject to long-term usage.
In order to prevent the loss of fertilizer efficacy due to ammonia volatilization and the burning of the crop stems and leaves, we can apply deep placement and cover soil. 

Ammonium bicarbonate can be used as basic fertilizer for topdressing, but not suitable to be used as seed manure. 
When being used for topdressing, we should prevent the drop of ammonium bicarbonate onto the plant, to avoid ammonia hazards. 
The shortcoming of ammonium bicarbonate as a fertilizer lies in Ammonium bicarbonates chemical instability. 
After the addition of crystalline modifier, the crystal of ammonium bicarbonate is enlarged and the water content is reduced, reducing the phenomenon of easily subjecting to decomposition and agglomeration. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is one of nitrogen fertilizer industrial products, being the major varieties of small nitrogenous fertilizer plants in China, being one of the purification products of coke oven in the coking plant. 
Coking plant takes concentrated ammonia as raw materials for reaction with carbon dioxide to generate ammonium bicarbonate crystals with centrifugal filtering to obtain ammonium bicarbonate products.
Ammonium bicarbonate is easy to be subject to decomposition. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is appropriate to be packed with the combination of inner plastic film and external plastic bag or 3-layers of kraft paper sacks, both need to be sealed and stored in a warehouse of being cool, low-temperature, dry and ventilated to prevent moisture, rain and sun.

Chemical properties
Ammonium bicarbonate appears as white monoclinic or orthorhombic crystals. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is soluble in water, but insoluble in ethanol, carbon disulfide and concentrated ammonia.
Ammonium bicarbonate dissolves in water to give a mildly alkaline solution. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is insoluble in most organic solvents. 
While Ammonium bicarbonate is stable at room temperature (25 °C), Ammonium bicarbonate decomposes at temperatures above 36 °C to form ammonia, carbon dioxide, and water in an endothermic reaction (absorbs energy for the reaction from the surroundings).
NH4HCO3 → NH3 + CO2 + H2O
Ammonium bicarbonate reacts with acids to produce carbon dioxide, and reacts with bases to produce ammonia.

Uses
-Ammonium bicarbonate is used as nitrogen fertilizer, being applicable to a variety of soils, can simultaneously provide the ammonium nitrogen and carbon dioxide demanded by crop growth. 
However, Ammonium bicarbonate contains low nitrogen content and is also easy to caking.
-Ammonium bicarbonate can be used as analytical reagent as well as being used in synthesizing ammonium salt and fabric degreasing.
-Ammonium bicarbonate can promote crop growth and photosynthesis; trigger seedlings and the growth of leaves. 
Ammonium bicarbonate can be used as topdressing as well as being directly applied as ground fertilizer as food leavening agent and bulking agent.
-Ammonium bicarbonate can be used as a senior food fermentation agent. 
Ammonium bicarbonates combination with sodium bicarbonate can be used as the raw materials of leavening agent such as bread, biscuites and pancakes. 
Ammonium bicarbonate can also be used as raw material of foam powder juice, as well as being used for the blanching of green vegetables and bamboo shoots.

Moreover, Ammonium bicarbonate can be used as medicine and reagents.
-Alkali; leavening agent; buffer; aerating agent.
Ammonium bicarbonates combination with sodium bicarbonate can be used as the raw materials of leavening agent such as bread, biscuites and pancakes. 
Baking powder also takes Ammonium bicarbonate as the main ingredient, together with the acidic substances. 
Ammonium bicarbonate can also be used as raw material of foam powder juice. 
The dosage of the blanching of green vegetables and bamboo shoots should be 0.1% to 0.3%.
-Ammonium bicarbonate can be used as analytical reagent; used for ammonium salt synthesis. 
Pharmaceuticals; baking powder; dyeing; Ammonium bicarbonate can be used for fabric degreasing. 
Ammonium bicarbonate can also be used as foamed plastics.

Ammonium bicarbonate Production method
Send the compressed carbon dioxide into the concentrated ammonia, and place Ammonium bicarbonate under the carbon dioxide pressure; simultaneously apply cooling; precipAmmonium bicarbonateate out the crystal; followed by centrifugal separation and dehydration to obtain the final product. 
Upon refining, dissolve Ammonium bicarbonate in water, and add ethanol to re-crystallize Ammonium bicarbonate.
Carbonization method: after the ammonia is absorbed by water; apply carbon dioxide for carbonization, followed by separation and drying to produce ammonium bicarbonate.
NH3 + CO2 + H2O → NH4HCO3
To the carbon dioxide gas originated from the lime kiln and be subject to cleaning and washing, send the ammonia to saturation, followed by centrifugal separation and hot air drying to obtain the finished products.
NH3 + CO2 + H2O → NH4HCO3

Ammonium bicarbonate Chemical Properties
Ammonium bicarbonate is a white crystalline solid with a faint ammonia odor and soluble in water but insoluble in alcohol and acetone. 
Ammonium bicarbonate decomposes above 35℃ to ammonia, carbon dioxide and water vapor, releasing irritant fumes. 
Only 30% of the applied nitrogen of this fertilizer is recovered by plants owing to the unstable nature of ammonium bicarbonate. 
that forms by the reaction of anunonium hydroxide and excess CO2.

Ammonium bicarbonate Physical properties
white crystalline solid; prismatic crystal; faint odor of ammonia; stable at ambient temperature but decomposes on heating at 60°C; melts at 107.5°C on very rapid heating; density 1.586 g/cm3; vapor pressure 435 torr at 25°C; readily dissolves in water (21.6g/100g at 20°C, and 36.6g/100g at 40°C).

Ammonium bicarbonate Uses
A buffer applications such as lyophilization and matrix assisted laser desorption.

Ammonium bicarbonate Uses
Ammonium Bicarbonate is a dough strengthener, a leavening agent, a ph control agent, and a texturizer. prepared by reacting gaseous carbon dioxide with aqueous ammonia. 
crystals of ammo- nium bicarbonate are precipitated from solution and subsequently washed and dried. 
Also known as hartshorn and rock ammonia, ammonium bicarbonate is soluble in water but decomposes when heated. 
Ammonium bicarbonate was used in place of ammonia when making ammonia-ripened gelatin emulsions.

NH4HCO3 Uses (Ammonium bicarbonate)
Ammonium bicarbonate is used in the food industry as a food additive.
Used in fire extinguishers.
Used in the manufacturing of dyes.
Used as a fertilizer.
Used to produce ammonium salt.
Used in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products.
Used in the making of paints.
Used in the manufacturing of ceramics.
Used in leather tanning.
Used in cooling baths.
Production of Ammonium bicarbonate
Ammonium hydrogen carbonate is obtained by combining carbon dioxide (CO2) and ammonia (NH3):

CO2 + NH3 + H2O → (NH4)HCO3

This compound is thermally unstable and the reaction solution is maintained cold to allow the precipitation as a white solid. 
In the year 1997, almost 1,00,000 tons were produced by the above process.

Health hazards
Inhaling Monoammonium carbonate causes respiratory irritation. 
Swallowing is harmful and contact with skin or eyes causes severe irritation. 
When heated, irritating, toxic ammonia gas will be liberated from the compound. 
Ammonium bicarbonate decomposes with explosion and ammonia gas is produced.

Frequently Asked Questions
What are the uses of ammonium bicarbonate?
In the food industry, ammonium bicarbonate is used as a leavening agent for flat baked goods, including cookies and crackers. 
Until modern-day baking powder was made available, this compound was widely used in homes for baking purposes.

Is ammonium bicarbonate toxic?
Ammonium Carbonate is a crystalline, non-toxic, white-coloured salt with the molecular formula (NH4)2CO3. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is also known as baker’s ammonia and also as hartshorn. 
Ammonium carbonate is water-soluble, and the compound decomposes in hot water.

How is ammonium bicarbonate produced?
Ammonium bicarbonate can be produced by reacting ammonia with carbon dioxide in the presence of water. 
Since this compound is thermally unstable, the reaction conditions must be kept relatively cold.

Advantages of Ammonium Carbonate in Baking
Ammonium carbonate lends a distinctive crispness and lightness to the baked good, which why Ammonium bicarbonate is still listed in certain recipes, despite the overwhelming use of baking powder and baking soda in modern baked goods. 
You can substitute baking powder for ammonium carbonate in a pinch, but the final baked product may not have the same texture. 
The designs on molded cookies are also said to keep their shape much better when ammonium carbonate is used.

Using Ammonium Carbonate
Usually, ammonium carbonate is mixed in with the liquid before adding to the dry ingredients, so that Ammonium bicarbonate dissolves well and mixes thoroughly. 
Ammonium bicarbonate must be stored dry, in a well-sealed container, because Ammonium bicarbonate absorbs moisture easily and clumps, To tell if Ammonium bicarbonate is still active, place a small amount in hot water. 
If Ammonium bicarbonate bubbles vigorously, you can use Ammonium bicarbonate in your recipes.

substitions
If ammonium carbonate is not available, baking powder can be substituted in a 1-to-1, 1-to-2, or 1-to-3 ratio. 
You can also add some baking soda together with the baking powder.

CAS Number: 1066-33-7
Assay (purity): 99+%
purity method: by elemental analysis
Molecular weight: 79.06
Form: solid
Appearance: white solid
sensity: heat
Melting point: 107.5C
Molecular formula: (NH4)HCO3
Linear formula: (NH4)HCO3

History of Ammonium Carbonate
Hirschhornsalz was made in the Middle Ages by burning or dry distillation of keratin-containing materials (keratin is a structural protein found in the animal kingdom). 
They did this by heating shredded horns, hooves, antlers, skin, and even decomposed primate urine in lime kilns (Kalköfen), which were ovens built for heating limestone (calcium carbonate). 
This is a manufacturing process which goes back to Greek and Roman times to make quicklime, a building material. 


The residue was collected after the ovens cooled off. 
Since wood ash was often boiled in water and used as a leavening agent, Ammonium bicarbonate is possible that these ashes were used in the same way.
Hartshorn was used to treat diarrhea, dysentery, fevers, and many different types of bites. 
The name was of particular importance in the Middle Ages when people believed that the salt collected from burning particular parts of the animal had special, medicinal value. It was a common smelling salt in Victorian times.

Production and Chemistry
Today, the white powder is chemically produced by heating ammonium chloride or ammonium sulfate with chalk. 
Hirschhornsalz is a mixture of three molecules:

Ammonium carbonate (NH4 )2CO3 → 2NH3 + CO2 + H2 O
Ammonium bicarbonate NH4 HCO3 → NH3 + CO2 + H2 O
Ammonium carbonate (second form) NH4 NH2 CO2 → 2NH3 + CO2
These molecules break down into the gases ammonia, carbon dioxide, and (water) steam when heated to 140 F (60 C) or higher. 
The gases lift the dough or batter (which has air bubbles in Ammonium bicarbonate through creaming) before the batter is set as they rise towards the surface of the cookie. 
As the dough sets up, the bubbles remain but the ammonia, carbon dioxide, and steam are dispersed from the baked good and into the air in the kitchen.
Baker's ammonia can react with certain sugars and amino acids in the dough to make small amounts of acrylamide, a carcinogen.

Recipes With Ammonium Carbonate
If you want to see how this ingredient is used, try making these cookies:

Polish Ammonia Cookies: These rolled sugar cookies have a crisp texture due to ammonium carbonate.
Basler Leckerli: This Swiss-German Christmas gingerbread cookie will keep for weeks. 
Ammonium bicarbonateis dry and filled with nuts and candied orange peel.
Spekulatius Cookies: These are a tranditional Christmas spice cookie in Germany and are also called spekulaas in the Netherlands. 
They are tranditionally formed in a wooden mold, but you can use cookie cutters instead.

Alternate Spellings
ABC-Trieb (Ammonium-bi-carbonate)
E503ii (EU food additive)
Baker's ammonia
Hart's horn
Hartshorn
Hornsalt
Bicarbonate of ammonia
Ammonium hydrogen carbonate
AmBic
Powdered baking ammonia, bicarbonate salt of ammonia
Salt of hart’s horn
Hjortetakksalt

Ammonium bicarbonate is a white crystalline powder used in flat, spiced cookies, such as gingerbreads, and in eclair paste. 
Ammonium bicarbonate must be dissolved in the cold liquid portion of the batter. 
At room temperature, decomposition of CO2 in the batter is minimal. 
When heated to approximately 60°C (140°F) decomposition is more noticeable, and at oven temperature, decomposition takes place in a very short time. 
Ammonium bicarbonate should only be used in low moisture-containing products that are not dense. 
Providing that these conditions are met, there will be no taste and odour remaining from the ammonium.

Ammonium carbonate is a salt with the chemical formula (NH4)2CO3. 
Since Ammonium bicarbonate readily degrades to gaseous ammonia and carbon dioxide upon heating, Ammonium bicarbonate is used as a leavening agent and also as smelling salt. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is also known as baker's ammonia and was a predecessor to the more modern leavening agents baking soda and baking powder. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is a component of what was formerly known as sal volatile and salt of hartshorn.

Ammonium bicarbonate General Description
A white crystalline solid having the odor of ammonia. 
Soluble in water. 
The primary hazard is the threat to the environment. 
Immediate steps should be taken to limit spread to the environment. 
Used to make other ammonium compounds, in food processing, and for other uses.

Ammonium bicarbonate Air & Water Reactions
Soluble in water.

Ammonium bicarbonate reactivity Profile
Heat > 36°C ( produces ammonia and carbon dioxide); strong acids and strong bases (CO2 and NH3).

Agricultural Uses
Ammonium hydrogen carbonate is another name for ammonium bicarbonate (NH4CO3), Ammonium bicarbonate is a low nitrogen containing fertilizer (17% N), used largely in China. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is produced by heating ammonium hydroxide with excess carbon dioxide, followed by evaporation of water.

Ammonium carbonate is used for leavening in cookies, flat biscuites, or crackers. 
In German baking, Ammonium bicarbonate's known as hirschhornsalz or hartshorn, and Ammonium bicarbonate is also called baker's ammonia. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is not used for cakes since the gaseous ammonia given off during baking cannot escape the thicker, higher batters and would make the baked goods smell bad. 
Ammonium bicarbonate leaves no salty or soapy taste residue as baking powder sometimes does since Ammonium bicarbonate completely decomposes into ammonia and carbon dioxide.

What is Ammonium Bicarbonate?
Ammonium Bicarbonate appears as a white crystal or crystalline powder. 
Ammonium bicarbonate volatilizes rapidly at 60 °C, dissociating into ammonia, carbon dioxide, and water, but Ammonium bicarbonate is quite stable at room temperature. 
One gram dissolves in about 6 ml of water. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is insoluble in alcohol.

What grades of Ammonium Bicarbonate are available?
Treated

What are other names (Synonyms) for Ammonium Bicarbonate?
Bicarbonate of Ammonia
Ammonium Hydrogen Carbonate
Harsthorn
Powdered baking ammonia

What is the CAS Number for Ammonium Bicarbonate?
1066-33-7

What is the Chemical Formula for Ammonium Bicarbonate?
NH5CO3

Ammonium bicarbonate Safety Profile
Poison by intravenous route. When heated to decomposition Ammonium bicarbonate emits toxic fumes of NO, and NH3

Ammonium bicarbonate Potential Exposure
Ammonium bicarbonate is used in leavening for some baked goods; in baking powders and fire extinguishers; to make dyes and pigments; in the manufacture of porous plastics; and as an expectorant.

Ammonium bicarbonate Shipping
UN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required.

Ammonium bicarbonate Incompatibilities
Contact with strong caustics, such as potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide will cause the release of ammonia gas. Decomposes as temperature rises >35 C.

Waste Disposal
May be buried in a chemical waste landfill. 
If neutralized ammonium bicarbonate is amenable to treatment at a municipal sewage treatment plant.

Ammonium bicarbonate Description
Shiny, hard, white, prism-shaped crystal. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is used in baking powder and fire-extinguishers. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is also used for degreasing textiles, for chrome leather tanning and as an additive in ceramics. 
Hartshorn, or Ammonium carbonate, is a double salt of Ammonium carbamate and ammonium bicarbonate.

Ammonium bicarbonate Synonyms and Related Terms
ammonium acid carbonate; ammonium hydrogen carbonate; hartshorn; powdered baking ammonia; hjortetakssalt (Dan.); Ammoniumhydrogencarbonat (Deut.); ABC-Trieb (Deut.); bicarbonate d'ammonium (Fr.);

Other Properties
Soluble in water. pH = 7.8 Insoluble in ethanol.

composition: NH4HCO3
CAS: 1066-33-7
Melting Point: 36-60 (dec)
density: 1.586
Molecular Weight: mol. wt. = 79.06

These corrosion data are mainly based on results of general corrosion laboratory tests, carried out with pure chemicals and water solutions nearly saturated with air (the corrosion rate can be quite different if the solution is free from oxygen).
All concentrations are given in weight-% and the solvent is water if nothing else is shown. 
The corrosion data apply to annealed materials with normal microstructure and clean surfaces, throughout.

CAS Number: 1066-33-7 
ChemSpider: 13395 
ECHA InfoCard    100.012.647 
EC Number: 213-911-5
E number: E503(ii) (acidity regulators, ...)
PubChem CID: 14013
RTECS number: BO8600000
UNII: 45JP4345C9 
UN number: 3077
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID5035618

Generic name
Ammonium bicarbonate

CAS no.
1066-33-7

Ammonium bicarbonate Application
Industrial Chemicals>Others

Ammonium bicarbonate Establishes Grain And Structure
Ammonium bicarbonate reacts early in the baking process of small or thin products to establish top grain and structure before the product sets during the latter stage of baking. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is used in cookies, crackers and similar products where the cellular structure is sufficiently porous to permit escape of the gases at the end of the baking process when the product is nearly dried out.

Ammonium bicarbonate Combination
Ammonium bicarbonate is often used in combination with other chemical leavening systems (baking powder or baking soda) to release leavening gases both early and later in the baking process. 
In addition to this two stage release, ammonium bicarbonate increases the spread of cookie doughs, helping them to shape more uniformly. 
Baking powder or baking soda, used in combination with ammonium bicarbonate, will increase the height or crown of the cookie.

Ammonium bicarbonate Formula
Ammonium bicarbonate (commonly known as ammonium hydrogen carbonate) is a mildly basic inorganic compound.

Formula and structure: The chemical formula of ammonium bicarbonate is NH4HCO3. 
Ammonium bicarbonates molecular formula is CH5NO3 and Ammonium bicarbonates molar mass is 79.056 g/mol. 
Ammonium bicarbonates chemical structure consists of the ammonium cation (NH4+) and the bicarbonate anion (HCO3-).

Occurrence: Ammonium bicarbonate is present in small quantities in nitrogenous organic matter, along with other ammonium salts.
Preparation: Ammonium bicarbonate is produced by passing carbon dioxide gas into aqueous ammonia until the ammonium bicarbonate crystals are formed, which are then separated from the solution by filtration or centrifugation. 
To prevent decomposition of the product, the reaction is performed at cold temperatures.
CO2 + NH3 + H2O → NH4HCO3

Ammonium bicarbonate Summary
Colorless, transparent crystal with the smell of ammonia, which is unstable when heated, soluble in water, and displays strong alkalinity when hydrolyzed.

Chemical formula
NH4HCO3

Ammonium bicarbonate Packaging
Paper bag, flexible container

Application
Expanding agent for biscuites etc.
Raw materials for carbonates such as manganese carbonate (raw material for batteries, etc.)
Rare earth sampling
Medicines
Foaming agent for rubber
Other
AccredAmmonium bicarbonateed for Japan’s Specifications and Standards for Food, Food additives, etc.

Physical properties: Ammonium bicarbonate exists as a white crystalline solid with a density of 1.59 g/mL and melting point of 41.9 °C. 
Ammonium bicarbonate has a strong odor of ammonia, and is highly water soluble.

Chemical properties: Ammonium bicarbonate dissolves in water to give a mildly alkaline solution. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is insoluble in most organic solvents. 
While Ammonium bicarbonate is stable at room temperature (25 °C), Ammonium bicarbonate decomposes at temperatures above 36 °C to form ammonia, carbon dioxide, and water in an endothermic reaction (absorbs energy for the reaction from the surroundings).

NH4HCO3 → NH3 + CO2 + H2O
Ammonium bicarbonate reacts with acids to produce carbon dioxide, and reacts with bases to produce ammonia.

Uses: Ammonium bicarbonate is used as a baking powder, in some food processing applications, in cough syrups and as antacid. 
Ammonium bicarbonate also has uses as a fertilizer, pH buffer, and reagent in chemical laboratories. 
In the industry, Ammonium bicarbonate is used in the manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, catalysts, ceramics, fire-retardants, plastics and other products.
Health effects/safety hazards: In low concentrations, Ammonium bicarbonate is not considered hazardous. 
Ammonium bicarbonates main health hazard is Ammonium bicarbonates decomposition reaction giving pungent ammonia gas, which is a serious irritant. 
Inhalation of ammonium bicarbonate can irritate the eyes, skin, nose and entire respiratory system, and cause severe coughing and difficulty in breathing.

Ammonium bicarbonate Effect on pH
Ammonium bicarbonate can also be used as a processing aid. 
Ammonium bicarbonate increases pH of a dough during baking to affect browning while returning pH of the finished product to neutral as the ammonia escapes at the end of the baking process.

Ammonium bicarbonate Air & Water Reactions
Soluble in water.

Ammonium bicarbonate Fire Hazard
Special Hazards of Combustion Products: irritting and toxic ammonia gas may form in fires.
Behavior in Fire: Decomposes, but reaction is not explosive. Ammonia gas is formed.

Assay Percent Range: 98%
Linear Formula: NH4HCO3
Merck Index: 15,494
solubility Information    solubility in water: 220g/L (20°C)
Formula Weight: 79.06
Physical Form: Crystalline Powder, Crystals, and/or Chunks
Percent purity: 98%
Grade: Pure
Infrared Spectrum: Authentic
Packaging: Glass bottle
Color: white
Melting Point: 105°C
Quantity: 25g
Chemical Name or Material: Ammonium bicarbonate

Ammonium bicarbonate is a uniform high purity leavening agent, produced by a chemical reaction of ammonia, carbon dioxide and water. 
Ammonium bicarbonate has a very strong scent and because of this is used primarily used to leaven only low-moisture baked goods like crisp cookies and crackers that thoroughly dry out during baking. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is not used to make cakes because the ammonia gas cannot evaporate when baking cake or other large Ammonium bicarbonateems. 
When using ammonium bicarbonate instead of baking soda to bake crisp cookies, the ammonium bicarbonate produces a lighter, crunchy texture. 
Enjoy our bulk ammonium bicarbonate at wholesale pricing.

Health Hazard
Inhalation may cause respiratory irritation. 
Ingestion could be harmful. 
Contact with eyes or skin causes irritation. 

reactivity Profile
AMMONIUM BICARBONATE decomposes when heated above 36°C, releasing ammonia and carbon dioxide gases; Ammonium bicarbonate can also be decomposed into ammonia and carbon dioxide by strong acids and strong bases.

Chemical formula: NH4HCO3
Molar mass: 79.056 g/mol
density: 1.586 g/cm3
Melting point: 41.9 °C (107.4 °F; 315.0 K) decomposes
solubility in water: 
11.9 g/100 mL (0 °C)
21.6 g/100 mL (20 °C)
24.8 g/100 mL (25 °C)
36.6 g/100 mL (40 °C)
solubility:
insoluble in methanol

-Ammonium bicarbonate used as Raising agent for cookies and flatbreads
Ammonium bicarbonate is used as a leavening / raising agent in the food industry. 
Ammonium bicarbonate contains ammonium bicarbonate with the addition of magnesium carbonate as an anticaking agent. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is a white powder that is readily soluble in water.

-nutritional Supplement
Ammonium bicarbonate is used as a nutritional supplement in the animal feed industry. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is a white powder that is readily soluble in water.

QualAmmonium bicarbonatey Level: 200
vapor density: 2.7 (vs air)
vapor pressure:
513 hPa ( 50 °C)
67.1 hPa ( 20 °C)
product line: ReagentPlus®
assay: ≥99.0%
form: powder or crystals
pH: 7-8.5 (25 °C, 79.1 g/L)
SMILES string: N.OC(O)=O
InChI: 1S/CH2O3.H3N/c2-1(3)4;/h(H2,2,3,4);1H3
InChI key: ATRRKUHOCOJYRX-UHFFFAOYSA-N

An inorganic compound, Ammonium bicarbonate is used in the food industry as a raising agent for flat baked goods, such as cookies and crackers. 
Ammonium bicarbonate also has uses as a fertiliser, pH buffer, and reagent in chemical laboratories. 
Some other uses of Ammonium bicarbonate in the industry are for the manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, catalysts, ceramics, fire-retardants, plastics and other products.

Synonyms: E503, Ammonium Hydrogen Carbonate, Baking soda, Bicarbonate of Ammonia, Powdered Baking Ammonia
INCI: Ammonium Bicarbonate
Chemical Formula: NH4HCO3
CAS Number: 1066-33-7

Ammonium bicarbonate Safety
Ammonium bicarbonate is an irritant to the skin, eyes and respiratory system. 
Short-term health effects may occur immediately or shortly after exposure to ammonium bicarbonate. 
Breathing ammonium bicarbonate can irritate the nose, throat and lungs causing coughing, wheezing and/or shortness of breath. 
Repeated exposure may cause bronchitis to develop with cough, and/or shortness of breath. 

Ammonium bicarbonate CHARACTERISTICS
Chemical Formula: NH4HCO3
CAS Number: 1066-33-7
Molar Weight: 79.055g/mol
Specific gravity: 1.75
Melting Point: 41.9°C

Health effects can occur some time after exposure to ammonium bicarbonate and can last for months or years.
Where possible, operations should be enclosed and the use of local exhaust ventilation at thesite of chemical release is recommended. 
If local exhaust ventilation or enclosure is not used, respirators are necessary.
Wear protective work clothing and change clothes and wash thoroughly immediately after exposure to ammonium bicarbonate.
Ammonium bicarbonate from China used to make cookies was found to be contaminated with melamine, and imports were banned in Malaysia following the 2008 Chinese milk scandal.

    
CAS No.1066-33-7
Chemical Name:Ammonium bicarbonate
Synonyms2,6'-TDI, Oekanal;ammonium bicarbonat;AMMONIUM BICARBONATE;Ammonium dicarbonate;acidammoniumcarbonate;AmmoniumBicarbonateAr;AmmoniumBicarbonateBp;monoammoniumcarbonate;AMMONIUM CARBONATE TS;AmmoniumBicarbonateFcc

Bicarbonates
In chemistry, the word ‘bicarbonate’ is inaccurate and outdated. 
Ammonium bicarbonate was first coined in 1814 by a chemist who observed that there is twice as much carbon as sodium in sodium bicarbonate.
After different types of bicarbonates were identified, with different ratios, the observation became irrelevant, but the habAmmonium bicarbonate lives on.


Bicarbonates are the main form of dissolved inorganic carbon in the ocean. 
In freshwater plants, bicarbonates are released into the water as part of photosynthesis. 
Bicarbonate can shift the water’s pH to toxic alkaline levels. 
Bicarbonate continues until nightfall, when photosynthesis stops and respiration releases carbon dioxide, causing pH to return to normal. 
Bicarbonates commonly act as pH buffers in the human body [plop, plop, fizz, fizz] and in soil. 

Melting point:105 °C
Boiling point:143.04°C (rough estimate)
density 1,586 g/cm3
vapor density 2.7 (vs air)
vapor pressure 67 hPa (20 °C)
refractive index 1.4164 (estimate)
storage temp. Store at RT.
solubility H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
form Solid
color white
Odorfaint ammonia odor
PH7.0-8.5 (25℃, 1M in H2O)
Water solubility 220 g/L (20 ºC)
λmaxλ: 260 nm Amax: ≤0.030
λ: 280 nm Amax: ≤0.020
Merck 14,497
BRN 4329606
Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong acids, alkali metals.
SCOGS (Select Committee on GRAS Substances)Ammonium bicarbonate
CAS DataBase Reference1066-33-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
FDA 21 CFR184.1135; 582.1135
Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS)AMMONIUM BICARBONATE
EWG's Food Scores2
FDA UNII45JP4345C9
EPA Substance Registry Systemit (1066-33-7)

AMMONIUM BICARBONATE
1066-33-7
Ammonium hydrogencarbonate
Ammonium hydrogen carbonate
Monoammonium carbonate
Carbonic acid, monoammonium salt
UNII-45JP4345C9
azanium;hydrogen carbonate
MFCD00012138
Carbonic acid, ammonium salt (1:1)
ammoniumcarbonate
45JP4345C9
carbonic acid monoammonium salt
Acid ammonium carbonate
Ammonium acid carbonate
Ammonium bicarbonate, 98%, pure
Ammonium hydrogencarbonat
Ammonium bicarbonate, 99%, for analysis
CCRIS 7327
HSDB 491
EINECS 213-911-5
Ammonium bicarbonate (1:1)
ACMC-1BVRT
10361-29-2
EC 213-911-5
DTXSID5035618
ANW-73003
AKOS016008582
FT-0622308
J-610004
UNII-NJ5VT0FKLJ component ATRRKUHOCOJYRX-UHFFFAOYSA-N

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