AMMONIUM NITRATE

CAS number: 6484-52-2
Molecular Formula: NH4NO3 or H4N2O3
Molecular Weight: 80.044
Density: 1.72 at 68 °F, 1.7 g/cm³

Ammonium nitrate is commonly used as a fertiliser and to produce explosives for mining industry. 
Ammonium nitrate is an odourless material, which is usually granulated (if a fertiliser), and white in appearance. 
Because of ammonium nitrate’s high volume of nitrogen, it is great for nitrate fertilizer.
Ammonium nitrate is the ammonium salt of nitric acid. 
Ammonium nitrate has a role as a fertilizer, an explosive and an oxidising agent. 
Ammonium nitrate is an inorganic molecular entity, an ammonium salt and an inorganic nitrate salt.

Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound widely used in farming as fertilizer. 
Ammonium nitrate is normally spread as small pellets and dissolves quickly in moisture, releasing nitrogen into the soil.
Ammonium nitrate is typically sold in pellets, also known as prills, and is a commonly used fertiliser in the agricultural industry and explosive in the mining industry. 
Ammonium nitrate is produced by neutralising nitric acid with ammonia, and was first discovered by a German chemist in 1659. 
Ammonium nitrate itself is not an explosive but requires a combustible material to be present for it to explode. 

Advantages:
-Best source of quick-release nitrogen
-Balanced nitrogen nutrition provided by nitrate and ammonium forms of nitrogen
-Effective for a wide range of crops
-Increases the protein and oil content in farmed

Ammonium nitrate is commercially available both as a colorless crystalline solid and processed into prills for specific applications. 
Soluble in water. 
Does not readily burn but will do so if contaminated with combustible material.  
Ammonium nitrate is used to make fertilizers and explosives, and as a nutrient in producing antibiotics and yeast.

Ammonium nitrate based fertilizers appears as a grayish white solid in the form of prills. 
Soluble in water. 
Ammonium nitrate produces toxic oxides of nitrogen during combustion.
Ammonium nitrate liquid is the white crystals dissolved in water. 
Though the material itself is noncombustible Ammonium nitrate will accelerate the burning of combustible materials.  
Ammonium nitrate is used to make fertilizers and explosives.

Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula NH4NO3. 
Ammonium nitrate is a white crystalline solid consisting of ions of ammonium and nitrate. 
Ammonium nitrate is highly soluble in water and hygroscopic as a solid, although it does not form hydrates. 
Ammonium nitrate is predominantly used in agriculture as a high-nitrogen fertilizer.
Global production was estimated at 21.6 million tonnes in 2017.
Ammonium nitrates other major use is as a component of explosive mixtures used in mining, quarrying, and civil construction. 
Ammonium nitrate is the major constituent of ANFO, a popular industrial explosive which accounts for 80% of explosives used in North America; similar formulations have been used in improvised explosive devices.

Ammonium nitrate is found as the natural mineral gwihabaite (formerly known as nitrammite) – the ammonium analogue of saltpetre (mineralogial name: niter) – in the driest regions of the Atacama Desert in Chile, often as a crust on the ground or in conjunction with other nitrate, iodate, and halide minerals. 
Ammonium nitrate was mined there until the Haber–Bosch process made it possible to synthesize nitrates from atmospheric nitrogen, thus rendering nitrate mining obsolete.
Ammonium nitrate, (NH4NO3), a salt of ammonia and nitric acid, used widely in fertilizers and explosives. 
The commercial grade contains about 33.5 percent nitrogen, all of which is in forms utilizable by plants; Ammonium nitrate is the most common nitrogenous component of artificial fertilizers. 
Ammonium nitrate also is employed to modify the detonation rate of other explosives, such as nitroglycerin in the so-called ammonia dynamites, or as an oxidizing agent in the ammonals, which are mixtures of ammonium nitrate and powdered aluminum.

Ammonium nitrate is a colourless crystalline substance (melting point 169.6 °C [337.3 °F]). 
Ammonium nitrate is highly soluble in water; heating of the water solution decomposes the salt to nitrous oxide (laughing gas).
Ammonium nitrate is the nitrate salt of the ammonium cation (NH4NO3, sometimes written as N2H4O3) that is a white crystal solid and is highly soluble in water. 
Ammonium nitrate is predominantly used in agriculture as a high-nitrogen fertilizer and is also used as a component of explosive mixtures in mining, quarrying, and civil construction.
Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) is produced by neutralizing nitric acid (HNO3) with ammonia (NH3). 
All ammonium nitrate plants produce an aqueous ammonium nitrate solution through the reaction of ammonia and nitric acid in a neutralizer.

The process involves several unit process operations including solution formation and concentration, solids formation, finishing, screening and coating, and product bagging and/or bulk shipping. 
In some cases, solutions may be blended for marketing as liquid fertilizers. 
The number of operating steps employed depends on the specification of the product. 
For example, plants producing ammonium nitrate solutions alone use only the solution formation, solution blending and bulk shipping operations.
Plants producing a solid ammonium nitrate product may employ all of the operations. 
Approximately 15%–20% (v/v) of the ammonium nitrate prepared in this manner is used for explosives and the balance for fertilizer.

Additives such as magnesium nitrate or magnesium oxide may be introduced into the melt prior to solidification to raise the crystalline transition temperature, act as a desiccant (removing water) or lower the temperature of solidification. 
Products are sometimes coated with clays or diatomaceous earth to prevent agglomeration during storage and shipment, although additives may eliminate the need for coatings. 
The final solid products are screened and sized, and off-size particles are dissolved and recycled through the process.

Ammonium nitrate is marketed in several forms, depending upon its use. 
For example, liquid ammonium nitrate may be sold as a fertilizer, generally in combination with urea or the liquid ammonium nitrate may be concentrated to form an ammonium nitrate melt for use in solids formation processes. 
Solid ammonium nitrate may be produced in the form of prills, grains, granules, or crystals. 
Ammonium nitrate prills can be produced in either high- or low-density form, depending on the concentration of the melt. 
High-density prills, granules, and crystals are used as fertilizer, while ammonium nitrate grains are used solely in explosives, and low-density prills that are small aggregates or globules of the material—most often a dry sphere—formed from a melted liquid. 
The term prill is also used in manufacturing to refer to a product that has been pelletized.

The manufacture of ammonium nitrate produces particulate matter, ammonia, and nitric acid emissions. 
Emissions from ammonia and nitric acid occur primarily when they form solutions (neutralizers and concentrators), and when they are used in granulators. 
Particulate matter is the largest source and is emitted throughout the process during the formation of solids. 
Prill towers and granulators are the largest sources of particulates. 
Microprills can form and clog orifices, increasing fine dust loading and emissions.

Emissions occur from screening operations by the banging of ammonium nitrate solids against each other and the screens. 
Most of these screening operations are enclosed or have partial covers to reduce emissions. 
The coating of products may also create some particulate emissions during mixing in the rotary drums. 
This dust is usually captured and recycled to coating storage. Another source of dust is bagging and bulk loading, mostly during final filling when dust-laden air is displaced from bags.
Plants producing nitric acid and ammonium nitrate produce wastewaters containing these compounds and ammonia. 
Wastewater containing ammonia and nitric acid must be neutralized to produce ammonium nitrate.

ammonium nitrate solution is prepared by reacting preheated ammonia with nitric acid in a neutralizer. 
The heat of reaction is utilized for evaporation and 80–83% ammonium nitrate solution is obtained. 
This concentrated solution is further concentrated to obtain 92–94% solution in a vacuum concentrator. 
Concentrated ammonium nitrate solution is then sprayed into the granulator along with a regulated quantity of limestone powder and the recycle fines from the screens. 
The hot granules are dried in a rotary drier by hot air, screened and cooled in coolers to obtain the product. 

Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) is produced by neutralizing nitric acid (HNO3) with ammonia (NH3). 
In 1991, there were 58 U. S. ammonium nitrate plants located in 22 states producing about 8.2 million megagrams (Mg) (9 million tons) of ammonium nitrate. 
Approximately 15 to 20 percent of this amount was used for explosives and the balance for fertilizer.
Ammonium nitrate is marketed in several forms, depending upon its use. 
Liquid ammonium nitrate may be sold as a fertilizer, generally in combination with urea. 

Liquid ammonium nitrate may be concentrated to form an ammonium nitrate "melt" for use in solids formation processes. 
Solid ammonium nitrate may be produced in the form of prills, grains, granules, or crystals. 
Prills can be produced in either high or low density form, depending on the concentration of the melt. 
High density prills, granules, and crystals are used as fertilizer, grains are used solely in explosives, and low density prills can be used as either.

Ammonium nitrate (AN) is derived from the reaction between ammonia and nitric acid. 
Ammonium nitrate contains 33.5–34% nitrogen, of which half is in the nitrate form, which is easily assimilated by plants, and half is in the ammonia form. 
Ammonium nitrate is used principally as a nitrogen source in fertilizers and is the main component of most nonmilitary industrial explosives and blasting agents. 
Fertilizer-grade AN has a slightly higher density than explosive-grade AN. 
Solid AN (prills or granules) has been the predominant form produced; however, liquid AN has gained popularity, particularly in developed economies, primarily as a component in urea-AN (UAN) solutions.

Ammonium nitrate is produced starting with a simple reaction of anhydrous ammonia and nitric acid. 
For solid form AN, the resulting liquid is concentrated and processed into prills, granules or crystals. 
Concentrated AN solutions can also be used to produce urea-ammonium nitrate solutions (UAN) used in liquid fertilizer systems.
Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is the primary ingredient in many explosives and fertilizers.
Ammonium nitrate fertilizers are very efficient and produce less greenhouse gas emissions than other fertilizers. 
Half of the nitrogen in ammonium nitrate fertilizer is quick release nitrogen which is immediately available to the plants. 
The other half is slow release nitrogen to form an effective balance in plant nutrition. 

Pure ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) is a white, water-soluble, crystalline substance with a melting point of 170°C. 
The substance is classified as an oxidising agent. 
Ammonium nitrate is one of the base ingredients used in the manufacture of commercial explosives.

Ammonium nitrate is not only a principal component of airborne aerosol, but it is chiefly an important and widely used product in the chemical industry. 
The commercially important applications are twofold: as a fertilizer component and  as an explosive ingredient. 
Among inorganic fertilizers, AN is the most universally used because of its unique combination of nitrogen bound as both nitrate and ammonium ions that are the only two forms in which plants can efficiently absorb nitrogen from the soil. 
According to scientific literature pure ammonium nitrate is considered as a relatively stable chemical, since it can be preserved unaltered at ordinary temperature and pressure. 
Indeed even if Ammonium nitrate melts at quite low temperature (170 °C), significant thermally induced decomposition requires temperature of more than 200 °C.

Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) is produced by the neutralization of nitric acid by ammonia. 
Ammonium nitrate is used in agriculture as a high-efficiency, concentrated nitrogen fertilizer for the top-dressing of winter crops, perennial grasses and pastures, for sugar cane cultivation, and also used in industry for the manufacture of explosive substances and mixtures. 
Production form – prills. 
Product is treated by anti-caking additives.
When exposed to large amounts of heat, ammonium nitrate can become molten and detonate on impact.

Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound with the formula NH4 NO3, and it's made by combining ammonia with nitric acid. 
Ammonium nitrate is most commonly used as fertilizer for agricultural purposes — since it is highly soluble — but it is also used as an industrial explosive.

Ammonium nitrate is an odourless material, which is usually granulated (if a fertiliser) and white in appearance. 
Crystalline ammonium nitrate is not usually found outside a laboratory.

Ammonium nitrate is the nitric acid ammonium salt; it is a chemical compound containing the chemical formula NH4NO3. 
At room temperature, Ammonium nitrate is a colorless rhombic or monoclinical crystal. 
Ammonium nitrate can be degraded at 210°C to water and nitrous oxide. 
They are prone to decomposition into nitrogen, oxygen, and water after intense heating at 300°C above.
Predominantly used as a high-nitrogen fertilizer in agriculture. 
In 2017 global production was estimated at 21.6 million tonnes.

Ammonium nitrate plays a role as a fertilizer, an explosive agent, and an oxidizer. 
Ammonium nitrate is an inorganic molecular form, salt with ammonium, and salt with inorganic nitrate. 
The other main use of Ammonium nitrate is as an explosive component of mixtures used in mining, quarrying, and civil construction. 

Ammonium nitrate’s soluble in water, methanol, and ethanol. 
It dissolution in water can absorb plenty of warmth and reduce the temperature. 
Ammonium nitrate’s one in all the foremost nitrogen fertilizer varieties within the world today.

Ammonium nitrate is present as the natural mineral gwihabaite, the saltpetre ammonium analog in the driest regions of the Chilean Atacama Desert, sometimes as a crust on the ground or in combination with other minerals of nitrate, iodate, and halides. 
Ammonium nitrate is commercially available both as a colorless crystalline solid and for particular applications is transformed into prills. 
Ammonium nitrate was mined there within the past, but virtually 100% of the chemical now used is synthetic. 
Nitrate has no residue within the soil, and maybe all absorbed by crops; being a physiological neutral fertilizer.

The ammonium nitrate is used in protection bombs, matches, and pyrotechnics as a pesticide, as a freezing mixture. 
Ammonium nitrate is suitable for a wide variety of soils and crops but is best suited for dry and dry crops especially suited for cash crops such as tobacco, cotton, and vegetables. 
The industrial production of ammonium nitrate entails the acid-base reaction of ammonia with nitric acid

Ammonium nitrate is a crystal salt consisting of ammonia and nitric acid. 
Ammonium nitrate is odorless and is either colorless or white. 
Ammonium nitrate is typically used a fertilizer by providing nitrogen to plants. 

Applications:

Fertilizer
Ammonium nitrate's advantage over urea is that it is more stable and does not rapidly lose nitrogen to the atmosphere.

Explosives
Ammonium nitrate is not, on its own, an explosive, but it readily forms explosive mixtures with varying properties when combined with explosives such as TNT or with fuels like aluminum powder or fuel oil. 
Examples of explosives containing ammonium nitrate include:
-Astrolite (ammonium nitrate and hydrazine rocket fuel)
-Amatol (ammonium nitrate and TNT)
-Ammonal (ammonium nitrate and aluminum powder)
-Amatex (ammonium nitrate, TNT and RDX)
-ANFO (ammonium nitrate and fuel oil)
-DBX (ammonium nitrate, RDX, TNT and aluminum powder)
-Tovex (ammonium nitrate and methylammonium nitrate)
-Minol (explosive) (ammonium nitrate, TNT and aluminum powder)
-Goma-2 (ammonium nitrate, nitroglycol, Nitrocellulose, Dibutyl phthalate and fuel)

Boiling Point: Decomposes at 200-260 °C
Melting Point: 337.8 °F, 169.7 °C
Density: 1.72 at 68 °F, 1.7 g/cm³
Vapor Pressure: 2.3 kPa at 20 °C in water solution; 1.5 kPa at 20 °C in saturated NH4NOs solution
pH: 0.1 M solution in water: 5.43

Ammonium nitrate is used commonly in fertilizers; in pyrotechniques, herbicides, and insecticides; and in the manufacture of nitrous oxide. 
Ammonium nitrate is used as an absorbent for nitrogen oxides, an ingredient of freezing mixtures, an oxidizer in rocket propellants, and a nutrient for yeast and antibiotics. 
Ammonium nitrate is also used in explosives (especially as an oil mixture) for blasting rocks and in mining. Nitrates and nitrites are used to cure meats and to develop the characteristic flavor and pink color, to prevent rancidity, and to prevent growth of Clostridium botulinum spores in or on meats.

Large-scale production of ammonium nitrate began in the 1940s when it was used for munitions during wartime. 
After the end of World War II, ammonium nitrate became available as a commercial fertilizer. 
The production of ammonium nitrate is relatively simple: Ammonia gas is reacted with nitric acid to form a concentrated solution and considerable heat.

Prilled fertilizer forms when a drop of concentrated ammonium nitrate solution (95 percent to 99 percent) falls from a tower and solidifies. 
Low-density prills are more porous than high-density prills and are preferred for industrial use, while high-density prills are used as fertilizer. 
Manufacturers produce granular ammonium nitrate by repeatedly spraying the concentrated solution onto small granules in a rotating drum.

Since ammonium nitrate is hygroscopic and therefore readily attracts moisture from air, it’s commonly stored in air-conditioned warehouses or in sealed bags. 
Manufacturers typically coat the solid fertilizer with an anti-caking compound to prevent sticking and clumping.

Small quantities of carbonate minerals are sometimes added prior to solidifying, which eliminates ammonium nitrate’s explosive properties. 
These additives lower the N concentration and are sparingly soluble, making the modified product less suitable for application through an irrigation system (fertigation).

Ammonium nitrate is a popular fertilizer since it provides half of the N in the nitrate form and half in the ammonium form. 
The nitrate form moves readily with soil water to the roots, where it’s immediately available for plant uptake. 
The ammonium fraction is taken up by roots or gradually converted to nitrate by soil microorganisms. 
Many vegetable growers prefer an immediately available nitrate source of plant nutrition and use ammonium nitrate. 
Animal farmers like it for pasture and hay fertilization since Ammonium nitrate’s less susceptible to volatilization losses than urea-based fertilizers when left on the soil surface.

Ammonium nitrate is commonly mixed with other fertilizers, but these mixtures can’t be stored for long periods because of a tendency to absorb moisture from the air. 
The very high solubility of ammonium nitrate makes it well suited for making solutions for fertigation or foliar sprays.

Ammonium Nitrate is a key component in the production of nitrous oxide (also known as Dinitrogen moNOxide, N₂O or laughing gas) for healthcare use. 
Nitrous oxide is used in the health sector around the world as: 

-Analgesic in surgery and dentistry 
-Anesthetics in surgery and dentistry 
-Used as a propellant for drugs packaged in aerosols 

Low density Ammonium Nitrate explosive is used extensively in the mining industry and is intentionally made very porous to allow for the rapid uptake of liquid fuel oil. 
The prill is coated with a trace amount of a waxy anti-caking material to enhance flowability and handling characteristics. 

Fertilizing effect: ammonium nitrate provides plants with required amount of nitrogen, which is especially important during the period of intensive growth. 
Fertilization not only ensures effective growth and ripening, faster root development, rapid nutrient absorption, but also prevents leave yellowing. 
Nitrogen stimulates and regulates many vital plant growth processes. 
Plants fertilized with ammonium nitrate consume less water, contain more proteins and sugar, have longer vegetation period.
Ammonium Nitrate is used as an ingredient for manufacture of explosives, anaesthetic gases, fertilizers, cold packs, etc. 

Ammonium nitrate is commercially available both as a colorless crystalline solid and processed into prills for specific applications. 
Ammonium nitrate is Soluble in water. 
Does not readily burn but will do so if contaminated with combustible material. 
Accelerates the burning of combustible material.
Used to make fertilizers and explosives, and as a nutrient in producing antibiotics and yeast.

Ammonium Nitrate Emulsion, Suspension, or Gel is ammonium nitrate suspended in a liquid. 
The material itself does not readily burn but will readily do so if contaminated by combustible material. 
Ammonium nitrate will accelerate the burning of combustible material.  
Ammonium nitrate is used as a fertilizer, as a freezing mixture, in safety explosives, matches, and pyrotechnics. 
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES: White to gray to brown, odorless beads, pellets, or flakes.
MELTING POINT: 336°F (169°C) decomposes at 410 F (210°C) SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 1.72 SOLUBILITY IN WATER: soluble

Nitrogen comes in many forms. 
This major plant nutrient can be taken in by plants through the roots or from the stoma in the leaves and stems. 
Additional sources of nitrogen are often added to soil and plants in areas without sufficient natural sources of nitrogen. 
One of the first solid nitrogen sources produced in a large scale capacity is ammonium nitrate. 
Ammonium nitrate fertilizer is the most common use of the compound, but it also has a very volatile nature, which makes it useful in certain industries. 
Ammonium nitrate is an odorless, nearly colorless crystal salt. 

Using ammonium nitrate in gardens and large-scale agricultural fields enhances plant growth and provides a ready supply of nitrogen from which plants can draw. 
Ammonium nitrate fertilizer is a simple compound to make. 
Ammonium nitrate is created when ammonia gas reacts with nitric acid. 
The chemical reaction produces a concentrated form of ammonium nitrate, which produces prodigious amounts of heat. 
As a fertilizer, the compound is applied as granules and fused with ammonium sulfate to minimize the volatile nature of the compound. 
Anti-caking agents are also added to the fertilizer.

In addition to its usefulness as a fertilizer, ammonium nitrate is also employed in certain industrial and construction settings. 
The chemical compound is explosive and useful in mining, demolition activities, and quarry work.
Food preservation is another area that is using ammonium nitrate. 
The compound makes an excellent cold pack when one bag of water and one bag of the compound are united. 
Temperatures can drop to 2 or 3 degrees Celsius very rapidly.

SYNONYMS:
AMMONIUM NITRATE
6484-52-2
Ammonium nitricum
Ammonium saltpeter
Nitrate of ammonia
Nitric acid ammonium salt
Nitrato amonico
Nitrate d'ammonium
Nitric acid, ammonium salt
Ammonium(I) nitrate (1:1)
Nitric acid ammonium salt (1:1)
UNII-T8YA51M7Y6
T8YA51M7Y6
CHEBI:63038
Nitram
NCGC00091921-01
Herco prills
German saltpeter
Merco Prills
Varioform I
DSSTox_CID_9668
DSSTox_RID_78802
DSSTox_GSID_29668
Caswell No. 045
Ammonium nitrate, 98%, ACS reagent
Nitrato amonico [Spanish]
Ammonium nitrate, 99+%, for analysis
Nitrate d'ammonium [French]
CAS-6484-52-2
HSDB 475
Ammonium nitrate, 99.999%, (trace metal basis)
Ammonium nitrate solution
Ammonium hydrogendinitrate
EINECS 229-347-8
UN0222
UN1942
UN2426
Ammonium nitrate, solution
EPA Pesticide 
Chemical Code 076101azanium;nitrate
Ammonium Nitrate ACS grade
EC 229-347-8
Ammonium nitrate(V) - IV
Ammonium nitrate(V) - III
Ammonium nitrate - phase IV
Ammonium nitrate, Puratronic?
Ammonium nitrate, urea solution (containing ammonia)
Ammonium nitrate, urea solution (not containing ammonia)
CHEMBL1500032
DTXSID2029668
Ammonium nitrate solution (greater than 45% and less than 93%)
Tox21_111177
Tox21_202271
Tox21_303522
(N H4) (N O3)
AKOS025295591
Ammonium nitrate 54% in water by weight
NCGC00091921-02
NCGC00257475-01
NCGC00259820-01
FT-0622337
X5993
Q182329
Ammonium nitrate, liquid (hot concentrated solution)
Ammonium nitrate, liquid (hot concentrated solution) [UN2426] [Oxidizer]
Ammonium nitrate, with >0.2% combustible substances, including any organic substance calculated as carbon, to the exclusion of any other added substance
Ammonium nitrate, with >0.2% combustible substances, including any organic substance calculated as carbon, to the exclusion of any other added substance [UN0222] [Explosive 1.1D]
Ammonium nitrate, with not >0.2% of combustible substances, including any organic substance calculated as carbon, to the exclusion of any other added substance
Ammonium nitrate, with not >0.2% of combustible substances, including any organic substance calculated as carbon, to the exclusion of any other added substance [UN1942] [Oxidizer]
 

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