ANTI-CAKING AGENTS

Anti-caking agents are ingredients added in small amounts to foods, cosmetics, and more to prevent products from clumping and binding together.
There are many different anti-caking ingredients with GRAS status on the market. 
Manufactures choose the anti-caking agent to use based on product and consumer expectation. 
For example, consumers expect salt to flow freely from salt shakers. 
Anti-caking agents allow salt to free-flow without clumping.

An anticaking agent is an additive placed in powdered or granulated materials, such as table salt or confectioneries, to prevent the formation of lumps (caking) and for easing packaging, transport, flowability, and consumption.
Caking mechanisms depend on the nature of the material. 
Crystalline solids often cake by formation of liquid bridge and subsequent fusion of microcrystals. 
Amorphous materials can cake by glass transitions and changes in viscosity. 
Polymorphic phase transitions can also induce caking.
Some anticaking agents function by absorbing excess moisture or by coating particles and making them water-repellent. 
Calcium silicate (CaSiO3), a commonly used anti-caking agent, added to e.g. table salt, absorbs both water and oil.
Anticaking agents are also used in non-food items such as road salt, fertilisers, cosmetics, synthetic detergents, and in manufacturing applications.
Some studies suggest that anticaking agents may have a negative effect on the nutritional content of food; one such study indicated that most anti-caking agents result in the additional degradation of vitamin C added to food.

There are many foods and products that readily absorb water or oils. 
The absorption of this water or oil can cause products to clump together and in some cases, become unusable. 
This is especially true for cake mixes, flour, sugar, table salt, and many other granular food products as they are crystalline structures. 
When these crystalline structures absorb water or oils, they can create a liquid bridge that forms into a crystal bridge. 
This crystal bridge binds the food product together making it difficult to use.
You may have noticed that some restaurants add rice to the salt in their salt shaker or maybe you’ve seen people add rice to brown sugar. 
This is a low-tech way of adding additional clumping protection to foods because the rice absorbs excess moisture and protects the foods from the above clumping process.
Manufacturers add anti-caking agents in small amounts to products they want to keep free-flowing. 
These anti-caking agents coat individual particles thus separating the particles from each other, so a crystal bridge does not form and cause clumping.

There are many anti-caking agents that work with a number of foods and food formulations. 
For example, sodium aluminosilicate is used in sugar, salt, non-dairy creamers and more to absorb moisture, microcrystalline cellulose (a.k.a., powdered cellulose) keeps our shredded cheese from clumping, and calcium silicate prevents salts, seasonings and dry mixes from caking.
There are many more anti-caking agents that keep our foods clump-free and easy to use. 
Due to the extremely small amounts of GRAS anti-caking agents added to foods, anti-caking ingredients are not always added to the ingredient list on food labels. 
This is permitted under current FDA food guidelines because anti-caking agents do not typically impact the shelf-life of a product and are added in such small amounts that the law permits omitting it from the label.


1-) CALSIUM CARBONATE

Calsium Carbonate = CaCO3 = Aragonite = PCC = GCC

CAS Number: 471-34-1  
EC Number: 207-439-9
E number: E170 (colours)
Linear Formula: CaCO3
Molecular Weight: 100.09

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3. 
Calcium carbonate is a common substance found in rocks as the minerals calcite and aragonite (most notably as limestone, which is a type of sedimentary rock consisting mainly of calcite) and is the main component of eggshells, snail shells, seashells and pearls. 
Calcium carbonate is the active ingredient in agricultural lime and is created when calcium ions in hard water react with carbonate ions to create limescale. 
Calcium carbonate has medical use as a calcium supplement or as an antacid, but excessive consumption can be hazardous and cause hypercalcemia and digestive issues.
Calcium carbonate, as Calcium carbonate is used for industrial purposes, is extracted by mining or quarrying.  
Pure calcium carbonate can be produced from marble, or Calcium carbonate can be prepared by passing carbon dioxide into a solution of calcium hydroxide.  
In the later case calcium carbonate is derived from the mixture, forming a grade of product called "precipitated calcium carbonate,” or PCC. 

PCC has a very fine and controlled particle size, on the order of 2 microns in diameter, particularly useful in production of paper.  
The other primary type of industrial product is "ground calcium carbonate,” or GCC. 
GCC, as the name implies, involves crushing and processing limestone to create a powdery-like form graded by size and other properties for many different industrial and pharmaceutical applications.
Calcium carbonate is an inorganic salt used as an antacid. 
Calcium carbonate is a basic compound that acts by neutralizing hydrochloric acid in gastric secretions. 
Subsequent increases in pH may inhibit the action of pepsin. 
An increase in bicarbonate ions and prostaglandins may also confer cytoprotective effects. 
Calcium carbonate may also be used as a nutritional supplement or to treat hypocalcemia.

Uses of Calcium carbonate:
Calcium carbonate is used to treat symptoms caused by too much stomach acid such as heartburn, upset stomach, or indigestion. 
Calcium carbonate is an antacid that works by lowering the amount of acid in the stomach.
Check the ingredients on the label even if you have used Calcium carbonate before. 
The manufacturer of Calcium carbonate may have changed the ingredients. 
Calcium carbonate, products with similar names may contain different ingredients meant for different purposes. 

Paper, Plastics, Paints, and Coatings: Calcium carbonate is the most widely used mineral in the paper, plastics, paints and coatings industries both as a filler – and due to its special white color - as a coating pigment.  
In the paper industry Calcium carbonate is valued worldwide for Calcium carbonates high brightness and light scattering characteristics, and is used as an inexpensive filler to make bright opaque paper.  
Filler is used at the wet-end of paper making machines, and calcium carbonate filler allows for the paper to be bright and smooth.  
As an extender, calcium carbonate can represent as much as 30% by weight in paints.  
Calcium carbonate also is used widely as a filler in adhesives, and sealants.

Personal Health and Food Production: Calcium carbonate is used widely as an effective dietary calcium supplement, antacid, phosphate binder, or base material for medicinal tablets.  
Calcium carbonate also is found on many grocery store shelves in products such as baking powder, toothpaste, dry-mix dessert mixes, dough, and wine.  
Calcium carbonate is the active ingredient in agricultural lime, and is used in animal feed.  
Calcium carbonate also benefits the environment through water and waste treatment.

Building Materials and Construction: Calcium carbonate is critical to the construction industry, both as a building material in its own right (e.g. marble), and as an ingredient of cement.  
Calcium carbonate contributes to the making of mortar used in bonding bricks, concrete blocks, stones, roofing shingles, rubber compounds, and tiles.  
Calcium carbonate decomposes to form carbon dioxide and lime, an important material in making steel, glass, and paper.  
Because of Calcium carbonates antacid properties, calcium carbonate is used in industrial settings to neutralize acidic conditions in both soil and water.

Calcium carbonate crystals are referred to as calcite.  
The calcite crystal generally is considered a rhombohedron because of its cleavage properties.  
Cleavage is what causes crystals to angle where the bonding forces are weak and are apt to break into planes.  
Calcite is unique in that its cleavage takes three distinct directions.  
There are more than 300 forms of calcite crystals.  
Calcite crystals also come in many different colors, but usually are white or transparent.  
Another important property of the calcite crystal is its property of double refraction.  
Double refraction occurs when a ray of light travels through a medium and is split into two different beams, one traveling slowly, one traveling fast.  
The two different beams are bent at two different angles of refraction.  
As a result of this property a person looking through calcite sees two images.  
This property of double refraction is a feature valuable to a number of optical applications.

Calcium carbonate is one of the most abundant minerals on Earth and accounts for about 4% of the Earth’s crust. 
Calcium carbonate can be found in nature in three principal rock types: chalk, limestone and marble.  

Today, Calcium carbonate powders, precipitated products and dolomite, are among the most important and versatile materials used by industry. 
Calcium carbonate is used as a filler and functional additive in an incredible variety of industrial applications ranging adhesives & sealants, building products, glass, paints & inks, paper, plastic & rubber to animal feeds, flue-gas desulphurisation, fertilizers, food, personal care, pharmaceuticals and water treatment.

Calcium carbonate is normally found as a white mineral (calcite) which occurs naturally in chalks, limestones and marbles. 
Some of these rocks were formed by inorganic processes, but many are of organic origin being composed of the remains of countless sea organisms. 
Most are limestones, a general term used for a rock possessing varying proportions of calcite and dolomite with small amounts of iron-bearing carbonates. 
Dolomite is a double carbonate of calcium and magnesium, with the formula CaMg(CO3)2. 
Limestones are usually clear or white. 
However, with impurities, they can take on a variety of colours, commonly white, tan or grey.

The most common crystal arrangement for naturally-occurring calcium carbonates is the hexagonal form of calcite. 
Less common is aragonite, which has a discrete or clustered needle, orthorhombic crystal structure. 
Aragonite is formed in a narrow range of physio-chemical conditions, typically in thermal springs although mollusc shells and pearls are made of aragonite.

Commercial calcium carbonate is produced in 2 ways: through the extraction and processing of natural ores or synthetically through chemical precipitation. 
Ground calcium carbonate is commonly referred to as GCC. 
Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) is produced through a recarbonisation process or as a by-product of some bulk chemical processes (e.g. the Solvay method or caustic soda production).

Most calcium carbonate deposits are made up of the remains of marine organisms that have sedimented to the bottom of a shallow sea. 
These organisms, such as crustaceans, algae and coral, absorb calcium carbonate from the water and use Calcium carbonate to form their skeletons and shells. 
When they die, their remains form sedimentary deposits on sea-beds which build up over time to form rock. 
Chalk, a soft rock, is the result of poorly compacted sedimentary calcium carbonate rock, whose diagenesis is incomplete. 
Once the sedimentation process is complete, this results in the formation of limestone.
Marble, the hardest form of calcium carbonate, is a metamorphic rock, which is the result of the recrystallization process of limestone, under conditions of high pressure and temperature.

Calcium carbonate can also be produced synthetically in the form of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC). 
PCC is created through the conversion of limestone into CaO and CO2 and the subsequent reaction of both purified components in a chemical reactor. 
The final product has the same chemical composition as GCC, but is higher purity and has different properties in terms of particle size distribution and particle shape. 
The high whiteness and opacity of carbonates lend themselves to a great many applications, from building materials to paper and paint, to construction and foodstuffs.

WHAT IS CALCIUM CARBONATE AND HOW DOES IT WORK?
Calcium Carbonate is a medication used to prevent or treat low blood calcium levels in people who do not get enough calcium from their diets. 
Calcium carbonate may be used to treat conditions caused by low calcium levels such as bone loss (osteoporosis), weak bones (osteomalacia/rickets), decreased activity of the parathyroid gland (hypoparathyroidism), and a certain muscle disease (latent tetany). 
Calcium carbonate may also be used in certain patients to make sure that they are getting enough calcium (women who are pregnant, nursing or postmenopausal, people taking certain medications such as phenytoin, phenobarbital, or prednisone).

Calcium plays a very important role in the body. 
Calcium carbonate is necessary for normal functioning of nerves, cells, muscle, and bone. 
If there is not enough calcium in the blood, then the body will take calcium from bones, thereby weakening bones. 
Having the right amount of calcium is important for building and keeping strong bones.

Calcium Carbonate is available under the following different brand names: 
Tums, Tums Chewy Delights, Tums Extra, Tums Freshers, Tums Kids, Tums Regular, Tums Smoothies, and Tums Ultra or Children's Pepto.

Calcium carbonate, CaCO3, is one of the most common compounds on Earth, making up about 7% of Earth's crust. 
Calcium carbonate occurs in a wide variety of mineral forms, including limestone, marble, travertine, and chalk. 
Calcium carbonate also occurs combined with magnesium as the mineral dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2. 
Stalactites and stalagmites in caves are made of calcium carbonate. 
A variety of animal products are also made primarily of calcium carbonate, notably coral, sea shells, egg shells, and pearls.

Why is Calcium carbonate prescribed?
Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not enough. 
Calcium is needed by the body for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart.
Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. 
Calcium carbonate is available with or without a prescription.

Calcium carbonate Chemistry
Calcium carbonate shares the typical properties of other carbonates. 
Notably it reacts with acids, releasing carbon dioxide (technically speaking, carbonic acid, but that disintegrates quickly to CO2 and H2O):
CaCO3(s) + 2 H+(aq) → Ca2+(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O
releases carbon dioxide upon heating, called a thermal decomposition reaction, or calcination (to above 840 °C in the case of CaCO3), to form calcium oxide, commonly called quicklime, with reaction enthalpy 178 kJ/mol:
CaCO3(s) → CaO(s) + CO2(g)
Calcium carbonate reacts with water that is saturated with carbon dioxide to form the soluble calcium bicarbonate.
CaCO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) → Ca(HCO3)2(aq)
This reaction is important in the erosion of carbonate rock, forming caverns, and leads to hard water in many regions.
An unusual form of calcium carbonate is the hexahydrate, ikaite, CaCO3·6H2O. 
Ikaite is stable only below 8 °C.

Calcium carbonate Preparation
The vast majority of calcium carbonate used in industry is extracted by mining or quarrying. 
Pure calcium carbonate (such as for food or pharmaceutical use), can be produced from a pure quarried source (usually marble).
Alternatively, calcium carbonate is prepared from calcium oxide. 
Water is added to give calcium hydroxide then carbon dioxide is passed through this solution to precipitate the desired calcium carbonate, referred to in the industry as precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC):
CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2
Ca(OH)2 + CO2 → CaCO3↓ + H2O

Synonyms: Calcium carbonate
Linear Formula: CaCO3
CAS Number: 471-34-1
Molecular Weight: 100.09

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is the most widely used filler in polymer formulations. 
As a filler, calcium carbonate allows cost reduction and improved mechanical properties. 
Calcium carbonate is found in sedimentary rocks (chalk, limestone), marbles and minerals (dolomite).
Some typical properties are: density 2.7-2.9 g/cm3; pH of water suspension 9; particle size 0.2-30 μm; oil absorption 13–21 g/100 g; specific surface area 5–24 m2/g. 
Depending on their origin and history of formation, and their impurities, the calcium carbonates have different properties. 
Three major technological processes are used in the production of calcium carbonate fillers: milling, precipitation, and coating. 
However, most calcium carbonate fillers are processed by milling using a dry or wet method. 
Dry milling provides ultra-fine calcium carbonate grades (particle size about 0.6 μm). 
Natural milled calcium carbonates are added to decrease cost in rubber base adhesives.

Calcium carbonate Structure
The thermodynamically stable form of CaCO3 under normal conditions is hexagonal β-CaCO3(the mineral calcite).
Other forms can be prepared, the denser (2.83 g/cm3) orthorhombic λ-CaCO3 (the mineral aragonite) and hexagonal μ-CaCO3, occurring as the mineral vaterite.
The aragonite form can be prepared by precipitation at temperatures above 85 °C, the vaterite form can be prepared by precipitation at 60 °C.
Calcite contains calcium atoms coordinated by six oxygen atoms, in aragonite they are coordinated by nine oxygen atoms.
The vaterite structure is not fully understood.
Magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) has the calcite structure, whereas strontium carbonate and barium carbonate (SrCO3 and BaCO3) adopt the aragonite structure, reflecting their larger ionic radii.

Calcium carbonate Occurrence
Calcite is the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate. 
Calcium carbonate is transparent to opaque. 
A transparent variety called Iceland spar (shown here) was used to create polarized light in the 19th century.

Geological sources
Calcite, aragonite and vaterite are pure calcium carbonate minerals. 
Industrially important source rocks which are predominantly calcium carbonate include limestone, chalk, marble and travertine.

IUPAC name
Calcium carbonate

Other names
calcite; aragonite; chalk; Lime (material); Limestone; marble; oyster; pearl;

Biological sources
Calcium carbonate chunks from clamshell
Eggshells, snail shells and most seashells are predominantly calcium carbonate and can be used as industrial sources of that chemical.
Oyster shells have enjoyed recent recognition as a source of dietary calcium, but are also a practical industrial source.
Dark green vegetables such as broccoli and kale contain dietarily significant amounts of calcium carbonate, but they are not practical as an industrial source.

Extraterrestrial
Beyond Earth, strong evidence suggests the presence of calcium carbonate on Mars. 
Signs of calcium carbonate have been detected at more than one location (notably at Gusev and Huygens craters). 
This provides some evidence for the past presence of liquid water.

Geology
Carbonate is found frequently in geologic settings and constitutes an enormous carbon reservoir. 
Calcium carbonate occurs as aragonite, calcite and dolomite as significant constituents of the calcium cycle. 
The carbonate minerals form the rock types: limestone, chalk, marble, travertine, tufa, and others.
In warm, clear tropical waters corals are more abundant than towards the poles where the waters are cold. 
Calcium carbonate contributors, including plankton (such as coccoliths and planktic foraminifera), coralline algae, sponges, brachiopods, echinoderms, bryozoa and mollusks, are typically found in shallow water environments where sunlight and filterable food are more abundant. 
Cold-water carbonates do exist at higher latitudes but have a very slow growth rate. 
The calcification processes are changed by ocean acidification.
Where the oceanic crust is subducted under a continental plate sediments will be carried down to warmer zones in the asthenosphere and lithosphere. 
Under these conditions calcium carbonate decomposes to produce carbon dioxide which, along with other gases, give rise to explosive volcanic eruptions.

Carbonate compensation depth
The carbonate compensation depth (CCD) is the point in the ocean where the rate of precipitation of calcium carbonate is balanced by the rate of dissolution due to the conditions present. 
Deep in the ocean, the temperature drops and pressure increases. 
Calcium carbonate is unusual in that its solubility increases with decreasing temperature.
Increasing pressure also increases the solubility of calcium carbonate. 
The carbonate compensation depth can range from 4,000 to 6,000 meters below sea level.

Calcium carbonate Role in taphonomy
Calcium carbonate can preserve fossils through permineralization. 
Most of the vertebrate fossils of the Two Medicine Formation—a geologic formation known for Calcium carbonates duck-billed dinosaur eggs—are preserved by CaCO3 permineralization.
This type of preservation conserves high levels of detail, even down to the microscopic level. 
However, Calcium carbonate also leaves specimens vulnerable to weathering when exposed to the surface.
Trilobite populations were once thought to have composed the majority of aquatic life during the Cambrian, due to the fact that their calcium carbonate-rich shells were more easily preserved than those of other species, which had purely chitinous shells.

Uses
Construction
The main use of calcium carbonate is in the construction industry, either as a building material, or limestone aggregate for road building, as an ingredient of cement, or as the starting material for the preparation of builders' lime by burning in a kiln. 
However, because of weathering mainly caused by acid rain, calcium carbonate (in limestone form) is no longer used for building purposes on Calcium carbonates own, but only as a raw primary substance for building materials.
Calcium carbonate is also used in the purification of iron from iron ore in a blast furnace. 
The carbonate is calcined in situ to give calcium oxide, which forms a slag with various impurities present, and separates from the purified iron.
In the oil industry, calcium carbonate is added to drilling fluids as a formation-bridging and filtercake-sealing agent; it is also a weighting material which increases the density of drilling fluids to control the downhole pressure. 
Calcium carbonate is added to swimming pools, as a pH corrector for maintaining alkalinity and offsetting the acidic properties of the disinfectant agent.
Calcium carbonate is also used as a raw material in the refining of sugar from sugar beet; Calcium carbonate is calcined in a kiln with anthracite to produce calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. 
This burnt lime is then slaked in fresh water to produce a calcium hydroxide suspension for the precipitation of impurities in raw juice during carbonatation.
Calcium carbonate in the form of chalk has traditionally been a major component of blackboard chalk. 
However, modern manufactured chalk is mostly gypsum, hydrated calcium sulfate CaSO4·2H2O. 

CAS Number: 471-34-1  
ChEBI: CHEBI:3311  
ChEMBL: ChEMBL1200539  
ChemSpider: 9708  
DrugBank: DB06724
ECHA InfoCard: 100.006.765  
EC Number: 207-439-9
E number: E170 (colours)
KEGG: D00932  
PubChem CID: 10112
RTECS number: FF9335000
UNII: H0G9379FGK  
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID3036238

Calcium carbonate is naturally found in rock and mineral formations. 
Calcium carbonate is slightly water soluble, and is thereby leached into natural water systems, resulting in “hard” water. 
Limestone and chalk are comprised of calcium carbonate– as are coral reefs. 
The mineral is typically procured via mining and quarrying. 
Calcium carbonate exists as limestone, chalk, and dolomite, and typically includes impurities like clay.
Lauded among many industries for Calcium carbonates use, calcium carbonate is a keyplayer in the following industries:
-Healthcare
-Oil
-Plastic/Rubber
-Cement
-Glass
-Steel
-Paper
-Construction

-Calcium Carbonate in the Garden
The foremost ingredient in garden lime (commonly referred to as agricultural lime) that is responsible for sedating harmful soil acidity is calcium carbonate. 
The compound also improves the quality of the soil for surrounding plant life. 
Calcium carbonate (as you may have guessed) bestows plants with a healthy source of calcium, pH balancing properties, increases water retention ability within acidic soils, and (4) encourages absorption of crucial nutrients including nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus despite being rooted in acidic soils.

-Calcium Carbonate’s Role in Construction & Cement Making
Did you know you walk on calcium carbonate every day? 
Calcium carbonate is a keystone building material in the construction industry, largely leveraged in cement production. 
Calcium carbonate is typically utilized in its limestone state for these purposes. 
In addition to cement constructs, calcium carbonate is relied upon heavily in laying the foundation for road construction. 
Calcium carbonate is frequently used to help soil firm up, allowing for the erection of bridges, homes, and towering edifices.
Large clusters of calcium carbonate are typically used to satisfy a need for considerable aggregates; reacting with soil, lime helps clay to cement (almost literally) and create tighter compounds. 
Additionally, the firming effect of calcium carbonate allows large construction vehicles to more easily traverse construction worksites.
Expanding upon calcium carbonate’s inclusion in cement production, the principal form utilized in cement preparation is limestone. 
Cement at Calcium carbonates essence is comprised of calcium silicates and calcium sulfate. 

-Use Calcium Carbonate to Combat Acid Rain in Water Systems
Studies show calcium carbonate helps allay the damaging effects of acid rain throughout the entire within river water ecosystems. 
The United States currently treats acidic waterways with a sprinkling of finely powdered calcium carbonate to neutralize noxious acids.
Scandinavia and Scotland also leverage calcium carbonate in this manner. 
Limestone deposits are used in the treatment of unplanted areas surrounding affected lakes and water bodies. 
Think of the limestone as a barrier, neutralizing the acidity which may have leached into surrounding soil beds.

-Living Organisms Need Calcium Carbonate for Bone & Teeth Formation
And you’re one of them! Did you know your teeth and bones are made from a healthy dose of calcium carbonate? 
Likewise, plants and animals use the mineral to construct their skeletons and shells. 
Animals most notable for this include snails, coral, pearls, turtles, and other shelled creatures. 
Calcium carbonate is again redeposited into the soil upon the death of plants and animals hosting the substance.

Calcium carbonate is a main source for growing biorock. 
Precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC), pre-dispersed in slurry form, is a common filler material for latex gloves with the aim of achieving maximum saving in material and production costs.
Fine ground calcium carbonate (GCC) is an essential ingredient in the microporous film used in diapers and some building films, as the pores are nucleated around the calcium carbonate particles during the manufacture of the film by biaxial stretching. 
GCC and PCC are used as a filler in paper because they are cheaper than wood fiber. 
In terms of market volume, GCC are the most important types of fillers currently used.
Printing and writing paper can contain 10–20% calcium carbonate. 
In North America, calcium carbonate has begun to replace kaolin in the production of glossy paper. 
Europe has been practicing this as alkaline papermaking or acid-free papermaking for some decades. 
PCC used for paper filling and paper coatings is precipitated and prepared in a variety of shapes and sizes having characteristic narrow particle size distributions and equivalent spherical diameters of 0.4 to 3 micrometers.
Calcium carbonate is widely used as an extender in paints, in particular matte emulsion paint where typically 30% by weight of the paint is either chalk or marble. 

Calcium carbonate is widely used medicinally as an inexpensive dietary calcium supplement for gastric antacid (such as Tums). 
Calcium carbonate may be used as a phosphate binder for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia (primarily in patients with chronic kidney failure). 
Calcium carbonate is used in the pharmaceutical industry as an inert filler for tablets and other pharmaceuticals.
Calcium carbonate is used in the production of calcium oxide as well as toothpaste and has seen a resurgence as a food preservative and color retainer, when used in or with products such as organic apples.

Calcium carbonate is used therapeutically as phosphate binder in patients on maintenance haemodialysis. 
Calcium carbonate is the most common form of phosphate binder prescribed, particularly in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease. 
Calcium carbonate is the most commonly used phosphate binder, but clinicians are increasingly prescribing the more expensive, non-calcium-based phosphate binders, particularly sevelamer.

Excess calcium from supplements, fortified food, and high-calcium diets can cause milk-alkali syndrome, which has serious toxicity and can be fatal. 
In 1915, Bertram Sippy introduced the "Sippy regimen" of hourly ingestion of milk and cream, and the gradual addition of eggs and cooked cereal, for 10 days, combined with alkaline powders, which provided symptomatic relief for peptic ulcer disease. 
Over the next several decades, the Sippy regimen resulted in kidney failure, alkalosis, and hypercalcaemia, mostly in men with peptic ulcer disease. 
These adverse effects were reversed when the regimen stopped, but Calcium carbonate was fatal in some patients with protracted vomiting. 
Milk-alkali syndrome declined in men after effective treatments for peptic ulcer disease arose. 
Since the 1990s Calcium carbonate has been most frequently reported in women taking calcium supplements above the recommended range of 1.2 to 1.5 grams daily, for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, and is exacerbated by dehydration. 
Calcium has been added to over-the-counter products, which contributes to inadvertent excessive intake. 
Excessive calcium intake can lead to hypercalcemia, complications of which include vomiting, abdominal pain and altered mental status.

As a food additive Calcium carbonate is designated E170, and Calcium carbonate has an INS number of 170. 
Used as an acidity regulator, anticaking agent, stabilizer or color Calcium carbonate is approved for usage in the EU, USA and Australia and New Zealand.
Calcium carbonate is "added by law to all UK milled bread flour except wholemeal".
Calcium carbonate is used in some soy milk and almond milk products as a source of dietary calcium; at least one study suggests that calcium carbonate might be as bioavailable as the calcium in cow's milk.
Calcium carbonate is also used as a firming agent in many canned and bottled vegetable products.

Several calcium supplement formulations have been documented to contain the chemical element lead, posing a public health concern.
Lead is commonly found in natural sources of calcium.

Chemical formula: CaCO3
Molar mas: 100.0869 g/mol
Appearance: Fine white powder; chalky taste
Odor: odorless
Density: 
2.711 g/cm3 (calcite)
2.83 g/cm3 (aragonite)
Melting point: 
1,339 °C (2,442 °F; 
1,612 K) (calcite)
825 °C (1,517 °F; 
1,098 K) (aragonite) 
Boiling point: decomposes
Solubility in water: 0.013 g/L (25 °C) 
Solubility product (Ksp): 3.3×10−9 
Solubility in dilute acids: soluble
Acidity (pKa): 9.0
Magnetic susceptibility (χ): −3.82×10−5 cm3/mol
Refractive index (nD): 1.59

Calcium carbonate has two major crystalline formstwo different geometric arrangements of the calcium ions and carbonate ions that make up the compound. 
These two forms are called aragonite and calcite. 
All calcium carbonate minerals are conglomerations of various-sized crystals of these two forms, packed together in different ways and containing various impurities. 
The large, transparent crystals known as Iceland spar, however, are pure calcite.
In Calcium carbonates pure form, calcium carbonate is a white powder with a specific gravity of 2.71 in the calcite form or 2.93 in the aragonite form. 
When heated, Calcium carbonate decomposes into calcium oxide (CaO) and carbon dioxide gas (CO2). 
Calcium carbonate also reacts vigorously with acids to release a froth of carbon dioxide bubbles. 
Calcium carbonate is said that Cleopatra, to show her extravagance, dissolved pearls in vinegar (acetic acid).

Crystal structure: Trigonal
Space group: 32/m

Calcium carbonate is also a popular filler in plastics. 
Some typical examples include around 15 to 20% loading of chalk in unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) drainpipes, 5% to 15% loading of stearate-coated chalk or marble in uPVC window profile. 
PVC cables can use calcium carbonate at loadings of up to 70 phr (parts per hundred parts of resin) to improve mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation) and electrical properties (volume resistivity).
Polypropylene compounds are often filled with calcium carbonate to increase rigidity, a requirement that becomes important at high usage temperatures.
Here the percentage is often 20–40%.
Calcium carbonate also routinely used as a filler in thermosetting resins (sheet and bulk molding compounds)and has also been mixed with ABS, and other ingredients, to form some types of compression molded "clay" poker chips.
Precipitated calcium carbonate, made by dropping calcium oxide into water, is used by itself or with additives as a white paint, known as whitewashing.
Calcium carbonate is added to a wide range of trade and do Calcium carbonate yourself adhesives, sealants, and decorating fillers.
Ceramic tile adhesives typically contain 70% to 80% limestone. 
Decorating crack fillers contain similar levels of marble or dolomite. 
Calcium carbonate is also mixed with putty in setting stained glass windows, and as a resist to prevent glass from sticking to kiln shelves when firing glazes and paints at high temperature.

In ceramic glaze applications, calcium carbonate is known as whiting, and is a common ingredient for many glazes in Calcium carbonates white powdered form. 
When a glaze containing this material is fired in a kiln, the whiting acts as a flux material in the glaze. 
Ground calcium carbonate is an abrasive (both as scouring powder and as an ingredient of household scouring creams), in particular in Calcium carbonates calcite form, which has the relatively low hardness level of 3 on the Mohs scale, and will therefore not scratch glass and most other ceramics, enamel, bronze, iron, and steel, and have a moderate effect on softer metals like aluminium and copper.
A paste made from calcium carbonate and deionized water can be used to clean tarnish on silver.

Calcium carbonate BENEFITS
Better cost performing flotation reagents
Improved recovery and grade
Better flotation selectivity and strength
Process improvement and flowsheet optimization

Calcium carbonate APPLICATIONS
Reverse Flotation (of impurities away from calcium carbonate)

Calcium carbonate Agriculture and aquaculture
Agricultural lime, powdered chalk or limestone, Calcium carbonate is used as a cheap method for neutralising acidic soil, making it suitable for planting, also used in aquaculture industry for pH regulation of pond soil before initiating culture.

Calcium carbonate Household cleaning
Calcium carbonate is a key ingredient in many household cleaning powders like Comet and is used as a scrubbing agent.

What is calcium carbonate?
Calcium is a mineral that is found naturally in foods. 
Calcium is necessary for many normal functions of the body, especially bone formation and maintenance.
Calcium carbonate is used to prevent or to treat a calcium deficiency.
There are many brands and forms of calcium carbonate available. 
Not all brands are listed on this leaflet.
Calcium carbonate may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Pollution mitigation
In 1989, a researcher, Ken Simmons, introduced CaCO3 into the Whetstone Brook in Massachusetts.
His hope was that the calcium carbonate would counter the acid in the stream from acid rain and save the trout that had ceased to spawn. 
Although his experiment was a success, Calcium carbonate did increase the amount of aluminium ions in the area of the brook that was not treated with the limestone. 
This shows that CaCO3 can be added to neutralize the effects of acid rain in river ecosystems.
Currently calcium carbonate is used to neutralize acidic conditions in both soil and water.
Since the 1970s, such liming has been practiced on a large scale in Sweden to mitigate acidification and several thousand lakes and streams are limed repeatedly.
Calcium carbonate is also used in flue gas desulfurisation applications eliminating harmful SO2 and NO2 emissions from coal and other fossil fuels burnt in large fossil fuel power stations.

Calcium carbonate Calcination equilibrium
Calcination of limestone using charcoal fires to produce quicklime has been practiced since antiquity by cultures all over the world. 
The temperature at which limestone yields calcium oxide is usually given as 825 °C, but stating an absolute threshold is misleading. 
Calcium carbonate exists in equilibrium with calcium oxide and carbon dioxide at any temperature. 
At each temperature there is a partial pressure of carbon dioxide that is in equilibrium with calcium carbonate. 
At room temperature the equilibrium overwhelmingly favors calcium carbonate, because the equilibrium CO2 pressure is only a tiny fraction of the partial CO2 pressure in air, which is about 0.035 kPa.
At temperatures above 550 °C the equilibrium CO2 pressure begins to exceed the CO2 pressure in air. 
So above 550 °C, calcium carbonate begins to outgas CO2 into air. 
However, in a charcoal fired kiln, the concentration of CO2 will be much higher than Calcium carbonate is in air. 
Indeed, if all the oxygen in the kiln is consumed in the fire, then the partial pressure of CO2 in the kiln can be as high as 20 kPa.
The table shows that this partial pressure is not achieved until the temperature is nearly 800 °C. 
For the outgassing of CO2 from calcium carbonate to happen at an economically useful rate, the equilibrium pressure must significantly exceed the ambient pressure of CO2. 
And for it to happen rapidly, the equilibrium pressure must exceed total atmospheric pressure of 101 kPa, which happens at 898 °C.

Calcium carbonate Calcination equilibrium
Calcination of limestone using charcoal fires to produce quicklime has been practiced since antiquity by cultures all over the world. 
The temperature at which limestone yields calcium oxide is usually given as 825 °C, but stating an absolute threshold is misleading. 
Calcium carbonate exists in equilibrium with calcium oxide and carbon dioxide at any temperature. 
At each temperature there is a partial pressure of carbon dioxide that is in equilibrium with calcium carbonate. 
At room temperature the equilibrium overwhelmingly favors calcium carbonate, because the equilibrium CO2 pressure is only a tiny fraction of the partial CO2 pressure in air, which is about 0.035 kPa.

Calcium carbonate is also referred to as chalk, this dense, white powdery mineral is a common addition to the madder dye bath to deepen shades and is one of the principle minerals that create hard water. 
Calcium carbonate may also be used with weld extract to bring out the bright, rich yellow shades.
250g is enough for many dye baths and when used as a post-bath for aluminum acetate mordanting.
The recommended amount of chalk is 5% of the weight of fiber, or 1 rounded teaspoon for 100 grams of fiber.

At temperatures above 550 °C the equilibrium CO2 pressure begins to exceed the CO2 pressure in air. 
So above 550 °C, calcium carbonate begins to outgas CO2 into air. 
However, in a charcoal fired kiln, the concentration of CO2 will be much higher than Calcium carbonate is in air. 
Indeed, if all the oxygen in the kiln is consumed in the fire, then the partial pressure of CO2 in the kiln can be as high as 20 kPa.

The table shows that this partial pressure is not achieved until the temperature is nearly 800 °C. 
For the outgassing of CO2 from calcium carbonate to happen at an economically useful rate, the equilibrium pressure must significantly exceed the ambient pressure of CO2. 
And for Calcium carbonate to happen rapidly, the equilibrium pressure must exceed total atmospheric pressure of 101 kPa, which happens at 898 °C.

How should Calcium carbonate be used?
Calcium carbonate comes as a tablet, chewable tablet, capsule, and liquid to take by mouth. 
Calcium carbonate is usually taken three or four times a day. 
Follow the directions on your prescription or package label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. 
Take calcium carbonate exactly as directed. 
Do not take more or less of Calcium carbonate or take Calcium carbonate more often than prescribed by your doctor. 
When using this medicine as a dietary supplement, take it with food or following meals.
Chewable tablets should be chewed thoroughly before being swallowed; do not swallow them whole. 
Drink a full glass of water after taking either the regular or chewable tablets or capsules. 
Some liquid forms of calcium carbonate must be shaken well before use.

Before taking calcium carbonate,
-tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to calcium carbonate or any other drugs.
-tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications you are taking, especially digoxin (Lanoxin), etidronate (Didronel), phenytoin (Dilantin), tetracycline (Sumycin), and vitamins. 
-Do not take calcium carbonate within 1-2 hours of taking other medicines. 
-Calcium may decrease the effectiveness of the other medicine.
-tell your doctor if you have or have ever had kidney disease or stomach conditions.
-tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. 
-If you become pregnant while taking calcium carbonate, call your doctor.

Aragonite
CALCIUM CARBONATE
471-34-1
Calcite
Chalk
Carbonic acid calcium salt (1:1)
Calcium carbonate (1:1)
Calofort U
Precipitated calcium carbonate
calciumcarbonate
1317-65-3
CaCO3

Formula: CaCO3
Molecular mass: 100.1
Decomposes at 825°C
Density: 2.8 g/cm³
Solubility in water, mg/l at 25°C: 14 (very poor) 
Formulae: 
CCaO3
CO3.Ca
Net Charge: 0
Average Mass: 100.087
Monoisotopic Mass: 99.94733
InChI: InChI=1S/CH2O3.Ca/c2-1(3)4;/h(H2,2,3,4);/q;+2/p-2
InChIKey: VTYYLEPIZMXCLO-UHFFFAOYSA-L
SMILES: [Ca+2].C(=O)([O-])[O-]

The carbonic salt of calcium (CaCO3). 
Calcium carbonate is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis, as an antacid in gastric hyperacidity for temporary relief of indigestion and heartburn, and as a calcium supplement for preventing and treating osteoporosis.

Calciumcarbonat
Kalziumkarbonat
Calcite (Ca(Co3))
Calcium carbonate slurry
kohlensaurer Kalk
UNII-H0G9379FGK
carbonato de calcio
Chalk, Precipitated
carbonate de calcium
calcium trioxidocarbonate
Calcium carbonate [USP]
Carbonate (calcium)

Calcium carbonate causes a unique reaction with acids.  
Upon contact with an acid - no matter the strength - Calcium carbonate produces carbon dioxide.  
This provides geologists with a reliable test to identify calcium carbonate.  
This same phenomenon is important to the formation of caves.  
Acidic rain water runs off and goes underground where it dissolves the calcium carbonate limestone. 
The calcium carbonate water runs down and eventually reaches an air-filled cavity underground where the carbon dioxide can be released.  
When Calcium carbonate is released, the calcium carbonate crystallizes again.  
Stalactite and stalagmite formations are created when water containing calcium carbonate drips, leaving some mineral at the source of the drip at the roof of the cave and some where it falls.  
This is an extremely long process, and often takes place over many thousands of years.

Calcium is a mineral that is found naturally in foods. Calcium is necessary for many normal functions of the body, especially bone formation and maintenance.
Calcium carbonate is used to prevent or to treat a calcium deficiency.
Calcium carbonate may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Kalkspar
CHEBI:3311
H0G9379FGK
13397-26-7
Aeromatt
MFCD00010906
Akadama
Albacar
Albafil
Albaglos
Atomite
Calcicoll
Calibrite
Calmote
Calseeds
Calwhite

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals secreted by marine organisms are abundant in the ocean. 
These particles settle and the majority dissolves in deeper waters or at the seafloor. 
Dissolution of carbonates buffers the ocean, but the vertical and regional distribution and magnitude of dissolution are unclear. 
Here we use seawater chemistry and age data to derive pelagic CaCO3 dissolution rates in major oceanic regions and provide the first data-based, regional profiles of CaCO3 settling fluxes. 
We find that global CaCO3 export at 300 m depth is 76 ± 12 Tmol yr−1, of which 36 ± 8 Tmol (47%) dissolves in the water column. 
Dissolution occurs in two distinct depth zones. 
In shallow waters, metabolic CO2 release and high-magnesium calcites dominate dissolution while increased CaCO3 solubility governs dissolution in deeper waters. 
Based on reconstructed sinking fluxes, our data indicate a higher CaCO3 transfer efficiency from the surface to the seafloor in high-productivity, upwelling areas than in oligotrophic systems. 
These results have implications for assessments of future ocean acidification as well as palaeorecord interpretations, as they demonstrate that surface ecosystems, not only interior ocean chemistry, are key to controlling the dissolution of settling CaCO3 particles.

Carbium
Chemcarb
Clefnon
Duramite
Hydrocarb
Kotamite
Microcarb
Micromya
Neoanticid
Atomit
Calmos
Caltec
Dacote
Marfil
Levigated chalk
Allied whiting

What is the most important information I should know about calcium carbonate?
Follow all directions on your medicine label and package. 
Tell each of your healthcare providers about all your medical conditions, allergies, and all medicines you use.

What is calcium carbonate?
Calcium is a mineral that is found naturally in foods. 
Calcium is necessary for many normal functions of the body, especially bone formation and maintenance.
Calcium carbonate is used to prevent or to treat a calcium deficiency.
There are many brands and forms of calcium carbonate available. 
Not all brands are listed on this leaflet.
Calcium carbonate may also be used for purposes not listed in Calcium carbonate guide.

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking calcium carbonate?
Ask a doctor or pharmacist if Calcium carbonate is safe for you to take Calcium carbonate if you have ever had:
kidney disease;
kidney stones;
cancer;
a parathyroid gland disorder; or
high levels of calcium in your blood.
Ask a doctor before using calcium carbonate if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. 
Your dose needs may be different during pregnancy or while you are nursing.

CAS #: 471-34-1
Formula: CaCO₃

Synonyms: calcium salt of carbonic acid; limestone (naturally occuring [1317-65-3]); marble

How should I take calcium carbonate?
Use exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. 
Do not use in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.
Check the label of your calcium carbonate product to see if Calcium carbonate should be taken with or without food.
Swallow the calcium carbonate regular tablet with a full glass of water.
The chewable tablet should be chewed before you swallow Calcium carbonate.

Shake the oral suspension (liquid) well just before you measure a dose. 
Measure liquid medicine with the dosing syringe provided, or with a special dose-measuring spoon or medicine cup. 
If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.

Use the calcium carbonate powder as directed. 
Allow the powder to dissolve completely, then consume the mixture.
Calcium carbonate may be only part of a complete program of treatment that also includes dietary changes. 
Learn about the foods that contain calcium.
Your calcium carbonate dose may need to be adjusted as you make changes to your diet. 
Follow your doctor's instructions very closely.
Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat. 
Do not freeze.

What happens if I miss a dose of Calcium carbonate?
Take the missed dose of Calcium carbonate as soon as you remember. 
Skip the missed dose if Calcium carbonate is almost time for your next scheduled dose. 
Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What should I avoid while taking calcium carbonate?
Ask a doctor or pharmacist before taking any multivitamins, mineral supplements, or antacids while you are taking calcium carbonate.

Tums
Marble white
Calcium carbonate (USP)
Camel-carb
Camel-wite
Camel-tex
Calcium carbonate-13C
Britomya M
Britomya S
Calofort S
Calofort T
Calopake F
Calopake H
Hakuenka O
Multiflex MM
Multiflex SC
Albaglos SF
Calopake FS
Calopake PC
Carusis P
Garolite SA

Calcium carbonate accounts for more than 4% of the earth's crust. 
As a result, the three minerals – calcite, aragonite and vaterite – are among the most important rock-forming minerals. 
Rocks are not the only deposits in nature – almost all stretches of water and countless plants and animals contain huge amounts of calcium carbonate as well. 
These natural resources are linked by the calcium carbonate cycle.
Plants and animals absorb calcium carbonate in water, where it usually exists dissolved in the form of calcium hydrogen carbonate Ca(HCO3)2, and use it to build up their skeletons and shells. 
After their death, mussels, coccoliths, algae and corals form sedimentary deposits on sea beds and the rock-forming process is set in motion.
The first stage is the sedimentation process, from which chalk and limestone originate. 
Chalk is a poorly compacted sedimentary calcium carbonate rock whose diagenesis is incomplete.
A completed sedimentation process results in the formation of limestone. 
If the sedimentation process takes place in water containing magnesium, dolomitization may occur. 
Part of the calcium ions in the crystal lattice are replaced by magnesium ions, leading to the formation of dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2).
Marble is a metamorphic rock resulting from the recrystallization of limestone under high pressure and temperature. 
Whether chalk, limestone, dolomite or marble, all carbonate rocks are subject to erosion. 
These dissolve under the influence of wind, temperature and water, and the cycle is ready to start anew.

Gilder's whiting
Hakuenka CC
Hakuenka DD
Hakuenka PX
Hakuenka PZ
Homocal D
Multifex MM
Neolite F
Calcene CO
Calcene NC
Calcene TM
Carbium MM
Hakuenka CCR
Neolite SP
Crystic prefil S
Neolite TPS
Calcilit 8
Carborex 2
Cal-Sup
Microwhite 25
R Jutan
Calcium Carbonate Nanopowder

Most people know that calcium is needed for strong bones, but Calcium carbonate's also needed to help blood vessels and muscles contract and expand, to send messages through the nervous system, and to secrete hormones and enzymes. 
Calcium carbonate is the most abundant mineral in your body and makes up 1%-2% of adult human body weight. 
Over 99% of Calcium carbonate is stored in bones and teeth with the rest stored in blood, muscle, and other tissues.
Bone is a living tissue that constantly breaks down and builds back up.
Up until around the age of 30, consuming an adequate amount of calcium with enough physical activity ensures that your body builds more bone than Calcium carbonate breaks down. 
The majority of adult bone mass is acquired by age 18 in girls and 20 in boys. 
After that, breakdown typically exceeds the amount of bone being built. 
For this reason, Calcium carbonate's essential to maximize bone stores when Calcium carbonate's still possible. 
The amount that you lose after age 30 will be impacted by genetics, ethnicity, physical activity level, sex hormone levels, diet, and gender. 
You can replace what you lose with the foods you eat and your activity level, but you can't increase how much you store. 
When bone mass drops and there is a deterioration of bone tissue, osteoporosis can occur. 
Osteoporosis causes bones to be susceptible to fractures. 
Depending on the severity of the damage, bones can break from a minor fall, or in severe cases, from sneezing.

Hakuenka T-DD
Brilliant 15
Filtex White Base
Hydrocarb 60
Hydrocarb 65
Marblewhite 325
Cal-Light SA
Calcidar 40
Carbital 90
Durcal 2NH
Non-Fer-Al
CCC G-white
Kredafil RM 5
Brilliant BR 15
Calofil A 4
Calofil B 1
Calofil E 2
C.I. Pigment White 18
Calcilit 100
Hakuenka R 06
Micromic CR 16
Calcium monocarbonate

MSDS Name: Calcium carbonate
Synonyms: Precipitated chalk; Aragonite; Agricultural limestone; Agstone; Bell mine pulverized limestone; Calcite; Dolomite; Franklin; Boiling chips.

Durcal 10
Durcal 40
Monocalcium carbonate
Brilliant 1500
Calofor U 50
Calopake high opacity
CCC No.AA oolitic
Eskalon 100
Eskalon 200
Eskalon 400
Eskalon 800
Finncarb 6002
C 50 (carbonate)
Kredafil 150 Extra
Albacar 5970
Caswell No. 139
Eskalon 1500

Eyes: Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. 
Get medical aid.
Skin: Immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. 
Get medical aid if irritation develops or persists.
Ingestion: Get medical aid. 
Do NOT induce vomiting. 
If conscious and alert, rinse mouth and drink 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water.
Inhalation: Remove from exposure and move to fresh air immediately. 
If not breathing, give artificial respiration. 
If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. 
Get medical aid if cough or other symptoms appear.
Notes to Physician: Treat symptomatically and supportively.

MSK-PO
MSK-C
MSK-G
MSK-K
MSK-P
MSK-V
NCC-P
Slaker rejects
Mylanta soothing lozenges
Natural calcium carbonate
Oyster shell
MC-T
Calcium carbonate, 99%, extra pure
Calcium, Reference Standard Solution
calcium;carbonate
Durcal C 640305
P-Lite 500
P-Lite 700
Di-Gel Tablets

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) forms important minerals on Earth and is a model system for understanding crystal nucleation. 
Three different structures of CaCO3 are known, along with two structures that are hydrated.
found a third hydrated CaCO3 structure formed from amorphous CaCO3 in the presence of magnesium ions. 
The discovery illustrates the importance of amorphous precursors for producing new materials.

Virtually all calcium carbonate deposits in the oceans are formed by organisms. 
In shallow water environments the calcareous organisms are primarily corals, mollusks, and algae. 
In the open ocean the primary calcareous organisms are foraminifera (microscopic animals) and coccoliths (algae). 
Both forams and coccoliths are floating or planktonic organisms. 
This means that they live at or near the surface of the ocean, and they cannot swim but move wherever the currents carry them. 
When the planktonic organisms die their calcareous shells fall to the ocean bottom. 
If they accumulate in a high concentration (greater then 30 % of the sediment), an ooze is formed. 
These calcium carbonate shells, however, do not accumulate everywhere on the ocean floor. 
In general, calcareous sediments or oozes are not found where the sea floor is deeper than 4500 meters. 
The obvious explanation is that the shells falling through the longer water column are dissolved before they reach bottom, while the shells falling less than 4500 meters to the bottom are not to be dissolved

What causes the shells to be absent in the deepest part of the ocean? 
The answer cannot be that the organisms do not live there. 
Although true, the organisms do not live in the deep ocean, the organisms do not live anywhere in deep water even where the water is less than 4500 meters. 
The calcareous forams and coccoliths live at the surface of the ocean, not at the bottom. 
Furthermore, these organisms live virtually everywhere in the surface waters from the equator to the poles, so the answer to their preservation in deep water is not their distribution in surface waters.

The answer is that the shells dissolve due to the higher carbon dioxide content in the deeper waters of the oceans.
Carbon dioxide is produced by animals during respiration. 
This process occurs everywhere in the ocean but in surface waters the excess carbon dioxide escapes to the atmosphere. 
Carbon dioxide produced in deep waters cannot escape and, furthermore, it increases with depth. 
That is, deeper waters have more carbon dioxide than shallow waters.

The significance of this excess carbon dioxide is that it dissolves calcium carbonate. 
The deeper the water, the higher the carbon dioxide content and the more likely that calcium carbonate will be dissolved.

Calcium carbonate, 97%, pure, chunks
Carbonic Acid Calcium Salt
Precipitated chalk
Calcium carbonate, 99+%, ACS reagent
EGRI M 5
Pigment white 18
KULU 40
Calcium carbonate, 99+%, for biochemistry
Calcium carbonate, precipitated
BRT 30
CCRIS 1333
HSDB 927
NCC 45

Samples collected for this compound are first analyzed gravimetrically. 
If the gravimetric result of a sample yields a concentration below the permissible exposure limit (PEL), the SLTC will report the calculated air concentration for the requested compound solely from the gravimetric result, qualified as less than or equal to the gravimetric result; no further work on the sample will be performed.
If the gravimetric result indicates an air concentration greater than the PEL, the sample will proceed for elemental analysis. 
Results will be reported from the elemental analysis for the element only; the stated identity of the actual sample contents is based on the assumption that the material sampled is as identified by the compliance officer using available documentation of materials and processes.
An elemental result provided may be converted to the desired compound by multiplying the result by the appropriate stoichiometric factor. 
A 91B report specific to the compound (including the stoichiometric conversion) may by be provided upon request by contacting the laboratory. 
The stoichiometric factor for calcium carbonate from calcium is 2.497.

Samples collected for this compound are first analyzed gravimetrically. 
If the gravimetric result of a sample yields a concentration below the permissible exposure limit (PEL), the SLTC will report the calculated air concentration for the requested compound solely from the gravimetric result, qualified as less than or equal to the gravimetric result; no further work on the sample will be performed.
If the gravimetric result indicates an air concentration greater than the PEL, the sample will proceed for elemental analysis. 
Results will be reported from the elemental analysis for the element only; the stated identity of the actual sample contents is based on the assumption that the material sampled is as identified by the compliance officer using available documentation of materials and processes.
An elemental result provided may be converted to the desired compound by multiplying the result by the appropriate stoichiometric factor. 
A 91B report specific to the compound (including the stoichiometric conversion) may by be provided upon request by contacting the laboratory. 
The stoichiometric factor for calcium carbonate from calcium is 2.497. 
The standard applies to the Respirable Fraction.

Calcium carbonate, 98%, pure, light powder
Tylenol Headache Plus
Calcium carbonate, 98+%, pure, heavy powder
BS 32
Vaterite (Ca(CO3)
BRT 1500
Calcium carbonate, 99%, for analysis, precipitated
Calcium carbonate, 99.999%, (trace metal basis)
Calcium carbonate, ACS reagent, chelometric standard
Carbonic acid, calcium salt (1:1)
EINECS 207-439-9
AX 363
BF 200
KS 500
NS 100
NS 200
NS 400
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 073502
KS 1300
KS 1500
KS 1800
KS 2100
NS 2500
CI 77220

Types of Calcium Supplements
The two main forms of calcium supplements are carbonate and citrate.
Calcium carbonate is the least expensive and, therefore, is a practical option. 
Calcium supplements contain several different kinds of calcium salts. 
Each salt contains varying amounts of elemental calcium. 
The most common calcium supplements are labeled as calcium carbonate (40% elemental calcium); calcium citrate (21% elemental calcium); calcium lactate (13% elemental calcium); and calcium gluconate (9% elemental calcium).
In addition, some calcium supplements are combined with vitamin D or magnesium. 
Product labels should be read carefully and the supplement ingredients checked to see which form and amount of calcium are present in the product. 
This information is important if a person has any health or dietary concerns.

How to use Calcium Carbonate Tablet
Take this product by mouth as directed. 
For the chewable form, chew the medication well before swallowing. 
For the liquid form, shake the bottle well before each dose. 
Follow all directions on the product package. 
Do not take more than the maximum recommended dose stated on the product package. 
If you have any questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
Tell your doctor if your condition persists or worsens. 
Do not take the maximum dose of the medication for more than 2 weeks unless directed by your doctor. 
If you think you may have a serious medical problem, seek immediate medical attention.

N 34
N 43
Caltan
Kalk
Chalk Powder
Coral Calcium
Marble Chips
carbonate calcium
C.I. 77220
K 250
Chalk, pure

Calcium Sources
Calcium supports the development and preservation of bone mass to prevent fractures associated with osteoporosis and must be taken from natural sources or supplementation. 
Calcium is found in dairy products and in a variety of nondairy products, including dark green leafy vegetables, grains, figs, fish with soft bones, and calcium-fortified foods. 
Even with healthy eating and a balanced diet, one may not get enough calcium daily.
Some other natural sources of calcium are coral calcium and oyster shell calcium. 
Coral calcium is a form of calcium carbonate that comes from fossilized coral sources. 
The human body undergoes a natural process known as chelating, in which it combines calcium with another material (e.g., an amino acid) that the body can metabolize. 
Coral calcium is also used in maxillofacial surgery and bone grafting.

Calcium and Vitamin D: A major role of vitamin D is to help the body absorb calcium and maintain bone density. 
For this reason, some calcium supplements are combined with vitamin D. 
This vitamin is available in two forms, vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). 
The D2 form of the vitamin has a shorter shelf life compared to the D3 form.

A few foods are known to have small amounts of vitamin D, such as canned salmon with bones and egg yolks. 
Vitamin D can also be acquired from fortified foods and produced naturally through sun exposure. 
The RDA for vitamin D is 600 IU a day for persons aged <70 years and for pregnant or breastfeeding women, and 800 IU for those aged >71 years.
Calcitriol (Rocaltrol) is the biologically active form of vitamin D that is used to treat and prevent low levels of calcium in the blood of patients whose kidneys or parathyroid glands are not functioning normally.

Calcium and Vitamin K2: Vitamin K2 has several isoforms or analogues called MK-4 to MK-10. 
This vitamin provides major protection from osteoporosis and pathologic calcification of the arteries and soft tissues—a major known consequence of aging.
Vitamin K2 is found in animals and bacteria, including beneficial probiotic bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract. 
Antibiotics interfere with normal growth of healthy bacteria and impact vitamin K2 production.

Although vitamin D3 has been known as the bone vitamin because Calcium carbonate puts the osteocalcin gene into action and acts swiftly on bones, the slower-acting vitamin K2 has been recognized as being just as important for bone maintenance. 
The human skeleton is fully replaced every 8 to 10 years with good, dense bone, and these two vitamins play a large role in the process. 
The oral osteoporosis treatment dose of vitamin K2 is 45 mg a day.

calcium carb onate
Copper Nickel Foil
Marble, CP
T 130-2500
Cal-sup (TN)
CCaO3
calcium(II) carbonate
Calcium carbonate, CP
Calcium Carbonate,(S)
Acid controller complete

Nutritional Considerations
The following factors must be considered in selecting a calcium supplement.

Elemental Calcium: Elemental calcium is what the body absorbs for bone growth and other health benefits; therefore, the actual amount of calcium in the supplement is very important. 
The label on calcium supplements is helpful in determining how much calcium is contained in one serving (number of tablets). 
For example, 1,250 mg of calcium carbonate contains 500 mg of elemental calcium (40%).
Supplement Choice: Some people cannot tolerate certain calcium supplements owing to side effects such as gas, constipation, and bloating. 
One may need to try a few different brands or types of calcium supplement to find the one that he or she can tolerate best. 
In general, calcium carbonate is the most constipating supplement, but Calcium carbonate contains the highest amount of calcium and is the least expensive. 
Calcium phosphate does not cause gas or constipation, but Calcium carbonate is more expensive than calcium carbonate. 
Calcium citrate is the most easily absorbed and does not require stomach acid for absorption, but Calcium carbonate is expensive and does not contain much elemental calcium. 
Women should meet their calcium needs through both their diet and supplements.

Calcium supplements are available in a variety of dosage forms, including chewable tablets, capsules, liquids, and powders. 
Individuals who have trouble swallowing tablets can use chewable or liquid calcium supplements.
Drug Interactions: Calcium supplements may interact with many different prescription medications, including blood pressure medications (calcium channel blockers), synthetic thyroid hormones, bisphosphonates, and antibiotics. 
Pharmacists are the best professionals to consult about possible drug interactions and for calcium supplement recommendations.
Bioavailability: The human body must be able to absorb calcium so that Calcium carbonate is bioavailable and effective. 
Calcium supplements should be taken in small doses (500 mg at a time) and preferably at mealtime to increase absorption. 
Calcium citrate is absorbed equally with or without food and is a form recommended for individuals with inflammatory bowel disease or people who have low stomach acid (individuals aged >50 years or those who are taking antacids or proton pump inhibitors).
Cost and Quality: The Federal Trade Commission holds supplement manufacturers responsible for ensuring that their supplements are safe and their claims are truthful. 
Many companies may have their products independently tested based on the U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) standards. 
Supplements that bear the USP abbreviation meet standards for quality assurance.

Calcium Supplementation and Cardiovascular Effects
Some concerns have been raised about the potential adverse effects of high calcium intake on cardiovascular health among the elderly due to calcification of the arteries and veins. 
There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, which include effects on vascular calcification, function of vascular cells, and blood coagulation. 
However, newer studies have found no increased risk of heart attack or stroke among women taking calcium supplements during 24 years of follow-up.
Some scientists believe that because calcium supplements produce small reductions in fracture risk and a small increase in cardiovascular risk, there may be no net benefits from their use. 
They claim that since food sources of calcium appear to produce similar benefits on bone density and have not been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects, they may be preferable to supplements. 
More studies are required to prospectively analyze the effect of calcium or calcium plus vitamin D supplementation beyond bone health. 
The medical community is still uncertain as to the effects of calcium supplements in women.

Scoring Coronary Artery Calcium Levels
Calcium deposits can be found in many parts of the body at higher ages. 
A coronary calcium scan is typically done to check for the buildup of calcium in plaque on the walls of the arteries of the heart.
Coronary calcium scan scores range from 0 to more than 400. 
A calcium score of zero means no identifiable plaque, while a score of above 400 indicates extensive atherosclerotic plaque and significant coronary narrowing.

Calcification of the artery walls is common at age >65 years. 
Calcification of the breast is often seen in women above the age of 50 years. 
Calcium deposits are easily detected by x-ray images because calcification is composed of calcium phosphate, similar to that in bone.

Coronary calcium is part of the development of atherosclerosis; Calcium carbonate occurs exclusively in atherosclerotic arteries and is absent in normal vessel walls. 
The amount of calcium in the walls of the coronary arteries, assessed by a calcium score, appears to be a better cardiovascular disease risk predictor than standard factors.

Calcium carbonate Achieving Balance
Risks of Low Calcium Intake: As mentioned above, calcium is important for healthy bones and teeth, as well as for normal muscle and nerve function. 
There are health problems associated with low calcium levels: Children may not reach their full potential adult height, and adults may have low bone mass, which is a risk factor for osteoporosis and hip fracture. 
Normal blood calcium levels are maintained through the actions of parathyroid hormone, the kidneys, and the intestines. 
The normal adult value for serum calcium is 4.5 to 5.5 mEq/L. 

Approximately 40% of serum calcium is ionized (free), while the other 60% is complexed, primarily to albumin. 
Only ionized calcium is transported into cells and metabolically active. 
Decreases in the ionized (free) fraction of calcium cause various symptoms. 
Hypocalcemia, or low-level calcium, most commonly occurs with low calcium absorption, vitamin D or K2 deficiency, chronic renal failure, and hypoparathyroidism.10

Risks of High Calcium Intake: Many factors can increase blood calcium levels. 
Although the body has a built-in regulatory process for calcium absorption and maintenance, underlying diseases, medication interactions, or overuse of supplements can cause high calcium levels.

An abnormally high calcium concentration can cause damaging health problems and requires medical treatment. 
Although dietary calcium is generally safe, excessive calcium does not provide extra bone protection. 
In fact, if calcium from diet and supplements exceeds the tolerable upper limit, Calcium carbonate could cause kidney stones, prostate cancer, constipation, calcium buildup in blood vessels, and impaired absorption of iron and zinc.
Taking calcium supplements and eating calcium-fortified foods may increase calcium above normal levels. 
As a result, Calcium carbonate is very important to stick to the RDA and not exceed the recommended dosage.

Conclusion
The best way to treat calcium deficiency is to prevent its occurrence. 
Modification of risk factors is imperative, and pharmacists can play a large role in this area. 
Calcium carbonate can recommend appropriate calcium and vitamin D supplements. 
Individuals, particularly women, at risk of low calcium should take foods and drinks rich in calcium and vitamin D, quit smoking, and increase weight-bearing and muscle-strengthening exercise. 
Monitoring one’s body mass index at higher ages is also critical to reducing bone fractures.

The transformation of CO2 into a precipitated mineral carbonate through an ex situ mineral carbonation route is considered a promising option for carbon capture and storage (CCS) since (i) the captured CO2 can be stored permanently and (ii) industrial wastes (i.e., coal fly ash, steel and stainless-steel slags, and cement and lime kiln dusts) can be recycled and converted into value-added carbonate materials by controlling polymorphs and properties of the mineral carbonates. 
The final products produced by the ex situ mineral carbonation route can be divided into two categories—low-end high-volume and high-end low-volume mineral carbonates—in terms of their market needs as well as their properties (i.e., purity).
Therefore, Calcium carbonate is expected that this can partially offset the total cost of the CCS processes. 
Polymorphs and physicochemical properties of CaCO3 strongly rely on the synthesis variables such as temperature, pH of the solution, reaction time, ion concentration and ratio, stirring, and the concentration of additives. 
Various efforts to control and fabricate polymorphs of CaCO3 have been made to date. 
In this review, we present a summary of current knowledge and recent investigations entailing mechanistic studies on the formation of the precipitated CaCO3 and the influences of the synthesis factors on the polymorphs.

ACMC-1ADFV
Calcium Carbonate (AS)
Calcium carbonate, powder
EC 207-439-9
SCHEMBL326
Calcium Carbonate Dispersion
Calcium carbonate, technical
Precpitated calcium carbonate
Calcium Carbonate Granular DC
Calcium Carbonate Precipitated
Ca (C O3)
Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles
Calcium Carbonate Microparticles
CHEMBL1200539
DTXSID3036238
INS NO.170(I)
NDI 443
Calcium carbonate, ReagentPlus(R)
Calcium carbonate,puratronic powder

How Is Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) Made?
Almost all PCC is made by direct carbonation of hydrated lime, known as the milk of lime process. 
The milk of lime process is simple in concept:
Mine high purity calcium carbonate rock.
Crush the rocks to the particle size needed for processing – small stones or powder.
Separate some of the impurities from the crushed rock.
Calcine (heat) in a kiln to 1850° F, which takes the calcium carbonate apart, forming lime (CaO) and carbon dioxide gas (CO2). 
The carbon dioxide can be captured for reuse. CaCO3 + Heat →  CaO + CO2 ↑    
Add the lime to water to form calcium hydroxide (hydrated lime or slake).
CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2       
Separate out additional impurities from the slaked lime.
Combine the captured carbon dioxide with the slaked lime. 
Calcium carbonate reforms, and since Calcium carbonate is insoluble in water, precipitates out.
Ca(OH)2 + CO2 → CaCO3 ↓ + H2O 
Separate additional impurities and grit from the PCC slurry. 
If the PCC is to be used in a paper mill or shipped to a latex paint plant, the lower solids slurry may be used as is, or processed to bring up the solids level, then tested before transfer or shipment.
If the PCC is to be used as a dry product, the slurry is dewatered, dried, milled, packaged and tested.
While the process is simple on a laboratory scale, making precipitated calcium carbonates commercially on a large scale requires a great deal of process control and process technology to assure  the right size, uniformity, shape, surface area and surface chemistry. 
This body of PCC technology developed by Specialty Minerals Research, is what makes SMI PCCs outstanding in quality and consistency.

INS-170(I)
Calcium carbonate, AR, >=98.5%
Calcium carbonate, LR, >=98.5%
AKOS015903256
Calcium carbonate, precipitated (JAN)
Calcium carbonate, chelometric standard
Children's mylanta upset stomach relief
DB06724
Precipitated calcium carbonate (JP17)
Calcium carbonate, BioXtra, >=99.0%
Calcium carbonate, Monocalcium carbonate

Liquid-crystalline CaCO3 has been prepared for the first time. 
The nanorods of CaCO3 calcite are obtained by bio-inspired crystallization through aqueous colloidal precursors of amorphous CaCO3 stabilized by poly(acrylic acid). 
The synthesized calcite nanocrystals have well-tuned morphologies that are preferable for formation of liquid-crystalline phases in concentrated aqueous colloidal solution. 
The one-dimensional alignment of calcite crystals is achieved by mechanical shearing of the aqueous colloidal solution showing liquid-crystalline phases. 
These CaCO3-based liquid crystals formed by a self-organization process in mild conditions may have great potential for use as environmentally friendly materials.

13701-58-1
Calcium carbonate, powder A.C.S. reagent
E-170(I)
E170
S266
Calcium carbonate, puriss. p.a., >=99%
Calcium carbonate, USP, 98.0-100.5%
Calcium carbonate, NIST(R) SRM(R) 915b
E 170
FT-0623383
C08129
Calcium carbonate, SAJ first grade, >=98.0%
Calcium carbonate, tested according to Ph.Eur.
D00932
Q23767

What Is Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) Made From?
PCC is generally made from a high purity calcium carbonate rock called limestone. 
Specialty Minerals Inc, (SMI) uses high quality limestone sources for Calcium carbonates PCC products, including some from the SMI limestone mine in Adams, Massachusetts, which has been in operation for more than 150 years.
This limestone deposit is the result of a very thick layer of prehistoric sea animal shells and skeletons being laid down on the ocean floor. 
These shells and skeletons were largely composed of calcium carbonate. 
Over a period of five hundred million years this deposit was under high temperature and high pressure, and the deposit changed to a coarsely crystallized limestone. 
All of the organic matter that was in the deposit was removed by oxidation, a process called diagenesis.
If this kind of geological process continues a very long time, the crystals become very small, forming marble, an extremely hard form of calcium carbonate. 
If the time, temperature and/or pressures are not great, the seabed only partially metamorphoses, and the result is very soft chalk, such as that forming the White Cliffs of Dover in England. 
In chalks, remnants of animal shells and skeletons are often still seen.

Why Is All That Processing Done?
Two reasons. First, there are several points in the PCC process where the calcium carbonate can be purified, removing much of the rock from the deposit that is not calcium carbonate—there are always some impurities in any limestone deposit. 
These include feldspar and other silicaceous minerals, as well as heavy metals.
Second, the PCC process allows SMI to grow crystals of different shapes. 
The particle formed is dictated by the control of reaction time, temperature, agitation, pressure, rate of carbon dioxide addition, and post-crystallization processing. 
These shapes—clustered needles, cubes, prisms, rhombohedrons—have different physical properties such as powder density, surface area and oil absorption, which give them outstanding performance in many applications where ground calcium carbonate does not perform as well. 
Scanning electron micrographs (SEMs) of some of the these shapes are shown on this page. 
The precipitation process also allows the growing of very fine particles, down to nanometers or hundredths of a micron—much finer than can be obtained by just grinding the limestone rock. 
These ultrafine nano PCCs have special applications where high performance is required. 

Calcium carbonate, 99.999% trace metals basis
Calcium carbonate, JIS special grade, >=99.5%
Calcium carbonate, p.a., 99.0%, ACS reagent
Calcium carbonate, >=99.995% trace metals basis
Calcium carbonate, Vetec(TM) reagent grade, 99%
Calcium carbonate, ACS reagent, >=99.0%, powder
Calcium carbonate, BioUltra, precipitated, >=99.0% (KT)
Calcium carbonate, powder, <=30 mum particle size, 98%
Calcium carbonate, primary reference standard, 99.95-100.05%
NBS 18 (carbon isotopes in carbonatite), NIST(R) RM 8543

What Is Unique About A Precipitated Calcium Carbonate?
The different shapes allow PCC to act as a functional additive in sealants, adhesives, plastics, rubber, inks, paper, pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements and many other demanding applications. 
A formulator can choose a shape, and the physical properties that result from that shape, that gives the best performance in the end use.
In the PCC process, products can be made with very small sizes, with high surface areas, high oil absorptions, and/or with different powder bulk densities— from ultra-low  to super-high powder densities.

Why Are Some PCCs Coated?
PCCs are often coated with a low percentage (1-3 percent) of a fatty acid, such as stearic acid, or other organic material, for use in non-aqueous systems. 
These coatings increase the dispersibility of the PCC in the polymer or solvent as well as Calcium carbonates compatibility with the polymer or solvent, which in turn maximizes the performance and efficiency of the PCC.
The choice of coating depends on the type of polymer the PCC will be used in and the performance desired. 
As polymers vary widely in polarity and solubility constants, different organics are chosen to give the best compatibility and/or the best balance of properties.

How Does Precipitated Calcium Carbonate Differ From Ground Calcium Carbonate (GCC)?
In chemical composition, they are the same. 
PCC is purer than the limestone from which Calcium carbonate is made, and is lower in silica and lead.
PCC’s shape and size are different from that of  ground calcium carbonate (GCC). 
Under high magnification, GCC is seen to be irregularly rhombohedral in shape. 
The PCC crystal shape depends on the product, and the particles are more uniform and regular.
The distribution of particle sizes in a GCC is much broader than for a PCC of the same size—that is, there are many more large particles and many more small particles than in a PCC, and the size of the largest of the particles (the "top size") is much greater for a GCC than for a PCC. 
The lower top size of a PCC gives better impact resistance in plastics than with a GCC. 
The narrower particle size distribution allows the generation of high oil absorptions, useful in certain applications.
These differences can be quickly seen in  these photos of a PCC and a GCC of the same median particle size, 0.7 microns.

Calcium Carbonate, Trace metals grade 99.99% trace metals basis
Calcium Carbonate (AS), United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Calcium carbonate, BioReagent, suitable for insect cell culture, >=99.0%
Calcium, Ion chromatography standard solution, Specpure?, Ca2+ 1000?g/ml
Calcium carbonate, ACS reagent, chelometric standard, 99.95-100.05% dry basis
Calcium carbonate, anhydrous, free-flowing, Redi-Dri(TM), ACS reagent, >=99%
Calcium carbonate, anhydrous, free-flowing, Redi-Dri(TM), ReagentPlus(R), >=99%
Calcium carbonate, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Calcium carbonate, certified reference material for titrimetry, certified by BAM, according to ISO 17025, >=99.5%
Calcium carbonate, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, FCC, E170, precipitated, 98.5-100.5% (based on anhydrous substance)

What should I do if I forget a dose?
If you are taking calcium carbonate on a regular schedule, take the missed dose as soon you remember it. 
However, if Calcium carbonate is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. 
Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.

What should I know about storage and disposal of Calcium carbonate?
Keep Calcium carbonate in the container Calcium carbonate came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. 
Store Calcium carbonate at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom).
Unneeded medications should be disposed of in special ways to ensure that pets, children, and other people cannot consume them. 
However, you should not flush Calcium carbonate down the toilet. 
Instead, the best way to dispose of your medication, Calcium carbonate, is through a medicine take-back program. 
Talk to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in your community.


2-) MAGNESİUM STEARATE

CAS Number: 557-04-0
EC Number: 209-150-3
Linear Formula: [CH3(CH2)16CO2]2Mg
Molecular Weight: 591.24
E number: E470

Magnesium stearate is the chemical compound with the formula Mg(C18H35O2)2. 
Magnesium stearate is a soap, consisting of salt containing two equivalents of stearate (the anion of stearic acid) and one magnesium cation (Mg2+). 
Magnesium stearate is a white, water-insoluble powder. 
Magnesium stearates applications exploit its softness, insolubility in many solvents, and low toxicity. 
Magnesium stearate is used as a release agent and as a component or lubricant in the production of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.
This soft white powder, Magnesium stearate , is used in cosmetics to improve adhesion and slip, and texture. 
Generally Magnesium stearate is used in concentrations of 5% - 10% by weight in a loose powder.

Magnesium stearate is an ester of magnesium & stearic acid (vegetable based). 
Magnesium stearate is a fine, soft white powder that is used as an additive when making eye shadows. 
Magnesium stearate helps micas adhere more uniformly on the skin while giving it a fluffy even consistency. 

Magnesium stearate is a perfect example of how selective interpretation of research can lead to errors in clinical application. 
Magnesium stearate is an excipient – a substance with minimal biological activity based on the amounts used. 
Excipients are added to foods, supplements and drugs to prevent ingredients from clumping or sticking to equipment. 
To make a stearate excipient, calcium or magnesium is combined with stearic acid from vegetable oils.

Magnesium stearate is the magnesium salt of the fatty acid, stearic acid. 
Magnesium stearate has been widely used for many decades in the food industry as an emulsifier, binder and thickener, as well as an anticaking, lubricant, release, and antifoaming agent. 
Magnesium stearate is present in many food supplements, confectionery, chewing gum, herbs and spices, and baking ingredients. 
Magnesium stearate is also commonly used as an inactive ingredient in the production of pharmaceutical tablets, capsules and powders.

For food applications, magnesium stearate is typically manufactured by one of two processes. 
The direct or fusion process involves direct reaction of fatty acids with a source of magnesium, such as magnesium oxide, to form magnesium salts of the fatty acids. 
In the indirect or precipitation process, a sodium soap is produced by reacting fatty acids with sodium hydroxide in water and precipitating the product through addition of magnesium salts to the soap. 
The fatty acids used as raw material are derived from edible fats and oils and consist mainly of stearic and palmitic acid. 
The final product contains 4.0-5.0% magnesium, on a dried basis, and the fatty acid fraction is composed of ≥90% stearic and palmitic acids, at least 40% of which are stearic acid. 
Magnesium stearate is a very fine powder that is greasy to the touch and practically insoluble in water.

Magnesium stearate is a very fine, light white, precipitated or milled, impalpable powder of low bulk density, having a faint odor of stearic acid and a characteristic taste. 
Magnesium stearate mainly consists of variable proportions of magnesium stearate and magnesium palmitate obtained from vegetable sources.
Magnesium stearate increases the time it takes for tablets and capsules to dissolve due to the film it forms on capsule or tablet ingredients. 
Magnesium stearate coats a good portion of the molecules in a tablet or capsule, requiring digestive enzymes to break down the magnesium stearate coating before being able to access the nutrients it envelops.

WHAT IS MAGNESIUM STEARATE?
Magnesium stearate is created from the reaction of sodium stearate with magnesium sulfate. 
Magnesium stearate is a solid substance that comes in powder and granule form. 
Magnesium stearate's white and has a slight fatty acid odor.

USES & APPLICATIONS OF MAGNESIUM STEARATE
The range of magnesium stearate uses and potential applications is broad.

Magnesium stearate can act as an:
Anti-adherent: Magnesium stearate prevents the product from having adhesion properties during production.
Excipient: Magnesium stearate functions as an excipient and is paired with active pharmaceutical ingredients to act as a carrier, making the product easier to manufacture.
Mold-release agent: Magnesium stearate provides the barrier between the mold's surface and the substrate, so the product comes out of the mold easily.
ABS/SAN internal and external lubricant: The lubricant quality of magnesium stearate helps to reduce friction and adhesion.
De-dusting agent: Magnesium stearate helps remove dust and other fine impurities from products.
Flow enhancer: Magnesium stearate makes products flow easier, becoming smooth and even.
Binder: Magnesium stearate works with other compounds so that together, they are cohesive and stable.
Anti-caking agent: Magnesium stearate prevents lumps from forming in the product.

These qualities make magnesium stearate perfect for use in the manufacture of:
Pharmaceutical tablets: Magnesium stearate acts as a mold release agent and excipient in tableting.
Nutritional supplements: Magnesium stearate is an excipient and mold release agent in the tableting process.
Nutraceuticals: Again, the fact that the ingredient is an excipient and mold release agent in tableting helps in the manufacturing process.
Food and beverage: Magnesium stearate brings flow enhancing, binding and anti-caking qualities to many foods and beverages.
Rubber: Magnesium stearate acts as a de-dusting agent as well as a lubricant in rubber production.
Plastics: Magnesium stearate is a lubricant and de-dusting agent in plastic production.
Personal care and cosmetics: Magnesium stearate may act as a lubricant, increase thickness or prevent emulsions from separating in cosmetic products.

PACKAGING & SHELF LIFE OF MAGNESIUM STEARATE
When Magnesium stearate's packaged in the best conditions, your supply of magnesium stearate should last Magnesium stearates entire shelf life, which is two years from the date of manufacture.

Magnesium stearate should be kept away from sources of heat, such as sparks, open flames, hot surfaces and direct sunlight. 
Magnesium stearate needs to be stored in a dry, cool and well-ventilated location. 
When you're not using Magnesium stearate, keep the container closed. 
Make sure Magnesium stearate seals well to prevent moisture from getting inside.

HOW TO DISPOSE OF MAGNESIUM STEARATE
Clean up any spills of magnesium stearate immediately, and wear a dust mask, goggles and gloves. 
If you want to use a vacuum, make sure Magnesium stearate's explosion-proof and has the appropriate filter.
During cleanup, do not mix magnesium stearate with other materials, and keep dust to a minimum.
Dispose of the waste in a safe manner that is in accordance with your local, regional, national and international regulations.

Magnesium stearate Manufacturing
Magnesium stearate is produced by the reaction of sodium stearate with magnesium salts or by treating magnesium oxide with stearic acid.
Some nutritional supplements specify that the sodium stearate used in manufacturing magnesium stearate is produced from vegetable-derived stearic acid.

Magnesium stearate Uses
Magnesium stearate is often used as an anti-adherent in the manufacture of medical tablets, capsules and powders.
In this regard, Magnesium stearate is also useful because Magnesium stearate has lubricating properties, preventing ingredients from sticking to manufacturing equipment during the compression of chemical powders into solid tablets; magnesium stearate is the most commonly used lubricant for tablets.
However, Magnesium stearate might cause lower wettability and slower disintegration of the tablets and slower and even lower dissolution of the drug.
Magnesium stearate can also be used efficiently in dry coating processes.
In the creation of pressed candies, magnesium stearate acts as a release agent and Magnesium stearate is used to bind sugar in hard candies such as mints.
Magnesium stearate is a common ingredient in baby formulas.
In the EU and EFTA Magnesium stearate is listed as food additive E470b.

Magnesium Stearate is a soft, white powder that is commonly used in mineral make-up, natural deodorant and lotion formulations. 
Magnesium stearate provides anti-caking, slip, glide and texture properties to eyeshadows and blush base, as well as a non-slick feel to lotions and creams.

What Is Magnesium Stearate?
Magnesium stearate is a salt that is produced when a magnesium ion bonds with two stearate molecules. 
Stearate is just the anion form of stearic acid. 
Stearic acid is a long-chain saturated fat that is abundant in beef, cocoa butter, coconut oil, and other natural foods. 
As I mentioned in my red meat article, Magnesium stearate’s also the only long-chain saturated fat that scientists and medical practitioners agree doesn’t raise cholesterol levels, and doesn’t increase the risk of heart disease.

Magnesium stearate Uses and Function
Magnesium stearate is most commonly used in supplement manufacturing as a “flow agent,” which helps ensure that the equipment runs smoothly and the ingredients stay blended together in the correct proportions. 
Magnesium stearate can also be found in some cosmetics.

Synonyms:
Stearic acid magnesium salt

However, the story is more complicated. 
Another paper found that relative to no magnesium stearate, 0.5 percent magnesium stearate did reduce availability of the target molecule, sulphadiazine. 
Also, magnesium stearate reacts to active ingredients differently, as do other excipients. 
For example, in the case of prednisone, magnesium stearate is preferred over talc, but magnesium stearate cannot be used in the making of ampicillin tablets

Magnesium stearate Occurrence
Magnesium stearate is a major component of bathtub rings. 
When produced by soap and hard water, magnesium stearate and calcium stearate both form a white solid insoluble in water, and are collectively known as soap scum.

Magnesium stearate is a fine white powder that sticks to your skin and is greasy to the touch. 
Magnesium stearate’s a simple salt made up of two substances, a saturated fat called stearic acid and the mineral magnesium. 
Stearic acid can also be found in many foods, such as:
-chicken
-eggs
-cheese
-chocolate
-walnuts
-salmon
-cotton seed oil
-palm oil
-coconut oil
Magnesium stearate is commonly added to many foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. 
In medications and vitamins, Magnesium stearates primary purpose is to act as a lubricant.

magnesium stearate (Mg(C17H34COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 557-04-0) is the magnesium salt of stearic acid. 
Magnesium stearate is produced as a white precipitate by the addition of an aqueous solution of magnesium chloride to an aqueous solution of sodium stearate derived from stearic acid.

What does magnesium stearate do?
Magnesium stearate is an additive that’s primarily used in medication capsules. 
Magnesium stearate’s considered a “flow agent.” 
Magnesium stearate prevents the individual ingredients in a capsule from sticking to each other and the machine that creates the capsules. 
Magnesium stearate helps improve the consistency and quality control of medication capsules.
Magnesium stearate’s possible to create medication capsules without magnesium stearate, but Magnesium stearate’s more difficult to guarantee the consistency and quality of those capsules.
Magnesium stearate is used to delay breakdown and absorption of medications, so they’re absorbed in the correct area of the bowel.

Magnesium stearate, a common “inactive” ingredient in many nutritional supplements, has been critiqued by several nutritional supplement companies and physicians online. 
Magnesium stearate has been compared to chalk, said to impair absorption of nutrients, to form a harmful “biofilm” in the intestines, and even to suppress immune function. 
Since magnesium stearate is an important flow agent that is widely used in the nutritional industry, we felt Magnesium stearate important to carefully examine these claims. 
We found that they were all baseless. 

Magnesium stearate is the most commonly used metallic salt boundary lubricant containing two equivalents of a fatty acid (usually stearic and palmitic acid) and a charged magnesium. 
Magnesium stearate is relatively inexpensive, chemically stable, has a high melting point and lubrication property. 
A concentration of 0.25%–5.0% w/w magnesium stearate was used in formulation development. 
Magnesium stearates lubricant effect relates to the adherence of the polar moiety on granules/powders, while the lipophilic moiety is oriented outward from the particle's surface. 
Magnesium stearates capacity to form a hydrophobic (waxy) layer around particles leads to reduced water penetration, which compromises the dissolution profile.

Magnesium stearate is a salt that forms when stearate molecules bond with a magnesium ion.
Stearate comes from stearic acid, a long-chain saturated fat found in:
-Beef
-Chicken
-‌‌Cocoa butter
-Coconut oil
-Eggs
-Milk and dairy products
-Palm oil
-‌Salmon

Magnesium stearate is the combination of a Magnesium ion (Mg) and stearic acid. 
Magnesium stearate is a white powder.  
Magnesium stearate's used in the manufacture of supplements because Magnesium stearate's great at keeping the ingredients in the supplements from sticking to the machinery that makes them.  
Magnesium stearate basically acts as a lubricant to keep them from clumping.  
If magnesium stearate weren't used, the ingredients put into your multivitamins would end up on the machine parts, not in the capsule or the pill itself. 
Magnesium stearate has been considered safe and effective for years, and Magnesium stearate still is.   
Most of us don't remember much of our high school chemistry and really don't care to.  
But, one thing you should be aware of is that although magnesium stearate might sound kind of like stearic acid and the representation of it Mg(C18H35O2)2 is similar to that of stearic acid CH3(CH2)16CO2H that doesn't mean that chemically the two behave anything alike.  
Keep this in mind later in the article.  
Many of the articles warning of the use of magnesium stearate mistakenly (or at least wrongly) equate Magnesium stearate with stearic acid.    
While magnesium stearate is made from stearic acid, Magnesium stearate's most definitely not stearic acid any more than water (H2O) is hydrogen (an explosive gas).  
Just FYI though, stearic acid is naturally found in many foods (though Magnesium stearate can be created using a chemical process) and is considered a fairly healthy saturated fat. 
Magnesium stearate's found naturally in poultry, fish dairy, grain, cocoa, etc.

One of the most widely used additives in drugs and supplements today is magnesium stearate. 
You’ll actually be hard-pressed to find any supplement sold on the market today that doesn’t include Magnesium stearate — whether we’re talking magnesium supplements, digestive enzymes or another supplement of your choice — though you may not see Magnesium stearate named directly.
Commonly referred to by other names, such as “vegetable stearate” or derivatives like “stearic acid,” Magnesium stearate’s virtually everywhere. 
In addition to being ubiquitous, magnesium stearate is also one of the most controversial ingredients in the supplement world.
In some ways, Magnesium stearate’s similar to the vitamin B17 controversy, and there’s debate on whether Magnesium stearate’s a poison or a cancer treatment. 
Unfortunately for the general public, natural health experts, supplement companies’ researchers and health care practitioners regularly site conflicting evidence to support their personal opinions — and Magnesium stearate’s extremely challenging to get to the facts.
With these kind of debates, Magnesium stearate’s best to take a practical approach and remain leery of siding with extreme perspectives.
The bottom line is this: Like most fillers and bulk additives, magnesium stearate isn’t healthy in high doses, but Magnesium stearate’s not as harmful to consume as some make Magnesium stearate out to be because Magnesium stearate’s typically only available in minuscule doses.

What Is Magnesium Stearate? What Does Magnesium stearate Do?
Magnesium stearate is a magnesium salt of stearic acid. 
Essentially, Magnesium stearate’s a compound containing two stearic acids and magnesium.
Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid found in many foods, including animal and vegetable fats and oils. 
Cocoa and flaxseeds are examples of foods that contain substantial amounts of stearic acid. 
After magnesium stearate is broken back down into Magnesium stearates component parts in the body, Magnesium stearates fat is essentially the same as that of stearic acid. 
Magnesium stearate powder is often used as an additive in dietary supplements, food sources and cosmetics. 

Magnesium stearate is a simple salt made of two common nutritional substances, the mineral magnesium and the saturated fat stearic acid. 
Magnesium stearate is used as a “flow agent” in many nutritional supplements and pharmaceuticals. 
Magnesium stearate contains two molecules of stearic acid and one molecule of magnesium. 
The molecule is held together by ionic bonds — the definition of a salt — that break apart easily in acid, the condition found in the human stomach. 
Though the name may make Magnesium stearate sound like a synthetic, space-age molecule, both magnesium and stearic acid are abundantly available in many foods in our diet. 
In order to really understand magnesium stearate, let’s look at its two components.
Magnesium is an essential mineral, the major mineral most likely to be deficient in the American diet. 
I don’t think anyone would argue the safety of magnesium.
Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid found in many foods including eggs, chicken, grass-fed beef, coconut oil, walnuts, cheese, chocolate, salmon and human breast milk, to name just a few.
Both magnesium and stearic acid are not only safe, they are beneficial to human health.
Magnesium stearate is simply a salt that combines both of these molecules.

Magnesium stearate is the most common ingredient used in forming tablets because Magnesium stearate’s an effective lubricant. 
Magnesium stearate’s also used in capsules, powders and in many food products, including a host of confectionary, chewing gum, herbs and spices, and baking ingredients.
Known as a “flow agent,” Magnesium stearate helps speed up the manufacturing process because Magnesium stearate prevents ingredients from sticking to the mechanical equipment. 
Just a minuscule amount is required to coat a powder blend of virtually any drug or supplement mixture.
Magnesium stearate also works as an emulsifier, binder, and thickening, anticaking, lubricant, release and antifoaming agent. 
Not only is Magnesium stearate fantastic for manufacturing purposes because Magnesium stearate allows for smooth transport on the machines that produce them, but Magnesium stearate makes the pill easier to swallow and move down the gastrointestinal tract. 
Magnesium stearate is also a common excipient, which means Magnesium stearate helps enhance the therapeutic effect of the active ingredient of various medications to promote drug absorption and solubility.
Known as safe vehicles for drugs, excipients also help give pills a uniform consistency.
Some claim that Magnesium stearate’s possible to produce a drug or supplement without excipients like magnesium stearate, which begs the question why they’re used when more natural alternatives are available. 
But that may not be the case.

CAS Number: 557-04-0 
CHEBI: 9254 
ChemSpider: 10704  
ECHA InfoCard: 100.008.320  
E number: E572 (acidity regulators, ...)
PubChem CID: 11177
UNII: 70097M6I30  
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID2027208

What is magnesium stearate?
Magnesium stearate is a combination of stearic acid and the essential mineral magnesium. 
Magnesium stearate’s a mixture of pure stearic acid and palmitic acid, where the content of stearic acid is not less than 40.0% and the sum of the two acids is not less than 90.0%. 
The British Pharmacopoeia 1993 describes magnesium stearate as consisting mainly of magnesium stearate with variable proportions of magnesium palmitate and magnesium oleate.
Magnesium stearate is a form of chelated pre-acidified magnesium, and just like other chelated minerals (magnesium ascorbate, magnesium citrate, et al) has no inherent negatives based on its being in a stable neutral compound comprised of a mineral and an acid (vegetable-sourced stearic acid from palm oil neutralized with magnesium salts). 
Magnesium stearate is a magnesium salt of fatty acids C16 to C18.
NOW uses stearates tested to U.S. Pharmacopeia monograph standards; known as pharmaceutical grade, the highest purity. 
Magnesium stearate are non-GMO, free from BSE/TSE, and may be used, if desired, as part of a vegetarian or vegan diet.

What is stearic acid?
Stearic acid (also called Octadecanoic Acid) is one of the most common long-chain fatty acids, found in both natural animal and vegetable fats, known also by Magnesium stearates structural description of being an 18-carbon chain fatty acid (18:0) with a chemical structure of C36H70MgO4. 
The Encyclopædia Britannica reports that, “In nature stearic acid occurs primarily as a mixed triglyceride, or fat, with other long-chain acids and as an ester of a fatty alcohol. 
Magnesium stearate is much more abundant in animal fat than in vegetable fat; lard and tallow often contain up to 30 percent stearic acid.”

Magnesium stearate is found in many supplements because, during supplement manufacture, it makes Magnesium stearate easier to work with certain ingredients, making them flow more evenly and preventing them, as well as tablets, from sticking to machines during production. 
Magnesium stearate is created from reacting stearate (from animal fats — often pig — or plant-based sources such as palm oil, coconut oil, or vegetable oil) with magnesium. 
A very small amount is used in supplements, and it typically comprises less than 1% of a total formulation — less than 20 mg. 
Magnesium stearate Magnesium stearate's in a product, you'll see Magnesium stearate included in the "Other Ingredients" section of supplement labels.
Concerns have been raised that magnesium stearate can have negative effects, such as raising cholesterol levels, suppressing the immune system, creating biofilms in the body, and causing allergic reactions. 
As discussed below, there is insufficient scientific evidence to justify these concerns.

Increasing cholesterol levels:
Concern has been raised about the stearic acid in magnesium stearate raising cholesterol levels, as stearic acid is a saturated fat. 
This should not be a concern because even normal dietary intake of stearic acid has been shown to have no significant effect on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. 
In addition, the amount of stearic acid from magnesium stearate in supplements is very small. 
According to USDA nutrition surveys, the average American adult consumes between 5,900 to 8,800 milligrams of stearic acid each day, typically from food sources like beef, poultry, cocoa butter, milk and cheese. 
A single chocolate bar contains about 5,000 milligrams of stearic acid. 
Meanwhile, the amount of stearic acid in the magnesium stearate in a dietary supplement is generally less than 20 milligrams.

Immune suppression:
Some websites claim that magnesium stearate suppresses the immune system. 
This claim seems to be based on on laboratory studies of immune cells from mice showing that that large amounts of stearic acid damaged cell membranes of T-lymphocytes. 
However, these laboratory conditions do not represent what happens inside your body when you ingest normal amounts of stearic acid, let alone even smaller amounts of magnesium stearate. 
Magnesium stearate is highly unlikely the small amount of magnesium stearate in supplements cause immune suppression, and such an effect has not been reported.

What is Magnesium stearate?
Magnesium stearate (Mg(C18H3502)2 or octadecanoic acid) is a solid, white powder at room temperature. 
Magnesium stearate is a FDA-approved inactive ingredient commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry as a diluent for the manufacture of tablet, capsule, and powder dosage forms.

Magnesium stearate is generally recognized as safe by the FDA.
Magnesium stearate exists as a salt form and is useful for it's lubricating properties for capsules and tablets in industry. 
Magnesium stearate is used to help prevent pharmaceutical ingredients from adhering to industry equipment.
Magnesium stearate may be derived from both plant and animal sources.

Magnesium stearate Biofilm production:
One popular website claims that magnesium stearate can promote the growth of bacterial colonies in the gastrointestinal tract and create a "biofilm" preventing the absorption of nutrients. 
However, there does not seem to be clinical evidence behind this. 
In fact, a laboratory study found stearic acid to inhibit the formation of biofilms.

Magnesium stearate Allergic reaction:
At least one case of allergic reaction to magnesium stearate, which resulted in skin hives, has been reported. 
However, this type of reaction seems to be quite rare.

The bottom line:
The amount of magnesium stearate in dietary supplements appears to be quite safe. 
Nevertheless, Magnesium stearate is only there to help with manufacturing and Magnesium stearate provides no nutritional advantage. 
If you want to avoid Magnesium stearate, look for Magnesium stearate in the "Other Ingredients" section on product labels. 
Be aware that magnesium stearate in dietary supplements can come from either vegetable or animal sources. 
If you're looking for a vegetarian source, look for a product that lists "vegetable grade" or "vegetable magnesium stearate." 
Otherwise, Magnesium stearate is most likely sourced from animals.

Analysis of Commercial Magnesium Stearates
Once the sample preparation protocol for magnesium stearate was established, the surface area of four commercially available magnesium stearates was determined. 
They were degassed for four hours at 35 °C, then analyzed using two methods of analysis for comparison. 
First the more rigorous multipoint analysis was performed and then, for comparison purposes, a single-point analysis of the same samples, under the same testing conditions, was performed.
The middle column labeled BET C is indicative of surface energetics. 

Are stearic acid and stearates naturally found in foods?
Yes. Stearic acid (stearate) is a predominant saturated fat in the human diet. 
Stearates are nutrients that represent a natural part of every type of fat, whether animal or vegetable, and are typically consumed in amounts of several thousand milligrams per day from common food sources. 
A 200-calorie serving of dark chocolate can contain up to 5 grams (5,000 milligrams) of stearates; cocoa butter, coconut oil, beef fat, olive oil, fish, and virtually all fats and oils naturally contain far more stearates than do dietary supplements.

Magnesium stearate or "mag stearate" for short is just a chemical used by most nutritional supplement companies, and Magnesium stearate's an additive. 
Magnesium stearate acts like a lube to run machines faster, so as to increase production and therefore profits. 
Magnesium stearate consists of magnesium and stearate which is a saturated fat. 
Think of Magnesium stearate like bubble wrap around the ingredients of your supplement.

Are stearates hydrogenated?
No. Stearates can be produced by hydrogenation. 
However, there is no need to manufacture stearic acid from cottonseed or other liquid vegetable oils using hydrogenation to artificially saturate the fatty acids. 
At Magnesium stearate, we use palm oil that already contains significant amounts of saturated fats providing abundant stearic acid. 
We use pure USP-grade magnesium stearate derived from non-hydrogenated, non-GMO, non-irradiated palm oil that contains no trans-fats.
Magnesium stearate, the magnesium salt of stearic acid, is an additive, a flow agent used in pharmaceutical or supplement capsules and tablets. 
Stearic acid is saturated fat, while magnesium is an essential mineral. 
Both are nutritional substances and are naturally found in a variety of foods. 
Far from being harmful, they are in fact beneficial to human health. 
Vegetable magnesium stearate is mostly made from palm oil and is a standard for tablets. 
However, Magnesium stearate can also be derived from purified cottonseed oil.

The Use of Vegetable Magnesium Stearate in Supplements
Magnesium Stearate in supplement tablets is used as a ‘flow agent’. 
Magnesium stearate means that Magnesium stearate prevents different supplement ingredients from sticking to each other and the blending and punching equipment. 
Adding a flow agent such as vegetable magnesium stearate is imperative for ensuring a homogenous blend of ingredients and a consistent dosage in each and every capsule or a tablet.
Despite the bad name additives such as vegetable magnesium stearate get in supplements, they are rather necessary and perform different crucial functions in supplement manufacturing. 
Not adding magnesium stearate or an alternative can even be detrimental to human health as capsules or tablets may not contain the prescribed dosage consistently.

What happens to stearate in the body?
Stearate is one of the major saturated fatty acids in mammals and is acquired through two pathways: 
1) dietary fat absorption and 2) de novo lipogenesis (our bodies make Magnesium stearate from other dietary fats). 
Stearic acid may be converted to oleic acid (omega-9 fatty acid) in mammals; which of course does not happen in a test tube study. 
Oleic acid is considered a healthy fat, and is a major component of olive oil.
“Upon ingestion, magnesium stearate is dissolved into magnesium ion and stearic and palmitic acids. 
Magnesium is absorbed primarily in the small intestine, and to a lesser extent, in the colon. 
Magnesium is an essential mineral, serving as a cofactor for hundreds of enzymatic reactions and is essential for the synthesis of carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins, as well as neuromuscular and cardiovascular function.”

Are there any known risks of consuming stearates?
None that are known. 
The FDA has affirmed that stearic acid is GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe) and can be added to foods in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). 
NOW is a GMP-certified manufacturer.

Stearic acid magnesium salt, Magnesium octadecanoate
Empirical formula C36H70MgO4
Molar mass (M) 591,25 g/mol
Density (D) 1,03 g/cm³
Melting point (mp) 140 °C
CAS No. [557-04-0]
EG-Nr. 209-150-3

The FDA’s Select Committee on GRAS Substances has also reported on magnesium stearate safety, concluding that, “There is no evidence in the available information on magnesium carbonate, magnesium chloride, magnesium sulfate, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium oxide, magnesium stearate…that demonstrates, or suggests reasonable grounds to suspect, a hazard to the public when they are used at levels that are now current and in the manner now practiced, or which might reasonably be expected in the future.”
The World Health Organization also confirmed the safety of magnesium stearate: “The Committee concluded that there are no differences in the evaluation of the toxicity of magnesium stearate compared with other magnesium salts…”
Stearates are well absorbed (over 90%) and do not coat the G.I. tract. 
In fact, they reportedly discourage certain undesirable biofilms. 
There is no credible concern that the comparatively tiny amounts in dietary supplements may inhibit absorption of nutrients in vivo (in live people). 
A typical supplement with stearate excipients may have less than a tenth of one percent of a typical person’s daily consumption of dietary stearates.
We have extensively investigated the safety of magnesium stearate, which is also considered safe and non-toxic. 
Allegations of Magnesium stearates toxicity have been circulating for over 20 years. 
We have found the “evidence” to be misleading because it is either largely circumstantial based on test tube studies that don't accurately represent the data observed in human clinical trials or based on theoretical dangers (such as a type of processing that is not commonly used to make stearic acid from unsaturated fats) that don’t apply to the materials we use. 
Either way, the fate of dietary fats in the human body is quite different than what these theories present.
Science assures us that stearic acid is a safe fatty acid found in healthy foods and that magnesium stearate is a safe analog of stearic acid. 
NOW uses them only as necessary for the functionality of a particular dietary supplement, in relatively tiny amounts compared to the amount of stearates found in common foods.

What are some of the potential benefits of dietary stearates?
Stearates do not share the cardiovascular risks of other forms of saturated fat. 
An American Journal of Nutrition published review of beef’s effect on cholesterol reported that, “Beef products are the most common source of dietary stearic acid in the United States. 
Because beef fat is 19% stearic acid, the cholesterol-raising potential of beef is not as great as predicted by its total saturated fatty acid content Data suggest that lean beef is no more hypercholesterolemic than chicken or fish and, therefore, lean beef need not be eliminated from cholesterol-lowering diets.”7
Stearic acid is also one of the main fats in cocoa butter, and this particular fatty acid is considered safer than others present in cocoa butter. 
A report from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center confirmed this: “Magnesium stearate has been known for some time that cocoa butter, although rich in saturated fatty acids, does not raise total serum cholesterol concentrations as much as expected from its total saturated fatty acid content.
In a recent experiment cocoa butter did not raise LDL cholesterol as much as predicted by its total saturated fatty acid content.”
Researchers at the University of Nebraska noted, “The observation that dietary stearic acid does not raise plasma cholesterol concentration is well documented, although the regulating mechanisms are not completely understood the data suggest that reduced plasma cholesterol concentration in hamsters fed high 18:0 diets may be influenced by reduced cholesterol absorption and increased excretion of endogenous cholesterol.”

Why use Stearic Acid or Magnesium Stearate in some tablets and capsules?
Natural ingredients don’t always smoothly flow through processing equipment, so manufacturers need to utilize excipients like stearates to fill two-piece dry capsules or form tablets. 
Stearic acid is a vegetable wax; a waxy oil fraction that acts as a food-grade machine lubricant to help fill capsules efficiently when a dry powdered ingredient (or ingredient mix) is uncooperative; based on issues involving density, stickiness, flowability under pressure, etc. 
Magnesium stearate is also used as an ingredient that helps tablets hold together and break apart properly. 
Magnesium stearate is the most efficient natural flow agent in this category.
The USDA cites this study regarding the use of magnesium stearate as a functional aid in the manufacture of tablets: “Stearic acid is the predominant fatty acid in triacylglycerols of beef fat and coconut oil (present as the ester). 
The free acid is used routinely in many commercial products in addition to foods. 
Magnesium stearate is used in polymer formulations as an extrusion aid. 
As the magnesium stearate in tablets, Magnesium stearate helps keep the solid ingredients from falling apart in the bottle, and Magnesium stearate also enables the tablet to break apart and release the active ingredient when the tablet is swallowed.”

Chemical formula: Mg(C18H35O2)2
Molar mass: 591.27 g/mol
Appearance: light white powder
Odor: slight
Density: 1.026 g/cm3
Melting point: 88.5 °C (191.3 °F; 361.6 K)
Solubility in water:
0.003 g/100 mL (15 °C)
0.004 g/100 mL (25 °C)
0.008 g/100 mL (50 °C)
Solubility:
negligible in ether and alcohol
slightly soluble in benzene

Experts say stearic acid is the only long-chain saturated fat that does not raise cholesterol levels.
In the form of a powder, the salt forms the coating that you see on medications and vitamins.  
Magnesium stearate may stick to your hands and feel greasy when you touch it. 
Makers of many processed foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals also add magnesium stearate to their products. 

What Is the Purpose of Magnesium Stearate?
Medications. Companies call magnesium stearate a “flow agent.” 
Magnesium stearates main job is to keep the ingredients in a capsule from sticking together. 
Magnesium stearate also forms a barrier between the medicines and the machines that make them. 
The powder improves the consistency and quality of the medication capsules.

What is magnesium stearate?
Magnesium stearate is a simple salt made of two common nutritional substances, the mineral magnesium and the saturated fat stearic acid. 
Magnesium stearate is used as a flow agent, lubricant, binder or anti-caking agent in the production of many nutritional supplements and pharmaceuticals.

Magnesium and stearic acid are bound together to create magnesium stearate. 
We all know what magnesium is… it’s an essential mineral abundant in dark green leafy vegetables.
Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid found in many foods including eggs, chicken, grass-fed beef, coconut oil, walnuts, cheese, chocolate, salmon and human breast milk, to name just a few.

Magnesium stearate is recognized as physiologically safe. 
Therefore Magnesium stearate is used by the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry to improve the free-flowing properties, and is added as anti-caking agents to powders. 
One of the principle uses of magnesium stearate is as a tablet excipient in pharmaceutical dosage forms. 
Thermostable magnesium stearate is used as a lubricant and release agent for the processing of thermosets and thermoplastics.

Why is Magnesium stearate necessary for production?
The use of magnesium stearate in the manufacturing process helps ensure consistency and quality control. 
In Magnesium stearate’s absence, the machinery that creates the capsules can ‘jam’ up. 
This would cause potential variances in the amount of active ingredients between capsules.

What are sources of magnesium stearate?
Stearic acid is derived from animal sources or plant-based sources.
Vegetarian sources of magnesium stearate include palm oil, coconut oil and vegetable oil.
“plant based” is used as their source of magnesium stearate.

Safety of Magnesium Stearate
There are claims being made in the media and on the internet that magnesium stearate suppresses immune T-cell function and causes the collapse of cell membrane integrity in helper T-cells. 

Is there any scientific proof to support this?
There is no human data to support this hypothesis. 
There is one study from 1990 that examined T-cells of mice. 
The T-cells were immersed in stearic acid (not magnesium stearate) in a Petri dish. 
The result was that the mouse T-cell activity was compromised.
Humans are not mice. 
In the case of the 1990 study, Magnesium stearate was noted that mice lack the enzyme (delta-9 desaturase) that allows stearic acid (again not magnesium stearate) to convert to oleic acid (healthy monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid).
Human T-cells do contain the delta-9 desaturase enzyme that converts stearic acid to oleic acid. 
Human T-cells will not develop toxic build-up when exposed to stearic acid.

What is a safe level of consumption of magnesium stearate?
The scientific community considers a safe amount of magnesium stearate for human consumption to be below 2,500 mg/kg per day. 
For a 150-pound adult this is equivalent to 170,000 mg per day.  
Another function of the powder is to slow the absorption and breakdown of drugs. 
This way, your body absorbs them in the correct area of your bowel. 
Without magnesium stearate, it would be hard to predict a medication's outcome, quality, and consistency.

Cosmetics. 
In the cosmetic world, magnesium stearate is a helpful ingredient for many things. 
Magnesium stearate acts as a bulking agent, an anti-caking agent, a colorant, and more. 
Here, it is a low-hazard product, but data on this is limited.

Formula: C36H70MgO4 / Mg(C18H35O2)2
Molecular mass: 591.3
Melting point: 88°C
Density: 1.02 g/cm³
Solubility in water: none
Flash point: see Notes 

The Health Effects of Magnesium Stearate
Magnesium stearate is generally safe to consume, but too much of it can have a laxative effect. 
In large amounts, it can irritate the mucus lining of the bowels. 
This may trigger a bowel movement or diarrhea.

Immune function. The powder may weaken your immune T-cell function. 
Studies on this effect are still in the early stages.

Magnesium stearate tends to form a film around the molecules in tablets and capsules. 
This slows down the digestive enzymes as they now have to break through this coating to enter the molecule. 
This could be a major health issue, especially in individuals with impaired digestion or digestive problems.,

Pesticide concerns. 
Stearate sometimes comes from cottonseed oil. 
Some people worry that it may have pesticides that can be dangerous when consumed. 
Magnesium stearate goes through an intense purification process before being used in medications.‌
Another concern is that cottonseed oil is genetically modified. 
But the chemical structure of stearic acid remains the same regardless of its source. 

Nutrients and drug absorption. 
There is some concern that magnesium stearate might keep the body from absorbing nutrients the way it should. 
One study found that tablets with magnesium stearate take longer to dissolve than those without. 

Compound Formula: [CH3(CH2)16CO2]2Mg
Molecular Weight: 591.24
Appearance: White Powder
Melting Point: 200°C
Boiling Point: N/A
Density: N/A
Solubility in H2O: N/A
Exact Mass: 590.512452 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass: 590.512452 g/mol

Other research found that how long magnesium stearate takes to dissolve has no effect on a drug's effectiveness. 
Magnesium stearate also doesn't change the dissolution of the tablet or the potency of the supplement or drug.

Biofilms. There are also concerns that magnesium stearate can cause the formation of harmful biofilms in the digestive system. 
Biofilms happen when groups of bacteria form a protective barrier. 
These claims come from the fact that soap has magnesium stearate and makes a scum film. 
But your intestinal lining is different from your bathroom walls or doors and won't have the same scum film.

The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) also says Magnesium stearate is safe for use in small quantities. 
Magnesium stearate recommends fewer than 2,500 milligrams (mg) per kilogram daily. 
This equals about 170,000 mg for a 150-pound adult, much more than what you’d take in supplements. 

MAGNESIUM STEARATE
557-04-0
Magnesium distearate
Magnesium octadecanoate
Octadecanoic acid, magnesium salt
Dibasic magnesium stearate
Stearic acid, magnesium salt
magnesium(ii) stearate
magnesium;octadecanoate
magnesium dioctadecanoate
UNII-70097M6I30
Octadecanoic acid, magnesium salt (2:1)
CHEBI:9254
Synpro 90
70097M6I30
MFCD00036391
Petrac MG 20NF

Magnesium stearate ksm4016 and fsm4014 can be delivered through the accompanying system: first get the sodium stearate through the saponification between stearic corrosive and sodium; at that point the sodium stearate has twofold deterioration response with magnesium sulfate to get the completed item.

Magnesium stearate, a waxy, lamellar (platy) solid, is a widely used excipient in pharmaceutical technology. 
Primarily, magnesium stearate is added to a formulation in order to modify compaction behavior and reduce ejection forces from tablet dies and is available in a range of grades having similar or different surface areas. 
Magnesium stearate is ideal for specific surface area measurements according to USP <846> Method II (volumetric method) and the well-known BET calculation described therein.

What Is Magnesium stearate?
The Stearate salts, including Lithium Stearate, Aluminum Distearate, Aluminum Stearate, Aluminum Tristearate, Ammonium Stearate, Calcium Stearate, Magnesium Stearate, Potassium Stearate, Sodium Stearate, and Zinc Stearate are fine, white powders with a slight fatty odor. 
In cosmetics and personal care products, Stearate salts are used mainly in the formulation of makeup products such as eyeliner, eyeshadow, mascara, lipsticks, blushers, face powders and foundations. 
They are also used in fragrances, deodorants, and hair and skin care products.

Why is Magnesium stearate used in cosmetics and personal care products?
The Stearate salts are generally used for their lubricating properties. 
They also help to keep emulsions from separating into their oil and liquid components. 
The Stearate salts increase the thickness of the lipid (oil) portion of cosmetics and personal care products and reduce the clear or transparent appearance of finished products.

Why Measure the Surface Area of Magnesium Stearate?
The specific surface area of any solid relates to Magnesium stearates particle morphology including porosity, aspect ratio, and fineness, and can be indicative of its manufacturing and thermal history and its suitability in a specific application. 
The preferred physical form of magnesium stearate has a lamellar structure that has a low shearing force, thereby imparting a means of dry lubrication between a compacted powder and the walls of a tablet die, when properly blended with the active pharmaceutical ingredient and other excipients.
Magnesium stearate is also largely hydrophobic, however, and can impart undesirable effects to the dissolution profile of a solid dosage form. 
Pharmaceutical formulations are optimized with respect to both effective lubrication and desirable Bio-availability, which can be mutually counter-productive.
The surface area of pharmaceutical-grade magnesium stearate is formally recognized as an important characteristic and its analysis is formalized in the USP Monograph “Magnesium Stearate.” 
The analytical method is described in USP chapter <846> together with conditions specific to magnesium stearate stated in the aforementioned monograph.

Typical applications
ABS / High Impact Polystyrene Manufacturing and Processing
Employed as internal lubricant (most used are grades S and SP)

Expanded Polystyrene
As a coating agent and external lubricant.

Polystyrene Manufacturing
Is a lubricant in the manufacturing phase.

Cosmetics
High class face powders, toothpaste, etc.

Building Materials
Applied as hydrophobic agent in mortars and plasters (most used are S grades)

Food and Feed
Used as anti caking agent.

Pharmaceuticals
Magnesium Stearate Phar and Eur.Phar used in the production of tables.

Scientific Facts: 
The commercial stearic acid from which the Stearate salts are manufactured is actually a mixture of monocarboxylic acids obtained from animal and/or vegetable sources.

Linear Formula: [CH3(CH2)16CO2]2Mg
MDL Number: MFCD00036391
EC No.: 209-150-3
Beilstein/Reaxys No.: 3919702
Pubchem CID: 11177
IUPAC Name: magnesium; octadecanoate
SMILES: CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)[O-].CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)[O-].[Mg+2]
InchI Identifier: InChI=1S/2C18H36O2.Mg/c2*1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18(19)20;/h2*2-17H2,1H3,(H,19,20);/q;;+2/p-2
InchI Key: HQKMJHAJHXVSDF-UHFFFAOYSA-L

Magnesium stearate is derived from animal as well as plant sources. 
However, most companies use a plant sourced one that is derived from either cotton seed oil, canola oil, or palm oil. 
Cotton happens to be one of the crops with maximum pesticide residue. 
Canola oil also happens to be a high risk genetically modified crop. 
And lastly, Palm oil contains palmitic acid which is identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a cardiovascular disease contributor.

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is carbonic salt of calcium and abundant in nature. 
Magnesium stearate is the main component of stone, the shell of marine animals, and shell eggs. 
To produce for commercial production, CaCO3 is obtained from ground limestone or by the precipitation of calcium ions with carbonate ions. 
There are many applications of CaCO3 as a food additive with different purposes including as a dietary supplement, dough conditioner, pH control agent, modifier, stabilizer, and texturizing agent for chewing gum. 
Magnesium stearate (MgSt) is a magnesium salt of stearic acid, which is widely used as a lubricant for tablets, capsules and powders in the pharmaceutical industry. 
Furthermore, Magnesium stearate is also used to bind sugar in hard candies, such as mints, and is a common ingredient in baby formulas.

IUPAC name
Magnesium octadecanoate

Safety
Magnesium stearate is generally considered safe for human consumption at levels below 2500 mg/kg per day and is classified in the United States as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). 
In 1979, the FDA's Subcommittee on GRAS Substances (SCOGS) reported, "There is no evidence in the available information on magnesium stearate that demonstrates, or suggests reasonable grounds to suspect, a hazard to the public when they are used at levels that are now current and in the manner now practiced, or which might reasonably be expected in the future."

NS-M (salt)
SM-P
Magnesium stearate, 3.8-5.0% Mg
Synpro Magnesium Stearate 90
HSDB 713
EINECS 209-150-3
Magnesium distearate, pure
Stearic acid magnesium salt
NP 1500
SM 1000
Magnesium stearate [JAN:NF]
AI3-01638
Magnesium Stearate NF
SCHEMBL935
Rashayan Magnesium Stearate
ACMC-1AY89
C36H70MgO4

Magnesium Stearate is a fine white powders with a slight fatty odor. 
In cosmetics and personal care products, Stearate salts are used mainly in the formulation of makeup products such as eyeliner, eyeshadow, mascara, lipsticks, blushers, face powders and foundations. 
Magnesium stearate are also used in fragrances, deodorants, and hair and skin care products.

octadecanoic acid magnesium salt
Magnesium stearate (JP17/NF)
CHEMBL2106633
DTXSID2027208
Stearic Acid Magnesium(II) Salt
AKOS015915201
DB14077
H416
FT-0602789
S0238
D02189
A830764
Q416713
UNII-R4OXA9G5BV component HQKMJHAJHXVSDF-UHFFFAOYSA-L

What is magnesium stearate?
Magnesium stearate is comprised of the saturated fat, stearic acid, and the mineral magnesium.  
Magnesium stearate is considered to be a “flow agent”.  
Magnesium stearate is basically a powdered (oily to the touch) lubricant that is added to the rest of the supplement to help Magnesium stearate slide easily through automatic capsule machines.  
Magnesium stearate is still possible to make supplements without magnesium stearate, we do, but most companies will opt to save the time and money and just include Magnesium stearate in every supplement they make.

Why would anyone use magnesium stearate?
The reason most supplement companies use magnesium stearate in their products is because Magnesium stearate is cheaper and much easier than making products without Magnesium stearate.  
The majority of factories will tell you that they need to use Magnesium stearate.  
Magnesium stearate is not true, but Magnesium stearate makes their lives easier.  
If you ask them to make a product without magnesium stearate, many factories will refuse because Magnesium stearate is physically much harder to run the machines without using Magnesium stearate.

What is stearic acid made from?
The stearic acid used to make magnesium stearate is generally from genetially modified (GMO) cottonseed or palm oil.  
These oils are then ‘hydrogenated’ by superheating them and putting them under high pressure for several hours in the presense of a metal catalyst.

Where is magnesium stearate usually made?
Here is a press release about the magnesium stearate industry.
The global market is growing at an average of 6.4% per year.   
The majority of the world’s magnesium stearate is produced in China.

An interesting quote from the press release:
“China has emerged as the global leader in the market in terms of consumption and production of magnesium stearate.”

Is magnesium stearate natural?
No Magnesium stearate is not.  
Magnesium stearate is a highly processed hydrogenated oil, usually made from genetically modified cottonseed or palm oil.

Is magnesium stearate a good source of magnesium?
No Magnesium stearate is not.  
Try our non-buffered magnesium bisglycinate with no magnesium stearate for an excellent source of magnesium.

What is the difference between magnesium and magnesium stearate?
“Magnesium” is generally referred to as a type of healthy dietary magnesium.  
There are many types of dietary “magnesium”.  
“Magnesium stearate” is a filler.  
Magnesium stearates a flow agent to help lubricate machines.  
They are totally different.

209-150-3 [EINECS]
3919702 [Beilstein]
557-04-0 [RN]
70097M6I30
Dibasic magnesium stearate
Dioctadécanoate de magnésium [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Magnesium dioctadecanoate [ACD/IUPAC Name]
MAGNESIUM OCTADECANOATE
Magnesium stearate [JAN] [JP15] [NF] [USP]
Magnesiumdioctadecanoat [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
MFCD00036391 [MDL number]
OCTADECANOIC ACID MAGNESIUM SALT

Magnesium stearate is extremely difficult to study because Magnesium stearate is both a complex mixture of chemical species and Magnesium stearate can exist in multiple forms each of which have different properties. 
Compounding the situation is the fact that Magnesium stearate is present in very low quantities in most tablets; making Magnesium stearate even more difficult to study. 
CPD researchers have synthesized their own magnesium stearate so that they can both better understand how magnesium stearate’s composition affects the tablet properties and also study how Magnesium stearate changes form once Magnesium stearate is compressed into tablets.
By understanding how magnesium stearate affects the tablet making process, companies can better predict how to add Magnesium stearate into the mix, at what ratios, and what grades to get the optimal tablet without loss of product from malformed tablets and to make safer and better tablets that will help patients.
Magnesium stearate is an extremely problematic additive to study because of Magnesium stearates complex nature and low concentration in a tablet. 
With the CPD approach of making our own magnesium stearate enables us to study Magnesium stearate using advanced analytical techniques that have not been used to study Magnesium stearate previously. 
Most importantly, we can now study what happens to the magnesium stearate when Magnesium stearate is compressed into tablet form. 
When this is done Magnesium stearate impacts both magnesium stearate’s performance as a lubricant and the potential negative effects upon how a tablet dissolves.

Octadecanoic acid, magnesium salt
Octadecanoic acid, magnesium salt (2:1) [ACD/Index Name]
stearic acid magnesium salt
Stearic acid, magnesium salt
synpro 90
Synpro Magnesium Stearate 90
WI4390000
(OCTADECANOYLOXY)MAGNESIO OCTADECANOATE
[557-04-0]
212132-26-8 [RN]
EINECS 209-150-3
magnesium distearate
Magnesium stearate (contain palmitic acid)
Magnesium Stearate NF
Magnesium Stearate NF EP FCC Kosher
Magnesium stearate, EP, USP grade
MAGNESIUM(2+) DIOCTADECANOATE
MAGNESIUM(2+) ION BIS(N-OCTADECANOATE)
magnesium(2+) ion bis(octadecanoate)
Magnesium(II) Stearate
magnesiumstearate
PARTECK LUB MST
Petrac MG 20NF
SM-P
UNII:70097M6I30
UNII-70097M6I30
硬脂酸镁 [Chinese]


3-) SILICON DIOXIDE

Silicon dioxide = Silica

CAS Number: 7631-86-9     
EC Number: 231-545-4
E number: E551 (acidity regulators, ...)
Chemical formula: SiO2
Molar mass: 60.08 g/mol

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula SiO2, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
In many parts of the world, silica is the major constituent of sand. 
Silica is one of the most complex and most abundant families of materials, existing as a compound of several minerals and as a synthetic product. 
Notable examples include fused quartz, fumed silica, silica gel, and aerogels. 
Silicon dioxide is used in structural materials, microelectronics (as an electrical insulator), and as components in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Silicon Dioxide is a highly insoluble thermally stable Silicon source suitable for glass, optic and ceramic applications. 
Oxide compounds are not conductive to electricity. 
However, certain perovskite structured oxides are electronically conductive finding application in the cathode of solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen generation systems. 
They are compounds containing at least one oxygen High Purity (99.999%) Silicon Oxide (SiO2)Powderanion and one metallic cation. 
They are typically insoluble in aqueous solutions (water) and extremely stable making them useful in ceramic structures as simple as producing clay bowls to advanced electronics and in light weight structural components in aerospace and electrochemical applications such as fuel cells in which they exhibit ionic conductivity. 
Metal oxide compounds are basic anhydrides and can therefore react with acids and with strong reducing agents in redox reactions. 
Silicon Oxide is also available in pellets, pieces, powder, sputtering targets, tablets, and nanopowder (from American Elements' nanoscale production facilities). 
Silicon Dioxide is generally immediately available in most volumes. 
Ultra high purity, high purity, submicron and nanopowder forms may be considered. 
American Elements produces to many standard grades when applicable, including Mil Spec (military grade); ACS, Reagent and Technical Grade; Food, Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Grade; Optical Grade, USP and EP/BP (European Pharmacopoeia/British Pharmacopoeia) and follows applicable ASTM testing standards. 
Typical and custom packaging is available. 
Additional technical, research and safety (MSDS) information is available as is a Reference Calculator for converting relevant units of measurement.

Silicon dioxide Uses
Structural use
About 95% of the commercial use of silicon dioxide (sand) occurs in the construction industry, e.g. for the production of concrete (Portland cement concrete).
Certain deposits of silica sand, with desirable particle size and shape and desirable clay and other mineral content, were important for sand casting of metallic products.
The high melting point of silica enables it to be used in such applications such as iron casting; modern sand casting sometimes uses other minerals for other reasons.
Crystalline silica is used in hydraulic fracturing of formations which contain tight oil and shale gas.

The primary use of silicon dioxide is in the building industry. 
Silicon dioxide is used to make ceramics, enamels, concrete, and specialized silica bricks used as refractory materials. 
Silicon dioxide is also one of the raw materials from which all kinds of glass are made. 
Vitreous silicon dioxide is an important constituent of specialized types of glass, such as that used in making laboratory equipment, mirrors, windows, prisms, cells, and other kinds of optical devices. 
Silicon dioxide is also used as an anti-caking or thickening agent in a variety of foods and pharmaceutical products. 
Some other applications of silicon dioxide include:
-In the manufacture of polishing and grinding materials;
-As molds for casting;
-In the production of elemental silicon;
-As a filler in many different kinds of products, including paper, insecticides, rubber products, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics;
-As an additive in paints to produce a low-gloss finish;
-In the reinforcement of certain types of plastics.

The primary application of silica gel is as a drying agent. 
Packets of silica gel are found in many consumer products, such as electronic equipment, hardware tools, clothing, CD and DVD discs, and foodstuffs. 
Because of Silicon dioxides ability to adsorb moisture from the surrounding air, silica gel prevents rust and other forms of oxidation. 
Silica gel also has similar applications in industry. 
For example, Silicon dioxide is used to dry compressed air, air conditioning systems, and natural gas. 
The compound is also used to bleach petroleum oils and as an anti-caking agent for cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

Why is silicon dioxide used in food additives?
Manufacturers use silica to make everything from glass to cement, but it also has a use in the food industry as an additive and anticaking agent. 
This type of food additive prevents foods from caking or sticking together in clumps. 
This may help ensure a product’s shelf life, protect against the effects of moisture, and keep powdered ingredients from sticking together and helping them flow smoothly.

Precursor to glass and silicon
Silica is the primary ingredient in the production of most glass. 
As other minerals are melted with silica, the principle of Freezing Point Depression lowers the melting point of the mixture and increases fluidity. 
The glass transition temperature of pure SiO2 is about 1475 K.
When molten silicon dioxide SiO2 is rapidly cooled, it does not crystallize, but solidifies as a glass. 
Because of this, most ceramic glazes have silica as the main ingredient.
The structural geometry of silicon and oxygen in glass is similar to that in quartz and most other crystalline forms of silicon and oxygen with silicon surrounded by regular tetrahedra of oxygen centers. 
The difference between the glass and crystalline forms arises from the connectivity of the tetrahedral units: Although there is no long range periodicity in the glassy network ordering remains at length scales well beyond the SiO bond length. 
One example of this ordering is the preference to form rings of 6-tetrahedra.
The majority of optical fibers for telecommunication are also made from silica. 
Silicon dioxide is a primary raw material for many ceramics such as earthenware, stoneware, and porcelain.
Silicon dioxide is used to produce elemental silicon. 
The process involves carbothermic reduction in an electric arc furnace:
SiO2 + 2 C -> Si + 2 CO

Fumed silica
Fumed silica, also known as pyrogenic silica, is prepared by burning SiCl4 in an oxygen-rich hydrogen flame to produce a "smoke" of SiO2.
SiCl4 + 2 H2 + O2 -> SiO2 + 4 HCl
Silicon dioxide can also be produced by vaporizing quartz sand in a 3000 °C electric arc. 
Both processes result in microscopic droplets of amorphous silica fused into branched, chainlike, three-dimensional secondary particles which then agglomerate into tertiary particles, a white powder with extremely low bulk density (0.03-.15 g/cm3) and thus high surface area.
The particles act as a thixotropic thickening agent, or as an anti-caking agent, and can be treated to make them hydrophilic or hydrophobic for either water or organic liquid applications

Silica fume is an ultrafine powder collected as a by-product of the silicon and ferrosilicon alloy production. 
Silicon dioxide consists of amorphous (non-crystalline) spherical particles with an average particle diameter of 150 nm, without the branching of the pyrogenic product. 
The main use is as pozzolanic material for high performance concrete.

Food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications
Silica, either colloidal, precipitated, or pyrogenic fumed, is a common additive in food production. 
Silicon dioxide is used primarily as a flow or anti-caking agent in powdered foods such as spices and non-dairy coffee creamer, or powders to be formed into pharmaceutical tablets.
Silicon dioxide can adsorb water in hygroscopic applications. 
Colloidal silica is used as a fining agent for wine, beer, and juice, with the E number reference E551.

In cosmetics, silica is useful for its light-diffusing properties and natural absorbency.
Diatomaceous earth, a mined product, has been used in food and cosmetics for centuries. 
Silicon dioxide consists of the silica shells of microscopic diatoms; in a less processed form it was sold as "tooth powder".
Manufactured or mined hydrated silica is used as the hard abrasive in toothpaste.

SiO2 Uses (Silicon Dioxide)
Silicon Dioxide is used in the construction industry to produce concrete.
In Silicon dioxides crystalline form it is used in hydraulic fracturing.
Silicon dioxide is used in the production of glass.
Silicon dioxide is used as a Sedative.
Silicon dioxide is used in the production of produce elemental silicon.
Silicon dioxide is used as anti-caking agent in powdered foods like spices.
Silicon dioxide is used as a fining agent in juice, beer, and wine.
Silicon dioxide is used pharmaceutical tablets.
Silicon dioxide is used in toothpaste to remove tooth plaque.

Semiconductors
See also: Surface passivation, Thermal oxidation, Planar process, and MOSFET
Silicon dioxide is widely used in the semiconductor technology for the primary passivation (directly on the semiconductor surface), as an original gate dielectric in MOS technology. 
Today when scaling (dimension of the gate length of the MOS transistor) has progressed below 10 nm silicon dioxide has been replaced by other dielectric materials like hafnium oxide or similar with higher dielectric constant compared to silicon dioxide, as a dielectric layer between metal (wiring) layers (sometimes up to 8-10) connecting elements to each other and as a secondary passivation layer (for protecting semiconductor elements and the metallization layers) typically today layered with some other dielectrics like silicon nitride. 
Because silicon dioxide is a native oxide of silicon it is more widely used compared to other semiconductors like Gallium arsenide or Indium phosphide.
Silicon dioxide could be grown on a silicon semiconductor surface.
Silicon oxide layers could protect silicon surfaces during diffusion processes, and could be used for diffusion masking.

Surface passivation is the process by which a semiconductor surface is rendered inert, and does not change semiconductor properties as a result of interaction with air or other materials in contact with the surface or edge of the crystal.
The formation of a thermally grown silicon dioxide layer greatly reduces the concentration of electronic states at the silicon surface.
SiO2 films preserve the electrical characteristics of p–n junctions and prevent these electrical characteristics from deteriorating by the gaseous ambient environment.
Silicon oxide layers could be used to electrically stabilize silicon surfaces.
The surface passivation process is an important method of semiconductor device fabrication that involves coating a silicon wafer with an insulating layer of silicon oxide so that electricity could reliably penetrate to the conducting silicon below. 
Growing a layer of silicon dioxide on top of a silicon wafer enables it to overcome the surface states that otherwise prevent electricity from reaching the semiconducting layer.
The process of silicon surface passivation by thermal oxidation (silicon dioxide) is critical to the semiconductor industry. 
Silicon dioxide is commonly used to manufacture metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and silicon integrated circuit chips (with the planar process).

Other
Hydrophobic silica is used as a defoamer component.
In Silicon dioxides capacity as a refractory, Silicon dioxide is useful in fiber form as a high-temperature thermal protection fabric.
Silica is used in the extraction of DNA and RNA due to its ability to bind to the nucleic acids under the presence of chaotropes.
Silica aerogel was used in the Stardust spacecraft to collect extraterrestrial particles.
Pure silica (silicon dioxide), when cooled as fused quartz into a glass with no true melting point, can be used as a glass fiber for fiberglass.

Water solubility
The solubility of silicon dioxide in water strongly depends on its crystalline form and is three-four times higher for silica than quartz; as a function of temperature, it peaks around 340 °C.
This property is used to grow single crystals of quartz in a hydrothermal process where natural quartz is dissolved in superheated water in a pressure vessel that is cooler at the top. 
Crystals of 0.5–1  kg can be grown over a period of 1–2 months.
These crystals are a source of very pure quartz for use in electronic applications.

What is it?
Silicon dioxide (SiO2), also known as silica, is a natural compound made of two of the earth’s most abundant materials: silicon (Si) and oxygen (O2).
Silicon dioxide is most often recognized in the form of quartz. 
Silicon dioxide’s found naturally in water, plants, animals, and the earth. 
The earth’s crust is 59 percent silica. 
Silicon dioxide makes up more than 95 percent of known rocks on the planet. 
When you sit on a beach, Silicon dioxide’s silicon dioxide in the form of sand that gets between your toes.
Silicon dioxide’s even found naturally in the tissues of the human body. 
Though Silicon dioxide’s unclear what role it plays, Silicon dioxide’s thought to be an essential nutrient our bodies need.

Why is Silicon dioxide in food and supplements?
Silicon dioxide is found naturally in many plants, such as:
-leafy green vegetables
-beets
-bell peppers
-brown rice
-oats
-alfalfa
Silicon dioxide is also added to many foods and supplements.
As a food additive, Silicon dioxide serves as an anticaking agent to avoid clumping. 
In supplements, Silicon dioxide’s used to prevent the various powdered ingredients from sticking together.

Silica, SiO2, is a white or colorless crystalline compound found mainly as quartz, sand, flint, and many other minerals. 
Silica is an important ingredient to manufacture a wide variety of materials.
Quartz; Quartz is the most abundant silica mineral. 
Pure Quartz is colorless and transparent. 
Silicon dioxide occurs in most igneous and practically all metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. 
Silicon dioxide is used as a component of numerous industrial materials.
Silicon (Si) has the atomic number 14 and is closely related to carbon. 
Silicon dioxide is a relatively inert metalloid.

Silicon is often used for microchips, glass, cement, and pottery.
Silica is the most abundant mineral found in the crust of the earth. 
One of the most common uses of silica quarts is the manufacturer of glass.
Silica is the fourteenth element on the periodic table. 
Silicon dioxide can sometimes be found as the substance, quartz which is usually used in jewelry, test tubes, and when placed under pressure, generates an electrical charge.
Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's crust. 
Silicon dioxide is a clear, glossy mineral with a hardness of 7 on the MOHS scale.
Silica, Sa,is a component of glass and concrete. 
A form of Silica commonly known as quartz, Silica tetrahedra, is the second most common mineral in the earth's crust, it comes in many different forms.

Silica is a compound of silicon and oxygen. 
Earth's outer crust contains 59% of this material. 
Silicon dioxide has three major rock forms, which are quartz, tridymite, and cristobalite.
Silica, commonly known in the form of quartz, is the dioxide form of silicon, SiO2. 
Silicon dioxide is usually used to manufacture glass, ceramics and abrasives.
Quartz is the second most common mineral in Earth’s crust. 
Silicon dioxides chemical name is SiO2. 

Although quartz is common, Silicon dioxide is usually twinned so industries often Silica; Also known as the silicon dioxide, has a white powdery substance solid. 
Silicon dioxide is used in production in many products such as glass, food additive and raw material for production.
The chemical compound silica, also known as silicon dioxide, is known for its hardness since the 16th century. 
Silicon dioxide is found in nature in many different forms, such as flint, quartz, and opal.
Silica (quartz): Silica, SiO2, is a chemical compound that is composed of one silicon atom and two oxygen atoms. 
Silicon dioxide appears naturally in several crystalline forms, one of which is quartz.
Silica Quartz- A colorless, ordorless crystal found in different colors such as white, green, black, purple. 

Silicon dioxide will not burn to the touch but can cause cancer Silicon dioxide, commonly known as silica (and/or quartz), is a prevalent element in the Earth's crust. 
One fourth, or twenty-eight percent (to be percise) of the Earth's crust is composed of silica.
Silica:scientific name for a group of minerals composed of silicon and oxygen atoms, (crystalline silica). 
Different soils contain all forms of crystalline silica in the form of quartz.
Quartz silica is a colorless/white, black, purple, or green crystals. 
Silicon dioxide has no odor and will not burn. 
Silicon dioxide's cancer hazardous. 
Silicon dioxide is found in mines and tunnels.
Silica, or silicon dioxide, is the oxide of silicon. 
Silicon dioxide is found in nature in several forms; one of which is quartz. 
Quartz is the second most common mineral on Earth.

Silica(quartz); Silica(quartz) is a colorless crystal like beryl. 
The silica(quartz) come in different colors, such as yellow(citrine), smoky, and purple(amethyst). 
The color changes because of transition-metal impurities.
Silica, a white to colorless crystalline compound, is usually in the form of quartz. 
Silicon dioxide is used as building stones and to make glass. 
Silica has covalent bonding and forms a network structure.
Silica, SiO2, has a crystalline form called quartz, which is found in many types of rocks, and is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth’s crust. 
This very hard mineral is usually colorless.

Silica (quartz): The second most common element in the earth's crust, silica is never found in its natural state, and alloys with a number of different metals.
Silica, SiO2, has a crystalline form called quartz, which is found in numerous types of rocks, and is the second most plentiful mineral in the Earth’s crust. 
This very firm mineral is usually colorless Silicon dioxide exists naturally within the earth and our bodies. 
There isn’t yet evidence to suggest it’s dangerous to ingest as a food additive, but more research is needed on what role it plays in the body. 
Chronic inhalation of silica dust can lead to lung disease.
People who have serious allergies have a vested interest in knowing what additives are in the foods they eat. 
But even if you don’t have such allergies, it’s best to be cautious with food additives. 
And even minor changes in levels of minerals can have a profound effect on healthy functioning. 
A good approach is to eat whole foods and get healthy levels of silicon dioxide.
As with many food additives, consumers often have concerns about silicon dioxide as an additive. 
However, numerous studies suggest there’s no cause for these concerns.

What does the research say?
The fact that silicon dioxide is found in plants and drinking water suggests it’s safe. 
Research has shown that the silica we consume through our diets doesn’t accumulate in our bodies. 
Instead, Silicon dioxide’s flushed out by our kidneys.
However, the progressive, often fatal lung disease silicosis can occur from chronic inhalation of silica dust.
This exposure and disease primarily occurs among people who work in:
-mining
-construction
-quarrying
-the steel industry
-sandblasting

In the majority of silicates, the silicon atom shows tetrahedral coordination, with four oxygen atoms surrounding a central Si atom (see 3-D Unit Cell). 
Thus, SiO2 forms 3 dimensional network solids in which each silicon atom is covalently bonded in a tetrahedral manner to 4 oxygen atoms. 
In contrast, CO2 is a linear molecule. 
The starkly different structures of the dioxides of carbon and silicon is a manifestation of the Double bond rule.
SiO2 has a number of distinct crystalline forms, but they almost always have the same local structure around Si and O. 
In α-quartz the Si-O bond length is 161 pm, whereas in α-tridymite it is in the range 154–171 pm. 
The Si-O-Si angle also varies between a low value of 140° in α-tridymite, up to 180° in β-tridymite. 
In α-quartz, the Si-O-Si angle is 144°.

Polymorphism
Alpha quartz is the stable form of solid SiO2 at room temperature. 
The high-temperature minerals, cristobalite and tridymite, have both lower densities and indices of refraction than quartz. 
The transformation from α-quartz to beta-quartz takes place abruptly at 573 °C. 
Since the transformation is accompanied by a significant change in volume, it can easily induce fracturing of ceramics or rocks passing through this temperature limit.
The high-pressure minerals, seifertite, stishovite, and coesite, though, have higher densities and indices of refraction than quartz.
Stishovite has a rutile-like structure where silicon is 6-coordinate. 
The density of stishovite is 4.287 g/cm3, which compares to α-quartz, the densest of the low-pressure forms, which has a density of 2.648 g/cm3.
The difference in density can be ascribed to the increase in coordination as the six shortest Si-O bond lengths in stishovite (four Si-O bond lengths of 176 pm and two others of 181 pm) are greater than the Si-O bond length (161 pm) in α-quartz.
The change in the coordination increases the ionicity of the Si-O bond.
More importantly, any deviations from these standard parameters constitute microstructural differences or variations, which represent an approach to an amorphous, vitreous, or glassy solid.

Faujasite silica, another polymorph, is obtained by dealumination of a low-sodium, ultra-stable Y zeolite with combined acid and thermal treatment. 
The resulting product contains over 99% silica, and has high crystallinity and surface area (over 800 m2/g). 
Faujasite-silica has very high thermal and acid stability. 
For example, it maintains a high degree of long-range molecular order or crystallinity even after boiling in concentrated hydrochloric acid.

Molten SiO2
Molten silica exhibits several peculiar physical characteristics that are similar to those observed in liquid water: negative temperature expansion, density maximum at temperatures ~5000 °C, and a heat capacity minimum.
Silicon dioxides density decreases from 2.08 g/cm3 at 1950 °C to 2.03 g/cm3 at 2200 °C.

Molecular SiO2
Molecular SiO2 is linear structure. 
Silicon dioxide has been produced by combining silicon monoxide with oxygen atoms in an argon matrix. 
Dimeric silicon dioxide, (SiO2)2 has been generated by reacting O2 with matrix isolated dimeric silicon monoxide, (Si2O2). 
In dimeric silicon dioxide there are two oxygen atoms bridging between the silicon atoms with an Si-O-Si angle of 94° and bond length of 164.6 pm and the terminal Si-O bond length is 150.2 pm. 
The Si-O bond length is 148.3 pm, which compares with the length of 161 pm in α-quartz. 
The bond energy is estimated at 621.7 kJ/mol.

Synonyms:
Quartz, Silica, Cristobalite, Sand

Natural occurrence
Geology
SiO2 is most commonly found in nature as quartz, which comprises more than 10% by mass of the earth's crust.
Quartz is the only polymorph of silica stable at the Earth's surface. 
Metastable occurrences of the high-pressure forms coesite and stishovite have been found around impact structures and associated with eclogites formed during ultra-high-pressure metamorphism. 
The high-temperature forms of tridymite and cristobalite are known from silica-rich volcanic rocks. 
In many parts of the world, silica is the major constituent of sand.

IUPAC name
Silicon dioxide

What is silicon dioxide?
Silicon dioxide, or silica, is a combination of silicon and oxygen, two very abundant, naturally occurring materials.
There are many forms of silica. 
They all have the same makeup but may have a different name, depending on how the particles arrange themselves. 
In general, there are two groups of silica: crystalline silica and amorphous silica.

Silicon dioxide occurs widely in nature. 
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) give an idea to just how common this compound is.
Silicon dioxide is easiest to recognize by its common name, quartz, which makes up about 12% of the earth’s crust. 
However, silicon dioxide also occurs naturally in everything from water and plants to animals.
Silica sand covers many beaches, and it makes up most of the rocks on earth. 
In fact, silica-containing minerals or silica itself make up more than 95% of the earth’s crust.
Silicon dioxide also exists in numerous plants that humans regularly consume, such as:
-dark, leafy greens
-some grains and cereals, such as oats and brown rice
-vegetables, such as beets and bell peppers
-alfalfa
Silicon dioxide also occurs naturally in the human body, though it is still unclear the exact role it plays.

Other names
Quartz
Silica
Silicic oxide
Silicon(IV) oxide
Crystalline silica
Pure Silica
Silicea
Silica sand

Silicon dioxide is a natural chemical mix of silicon and oxygen that has uses in many food products as an anticaking agent. 
Silicon dioxide is generally safe as a food additive, though some agencies are calling for stricter guidelines about the quality and characteristics of the silicon dioxide found in foods.

Biology
Even though it is poorly soluble, silica occurs in many plants. 
Plant materials with high silica phytolith content appear to be of importance to grazing animals, from chewing insects to ungulates. 
Silica accelerates tooth wear, and high levels of silica in plants frequently eaten by herbivores may have developed as a defense mechanism against predation.
Silica is also the primary component of rice husk ash, which is used, for example, in filtration and cement manufacturing.
For well over a billion years, silicification in and by cells has been common in the biological world. 
In the modern world it occurs in bacteria, single-celled organisms, plants, and animals (invertebrates and vertebrates). 

Prominent examples include:
Tests or frustules (i.e. shells) of diatoms, Radiolaria, and testate amoebae.
Silica phytoliths in the cells of many plants, including Equisetaceae, practically all grasses, and a wide range of dicotyledons.
The spicules forming the skeleton of many sponges.
Crystalline minerals formed in the physiological environment often show exceptional physical properties (e.g., strength, hardness, fracture toughness) and tend to form hierarchical structures that exhibit microstructural order over a range of scales. 
The minerals are crystallized from an environment that is undersaturated with respect to silicon, and under conditions of neutral pH and low temperature (0–40 °C).

Silicon dioxide is unclear in what ways silica is important in the nutrition of animals. 
This field of research is challenging because silica is ubiquitous and in most circumstances dissolves in trace quantities only. 
All the same it certainly does occur in the living body, creating the challenge of creating silica-free controls for purposes of research. 
This makes it difficult to be sure when the silica present has had operative beneficial effects, and when its presence is coincidental, or even harmful. 
The current consensus is that it certainly seems important in the growth, strength, and management of many connective tissues. 
This is true not only for hard connective tissues such as bone and tooth but possibly in the biochemistry of the subcellular enzyme-containing structures as well.

SiO2 is an oxide of silicon with a chemical name Silicon Dioxide. 
Silicon dioxide is also called Silica or Kalii bromidum or Silicic oxide or silicic acid. 
Silicon dioxide is widely found in nature as quartz.
Silicon dioxide is obtained as a transparent to grey, in its crystalline or amorphous powdered form. 
Silicon dioxide is odourless and tasteless compound.

CAS Number: 7631-86-9     
CHEBI:30563 
ChemSpider: 22683 
ECHA InfoCard: 100.028.678 
EC Number: 231-545-4
E number: E551 (acidity regulators, ...)
Gmelin Reference: 200274
KEGG: C16459 
MeSH: Silicon+dioxide
PubChem CID: 24261
RTECS number: VV7565000
UNII: ETJ7Z6XBU4 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID1029677

While many of the studies Trusted Source on silica have been done on animals, researchers have found no link between the food additive silicon dioxide and increased risk of cancer, organ damage, or death. 
In addition, studiesTrusted Source have found no evidence that silicon dioxide as an additive in food can affect reproductive health, birth weight, or bodyweight.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has also recognized silicon dioxide as a safe food additive. 
In 2018, the European Food Safety Authority urged the European Union to impose stricter guidelines on silicon dioxide until further research could be done. 
Their concerns focused on the nano-sized particles (some of which were smaller than 100 nm).
Previously guidelines followed a 1974 paper prepared in association with the World Health Organization. 
This paper found the only negative health effects related to silicon dioxide have been caused by silicon deficiency. 
More current research may be changing the guidelines and recommendations.

Chemical formula: SiO2
Molar mass: 60.08 g/mol
Appearance: Transparent solid (Amorphous) White/Whitish Yellow (Powder/Sand)
Density: 2.648 (α-quartz), 2.196 (amorphous) g·cm−3 
Melting point: 1,713 °C (3,115 °F; 1,986 K) (amorphous) (p4.88) to
Boiling point: 2,950 °C (5,340 °F; 3,220 K) 
Magnetic susceptibility (χ): −29.6·10−6 cm3/mol

Silicon dioxide (silica, SiO2, SAS) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) are produced in high volumes and applied in many consumer and food products. 
As a consequence, there is a potential human exposure and subsequent systemic uptake of these particles. 
In this study we show the characterization and quantification of both total silicon (Si) and titanium (Ti), and particulate SiO2 and TiO2 in postmortem tissue samples from 15 deceased persons. 
Included tissues are liver, spleen, kidney and the intestinal tissues jejunum and ileum. 
Low-level analysis was enabled by the use of fully validated sample digestion methods combined with (single particle) inductively coupled plasma high resolution mass spectrometry techniques (spICP-HRMS). 
The results show a total-Si concentration ranging from <2 to 191 mg Si/kg (median values of 5.8 (liver), 9.5 (spleen), 7.7 (kidney), 6.8 (jejunum), 7.6 (ileum) mg Si/kg) while the particulate SiO2 ranged from <0.2 to 25 mg Si/kg (median values of 0.4 (liver), 1.0 (spleen), 0.4 (kidney), 0.7 (jejunum, 0.6 (ileum) mg Si/kg), explaining about 10% of the total-Si concentration. 
Particle sizes ranged from 150 to 850 nm with a mode of 270 nm. 
For total-Ti the results show concentrations ranging from <0.01 to 2.0 mg Ti/kg (median values of 0.02 (liver), 0.04 (spleen), 0.05 (kidney), 0.13 (jejunum), 0.26 (ileum) mg Ti/kg) while particulate TiO2 concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 1.8 mg Ti/kg (median values of 0.02 (liver), 0.02 (spleen), 0.03 (kidney), 0.08 (jejunum), 0.25 (ileum) mg Ti/kg). 
In general, the particulate TiO2 explained 80% of the total-Ti concentration. 
This indicates that most Ti in these organ tissues is particulate material. 
The detected particles comprise primary particles, aggregates and agglomerates, and were in the range of 50–500 nm with a mode in the range of 100–160 nm. 
About 17% of the detected TiO2 particles had a size <100 nm. 
The presence of SiO2 and TiO2 particles in liver tissue was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry.

SILICON DIOXIDE
Silica
Quartz
7631-86-9
Cristobalite
Dioxosilane
Diatomaceous earth
Silica gel
Tridymite
Sand
Infusorial earth
Silicic anhydride
KIESELGUHR
Aerosil
112945-52-5
Crystalline silica
14808-60-7
Diatomaceous silica

Silicon Dioxide: What Is Silicon dioxide? What’s Silicon dioxide Good For? And Do We Need It?
Ever wondered what that small packet you find in food or supplement bottles is? 
You know, the one that says, “Do Not Eat” even though it’s found with your food? Well, that’s called a desiccant. 
Silicon dioxides primary purpose is to absorb excess moisture so fine food particles don’t clump together (the way sugar does).
Silicon dioxides active ingredient? Silicon dioxide, more commonly known as silica, but what is silicon dioxide? 
Let’s delve into this and other questions.

What is Silicon Dioxide?
Chemically, silicon dioxide is a type of quartz, the fusion of the elements silicon (Si) and oxygen (O). 
Silicon dioxide is one of the more abundant substances on Earth, making up 59 percent of the crust. 
If you’ve been to the beach before, then you will have seen silica. 
Silicon dioxide’s just that Silicon dioxide has a different name there: sand
And even though it’s a “rock,” you’ll be surprised to know that silica is also found in organisms, too.
Plants, animals and, yes even us, have trace amounts of it. 
Chances are you’ve eaten Silicon dioxide regularly since everything from vegetables to oats have it.

Dicalite
Wessalon
Glass
Ludox
Nyacol
Zorbax sil
Silica, amorphous
Cab-O-sil
Christensenite
Crystoballite
Silicon(IV) oxide
61790-53-2
Siliceous earth
Amorphous silica
QUARTZ (SIO2)
112926-00-8
Silica, colloidal
60676-86-0
Chalcedony
Diatomite
Agate

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is a chemical compound commonly used in food as an anti-caking agent or in cosmetics to prevent corrosion, according to the USDA. 
Silicon dioxide helps keep the powders free-flowing and moisture-free and is a common additive in foods like flour, baking powder, sugar and salt, according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
While silicon dioxide is safe for consumption, it can be unnerving to hear that you may be eating the same additive used in your makeup. 
However, this compound is totally safe to use, according to the USDA. 
Without silicon dioxide, many of the foods you buy would begin to lump and clot due to moisture absorption.

Silica is a chemical compound also known as silicon dioxide or silox. 
The chemical formula for silicon is SiO2. 
Silica may be found in many forms of nature. 
For example, flint, quartz, and opal.
Silica is also known as silicon dioxide SiO2. 
Silica has three main crystalline varieties: quartz the most abundant, tridymite, and cristobalite. 
The mass of the earths crust is 59 percent Silica.
Quartz is mainly made up of silica. 

The formula for it is SiO2. 
Silicon dioxide has a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale. 
Silicon dioxide has the density of 2.65g/cm3 Silica, SiO2, is composed of Silicone and Oxygen. 
Silicon dioxide has been known since ancient times, is found in sand, and is a major component of glass.
Silica is a chemical compound, also called silicon dioxide. 
Silicon dioxide can sometimes be found as the substance, quartz which is usually used in jewelry, test tubes, and when placed under pressure, generates an electrical charge.
Silica is also known as silicon dioxide, the chemical compound is oxide of silicon and the chemical formula is SiO2. 
Silicon dioxide’s principle component in most types of glass and substances such as concrete.
Silica (quartz); is a naturally occurring minerals that can be found in mines and use in the fabrication of stone and clay products. 
Silica is odorless and various in color.

Silica – comes from silicone after it oxidizes. 
Silicon dioxide helps form most hard things like glass, porcelain, and some concrete. 
Silicon dioxides found natural in flint, quarts and opal. 
Wesley hamachi Quartz, the clear and opaque mineral, is the second most common mineral in the Earth’s continental crust. 
The six-sided shape of the mineral makes it unique and elegant to observe.
Silica: Silica can be found in nature as 35 different crystalline forms. 
One of its forms is quartz; which can generate current when mechanical stress is applied to it. 
Most sand is made up of silica depending on its geographical location. 

Silica is also used to make glass.
Silica (Quartz) is chemical compound silicon dioxide SiO2. 
Silica is often found in nature as sand (non coastal), usually in the form of quartz. 
The most common form of manufactured silica is glass.
Silica, is a natural compound that has a crystal characteristic and can be found in beach sand.
The most common usage is that of glass in which Silica is fused together.

Silica; silica (quartz), the dioxide form of silicon, SiO2, used usually in the form of its prepared white powder chiefly in the manufacture of glass, water glass, ceramics, and abrasives.
Silica is the dioxide form of silicon, SiO2, and occurs mostly as quartz sand, flint, and agate. 
Silica's powder form is used to manufacture glass, ceramics, etc. 
Silica SiO2 is the chemical compound silicon dioxide. 
Silicon dioxide is formed when silicon is exposed to oxygen.
Silicon dioxide has a covalent bond and is a superior electric insulator, posessing high chemical stability.

Cab-o-sil M-5
colloidal silica
Cristobalite (SiO2)
Fused silica
Quartz glass
Quartz sand
Silica slurry
Silicone dioxide
SILICA, VITREOUS
Colloidal silicon dioxide

Linear Formula: SiO2
CAS Number: 60676-86-0
Molecular Weight: 60.08
EC Number: 262-373-8

Silicon dioxide, or silica, is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula SiO2. 
Silicon dioxide is found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite as transparent and tasteless crystals. 
Inhalation of fine crystals is toxic to humans leading to respiratory toxicity. 
In powdered food products and pharmaceutical tablets, silicon dioxide is added as a flow agent to absorb water. 
Colloidal silica is also used as a wine, beer, and juice fining agent or stabilizer.

Siliceous earth, purified
Min-U-Sil
Silicon dioxide (amorphous)
Silicon dioxide, fumed
Siliziumdioxid
14464-46-1
UNII-ETJ7Z6XBU4
91053-39-3
Kieselsaeureanhydrid
15468-32-3
CHEBI:30563

Silicon Dioxide in Food and Supplements
"Like many other chemical terms that people think are harmful just because they're hard to pronounce, silicon dioxide sounds ominous," Bonnie Taub-Dix, RD, tells LIVESTRONG.com. 
"But Silicon dioxide actually appears naturally in many foods including leafy greens, oats, bell peppers and beets."
When Silicon dioxide comes to supplements, silica is also a common food additive found in many protein powders, according to Julie Upton, RD and co-founder of Appetite for Health. 
The compound prevents the whey and other protein powders from clumping over time.
Aside from its use in powdered foods, silica is also used as a stabilizer in the production of beer, according to the FDA. 
However, the additive is then filtered out of the alcohol in the final processing steps.

SiO2
(SiO2)n
43-63C
MFCD00011232
ETJ7Z6XBU4
Silicon dioxide, colloidal
ENT 25,550
[SiO2]
Silica, crystalline - fused
Silicagel
Silicon dioxide, amorphous gel
Silicondioxide
Silica gel desiccant, indicating
Celite
Sand, Ottawa
Sand, Sea
silica gel desiccant
MFCD00217788
Silica, mesostructured
Sillikolloid
Acticel
Aerosil 380

What Does Silicon dioxide Do?
Silicon dioxide is a common substance used in a variety of industrial applications. 
Everything from ceramics to glass use Silicon dioxide in one form or another. 
In the food industry, silica is most often used as an anti-caking agent. 
Many foodstuffs, such as sugar and flour, tend to clump together in moist conditions.
Moisture also promotes bacterial growth and can shorten a product’s shelf life. 
Silicon dioxide prevents this by absorbing excess moisture from the atmosphere. 
Silicon dioxide can be mixed straight into the food or separated into its own container, as is the case with the desiccant pack.

Is Silicon Dioxide Natural or Synthetic?
Since it’s pretty abundant, commercial silica is often derived from natural sources. 
Natural quartz is obtained from sand mining and then crushed or milled. 
Further processing may be needed to create purer or finer silica, depending on the end-use.

Amethyst
Aquafil
Carplex
Cataloid
Crysvarl
Extrusil
Flintshot
Nalcoag
Novaculite
Porasil
Santocel
Silikil
Silikill
Siloxid
Sipernat
Superfloss

Silicon dioxide is a compound that’s naturally found in the earth’s crust in a crystalline state. 
Silicon dioxide can be obtained from mining and purifying quart.
Silicon dioxide is also found in some organisms and animals, the human body (it’s a component of human ligaments, cartilage and musculature), plus some plants (especially grains) and in drinking water.
Additionally, it’s created in labs and used as a common food additive, found in things like baking ingredients, protein powders and dried spices. 
This compound has a variety of uses in industries ranging from food and cosmetics to construction and electronics.

What is silicon dioxide made of? 
Silicon dioxide’s composed of a combination of silicon (Si) and oxygen (O), which is why it has the chemical formula SiO2.

What is silica, and how is Silicon dioxide different?
Silicon dioxide goes by the common name silica. 
Silicon dioxide’s also sometimes referred to as silicic anhydride or silicate.

Silica/silicon dioxide comes in several forms, depending on how it’s manufactured, including:
Crystalline silica, which is usually obtained from mining quartz. 
Quartz actually comprises a high percentage of the Earth’s crust, so this type is widely available. 
This isn’t the form used in foods and can be problematic when inhaled over long periods of time.
Amorphous silica, found in the earth’s sediments and rocks. 
This also forms diatomite, diatom silica or diatomaceous earth, which is made from deposits that accumulate over time in the sediment of rivers, streams, lakes and oceans.
This is the type most often used as an anti-caking agent to keep powdered foods free-flowing and to prevent moisture absorption.
Colloidal silicon dioxide, which is used in tablet-making. 
This type is found in supplements because it has anti-caking, adsorbent, disintegrant and glidant effects.

Why Is Silicon dioxide Used in Food and Supplements?
Synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide is the type most often used as a food additive. 
Silicon dioxide’s typically manufactured by vapor phase hydrolysis.

Which foods contain silicon dioxide? You’ll find Silicon dioxide in small amounts added to foods, such as:
-flours
-protein powders
-baking powder
-confectioner’s sugar
-salt
-spice, herb and seasoning mixtures
-beer (it is removed from the beer by filtration prior to final processing)
-dried egg products
-animal/livestock feed
-supplement capsules

Silicates are also present in a variety of plant foods included in the human diet, including vegetables and cereal grains, such as leafy greens, peppers, beets, sprouts, rice and oats.
Because it has the ability to block moisture absorption and prevent ingredients from clumping/caking together, silicon dioxide is used in food products to help retain their texture. 
Silicon dioxide’s most often found in granular or powder products, because as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) describes it, “it increases speed of dispersion, keeping the food particles separated and permitting the water to wet them individually instead of forming lumps.”

What is silicon dioxide used for in foods and supplements? 
According to the USDA, silicon dioxide has properties that give it the following functions in foods and supplements:
-Works as an anti-caking agent
-Prevents corrosion
-Defoams
-Stops powders from absorbing moisture
-Helps to stabilize and clarify beer
-Helps carry and distribute flavoring oils
-Absorbs alcohol
-Helps in processing of wine and gelatin production
-Depending on silicon dioxide’s structure, it can appear as a transparent, tasteless, crystal or an amorphous powder (sometimes called silica powder).

Amorphous silica has a “highly unique physical and chemical properties and potential as an additive in a variety of processing industries,” as described the USDA. 
For example, it has a small particle size, high specific surface area, and gelling and thickening abilities.
Something else that makes silica unique is its solubility. Silicon dioxide is not soluble in either water or organic solvents.
In addition to being used in foods supplements and cosmetics, silica is utilized in the production of cans, impermeable films, paints, silicone rubbers, polyester compounds, dental formulations, emulsions, dry pesticides, soil conditioners and turf soil.
The production of silicon dioxide is one form of “nanotechnology,” which encompasses taking a material and making it into very tiny particles, with dimensions between one and 100 nanometers. 
This changes the material’s physical, chemical and biological properties and functions.
While nanotechnology in food processing may help improve the taste, color, look, uniformity and texture of foods, it might also change the material is absorbed and excreted in the human body.

Vulkasil
Cherts
Neosil
Neosyl
Snowit
Aerosil-degussa
Imsil
Metacristobalite
Silica vitreous
Zipax
Quartz silica
alpha-Quartz
Fossil flour
Fumed silica
Quartz dust
Rock crystal
Rose quartz
Silica dust
White carbon
Chromosorb P
Silica particles

Silicon is the second-most abundant element on Earth, behind oxygen. 
Almost 30% of our planet’s crust is made of the stuff, so Silicon dioxide isn’t surprising that it’s also found in food.
However, silicon is rarely found on Silicon dioxides own. 
Instead, Silicon dioxide combines with oxygen and other elements to form silicate materials, which are the largest class of rock-forming materials on Earth and compose 90% of the Earth’s crust. 
One such material is silica, or silicon dioxide, which is the most common component of sand.
Silica is also found naturally in some foods, and Silicon dioxide is added to many food products and supplements. 
Silicon dioxide is commonly used in the form of silicon dioxide as an anti-caking agent in foods and supplements to keep ingredients from clumping up or sticking together, and it’s sometimes added to liquids and beverages to control foaming and thickness.

Tiger-eye
Vulkasil S
Celite superfloss
Cristobalite dust
Snowtex O
Corasil II
Silver bond B
Cab-O-sperse
alpha-Cristobalite
alpha-Crystobalite
Calcined diatomite
Tokusil TPLM
Dri-Die
Gold bond R
Cabosil st-1
Manosil vn 3
Sil-Co-Sil
Ultrasil VH 3
Ultrasil VN 3

Synthetic amorphous silica (SAS, SiO2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2), the latter as a white pigment, are industrially produced in high volumes. 
SAS is used as a food additive, is manufactured by several production processes, and consists mainly of nanosized primary particles that form small aggregates and larger agglomerates. 
TiO2 as a white pigment is used as a food additive, in personal care products (e.g. toothpaste) and in many other consumer products. 
Silicon dioxide contains a fraction of nanosized primary particles (<100 nm). 
As a consequence, human exposure and subsequent systemic uptake of these particles becomes likely. 
However, only limited data are available on the presence of SiO2 and TiO2 particles in human organs. 
We reported only recently on the presence of TiO2 particles in liver and spleen. 
In this study, the focus was originally on the determination of SiO2 particles in liver, spleen, kidney and intestinal samples, however, to strengthen the results of the previous study, TiO2 particles were also measured in these new samples. 
Since the 1960s, SiO2 as an anti-caking agent and TiO2 as a white pigment are authorized food additives, and in the US as a food color additive (TiO2) and food contact substance in food packaging) and also applied in consumer and medical products. 
Sodium, calcium, and magnesium silicates and hydrated silica, SiO2. 
nH2O, contain naturally present inorganic Si. 
The latter may form small particles in the size range of 1–5 nm and can be found in natural waters, including drinking and mineral waters. 
There are limited data on the presence of TiO2 particles in the environment or in untreated food products such as raw milk, vegetables, and meat.

During the life cycle of products, release of SiO2 and TiO2 particles occurs, resulting in direct (oral, lung, and dermal) and indirect (via the environment) human exposure. 
Although human tissue levels of the element Ti and particulate TiO2 have been reported, no data are available on human tissue concentrations of the element Si and particulate SiO2. 
While no human data on the systemic uptake of SiO2 particles are available, a study with rodents implied limited oral uptake of silica at realistic consumer exposure levels. 
Uptake of TiO2 particles by the gut has been studied in animals, but rarely in humans. 
The only human volunteer studies conducted with single dose administration suggest that the oral bioavailability of TiO2 is low. 
Silicon dioxide should be noted that low oral uptake of nanomaterials can still lead to high organ burdens when there is long-term, frequent exposure in combination with low excretion or high persistence.


Aerosil bs-50
Aerosil K 7
Cabosil N 5
Carplex 30
Carplex 80
Pigment White 27
Siderite (SiO2)
Snowtex 30
Syton 2X
Tridymite 118
Zeofree 80
Cab-O-grip II
Silicon(IV) oxide, amorphous
Tridimite [French]
Amorphous silica gel

Compound Formula: O2Si
Molecular Weight: 60.09
Appearance: White Powder
Melting Point: 1,600° C (2,912° F)
Boiling Point: 2,230° C (4,046° F)
Density: 2533 kg/m-3
Solubility in H2O: N/A
Exact Mass: 59.9668 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass: 59.967 Da

HI-Sil
Tridymite (SiO2)
Glass wool, for laboratory use
Positive sol 232
Sand, pure, 40-100 mesh
Aerogel 200
Aerosil 300
Amorphous silica dust
Ludox hs 40
Silanox 101
Silica (SiO2)
Vitasil 220
Positive sol 130M

In the current study, the presence of SiO2 and TiO2 particles in postmortem liver, spleen, kidney, jejunum, and ileum from 15 deceased persons was determined, enabled by the latest developments in analytical detection methods. 
Liver and spleen were included in this study because nanomaterials are generally taken up by the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) and thereby typically distribute to the liver and spleen, as well as to the kidney. 
Information on the presence of SiO2 and TiO2 particles in intestinal tissues is also considered relevant because of the reported uptake of particles by M-cells in Peyer’s patches, which are mainly found in the jejunum and ileum. 
Total-Si and total-Ti concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma high-resolution mass spectrometry (ICP-HRMS) while SiO2 and TiO2 particles were measured using single-particle ICP-MS (spICP-MS) on, respectively, a triple quadrupole ICP-MSMS and a ICP-HRMS and instrument. 
The tissues were further studied with high resolution scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) to confirm the presence and size of SiO2 and TiO2 particles.

Foods With Silica
Compelling data suggests that silica is essential for your health, but more evidence is needed to confirm this. 
Typical diets likely contain enough silica that can be absorbed for potential health benefits, despite negative perceptions of silicon as dangerous.

Silicon dioxide occurs as colorless, odorless, tasteless white or colorless crystals or powder. 
Silicon dioxides many different forms can be classified as crystalline, amorphous, or vitreous. 
In crystalline forms of silicon dioxide, all of the atoms that make up the substances are arranged in orderly patterns that have the shape of cubes, rhombohedrons, or other geometric figures. 
In amorphous silicon dioxide, silicon and oxygen atoms are arranged randomly, without any clear-cut pattern. 
Vitreous silicon dioxide is a glassy form of the compound that may be transparent, translucent, or opaque. 
The various forms of silicon dioxide can be converted from one form to another by heating and changes in pressure.

An especially interesting form of silicon dioxide is silica gel, a powdery form of amorphous silicon dioxide that is highly adsorbent. 
An adsorbent material (in contrast to an absorbent material) is one that is capable of removing a material, such as water, ammonia, alcohol, or other gases, out of the air. 
The second material bonds weakly to the outer surface of silica gel particles. 
Silica gel is able to adsorb anywhere from 30 to 50 percent of its own weight in water from the surrounding atmosphere before it becomes saturated. 
The silica gel is not chemically altered by the process of adsorption and still feels dry even when saturated. 
The adsorbed water can be driven off simply by heating the silica gel, allowing the material to regain its adsorbent properties.

HOW Silicon dioxide IS MADE
Although methods are available for synthesizing silicon dioxide, there is no practical reason for doing so. 
The abundant quantities of silicon dioxide found in the earth's crust are sufficient to satisfy all industrial needs. 
Among the minerals and earths that contain silicon dioxide in an uncombined form are quartz, flint, diatomite, stishovite, agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, and tridymite.

Siliceous earth, purified (NF)
Siliceous earth, purified [NF]
Silicon Oxide Hollow Nanospheres
Aerosil A 300
Aerosil E 300
Aerosil M-300
Nyacol 830
Sibelite M 3000
Sibelite M 4000
Sibelite M 6000
Quazo puro [Italian]
Caswell No. 734A
Nalfloc N 1050
Quso 51
Sicron F 300
Sikron F 100
Spectrosil
Accusand
Coesite
Fuselex
Nalcast
Nyacol 1430
Optocil
Quartzine
Quarzsand
Rancosil
Suprasil
Tridimite

Silica (quartz); "Silica," or silicon dioxide (SiO2), occurs in either a crystalline or noncrystalline (amorphous) form. 
Quartz is a colourless, odourless, non-combustible solid and a component of many mineral dusts.
Silica(quartz);Silica(quartz) is an industrial material, its sand is often used for glass making. 
Silicon dioxide is retrieved my mining and a limited environmental impact on earth.
Silica (quartz): Silica also called Silicon Dioxide, compound of the two most abundant elements in the Earth's crust. 
Silica has three main crystalline varieties: quartz (by far the most abundant), tridymite, and cristobalite.
Silica (Quartz) : Quartz, the second most common mineral on the earth's crust, belongs to the rhombohedral or trigonal crystal system and can be manufactured using hydrothermal processes in autoclaves.

Silica, amorphous fused
Siltex
Vitreous quartz
Vitreous silica
Tridymite dust
W 12 (Filler)
beta-Quartz
Fused quartz
MIN-U-sil alpha quartz
Quartz-beta
Quso G 30
Silica glass
Amorphous quartz
Dri-Die insecticide 67
Nalco 1050
Quazo puro
Silica, amorphous, fumed
Vitrified silica
MFCD00163736
Pyrogenic colloidal silica
Sand, for analysis, 40-100 mesh
Silica gel, spherical, 60 angstroms

Silicon dioxide, also known as synthetic amorphous silica (SAS), is widely used in food products as a thickener, anticaking agent, and carrier for fragrances and flavors.
Derived from naturally occurring quartz, silicon is the most abundant mineral in the earth’s crust. 
Silicon dioxide’s also naturally found in water and plant-based foods, especially cereals like oats, barley and rice.
Silicon should not be confused with silicone, a plastic material that contains silicon and other chemicals used to make breast implants, medical tubing and other medical devices.

Synthetic amorphous silica
Hydrophobic silica 2482
Silica, fused
Suprasil W
Vitreosil IR
Borsil P
Calcined diatomaceous earth
Silica gel, spherical, 100 angstroms
Silica gel, spherical, 300 angstroms
Silane, dioxo-
Crystallized silicon dioxide
Optocil (quartz)
CP-SilicaPLOT
Diatomaceous earth, calcined
Silicon oxide, di- (sand)
Quarzsand [German]
S-Col

Applications
Silicas exist as white, fluffy powders that are produced through a wet process, yielding silica or silica gel, or a thermal route, yielding pyrogenic (fumed) silica.
In powdered foods, the silica clings to the particles of the foods and prevents them from clumping. 
This allows powdery products to remain free-flowing, and other products easy to separate.
Silicon dioxide also functions as a defoaming agent, carrier, conditioning agent, chillproofing agent in malt beverages (like beer) and filter aid.
Silicon dioxide’s also used to manufacture materials such as adhesives and paper for food-packaging materials.
As a direct additive, per U.S. FDA regulation, levels of SAS cannot exceed 2% by weight of the food, and as an indirect additive, it can only be used in the amount required to produce the intended functional effect.

Linear Formula: SiO2
MDL Number: MFCD00011232
EC No.: 262-373-8
Beilstein/Reaxys No.: N/A
Pubchem CID: N/A
IUPAC Name: Dioxosilane
SMILES: O=[Si]=O
InchI Identifier: InChI=1S/O2Si/c1-3-2
InchI Key: VYPSYNLAJGMNEJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Admafine SO 25H
Admafine SO 25R
Admafine SO 32H
Admafine SO-C 2
Admafine SO-C 3
Cristobalite asbestos
Keatite (SiO2)
Sg-67
Silica, amorphous, fumed, cryst.-free
Fumed silica, crystalline-free
Stishovite (SiO2)
ED-C (silica)
Fuselex ZA 30
As 1 (silica)
CCRIS 2475
CCRIS 3699
DQ12
Agate (SiO2)
Celite 545

Silica, also called silicon dioxide, compound of the two most abundant elements in Earth’s crust, silicon and oxygen, SiO2. 
The mass of Earth’s crust is 59 percent silica, the main constituent of more than 95 percent of the known rocks. 
Silica has three main crystalline varieties: quartz (by far the most abundant), tridymite, and cristobalite. 
Other varieties include coesite, keatite, and lechatelierite. 

Dimethyl siloxanes and silicones
Fumed synthetic amorphous silica
Silica, crystalline - tridymite
FB 5 (silica)
Fuselex RD 120
Corning 7940
Microcrystalline quartz
Synthetic amorphous silica, fumed
Denka F 90
Denka FB 30
Denka FB 44
Denka FB 74
Denka FS 30
Dri-Die 67
Silica gel spherical, 40-75 mum particle size
WGL 300

Silicon dioxide has a molecular weight of 60.08 g/mol. 
Silicon dioxide has the lowest coefficient of expansion by heat of any known substance. 
Silica is not soluble in either water or organic solvents, but it is soluble in hydrofluoric acid. 
Heating with concentrated phosphoric acid may slowly dissolve silicon dioxide as well. 
Silicon dioxide exists in the crystalline and amorphous forms. 
Their physical states are easily differentiated by X-ray diffraction; the crystalline form exhibits a well-defined diffraction pattern while the amorphous form does not. 
The density of crystalline silica (e.g. quartz) and amorphous silica are 2.65 and 2.2 g/cm3 36 , respectively. 
Silica is transparent, tasteless, crystal or amorphous powder. 
The amorphous form of silica may be dissolved by hot concentrated alkaline solutions, but the crystalline form of silica generally is not soluble

Cryptocrystalline quartz
FB 20 (silica)
Elsil 10
F 44 (filler)
D & D
SF 35
Elsil BF 100
F 125 (silica)
F 160 (silica)
Silicon dioxide, 99.998%, (trace metal basis)
Fuselex RD 40-60
Silica, amorphous, fused
Silicon dioxide, chemically prepared
EINECS 231-545-4
EINECS 238-455-4
EINECS 238-878-4
EINECS 239-487-1
HK 400
TGL 16319

Silicon Dioxide, SiO2, is the low-index, low absorption material used in combination with high-index oxide layer coatings that operate in the UV (~200 nm) to IR (~3 μm) regions. 
Typical applications include antireflection coatings for near-UV laser optics, all-dielectric mirrors, beam-dividers, bandpass filters, and polarizers. 
Silica can be used in combination with specific high-index layers, for example Hafnia, Zirconia, and Tantala, to form multilayer structures with high damage thresholds for specialized UV laser applications. 
Silica films sometimes are useful in promoting adherence between two dissimilar materials, especially oxide-compositions. 
In contrast to the parent quartz form, Silica films are amorphous and never obtain the equivalent density, hardness or water impermeability of the crystal form.

Film Properties
Completely oxidized silica films are absorption-free over the range below ~250 nm to at least 5 μm. 
Film layers are amorphous and smooth. High mechanical compressive stress limits the thickness the single layer thickness. 
When starting from Silica pieces, little dissociation and oxygen loss occurs during evaporation, and it is not always necessary to provide a background pressure of oxygen to obtain low-absorbing films. 
Adhesion is good to glass, most other oxides, and some polymers. 
The films generally grow with an amorphous structure and relatively high packing density so they exhibit minimum index changes when vented to moist air. 
The appearance of water absorption bands near 2.9 and 6.2 μm indicates less than perfect packing density. 
The refractive index is maximized and water band absorption is minimized with the use of high energy deposition techniques such as IAD or sputter deposition and high substrate temperature. 
Low absorption SiO2 films can be produced by oxidizing Silicon Monoxide in a reactive oxygen background. 
Evaporation would proceed from a baffled box and therefore the possibility of generating micro-particulates is eliminated. 
Alternatively, evaporation can proceed from flat surfaces of large pieces of Silicon Monoxide that are swept by a low-power e-beam. 
Films so deposited exhibit low optical absorption, but the possibility exists for particulate emission.

Refractive Index
The refractive indices are dependent on the degree of oxidation, the substrate temperature, and the deposition energy. 
The curve below shows typical values. 
They can be slightly higher than values for fused Silica.

Celite(R), for analysis, high purity analytical grade
Silica gel 60, 0.060-0.2mm (70-230 mesh)
Silica, crystalline quartz
Silicon dioxide (vitreous)
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 072605
Silica 2482, hydrophobic
CI 7811
Silica, crystalline, quartz
Silica, crystalline: quartz
GP 7I
Silica gel, for chromatography, 0.030-0.200 mm, 60 A
Silica gel, for chromatography, 0.035-0.070 mm, 90 A
Silica gel, for chromatography, 0.075-0.250 mm, 150 A
Silica gel, for drying purposes, non-toxic grade, 3-6 mm
CAB-O-SIL N-70TS
Silica, crystalline tridymite
Kieselgel
Silica, crystalline - quartz
AF-SO 25R
Quartz [Silica, crystalline]

Physical Properties of Solid Material:
Molecular Weight: 60
Melting Point: 1700° C
Color: Clear to white (see item description)
Crystal Density: 2.17g/cc
Evaporation Parameters
Evaporation temperature: ~1200° C
Source Container: No liner for E-beam
Rate: 2 Å/sec.
Partial pressure of oxygen: 1 x 10-5 Torr
Substrate temperature: 200° C to 300° C
Quartz crystal monitor Z-ratio: 1
Forms and Sizes: Available
Materion Advanced Chemicals offers materials for evaporation as well as sputtering targets.

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the most abundant mineral in the Earth's crust, and it is found on every continent in forms ranging from fine powders to giant rock crystals. 
In addition to having a natural beauty in its raw mineral form, the substance has useful properties with important applications in everyday life.

Silica gel, for column chrom., ultrapure, 60-200 $6, 60A
Zorbax
quartz-glass
Silicom dioxide
Silica flour (powdered crystalline silica)
Silica, crystalline: tridymite
silica-gel
Fused-silica
Silica,fumed
silicium dioxide
AI3-25549
GP 11I
RD 8
silica-
Silica, fumed

Production of Silicon Dioxide
Amorphous silica or precipitated silica is obtained by the acidification of sodium silicate solutions. Silica gel is washed and dehydrated to produce colourless microporous silica. The reaction involving a trisilicate along with sulphuric acid is given below:

Na2Si3O7 + H2SO4 → 3SiO2 + Na2SO4 + H2O

Silicon Dioxide Reactions
Silica gets converted to silicon by reducing with carbon.

Fluorine when reacted with silicon dioxide it produces SiF4 and O2.

Silicon dioxide reacts with hydrofluoric acid to produce hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6).

SiO2 + 6HF → H2SiF6 + 2H2O

Health hazards
Silica when ingested orally is non-toxic. 
As per a study conducted in the year 2008, found that the higher the levels of silica in water, the risk of dementia decreased. 
Therefore, the dose was increased to 10 mg/day of silica in drinking water as the risk of dementia decreased. 
When finely divided crystalline silica dust is inhaled, it can lead to bronchitis, lung cancer, or silicosis, due to the lodging of dust in the lungs. 
When fine silica particles are inhaled in large enough quantities, it increases the risk of rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.

Frequently Asked Questions
What are the uses of silicon dioxide?
Approximately 95 per cent of the industrial usage of silicon dioxide (sand) exists in the building industry, e.g. for concrete production (Portland cement concrete). 
Silica, in the form of sand, is used as the key ingredient for the manufacture of metallic components in engineering and other applications of sand casting. 
The relatively high melting point of silica allows for its use in these applications.

How is silicon dioxide produced?
Mostly, silicon dioxide is obtained via mining activities including sand extraction, and quartz purification. 
Quartz is suitable for many purposes, whereas chemical processing is needed to render a more suitable product (e.g. more reactive or fine-grained) purer or otherwise. 
Silica fume is derived from hot processes such as the processing of ferrosilicon as a by-product.

U 333
W 006
Silicon di-oxide
Tridymite [Silica, crystalline]
CRS 1102RD8
Silica Dispersion
SiO2 Nanopowder
Silica gel G
Silica, crystalline: cristobalite
Silica, tridymite
SiO2 Nanospheres
Diatomaceous earth, flux-calcined, filter aid, treated with sodium carbonate, flux calcined
Silica gel 60 ADAMANT(TM) on TLC plates, with fluorescent indicator 254 nm
EF 10
FS 74
MR 84
Silica, crystalline - cristobalite
Silica Microspheres

Silicon dioxide Features
A crystalline solid at normal temperatures, pure silicon dioxide is white in color and has a density of 2.2 grams per cubic centimeter. 
Silicon dioxide is composed of one atom of silicon and two atoms of oxygen; the atoms are bound together tightly making it resistant to many harsh chemicals.
In nature, it takes the form of sand or quartz crystals, and is relatively hard compared to most minerals. 
Silicon dioxide is highly resistant to heat, with a melting point of 1,650 degrees Celsius (3,000 degrees Fahrenheit).

Silicon dioxide Types
Although sand and quartz crystals may appear different, they are both made primarily of silicon dioxide. 
The chemical makeup of these types is exactly the same, and the properties are generally the same, but they were formed under different conditions. 
Sand particles are very small, but tough and hard. 
Some quartz crystals have a milky-white appearance. 
So-called milky quartz is quite abundant, so it is common to find large rocks of this type of quartz. 
Mineral impurities can turn quartz purple, light pink, or other colors, resulting in precious or semi-precious stones such as:
-amethyst
-citrine
-rose quartz
-smoky quartz

Silicon dioxide Functions
Silicon dioxide is used in a number of different ways. 
One of the most common uses is to make glass, which is superheated and pressurized silicon dioxide. 
Silicon dioxide is also manufactured for use in toothpaste. 
Because of its hardness, it helps to scrub away plaque on teeth. 
Silicon dioxide is also a major ingredient in cement and used as a pesticide. Silica gel is a food additive and desiccant that helps absorb water.

Warning
While silicon dioxide is for the most part harmless, it poses health risks when inhaled. 
In powder form, small particles of the mineral can lodge in the esophagus and the lungs. 
Silicon dioxide does not dissolve in the body over time, so it builds up, irritating sensitive tissues.
One such condition is called silicosis, which causes shortness of breath, fever, and coughing and causes the skin to turn blue. 
Other conditions include bronchitis and, rarely, cancer.

Silicon dioxide Geography
Silicon dioxide is found just about everywhere in the world, as it is the most common mineral in the crust. 
On the surface of the earth, it is prevalent in rocky or mountainous regions. 
Silicon dioxide is also present in the form of sand in the deserts and coasts of the world.

Cristobalite [Silica, crystalline]
Silica gel, functionalized, (cyclohexylcarbodiimido)propyl, ca. 0,9 mmol-g, particle size: 40-63 micron
Amorphous silica: Pyrogenic (fumed)
EINECS 262-373-8
Silica gel, ASTM
Silica Nanoparticles
Methyl3-oxohexanoate
Siliceous sand, CP
BF 100
EQ 912
QG 100
RD 120
Celite 503
Nettles p.e. extract
Silicon Dioxide Powder
Silica, fumed, powder
Silicon dioxide (NF)
Activated Silica Powder
Activated Silicon Oxide
Sand 50-70 mesh
F 44

The Silicon Dioxide (SiO2) Support Films are manufactured using the PELCO® 200nm Silicon Nitride Support Films with the 0.5 x 0.5mm window on a perfectly round 3mm Si frame as a platform. 
The silicon dioxide support films consist of pure and amorphous thermal SiO2 membrane. 
The 0.5 x 0.5mm membrane is patterned into 24 ea. apertures with a size varying between 50 x 50µm to 70 x 70µm and etched back to the thermally-deposited amporhous Silicon Dioxide leaving a structure-free SiO2 thin membrane of 40nm, 18nm or 8nm, suspended by a 200nm optically transparent Silicon Nitride support mesh. 
The bar size between the SiO2 apertures is 25-35µm and the boundary width is 25-55µm. 
The design of the mesh and the ratio of mesh suspension and Silicon Dioxide Film has been optimized to enable flat Silicon Dioxide Support Films with a size of 50 x 50µm to 70 x 70µm. 
The result is a Silicon Dioxide membrane with a truly superior flatness, ideal for TEM imaging. 
Silicon Dioxide, the compression in the SiO2 film is balanced by the stress in the Silicon Nitride grid structure. 
The mesh size of the Silicon Dioxide Support Films is comparable to the area size found on most 300 and 400 mesh TEM grids and is considered to be a practical size for many applications. 
There are 24 fields of SiO2 support films on each frame. 
The boundary of 200nm Silicon Nitride membrane leaves ample area for experiments on Silicon Nitride.

Si/SiO2 wafers from ACS Material are the industry standard for high-quality substrates. 
Our high-quality violet wafers are packaged in a 1000 class cleanroom and provide optimal visibility for a variety of nanomaterials, including CVD graphene and graphene flakes.
Silicon/silicon dioxide substrates are ideal for a variety of uses, including as FET substrates, or in X-ray studies, surface microscopy analysis, or to assist with ellipsometry measurements. 
Our Si/SiO2 wafers are polished on the front, etched on the back, and fit in a substrate rack for convenient batch processing and cleaning. 
ACS Material provides leading researchers and engineers around the world with the highest-quality nanomaterials and other supplies. 
We take pride in our reputation for the purity and consistency of our materials, for the quality of our customer service, and for the fairness of our prices.
Our team is available to answer all your questions to make certain you get the materials you need to take your research to the next level.

Silica gel, large pore
Y 40
SiO2.xH2O
Hollow Silica Nanosphere
Silicon Oxide Dispersion
Silicon Oxide Nanopowder
Activated Silicon Dioxide
Crystalline Silica Quartz
Silica gel, ACS reagent
Cab-O-sil(R) M-5
Celite(R) 512 medium
Kieselguhr, -325 mesh
Silica, 99.8%
SBA-15 Molecular Sieve
Silicon dioxide Nanopowder
Diatomaceous earth, powder
DSSTox_CID_9677
Silicon Dioxide Dispersion
Epitope ID:158537
Silica, fumed, hydrophobic
Silicon Dioxide Nanospheres
Silicon Oxide Nanoparticles

Crystalline silicon dioxide has been associated with pulmonary lung disease. 
A number of descriptive terms such as “amorphous silica,” “free silica,” “silica flour,” and “fumed silica” have arisen in the literature as a result of studies related to health and the silicon dioxide forms. 
The definition of these terms has been the result of limitations (both analytical and physical) in qualitative and quantitative analytical methods, as well as definitions associated with the type of manufacturer or process producing the silicon dioxide. 
X-ray diffraction and typical mineralogical nomenclature are relevant for the definition of crystalline silicon dioxide polymorphs, but other silicon dioxide materials require alternative techniques for analytical definition of those properties which may be health related.

OTHER NAMES:
Silica, quartz, sand, amorphous silica, silica gel, and others

FORMULA:
SiO2

ELEMENTS:
Silicon, oxygen

COMPOUND TYPE:
Nonmetallic oxide (inorganic)

STATE:
Solid

MOLECULAR WEIGHT:
60.08 g/mol

MELTING POINT:
Varies depending on crystalline state; typically above 1700°C (3100°F)

BOILING POINT:
2950°C (5300°F)

SOLUBILITY:
Solubility depends on crystalline state; generally insoluble in water; soluble in many acids and alkalis

EC 231-545-4
Celite(R) 503, CP
Celite(R) 535, CP
Celite(R) 545, CP
Nano Silicon Dioxide Powder
DSSTox_RID_78805
DSSTox_GSID_29677
Silicon dioxide, acid washed
Silicon(IV) oxide (SiO2)
13778-37-5
13778-38-6
15723-40-7
17679-64-0
99439-28-8
Silica fibers, 1/4'' long
Kieselguhr, calcined, purified
Silica gel, CP, blue, beads

Silicon dioxide General description
Silicon dioxide (SiO2) exists in three crystalline forms, namely quartz, tridymite and cristobalite. 
Silicon dioxide reacts with hydrofluoric acid to form silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4) and water. Silicates are formed on reacting SiO2 with alkali melts. 
SiO2 is the main component in glass, brick and concrete and also forms the insulator in silicon devices. 
The alteration of the surface of SiO2 with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) for binding lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) to form an amino layer has been reported. 
The silicon-silicon dioxide structure has been investigated at liquid nitrogen temperature by electron spin resonance spectra.

Silicon dioxide Application
Silicon dioxide may be used to produce silicon by electrochemical reduction in the presence of calcium chloride (CaCl2) electrolyte. 
Silicon dioxide may also be used to prepare FeCl3/SiO2, a supported reagent for the oxidative coupling reactions.

Silica Nanoparticles Dispersion
Silica, fused, respirable dust
25wt% Silicon Oxide in Water
AW Standard Super-Cel(R) NF
MCM-41
Silica gel, CP, mixed, beads
Silica gel, CP, white, beads
Silicates (<1% crystalline silica):Graphite, natural
Hyflo(R) Super-Cel(R), CP
CHEMBL3188292
DTXSID1029677
Filter agent, Celite(R) 545
Sand, white quartz, CP, beads
Quarz cryst., 0.6-1.3 mm
Silicon dioxide, colloidal (NF)
Diatomaceous earth, flux-calcined
Silicon dioxide, SAJ first grade
Diatomaceous earth non-washed, CP
Silica Gel Dessicant (Grade 03)
Silica gel, CP, blue, bead size
Filter agent, Celatom(R) FW-14
Filter agent, Celatom(R) FW-50
Filter agent, Celatom(R) FW-60
Filter agent, Celatom(R) FW-80
Silica, fused [Silica, amorphous]
Silicon dioxide, JIS special grade
Silicon Oxide Mesoporous Nanopowder

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, has a chemical formula of SiO2. 
Silicon dioxide has a melting point of 1,610°C, a density of 2.648 g/cc, and a vapor pressure of 10-4 Torr at 1,025°C. 
Silicon dioxide is commonly found in nature as sand or quartz. 
Silicon dioxide is primarily used in the production of glass for windows and beverage bottles. 
Silicon dioxide is evaporated under vacuum for the fabrication of optoelectronic and circuit devices.

Assay Percent Range 44.5 to 47.9% (Si)
Linear Formula SiO2
Solubility Information    Solubility in water: insoluble
Formula Weight 60.08
Physical Form Solution
Percent Purity 99.998%
Grade Trace Metal Basis
Packaging Glass bottle
Total Trace Metal Impurities 20ppm max.
Color Colorless to Yellow
Melting Point 1610.0°C
Quantity 5g
Chemical Name or Material Silicon dioxide

We recommend heating the substrate to 350°C before attempting to thermally evaporate silicon dioxide. 
We anticipate a deposition rate of 2 angstroms per second when the evaporation temperature is at ~1,200°C. 
A partial pressure of O2 at 1-2 X 10-4 Torr is recommended. 
Under these parameters, we anticipate films to be smooth and amorphous. 
The material should be replaced when Silicon dioxide becomes dark or black.
Thermal evaporation of silicon dioxide is generally not done due to the difficulty associated with this method. 
The simplest approach would be to use a relatively inexpensive boat source and change the material as often as possible. 
We recommend starting with a thick gauge, Tungsten boat such as our EVS20A015W. 
The other option would be to use a tantalum baffle box, like our EVSSO22. 
In order for silicon dioxide to sublime and evaporate, the temperature of the baffle box must be between 1,500°C and 1,800°C. 
Once the material's temperature is within this range, there is potential for the material to alloy with the box, causing it to fail. 
Silicon dioxide mimics silicon when in the melted state.
Another option would be reactive evaporation. 
Silicon monoxide (SiO) can be placed in a tantalum baffle box with a substantial amount of oxygen (we recommend adding 1-2 X 10-4 Torr). 
We have not encountered any problems thermally evaporating silicon monoxide. 
However, Silicon dioxide is necessary to replace the material after every run. 
Silicon monoxide is hard to convert to silicon dioxide because the bond energy for silicon monoxide is higher than that for silicon dioxide. 
As with silicon dioxide, the temperature of the baffle box must be between 1,500°C and 1,800°C in order for evaporation to take place. 
Once the material's temperature is within this range, there is potential for the material to alloy with the box, causing it to fail. 
Silicon monoxide also mimics silicon when in the melted state.

AMY37125
Chromosorb(R) G, 80-100 mesh
2-Mercaptoethyl ethyl sulfide silica
Celite(R) 545 AW, reagent grade
Silica gel 60, 230-400 mesh
Silica Hollow Nanospheres Dispersion
Silicon(IV) oxide, electronic grade
Tox21_301288
MFCD07370733
Sand, white quartz, CP, crystalline
Silica gel, indicating, 6-16 mesh
Chromosorb(R) W/AW, 45-60 mesh
Light anhydrous silicic acid (JP17)
Quarz fine, cryst., 0.4-0.8 mm
Silica gel, 70-200 mesh (TLC)
Silica, fumed, powder, 0.008 mum
AKOS009085429
Silica Gel, 40-63 Micron Particles
Silicon Dioxide Nanospheres Properties
DB11132

How Silicon dioxide works
Silicon dioxide causes small abrasions on the body of any pest that comes into contact with the powder. 
The pest gradually loses its body fluids, dehydrates and dies.
When bait is added, pests tend to eat the product. 
The crystals then abrade their digestive systems and kill them.
Silicon dioxide may take a few days to eliminate pests after the pesticide is applied.

Silicon dioxide Application
The product should be applied to pests or to spots that they frequent. 
Silicon dioxide may be sprinkled directly on the leaves of affected plants, avoiding flowers so as not to harm pollinating insects. 
Silicon dioxide may also be applied to the soil (without working it in) around the base of plants to be protected.
Silicon dioxide is best to apply Silicon dioxide during dry weather, because silicon dioxide loses its effectiveness when wet.

Precautions
The product may irritate the respiratory tract if inhaled, so it is best to wear a mask when applying it. 
In addition, because it may irritate the eyes, it is best to wear goggles. 
Silicon dioxide should be applied on calm days, to keep it from drifting.
Pesticides with silicon dioxide as the active ingredient are not selective and may harm beneficial garden organisms such as earthworms. 
This means that they should be used only as a last resort and for spot treatment only.
Do not use near any body of water or wetland, or dump any pesticide or rinse your equipment there, as this will contaminate the water. 
Never dump pesticides down sewers.
Keep out of reach of children. 

Iron Sulfide (FeS) Sputtering Targets
Silicon Dioxide Nanoparticle Dispersion
Glass spheres, 9-13 mum particle size
Quartz (silicon dioxide), silver, pure
Silica gel, CP, white, medium granules
Silica gel, technical grade, 3-9 mesh
Silica, mesostructured, HMS (wormhole)
NCGC00257531-01
Sand, white quartz, purum p.a., powder
Silica gel orange, granular, 0.2-1 mm
Silicon Oxide Nanoparticles / Nanopowder
Silicon(IV) oxide, powder, 0.5 micron
Silicon(IV) oxide, powder, 1.0 micron
Silicon(IV) oxide, powder, 1.5 micron
14639-89-5
92283-58-4
E551

Silicon dioxide (diatomaceous earth) is made up of approximately 90% silica, the same as is in quartz, sand and agate. 
The type of silica found in diatomaceous earth is predominately amorphous silica but will contain small amounts of crystalline silica (which is associated with severe lung toxicity).
Crystalline silica is classified as a known human carcinogen but amorphous silica is not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity. 
According to product registration staff at the Washington State Department of Agriculture, all products registered in Washington with silicon dioxide as the active ingredient contain amorphous silica. 
The EPA includes crystalline-free silica in the list of minimal risk inert ingredients and the FDA allows it to be added to food at rates up to 2% by weight.

Silica gel, CP, blue, bead size, medium
Silica gel, technical grade, 6-16 mesh
Silicon oxide powder, 99% Nano, 20 nm
CAS-7631-86-9
Silica gel desiccant, -3+8 mesh granules
Silica gel, 12-24 mesh (liquid drying)
Silica gel, CP, mixed, bead size, medium
Silica gel, for column chromatography, 60
Silicon Dioxide Nanoparticles / Nanopowder
Celite(R) 281, filter aid, flux calcined
Celite(R) S, filter aid, dried, untreated
Chromosorb(R) W/AW-DMCS, 80-100 mesh
Quarz min. 99% powdered, up to 125 ?m
Silica gel desiccant, -6+12 mesh granules
Silicon dioxide, purum p.a., acid purified
White Silica Gel Beads, 3 mm (2-5 mm)

Two other forms of silicon dioxide are not true polymorphs. Lechatelierite, an amorphous silicon dioxide, was found at the Barringer Meteor Crater in 1915. 
Softer and less dense than quartz, it forms when the heat and pressure of meteoric impacts and lightning fuse quartz sand. 
With its noncrystalline structure, lechatelierite is not a mineral, but a mineraloid.
Silicon dioxide occurs in lighting-strike-formed “Libyan desert glass” and in “trinitite,” a glass created when heat from the 1945 nuclear detonation at New Mexico’s Trinity Site altered quartz sand.

In 1984, mogánite, a partially hydrated silicon dioxide and thus not a true polymorph, was discovered on Spain’s Canary Islands. 
Softer and less dense than quartz, Silicon dioxide crystallizes in the monoclinic system. 
Mogánite forms from the devitrification of amorphous opaline silica.
In the future, mineralogists expect to identify additional polymorphs and related forms of silicon dioxide to further demonstrate that, while all quartz is indeed silicon dioxide, all silicon dioxide is not quartz.

FT-0624621
FT-0645127
FT-0689145
FT-0689270
FT-0696592
FT-0696603
FT-0697331
FT-0697389
FT-0700917
Quartz rod, fused, 2.0mm (0.079in) dia
Quartz rod, fused, 5.0mm (0.197in) dia
S0822
Silica gel, with 1-4 mm moisture indicator
Silica, amorphous, fumed (crystalline free)
Silicon dioxide Nanopowder KH550 processing
Silicon dioxide Nanopowder KH570 processing
Celite(R) 110, filter aid, flux calcinated
Celite(R) 512 medium, filter aid, calcined
Chromosorb(R) G/AW-DMCS, 100-120 mesh
Chromosorb(R) W/AW-DMCS, 120-140 mesh
K-411 Glass microspheres, NIST SRM 2066
Quartz rod, fused, 10.0mm (0.394in) dia
Silica gel, technical grade 40, 6-12 mesh
C18 Silica Gel, Endcapped, 60A, 40-63um
D05839
D06521
D06522

The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula SiO2. 
Silicon dioxide has been known for Silicon dioxides hardness since antiquity. Silica is most commonly found in nature as sand or quartz, as well as in the cell walls of diatoms.
Silica is manufactured in several forms including fused quartz, crystal, fumed silica (or pyrogenic silica, trademarked Aerosil or Cab-O-Sil), colloidal silica, silica gel, and aerogel.
Silica is used primarily in the production of glass for windows, drinking glasses, beverage bottles, and many other uses. 
The majority of optical fibers for telecommunications are also made from silica. 
Silicon dioxide is a primary raw material for many whiteware ceramics such as earthenware, stoneware, porcelain, as well as industrial Portland cement.
Silica is a common additive in the production of foods, where it is used primarily as a flow agent in powdered foods, or to absorb water in hygroscopic applications. 
Silicon dioxide is the primary component of diatomaceous earth which has many uses ranging from filtration to insect control. 
Silicon dioxide is also the primary component of rice husk ash which is used, for example, in filtration and cement manufacturing.
Thin films of silica grown on silicon wafers via thermal oxidation methods can be quite beneficial in microelectronics, where they act as electric insulators with high chemical stability. 
In electrical applications, Silicon dioxide can protect the silicon, store charge, block current, and even act as a controlled pathway to limit current flow.
A silica-based aerogel was used in the Stardust spacecraft to collect extraterrestrial particles. 
Silica is also used in the extraction of DNA and RNA due to its ability to bind to the nucleic acids under the presence of chaotropes. 
As hydrophobic silica Silicon dioxide is used as a defoamer component. In hydrated form, it is used in toothpaste as a hard abrasive to remove tooth plaque.
In Silicon dioxides capacity as a refractory, Silicon dioxide is useful in fiber form as a high-temperature thermal protection fabric.
In cosmetics, Silicon dioxide is useful for its light-diffusing properties and natural absorbency. 
Colloidal silica is used as a wine and juice fining agent. In pharmaceutical products, silica aids powder flow when tablets are formed. 
Finally, Silicon dioxide is used as a thermal enhancement compound in ground source heat pump industry.

Sand, white quartz, 50-70 mesh particle size
Silica gel, large pore, P.V. ca. 1.65cc/g
Silica, mesostructured, MSU-F (cellular foam)
Silicon(IV) oxide, 99.999% (metals basis)
Celite(R) 209, filter aid, natural, untreated
Celite(R) Analytical Filter Aid II (CAFA II)
Glass sand, NIST(R) SRM(R) 165a, low iron
Silica gel spherical, 75-200 mum particle size
Silica gel, Davisil(R) grade 922, -200 mesh
Silicon Oxide (Silica, Silicon dioxide, quartz)
Silicon oxide powder, 99.5% Nano, 15-20 nm
Diatomaceous earth, calcined, filter aid, calcined
Q116269

Silicon dioxide is a common mineral that can be found under different forms (crystalline or amorphous) and is also found in many clays and diatomaceous earth. 
The purpose of this trial was to assess, in a factorial 2×2 arrangement, the growth performance of piglets reared with a feeding program including, or not, a crystalline silica-based feed supplement (SI) with or without antibiotics as growth promoters (AGP; chlortetracycline and high levels of Cu and Zn in Phase 1 and chlortetracycline in Phase 2). 
All diets were formulated to be iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. 
An ANOVA was performed on zootechnical parameters with the pen as the experimental unit for all analyses. 
Effects of AGP, SI, block (based on sex and body weight), and interaction between AGP and SI were included in the statistical model. 
A total of 252 piglets with body weights of 7 kg were reared until 24 kg of body weight and allocated into 36 pens. 
According to these results, groups fed with AGP showed improved weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion during Phase 1, while no significant effect was observed during Phase 2. 
Concerning the effect of SI, feed intake was improved by 4.13% during the overall nursery period, compared to groups without SI (729 versus 700 g/day; P < 0,05). 
In addition, groups fed SI showed an average daily gain of 3.26% higher than animals without SI during the same period (607 versus 588 g/day; P < 0.05). 
This effect leads to an improvement of 2.2% in piglet's weight at the end of the post-weaning phase (24.52 versus 23.99 kg; P < 0.05). 
Silicon dioxide was concluded that under our trial conditions, adding crystalline silicon dioxide to piglet feed (0.02%) increase feed intake, growth rate, and piglet weight at the end of the nursery period. 
This mineral additive could offer potential economic benefits to swine producers.

Sand for sand sieve analysis, NIST(R) RM 8010
Silica gel, GF254, for thin layer chromatography
Silica gel, HF254, for thin layer chromatography
Silica gel, Type III, Indicating, for desiccation
Silica, mesostructured, MCM-41 type (hexagonal)
Silicon dioxide, purum p.a., acid purified, sand
Standard Super Cel(R) fine, filter aid, calcined
Celite(R) 500 fine, filter aid, dried, untreated
Glass sand, NIST(R) SRM(R) 1413, high alumina
J-002874
Sand, white quartz, >=99.995% trace metals basis
Silica gel, large pore, P.V. ca. 1cc/g, 8 mesh
Silica gel, technical grade, 1-3 mm particle size
Silica gel, technical grade, 3-6 mm particle size
Silica gel, with moisture indicator (blue), coarse
Celpure(R) P65, meets USP/NF testing specifications
Metal scavenging agent, mercaptopropyl modified silica
Micro particles based on silicon dioxide, size: 2 mum
Micro particles based on silicon dioxide, size: 3 mum
Micro particles based on silicon dioxide, size: 4 mum
Micro particles based on silicon dioxide, size: 5 mum
Quartz lid for 30ml quartz crucible, fused, ID 48mm

SiO2 has a number of distinct crystalline forms (polymorphs) in addition to amorphous forms. 
With the exception of stishovite and fibrous silica, all of the crystalline forms involve tetrahedral SiO4 units linked together by shared vertices in different arrangements. 
Silicon-oxygen bond lengths vary between the different crystal forms, for example in α-quartz the bond length is 161 pm, whereas in α-tridymite it is in the range 154–171 pm. 
The Si-O-Si angle also varies between a low value of 140° in α-tridymite, up to 180° in β-tridymite. In α-quartz the Si-O-Si angle is 144°.
Fibrous silica has a structure similar to that of SiS2 with chains of edge-sharing SiO4 tetrahedra. 

Stishovite, the higher pressure form, in contrast has a rutile like structure where silicon is 6 coordinate. 
The density of stishovite is 4.287 g/cm3, which compares to α-quartz, the densest of the low pressure forms, which has a density of 2.648 g/cm3.
The difference in density can be ascribed to the increase in coordination as the six shortest Si-O bond lengths in stishovite (four Si-O bond lengths of 176 pm and two others of 181 pm) are greater than the Si-O bond length (161 pm) in α-quartz.
The change in the coordination increases the ionicity of the Si-O bond.
But more important is the observation that any deviations from these standard parameters constitute microstructural differences or variations which represent an approach to an amorphous, vitreous or glassy solid.
Note that the only stable form under normal conditions is α-quartz and this is the form in which crystalline silicon dioxide is usually encountered. 
In nature impurities in crystalline α-quartz can give rise to colors (see list).

Note also that both high temperature minerals, cristobalite and tridymite, have both a lower density and index of refraction than quartz. 
Since the composition is identical, the reason for the discrepancies must be in the increased spacing in the high temperature minerals. 
As is common with many substances, the higher the temperature the farther apart the atoms due to the increased vibration energy.
The high pressure minerals, seifertite, stishovite, and coesite, on the other hand, have a higher density and index of refraction when compared to quartz. 
This is probably due to the intense compression of the atoms that must occur during their formation, resulting in a more condensed structure.
Faujasite silica is another form of crystalline silica. 
It is obtained by dealumination of a low-sodium, ultra-stable Y zeolite with a combined acid and thermal treatment. 
The resulting product contains over 99% silica, has high crystallinity and high surface area (over 800 m2/g). 

Faujasite-silica has very high thermal and acid stability. 
For example, it maintains a high degree of long-range molecular order (or crystallinity) even after boiling in concentrated hydrochloric acid.
Molten silica exhibits several peculiar physical characteristics that are similar to the ones observed in liquid water: negative temperature expansion, density maximum, and a heat capacity minimum.
When molecular silicon monoxide, SiO, is condensed in an argon matrix cooled with helium along with oxygen atoms generated by microwave discharge, molecular SiO2 is produced which has a linear structure. 
Dimeric silicon dioxide, (SiO2)2 has been prepared by reacting O2 with matrix isolated dimeric silicon monoxide, (Si2O2). 
In dimeric silicon dioxide there are two oxygen atoms bridging between the silicon atoms with an Si-O-Si angle of 94° and bond length of 164.6 pm and the terminal Si-O bond length is 150.2 pm. 
The Si-O bond length is 148.3 pm which compares with the length of 161 pm in α-quartz. 
The bond energy is estimated at 621.7 kJ/mol.

Silica gel desiccant, indicating, <1% Cobalt chloride
Silica gel, -60-120 mesh, for column chromatography
Celpure(R) P100, meets USP/NF testing specifications
Celpure(R) P1000, meets USP/NF testing specifications
Celpure(R) P300, meets USP/NF testing specifications
Micro particles based on silicon dioxide, size: 0.5 mum
Micro particles based on silicon dioxide, size: 1.0 mum
Silica gel 60, 0.032-0.063mm (230-450 mesh)
Silica gel 60, 0.036-0.071mm (215-400 mesh)
Silica gel 60, 0.040-0.063mm (230-400 mesh)
Silica gel desiccant, indicating, -6+16 mesh granules
Silica gel, with moisture indicator (blue), -6-20 mesh
Silica, mesostructured, MSU-H (large pore 2D hexagonal)
Silica, mesostructured, SBA-15, 99% trace metals basis
Silica, standard solution, Specpure?, SiO2 1000?g/ml
Silicon Dioxide (Silica) Nanodispersion Type A (20nm)
Silicon Dioxide (Silica) Nanodispersion Type B (20nm)
Silicon dioxide, -325 mesh, 99.5% trace metals basis
Silicon dioxide, amorphous, hexamethyldisilazane treated
Silicon dioxide, washed and calcined, analytical reagent

In ceramics, SiO2 comes up when technicians talk about glaze chemistry. 
Silicon dioxide is an oxide contributed by many ceramic materials: all clays, feldspars and frits. 
Quartz or silica powder is almost 100% SiO2. 
But the SiO2 in quartz is something completely different than SiO2 in feldspar. 
In the latter Silicon dioxide is chemically combined with Al2O3 and KNaO.
Thus when technicians talk about silica they might be speaking of the mineral or the oxide. 
Silica, as a mineral, is composed of silicon dioxide (SiO2). 
In bodies SiO2 (as quartz mineral) will almost always exist as unmelted particles embedded in the fired matrix (although finer ones dissolve into the inter-particle glass). 
But in glaze chemistry we are talking about silica, the oxide. 
All glazes that melt completely and re-solidify contain SiO2, the oxide, many can be 70% or more. 
Materials yield their SiO2 to the glaze melt as kiln temperatures increase. 
Different materials dissolve into the melt at different temperatures. 
The particle size of materials affects the speed at which they dissolve in the melt. 
SiO2 is the principle glass former in glazes. 
SiO2 can bond with almost any other oxide and bring them into the glass structure.
-SiO2 is the principle, and often only glass forming oxide in glaze. 
Normally comprises more than 60% of most glazes and 70% of clays. 
Special purpose formulations which lack SiO2 often compromise structural stability and strength. 
Floating and container glass are more than 70% SiO2.
-Adjust this in relation to fluxes to regulate melting temperature and gloss.

Silica is refractory, Silicon dioxide melts at high temperatures, but Silicon dioxide is readily fluxed to melt lower. 
So its percentage regulates the glazes melting range.
-High SiO2 in relation to Al2O3 produces a glossy glaze (and vice versa). 
This is called the silica:alumina ratio.
-Increase Silicon dioxide at the expense of B2O3 to make glaze harder, more durable and brilliant. 
Boric oxide and silica can be interchanged to adjust glaze melting temperature.
-Decreasing SiO2 increases the melt fluidity; increasing Silicon dioxide raises the melting temperature, increases acid resistance, lowers expansion, increases hardness and gloss, and increases devitrification.
-Silicon dioxide is normal to use as much as possible in any glaze to keep expansion low, to prevent crazing, increase durability and resistance to leaching and enhance body/glaze fired strength. 
Note, however, that in certain boracic and feldspathic compositions Silicon dioxide can actually increase crazing so that other low expansion oxides may be needed to reduce glaze expansion.
-With boron and alumina, Silicon dioxide has the lowest expansion of all oxides.
-In clay bodies, quartz mineral particles act as a filler and behave as an aggregate, while chemically combined SiO2 in feldspar, kaolin, ball clay, etc., participates directly in the chemical reactions taking place to build silicate glasses. 
Thus the particle size of the parent material is often important in determining whether contributed silica affects the chemistry or participates simply as an aggregate in the fired matrix.

Silicon(IV) oxide, 15% in water, colloidal dispersion
Silicon(IV) oxide, 30% in water, colloidal dispersion
Silicon(IV) oxide, 50% in water, colloidal dispersion
Silicon(IV) oxide, amorphous fumed, S.A. 85-115m2/g
Zeolite - Mesoporous Silica Nanopowder (SBA-15 Type)
Chromosorb(R) W, AW-DMCS, 100-120 mesh particle size
Diatomaceous earth, calcined, filter aid, slightly calcined
Micro particles based on silicon dioxide, size: 0.15 mum
Silica gel, high-purity grade (15111), pore size 60 ??
Silica, mesoporous, 1 mum particle size, pore size ~2 nm
Silica, mesoporous, 1 mum particle size, pore size ~4 nm
Silica, mesoporous, 2 mum particle size, pore size ~2 nm
Silica, mesoporous, 2 mum particle size, pore size ~4 nm
Silica, mesoporous, 3 mum particle size, pore size ~2 nm
Silica, mesoporous, 3 mum particle size, pore size ~4 nm
Silica,fumed, hydrophilic, specific surface area 200 m2/g
Silica,fumed, hydrophilic, specific surface area 400 m2/g

When silicon dioxide SiO2 is cooled rapidly enough, it does not crystallize but solidifies as a glass. 
The glass transition temperature of pure SiO2 is about 1600 K (1330 °C or 2420 °F). 
Like most of the crystalline polymorphs the local atomic structure in pure silica glass is regular tetrahedra of oxygen atoms around silicon atoms. 
The difference between the glass and the crystals arises in the connectivity of these tetrahedral units. 
SiO2 glass consists of a non-repeating network of tetrahedra, where all the oxygen corners connect two neighbouring tetrahedra. 
Although there is no long range periodicity in the glassy network there remains significant ordering at length scales well beyond the SiO bond length. 
One example of this ordering is found in the preference of the network to form rings of 6-tetrahedra.

Silicon(IV) oxide, amorphous fumed, S.A. 175-225m?/g
Silicon(IV) oxide, amorphous fumed, S.A. 300-350m?/g
Silicon(IV) oxide, amorphous fumed, S.A. 350-420m2/g
UNII-2RF6EJ0M85 component VYPSYNLAJGMNEJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Amorphous silica: Vitreous silica, quartz glass, fused silica
Diatomaceous earth, flux-calcined, filter aid, flux calcined
LUDOX(R) AM colloidal silica, 30 wt. % suspension in H2O
LUDOX(R) CL colloidal silica, 30 wt. % suspension in H2O
LUDOX(R) CL-X colloidal silica, 45 wt. % suspension in H2O
LUDOX(R) LS colloidal silica, 30 wt. % suspension in H2O
LUDOX(R) SM colloidal silica, 30 wt. % suspension in H2O
LUDOX(R) TMA colloidal silica, 34 wt. % suspension in H2O
Silica gel orange, with moisture indicator free of heavy metals

Silica is manufactured in several forms including:
-glass (a colorless, high-purity form is called fused silica)
-synthetic amorphous silica
-silica gel (used e.g. as desiccants in new clothes and leather goods)
Silicon dioxide is used in the production of various products.
Inexpensive soda-lime glass is the most common and typically found in drinking glasses, bottles, and windows.
A raw material for many whiteware ceramics such as earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
A raw material for the production of Portland cement.
A food additive, primarily as a flow agent in powdered foods, or to absorb water (see the ingredients list for).
The natural ("native") oxide coating that grows on silicon is hugely beneficial in microelectronics. 
Silicon dioxide is a superior electric insulator, possessing high chemical stability. 
In electrical applications, Silicon dioxide can protect the silicon, store charge, block current, and even act as a controlled pathway to allow small currents to flow through a device. 
At room temperature, however, Silicon dioxide grows extremely slowly, and so to manufacture such oxide layers on silicon, the traditional method has been the deliberate heating of silicon in high temperature furnaces within an oxygen ambient (thermal oxidation).
Raw material for aerogel in the Stardust spacecraft Used in the extraction of DNA and RNA due to its ability to bind to the nucleic acids under the presence of chaotropes.
Added to medicinal anti-foaming agent, like Simethicone, in a small proportion to enhance defoaming activity.
As hydrated silica in Toothpaste (abrasive to fight away plaque.)

Silica gel, high-purity grade, FIA according to DIN 51791
Silica, mesoporous, 0.5 mum particle size, pore size ~2 nm
Silica, mesoporous, 0.5 mum particle size, pore size ~4 nm
Silicon dioxide, acid washed and calcined, Analytical Reagent
Silicon dioxide, crystalline (fine), coating quality, >=99.9%
Chromosorb(R) P, NAW, 60-80 mesh particle size, bottle of 100 g
Chromosorb(R) W, AW, 80-100 mesh particle size, bottle of 100 g
Chromosorb(R) W, HP, 60-80 mesh particle size, bottle of 100 g
Diatomaceous earth, calcined, powder, suitable for most filtrations
LUDOX(R) AS-30 colloidal silica, 30 wt. % suspension in H2O
LUDOX(R) AS-40 colloidal silica, 40 wt. % suspension in H2O
LUDOX(R) HS-30 colloidal silica, 30 wt. % suspension in H2O
LUDOX(R) HS-40 colloidal silica, 40 wt. % suspension in H2O
LUDOX(R) TM-40 colloidal silica, 40 wt. % suspension in H2O
LUDOX(R) TM-50 colloidal silica, 50 wt. % suspension in H2O

Silicon dioxide is SiO2, also is known as silica, silicic acid or silicic acid anhydride. 
Silicon dioxides name is derived from the Latin Silex. 
The CAS number for silicon dioxide is 7631-86-9, and the most common form of silicon dioxide is quartz. 
Quartz makes up more than 10% of the Earth’s crust; it is also a major component of sand. 
Silicon dioxide is estimated that 95% of commercial silicon dioxide is used in the construction industry to make portland cement, though another use is for making glass—hydrated silica is even used in toothpaste to remove plaque.

Quartz Optical Window, 25.4mm (1.0in) dia x 1mm (0.04in) thick
Quartz Optical Window, 25.4mm (1.0in) dia x 2mm (0.08in) thick
Silica gel 60, 230 - 400 mesh, for flash column chromatography
Silica gel, Davisil(R) grade 22, pore size 60 ??, 60-200 mesh
Silica gel, high-purity grade, 60??, 35-60 mesh particle size
Silica gel, high-purity grade, pore size 60 ??, 70-230 mesh
Silica gel, HPLC grade, spherical, 3 micron APS, 120 angstroms
Silica gel, HPLC grade, spherical, 3 micron APS, 70 angstroms
Silica gel, technical grade (w/ fluorescent indicator), 60 F254
Silica gel, Type H, without binder, for thin layer chromatography
Silica gel, Type II, 3.5 mm bead size, Suitable for desiccation
Silica, fumed, powder, 0.2-0.3 mum avg. part. size (aggregate)
Silicon dioxide, for cleaning of platinum crucibles, calcined, crude
Silicon dioxide, fused (pieces), 4 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis
Silicon oxide, catalyst support, high surface area, S.A.250m2/g
Silicon(IV) Oxide, 99+%, 0.012 Micron (Fumed Colloidal Silica)


Synonyms: SILICA
Chemical Names:    SILICON DIOXIDE
CAS number: 7631-86-9
INS: 551
Functional Class:    
Food Additives
ANTICAKING_AGENT


Silicon(IV) oxide, 99.5% (metals basis) , -325 Mesh Powder
Zeolite - Mesoporous Silica Nanopowder (1D-Hexagonal SBA-41 Type)
Zeolite - Mesoporous Silica Nanopowder (3D-Cubic MCM-48 Type)
Celatom(R), acid-washed, for use in Total Dietary Fiber Assay, TDF-100A
Chromosorb(R) G, HP, 100-120 mesh particle size, bottle of 100 g
Chromosorb(R) P, AW-DMCS, 80-100 mesh particle size, bottle of 100 g
Chromosorb(R) W, AW, 100-120 mesh particle size, bottle of 100 g
Chromosorb(R) W, HP, 100-120 mesh particle size, bottle of 100 g
NBS 28 (silicon and oxygen isotopes in silica sand), NIST(R) RM 8546
Quartz disc, fused, 50.8mm (2.0in) dia x 1.59mm (0.06in) thick
Quartz disc, fused, 50.8mm (2.0in) dia x 3.18mm (0.13in) thick
Quartz disc, fused, 76.2 (3.0 in) dia x 3.18mm (0.13in) thick
Quartz disc, fused, 76.2mm (3.0in) dia x 1.59mm (0.06in) thick

Fused silica is a noncrystalline (glass) form of silicon dioxide (quartz, sand). 
Silicon dioxide lacks long range order in its atomic structure. 
Silicon dioxides highly cross linked three dimensional structure gives rise to it’s high use temperature, low thermal expansion coefficient, high purity, high transmission and high refractive index homogeneity.
This material is widely used in semiconductor, medical science, communications, lasers, infrared, electronics, measuring instruments, military, aerospace and others high-tech industry. 
NQW materials from the major manufacturers in all grades and specifications. 
All fused silica offered by NQW is certified by the manufacturers.

Quartz microscope slide, fused, 25.4x25.4x1.0mm (1.0x1.0x0.0394in)
Quartz microscope slide, fused, 50.8x25.4x1.0mm (2.0x1.0x0.0394in)
Quartz microscope slide, fused, 76.2x25.4x1.0mm (3.0x1.0x0.0394in)
Silica gel 60, 0.105-0.2mm (70-150 mesh), S.A. 500-600m2/g
Silica gel, high purity, 90??, 35-70 mesh, for column chromatography
Silica gel, high-purity grade (7734), pore size 60 ??, 70-230 mesh
Silica gel, high-purity grade (7754), pore size 60 ??, 70-230 mesh
Silica gel, high-purity grade, 40, >=400 mesh, for column chromatography
Silica gel, high-purity grade, 40, 35-70 mesh, for column chromatography
Silica gel, high-purity grade, 40, 70-230 mesh, for column chromatography
Silica gel, high-purity grade, 90??, 15-25 mum, for column chromatography
Silica gel, high-purity grade, pore size 40 ??, 35-70 mesh particle size
Silica gel, high-purity grade, pore size 60 ??, >=400 mesh particle size
Silica gel, technical grade, pore size 60 ??, 200-425 mesh particle size
Silica gel, technical grade, pore size 60 ??, 70-230 mesh, 63-200 mum
Silica, nanoparticles, mesoporous, 200 nm particle size, pore size 4 nm
Silicon dioxide, ~99%, 0.5-10 mum (approx. 80% between 1-5 mum)

Applications 
SiO2 (Silicon Dioxide or Silica) in its amorphous form is generally exploited in semiconductors to segregate conducting of differing areas.  
SiO2 has a high dielectric constant, mechanical resistance, and chemical selectivity.  
This selectivity makes it a good material in microelectronics and chromatography.  
Silicon Dioxide has been used in a wide range of applications such as resigns for separations, optical fibers, glasses, ceramics, and semiconductors.

Silicon dioxide, amorphous, cyclic azasilane/hexamethyldisilazane treated
Silicon dioxide, fused (granular), 4-20 mesh, 99.9% trace metals basis
Silicon Oxide Hollow NanospheresSilicon Dioxide Nanospheres Properties
Diatomaceous earth, flux-calcined, filter aid, flux calcined, treated with sodium carbonate
Diatomaceous earth, flux-calcined, filter aid, treated with sodium carbonate, calcined
Silica gel 60 ADAMANT(TM) on TLC plates, with fluorescence indicator 254 nm
Silica gel 60, 0.019-0.037mm (400-600 mesh), S.A. 500-600m2/g
Silica gel 60, 0.062-0.105mm (150-230 mesh), S.A. 500-600m2/g
Silica gel, Davisil(R) grade 710, pore size 50-76 ??, for thin layer chromatography
Silica gel, high-purity grade (10180), pore size 40 ??, 70-230 mesh particle size
Silica gel, high-purity grade (9385), pore size 60 ??, 230-400 mesh particle size
Silica gel, high-purity grade (Davisil Grade 12), pore size 22 ??, 28-200 mesh
Silica gel, high-purity grade (Davisil Grade 62), pore size 150 ??, 60-200 mesh
Silica gel, high-purity grade (Davisil Grade 635), pore size 60 ??, 60-100 mesh
Silica gel, high-purity grade (Davisil Grade 643), pore size 150 ??, 200-425 mesh
Silica gel, high-purity grade (Davisil Grade 646), 35-60 mesh, pore size 150 ??
Silica gel, high-purity grade (Davisil Grade 923), pore size 30 ??, 100-200 mesh

Synonym: Silica, Silicic anhydride, Silicon dioxide amorphous, Silicon dioxide, Amorphous silica
Formula: SiO2
CAS Number: 7631-86-9 
Formula Weight: 60.08 g/mol
Density: 2.196  g/cm³ at 25°C 
Melting Point: 1713°C
Color: white powder 
Solubility: Insoluble in water
Purity: 99.99% 4N (trace metal basis) 
Particle Size: <300 mesh

Silica gel, high-purity grade, 100??, 200-400 mesh, for preparative liquid chromatography
Silica gel, high-purity grade, 40??, 230-400 mesh, for preparative liquid chromatography
Silica gel, high-purity grade, 60??, gypsum ~13 %, for preparative liquid chromatography
Silica gel, high-purity grade, 90??, 70-230 mesh, for column chromatography
Silica gel, high-purity grade, for thin layer chromatography, H, without calcium sulfate
Silica gel, high-purity grade, pore size 60 ??, 130-270 mesh, for column chromatography
Silica gel, high-purity grade, pore size 60 ??, 200-400 mesh particle size
Silica gel, high-purity grade, Type G, 5-15 mum, for thin layer chromatography
Silica gel, preparative chromatography grade, spherical, 10 micron APS, 60 angstroms
Silica gel, preparative chromatography grade, spherical, 15 micron APS, 120 angstroms
Silica gel, preparative chromatography grade, spherical, 15 micron APS, 60 angstroms
Silica gel, preparative chromatography grade, spherical, 50 micron APS, 60 angstroms
Silica gel, preparative chromatography grade, spherical, 7.5 micron APS, 120 angstroms
Silica gel, wide pore, 150 angstroms, -100+200 Mesh, S.A. 350-400m2/g
Silica Nanosprings TM coated with zinc oxide and grown on fiber glass substrate (3.5 x 8cm)
Silica, mesoporous MCM-48, 15 mum particle size, pore size 3 nm, Cubic pore morphology
Silica, mesoporous SBA-16, <150 mum particle size, pore size 5 nm, Cubic pore morphology
Silica, nanopowder, spec. surface area 175-225 m2/g (BET), 99.8% trace metals basis
Silicon dioxide, nanopowder, 10-20 nm particle size (BET), 99.5% trace metals basis
Silicon(IV) oxide sputtering target, 50.8mm (2.0in) dia x 3.18mm (0.125in) thick
Silicon(IV) oxide sputtering target, 50.8mm (2.0in) dia x 6.35mm (0.250in) thick
Silicon(IV) oxide sputtering target, 76.2mm (3.0in) dia x 3.18mm (0.125in) thick
Silicon(IV) oxide sputtering target, 76.2mm (3.0in) dia x 6.35mm (0.250in) thick
Silicon(IV) oxide, 40% in water, colloidal dispersion, 0.02 micron particles
Silicon(IV) oxide, amorphous fumed, surface treated, S.A. 105-130m??/g, -325 mesh
Silicon(IV) oxide, amorphous fumed, surface treated, S.A. 105-145m??/g, -325 mesh
Silicon(IV) oxide, amorphous fumed, surface treated, S.A. 205-245m??/g, -325 mesh
Diatomaceous earth, flux-calcined, filter aid, acid washed, treated with sodium carbonate, flux calcined
Respirable alpha-quartz, NIST(R) SRM(R) 1878b, quantitative X-ray powder diffraction standard
Silica gel - technical grade, 230-400 mesh particle size, 40-63 |m particle size, pore size 60+

Silicon dioxide (SiO2), also know as silica, is a chemical compound which has many different crystalline forms and a wide range of applications. 
Silicon dioxide is used in everything from the production of widow glass and optical fibers to defoamers and cement. 
The term “Silicon Valley” was coined because of the use of silicon in the computer industry. 
Among its many uses, Silicon dioxide quite often appears as a flow agent or anti-caking agent in animal feeds and human foods.

Silica gel 60, with fluorescent indicator, 0.060-0.2mm (70-230 mesh), -70+230 Mesh Powder, S.A. 500-600m2/g
Silica gel, 30 mum particle size (average), average pore diameter 60 ??, Suitable for normal-phase adsorption-partition chromatography
Silica gel, EMD Millipore, TLC grade (11695), 15 mum, pore size 60 ??, with silica/alumina binder
Silica gel, high-purity grade (7749), with gypsum binder and fluorescent indicator, for thin layer chromatography
Silica gel, high-purity grade (Davisil Grade 633), pore size 60 ??, 200-425 mesh particle size
Silica gel, high-purity grade (Davisil Grade 636), pore size 60 ??, 35-60 mesh particle size
Silica gel, high-purity grade (puriss), pore size 60 ??, 70-230 mesh, for column chromatography
Silica gel, high-purity grade (w/ Ca, ~0.1%), pore size 60 ??, 230-400 mesh particle size
Silica gel, high-purity grade, HF254, without calcium sulfate, with fluorescent indicator, for thin layer chromatography
Silica gel, high-purity grade, pore size 60 ??, 2-25 mum particle size, without binder, pore volume 0.75 cm3/g, for thin layer chromatography
Silica gel, high-purity grade, pore size 60 ??, 2-25 mum particle size, without binder, with fluorescent indicator, pore volume 0.75 cm3/g, for thin layer chromatography
Silica gel, high-purity grade, pore size 60 ??, 220-440 mesh particle size, 35-75 mum particle size, for flash chromatography
Silica gel, high-purity grade, pore size 60 ??, 230-400 mesh particle size, 40-63 mum particle size, for flash chromatography
Silica gel, high-purity grade, pore size 60 ??, 5-25 mum particle size, without binder, for thin layer chromatography
Silica gel, high-purity grade, pore size 60 ??, 70-230 mesh, 63-200 mum, for column chromatography

Quality Level: 100
form: solid
quality: acid washed
impurities:
≤0.01% in acid soluble iron (Fe)
≤0.5% soluble in HCl
loss: ≤0.5% loss on ignition, 800 °C
refractive index: n20/D 1.544 (lit.)
mp: 1610 °C (lit.)
density: 2.6 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
anion traces: chloride (Cl-): ≤100 mg/kg
SMILES string: O=[Si]=O
InChI: 1S/O2Si/c1-3-2
InChI key: VYPSYNLAJGMNEJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Silica gel, high-purity grade, Type G, with ~13% calcium sulfate, for thin layer chromatography
Silica gel, high-purity grade, with ~15% calcium sulfate and fluorescent indicator, GF254, for thin layer chromatography
Silica gel, HPLC grade, spherical, 2.2 micron APS, 120 angstroms, 99.99+% , S.A. 340m2/g, P.V. 1.00cc/g
Silica gel, HPLC grade, spherical, 2.2 micron APS, 80 angstroms, 99.99+% , S.A. 470m2/g, P.V. 0.95cc/g
Silica gel, HPLC grade, spherical, 3 micron APS, 260 angstroms, 99.99+%, S.A. 130m2/g, P.V. 0.90cc/g
Silica gel, HPLC grade, spherical, 5 micron APS, 120 angstroms, 99.99+% , S.A. 340m2/g, P.V. 1.00cc/g
Silica gel, HPLC grade, spherical, 5 micron APS, 260 angstroms, 99.99+% , S.A. 150m2/g, P.V. 0.90cc/g
Silica gel, HPLC grade, spherical, 5 micron APS, 70 angstroms, 99.99+% , S.A. 500m2/g, P.V. 0.95cc/g
Silica gel, HPLC/UHPLC grade, spherical, 1.6 micron APS, 110 angstroms, 99.99+%, S.A. 340m2/g, P.V. 0.95cc/g
Silica gel, preparative chromatography grade, spherical, 20 micron APS, 100 angstroms, 99.99+% , S.A. 335m2/g, P.V. 1.00cc/g
Silica gel, preparative chromatography grade, spherical, 20 micron APS, 150 angstroms, 99.99+%, S.A. 270m2/g, P.V. 1.00cc/g
Silica gel, preparative chromatography grade, spherical, 20 micron APS, 80 angstroms, 99.99+% , S.A. 515m2/g, P.V. 1.00cc/g
Silica gel, technical grade (w/ Ca, ~0.1%), 60??, 230-400 mesh particle size, Ca 0.1-0.3 %
Silica gel, technical grade, pore size 60 ??, 230-400 mesh particle size, 40-63 mum particle size

Silicon Dioxide Powder is vital because its porous structure allows it to absorb moisture and prevent clumping and binding of ingredients, with which it is combined. 
From flour for baking and cereal mixes to home-made seasoning and spice blends, Silicon Dioxide is a “magic powder” that can improve the quality of all your projects. 
Why search any further for this hard-to-find item? Our customers agree that American Spice Company can deliver exactly what you need with the best customer service. 
Stock up on Silicon Dioxide today.

Silica gel, TLC high purity grade, with gypsum binder and fluorescent indicator, 12 Micron APS, S.A. 500-600m2/g, 60?, pH 6.5-7.5
Silica gel, TLC high purity grade, with gypsum binder, 12 Micron APS, S.A. 500-600m2/g, 60?, pH 6-7
Silica gel, TLC high purity grade, without binder, 12 Micron APS, S.A. 500-600m2/g, 60, pH 6.5-7.5
Silica gel, TLC high purity grade, without binder, with fluorescent indicator, 12 Micron APS, S.A. 500-600m2/g, 60?, pH 6.5-7.5
Silica gel, TLC high-purity grade, 5-25 mum, pore size 60 ??, with gypsum binder and fluorescent indicator, pore volume 0.75 cm3/g
Silica, mesoporous SBA-15, <150 mum particle size, pore size 4 nm, Hexagonal pore morphology
Silica, mesoporous SBA-15, <150 mum particle size, pore size 6 nm, Hexagonal pore morphology
Silica, mesoporous SBA-15, <150 mum particle size, pore size 8 nm, Hexagonal pore morphology
Silicon dioxide, nanopowder (spherical, porous), 5-15 nm particle size (TEM), 99.5% trace metals basis
Silicon dioxide, single crystal substrate, optical grade, 99.99% trace metals basis, &#60;0001&#62;, L x W x thickness 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm
Silicon oxide, catalyst support, high surface area, S.A.160m2/g, total pore volume 0.5cc/g, pore size 100 and 1000 angstrom
Silicon(IV) oxide, 40% in water, colloidal dispersion, 0.02 micron particles, S.A. 200m 2/g


4-) TRICALCIUM PHOSPHATE

Tricalcium phosphate = TCP

CAS Number: 7758-87-4
EC Number: 231-840-8
Linear Formula: Ca3(PO4)2
Chemical formula: Ca3(PO4)2
Molar mass: 310.18
E number: E341

Tricalcium Phosphate is used as an anti-caking agent in dry vinegar and salts. 
Tricalcium Phosphate’s also used as a calcium source for cereals. 
Due to its white color, Tricalcium Phosphate can also be used to bleach flour and to improve coloring.
Tricalcium phosphate is a supplement form of calcium phosphate and is used to treat or prevent calcium deficiency. 
Calcium is primarily important for healthy bones and teeth. 
Calcium is naturally found in foods like dairy, nuts and seeds, and dark, leafy vegetables.
In addition to Tricalcium Phosphates use as a supplement, tricalcium phosphate is used as an anti-caking agent in powdered food items. 
Tricalcium Phosphate is also used as an additive in some processed foods to boost calcium content.

Tricalcium phosphate is a calcium salt found in many nutritional supplements. 
Many people wonder about the safety of tricalcium phosphate, including side effects and whether Tricalcium Phosphate causes cancer.
Tricalcium phosphate (sometimes abbreviated TCP) is a calcium salt of phosphoric acid with the chemical formula Ca3(PO4)2. 
Tricalcium Phosphate is also known as tribasic calcium phosphate and bone phosphate of lime (BPL). 
Tricalcium Phosphate is a white solid of low solubility. 
Most commercial samples of "tricalcium phosphate" are in fact hydroxyapatite.
Tricalcium Phosphate exists as three crystalline polymorphs α, α', and β. The α and α' states are stable at high temperatures.

What Is Tricalcium Phosphate?
Calcium Phosphate, Dicalcium Phosphate, Dicalcium Phosphate Dihydrate and Tricalcium Phosphate are all calcium salts of phosphoric acid. 
Calcium, Dicalcium and Tricalcium Phosphate are also known as monobasic, dibasic and tribasic Calcium Phosphate, respectively. 
When two water molecules are bound to Dicalcium Phosphate Tricalcium Phosphate is called Dicalcium Phosphate Dihydrate. 
In cosmetics and personal care products, the Calcium Phosphate ingredients are used in the formulation of blushers, dentifrices, eye makeup, eyeliners, face powders, foundations, lipsticks, other makeup products and skin care products.

Why is Tricalcium Phosphate used in cosmetics and personal care products?
The following functions have been reported for the Calcium Phosphate ingredients.
Abrasive - Calcium Phosphate, Dicalcium Phosphate, Dicalcium Phosphate Dihydrate, Tricalcium Phosphate
Buffering agent - Calcium Phosphate
Bulking agent - Calcium Phosphate
Opacifying agent - Dicalcium Phosphate, Dicalcium Phosphate Dihydrate, Tricalcium Phosphate
Oral care agent - Calcium Phosphate, Dicalcium Phosphate, Dicalcium Phosphate Dihydrate, Tricalcium Phosphate

Scientific Facts about Tricalcium Phosphate: 
Calcium Phosphate is often used as a dietary supplement in prepared breakfast cereals, enriched flour and noodle products.

The use of calcium (Ca) supplements by postmenopausal women is growing rapidly. 
A commercial preparation of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) is available in the USA. 
Depending on the relative absorption of Ca versus phosphate, a rise in serum phosphorus (P) could stimulate parathyroid hormone (iPTH) secretion. 
We therefore compared Ca absorption and the metabolic responses following TCP to that of Ca carbonate (CC) on separate occasions in each of 10 women, aged 22-40 years. 
The subjects were fasted overnight for 12 hours while good hydration was maintained. 
Following a 2-hour baseline-urine collection, 1200 mg calcium (as CC or TCP) was ingested and two 2-hour postload urine collections were made. 
Blood was drawn at 1, 2, and 4 hours after the Ca load. 
Serum (S) and urine (U) Ca, P, and creatinine, and U cyclic AMP (cAMP) were determined. iPTH levels following TCP were also measured. 
Ca absorption was determined by the postload rise in Uca above baseline. 
Uca excretion increased significantly and was accompanied by significant rises in Sca after both preparations. 
Following TCP, S and U phosphorus increased. Urinary cAMP did not change after either preparation, and iPTH levels fell after oral TCP. 
We conclude that Ca taken as TCP is absorbed adequately and, thus, despite a rise in the S phosphorus level does not stimulate parathyroid activity.

Important Facts About Tricalcium Phosphate:
-Chemically, tricalcium phosphate is a calcium salt of phosphoric acid. 
-Tricalcium Phosphates primary function in fortification is to increase the calcium content of foods.
-Tricalcium Phosphate is almost insoluble in water, has a very low flavor profile and usually comes in a fine white powder. 
-The chalky texture of tri-calcium phosphate makes Tricalcium Phosphate useful as a free-flowing agent, as Tricalcium Phosphate has the ability to take up to 10% of Tricalcium Phosphates weight in moisture.
-Tricalcium Phosphates texture and color properties also make Tricalcium Phosphate an effective clouding agent.
-Tricalcium phosphate’s E-number is E341(iii), a subclass of calcium phosphates for those who may need to check the additive status for their country. 
-Tricalcium Phosphate has a CAS Number of 7758-87-4.
-Ingredient labels list Tricalcium Phosphate as tribasic calcium phosphate, tri-calcium orthophosphate, and precipitated calcium phosphate, or Tricalcium Phosphate’s labeled in formulation paperwork as TCP.
-Due to its mineral source, Tricalcium Phosphate can be used in vegan foods and is also allowed in organic products in the US.

Tricalcium Phosphate Health Benefits 
Calcium is stored primarily in the body’s bones and teeth. 
Calcium is important in children and adolescents who require it for bone growth and development. 
Adults also need calcium to maintain strong, healthy bones and teeth.
Calcium is most readily absorbed through foods that are naturally high in calcium. 
Sometimes people who have lactose intolerance or who are vegan may not get enough calcium through their diets. 

Examples of how tricalcium phosphate functions in food manufacturing:
-Acidity regulator
-Adds smoothness and opacity to reduced fat foods and beverages, such as soymilk
-Anticaking agent
-Buffer
-Calcium and phosphorus mineral fortification– seen in some juices, soy beverages, and cereal products
-Clouding Agent
-Emulsifier
-Firming agent – interacts with gelling agents to strengthen a food structure
-Flour Treatment Agent
-Humectant in some table salts, sugar, or baking powder
-Stabilizer in some fats for frying
-Leavening agent in some baked goods & breadings
-Mineral salt in cheese products
-Thickener

Tricalcium phosphate is a calcium salt of phosphoric acid.
Tricalcium Phosphate is a white solid of low solubility. 
Tricalcium phosphate’s E-number is E341(iii). 
Tricalcium Phosphate is naturally found in cow's milk.

Tricalcium Phosphate Health benefits
Tricalcium phosphate contains both calcium and phosphorus, both of them are important minerals for bone health.
Tricalcium phosphate also contain Vitamin D, which helps you to absorb the calcium and phosphorus much more easily.

What are the Uses of TCP?
Tricalcium phosphate is an ingredient used in many applications. 
Tricalcium Phosphates food grade is commonly used as an anticaking agent to make powdered food free-flowing, also as a nutritional supplement supplies both calcium and phosphorus minerals in fortified foods.
Meanwhile, Tricalcium Phosphate can be used as a whitening color to replace titanium dioxide. 
Other applications like in baby powder, toothpaste, and pharmaceuticals.

Tricalcium Phosphate in Food
Anticaking agent
Tricalcium phosphate is used to prevent powdered food from caking, lumping, or aggregation and improve the fluidity. 
We can commonly find Tricalcium Phosphate in powdered drink, powdered milk, non dairy creamer, instant powders, table salt, spices and etc. 

Tricalcium Phosphate and Nutritional supplement 
Tricalcium phosphate is a source of calcium and phosphorus. 
Tricalcium Phosphates main function in food fortification is to increase the calcium supplement due to its higher calcium content.
The applications such as in cereals, dairy products (e.g. yogurt), juices, multivitamins and pharmaceuticals. 
Tricalcium Phosphates calcium content is higher than that of monocalcium phosphate, which is used as a leavening acid in baking powder. 
Our absorption of calcium would be more efficient when combined with vitamin D. 
Calcium carbonate and calcium citrate are two common calcium supplements.

Tricalcium phosphate (sometimes abbreviated TCP) is a calcium salt of phosphoric acid with the chemical formula Ca3(PO4)2.
Tricalcium Phosphate is also known as tribasic calcium phosphate and bone phosphate of lime (BPL). 
Calcium phosphate is one of the main combustion products of bone (see bone ash). 
Calcium phosphate is also commonly derived from inorganic sources such as mineral rock.
Tricalcium phosphate is used in powdered spices as an anticaking agent. 
Tricalcium Phosphate is also found in baby powder.
Calcium phosphate is also a raising agent (food additive) E341. 
As a mineral salt found in rocks and bones, it is used in cheese products.
Tricalcium Phosphate is also used as a nutritional supplement and occurs naturally in cow milk, although the most common and economical forms for supplementation are calcium carbonate (which should be taken with food) and calcium citrate (which can be taken without food).
Calcium triphosphate is used to remove fluoride from water in water filtration systems.

Tricalcium Phosphate and Feed
TCP can also be a dietary supplement of calcium and phosphorus in pet food, e.g. in cat and dog food. 
Tricalcium Phosphate benefits cat and dog in building bones, nerve impulse transmission and other benefits.

Tricalcium Phosphate in Cosmetics
Per “European Commission database for information on cosmetic substances and ingredients”, Tricalcium Phosphate functions as an abrasive, anticaking, masking, opacifying amd oral care agent in cosmetic and personal care products. 

Tricalcium Phosphate in Toothpaste
Calcium and fluoride will join together to form calcium fluoride in toothpaste, which makes the fluoride less effective in preventing tooth decay. 
Functionalized tricalcium phosphate produced by beta-tricalcium phosphate and sodium lauryl sulfate can prevent this reaction during the storage of toothpaste and thus generate more fluoride and calcium ions to remineralize enamel and protect the dental from caries.

Is Tricalcium Phosphate Safe to eat?
Yes, Tricalcium Phosphates safety when used as a food additive has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Food Safety Authority (EFSA),  Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), as well as other authorities.

Some calcium phosphates derive from phosphate rocks, calcium from plant sources, and ammonia.
These can be considered vegan. 
Most of the time, however, calcium phosphates are made from ground animal bones.
Calcium phosphate aids in cell functioning and plays a vital role in many different body processes, including bone growth and energy production.
Tricalcium phosphate is effective as a nutritional supplement because it is readily absorbed in the body. 
However, there is little evidence to show Tricalcium Phosphate is more effective than other calcium supplements, in particular, those containing citrate and carbonateTrusted Source.
Tricalcium phosphate also has many other uses. 
Tricalcium Phosphate is found in many household items, including baby powder, toothpaste, and antacids. 
A variety of industries use tricalcium phosphate. 
For example, the biomedical sector uses tricalcium phosphate to make cement or composite to repair bones.

Tricalcium phosphate is a calcium salt of phosphoric acid that is commonly used as an ingredient in food products and nutritional supplements.  
Tricalcium Phosphate also sees use in a wide range of other products from toothpaste and antacids to water filtration systems and bone grafting material.  
Tricalcium phosphate typically comes in a fine white powder that is almost insoluble in water.  
Tricalcium Phosphates chalky texture makes Tricalcium Phosphate useful as a free-flowing agent.  
Due to its white color, Tricalcium Phosphate can also be used to bleach flour and to improve coloring.  
And due to its mineral source, tricalcium phosphate can be used in vegan foods and is also allowed in certified organic products in the US. 

IUPAC name
Tricalcium bis(phosphate)
Other names
Tribasic calcium phosphate

Tricalcium Phosphate (sometimes abbreviated TCP) is a calcium salt of phosphoric acid with the chemical formula Ca3(PO4)2. 
Tricalcium Phosphate is also known as tribasic calcium phosphate and bone phosphate of lime (BPL). 
Tricalcium Phosphate is a white solid of low solubility. 
Most commercial samples of “tricalcium phosphate” are in fact hydroxyapatite.

Tricalcium phosphate is an ingredient that is heavily used across many industries – toothpaste, antacids, bone grafting material, baby powder, water filtration, nutritional supplements and ceramic coatings – and it is also in our food supply. 
Tricalcium phosphate (EU) is a mineral found in many foods, for many purposes.

Tricalcium Phosphate (TCP) is used as an anti-caking agent in dry vinegar and salts. 
Tricalcium Phosphate is often used as an additive for milk powder, pudding and various types of flavoring. 
Tricalcium Phosphate’s also used as a calcium source for cereals and is a nutrition enhancer.  
This ingredient can be used in foods such as dairy products, wine, carbonated beverages, candy and jams. 
Tricalcium Phosphate can also be used in some liquid foods to add smoothness and an opaque color. 
Tricalcium Phosphate can be added to food for strengthening calcium intake, and is sometimes used to prevent or treat the symptoms of lack of calcium.  
Due to its white color, Tricalcium Phosphate can also be used to bleach flour and to improve coloring. 
Tricalcium phosphate is sometimes added to calcium supplements. 
Tricalcium phosphate is a white, odorless and tasteless. 
Tricalcium Phosphate should be stored in a dry and ventilated area and should be kept away from water and moisture.

Various calcium phosphates are used for bone repair. 
Although hydroxyapatite (HA) sintered ceramics are widely used due to their osteoconductivity, Tricalcium Phosphates bioresorbability is so low that HA remains in the body for a long time after implantation. 
In contrast, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) ceramics show resorbable characters during bone regeneration, and can be completely substituted for the bone tissue after stimulation of bone formation. 
Therefore, much attention is paid to TCP ceramics for scaffold materials for supporting bone regeneration. 
This paper reviews bioresorbable properties of calcium phosphate ceramics derived from β-TCP and α-TCP.

CAS Number: 7758-87-4  
CHEBI: 9679  
ChemSpider: 22864 
ECHA InfoCard: 100.028.946 
PubChem CID: 516943
UNII: K4C08XP666 check
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID1049803

Properties of tricalcium phosphate and effects of many other ingredients upon the structure and solubility of the phosphate were investigated. 
By the reaction of calcium salts with phosphates in aqueous solution, tricalcium phosphate hydrate with a definite structure is not formed but hydroxy apatite with an excess of phosphoric acid is formed, which varies to β-tricalcium phosphate by heating between 700–800°C. 
Contrary to many other reports, it was found that β-tricalcium phosphate was fairly soluble in citric acid. 
The solubility is reduced remarkably by a small amount of admixtures, especially of magnesia. 
Magnesia stabilizes the β modification and prevents β→α inversion of the phosphate. 
The effect of alumina and ferric oxide is similar but not so intense as magnesia. 
On the contrary, barium oxide stabilizes the α modification. 
Sodium oxide affects variously according to the ratio of substitution for lime. 
Constitution and solubility of phosphate fertilizers were discussed in relation to these results.

Tricalcium Phosphate or TCP can be used as a calcium and/or phosphorus nutrient supplement in pharmaceuticals and multivitamins. 
Certificate of suitability No. R1-CEP 2006-255-Rev 00 has been granted for the sale of this product in Europe as a pharmaceutical grade ingredient. 
A copy of the certificate is available upon request. 
TCP can be used as an excipient in the preparation of tablets for pharmaceutical or over-the-counter (e.g., multivitamin) products. 
TCP can be used as a desensitizer in certain toothpaste formulations. 
Potable Water Treatment: ICL Performance Products LP tricalcium phosphate conforms to the requirements of ANSI/NSF Standard 60; used for purposes of defluoridation. 
Maximum Use Level = 120 mg/L.

Signs of calcium deficiency may include:
-Muscle cramps and spasms
-Tingling in the hands and feet
-Memory difficulty
-Brittle nails and bones
In post-menopausal people, when bone-breakdown occurs faster than new bone is generated, adequate calcium is especially important in preventing osteoporosis

Tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) is a calcium salt of phosphoric acid. 
Containing both calcium and phosphoric acid gives tricalcium phosphate many positive health and pharmaceutical benefits as well as industrial uses. 
Below are only a few of the many uses of this marvelous product stocked by Bell Chem, your Florida chemical supplier.

Cheesemaking and other industries employ tricalcium phosphate to regulate acidity.
Baked goods often list tricalcium phosphate as an ingredient. 
When bread is baked, tricalcium phosphate causes bread to rise properly.
Reduced fat liquids containing tricalcium phosphate are generally smoother and thicker.
Many spices contain tricalcium phosphate because Tricalcium Phosphate deters caking and clumping.
As a matter of fact, from baby powder and agricultural applications, thousands of products take advantage of tricalcium phosphate’s anti-caking properties.
When pharmaceuticals need to be routed directly to osseous tissue (bone), tricalcium phosphate acts as a delivery system, bringing the medication directly to the bone.

In antacids, the basic properties of tricalcium phosphate act to buffer the acid environment of the stomach while supplying the body with calcium, an important component of every body system.
Common medical practice utilizes tricalcium phosphate as a supplement or stand-alone bone graft agent.
Home water filtration systems find tricalcium phosphate works well to remove fluoride from water.
Fertilizers often contain large amounts of phosphoric acid, which is typically derived from tricalcium phosphate.
Your body cannot function without calcium or phosphate. 
Calcium is imperative for muscle contraction, heart rate regularity, and, Tricalcium Phosphates most well-known function, bone health. 
Phosphate is less well recognized but is essential in the formation of cellular membranes, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), energy production within cells, and bone mineralization (hardening). 
Supplementing your diet with tricalcium phosphate will ensure you receive the correct amounts of both nutrients daily.

Some people take supplements containing tricalcium phosphate to supplement their daily calcium intake if they are not getting enough calcium from diet alone. 
However, tricalcium phosphate is a concentrated source of calcium and taking too much can cause high calcium levels or hypercalcemia.

Food additive
Tricalcium phosphate is used in powdered spices as an anticaking agent, e.g. to prevent table salt from caking. 
The calcium phosphates have been assigned European food additive number E341.

What is Tricalcium Phosphate?
TCP is a subclass of calcium phosphates and makes up of a variable mixture of calcium phosphates and having the approximate composition of 10CaO·3P2O5 ·H2O. 
Tricalcium Phosphate can be used in vegan food and supplement for its mineral origin.

What is Tricalcium Phosphate Made From? 
Food grade TCP can be produced by the reaction of phosphoric acid with calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide OR the reaction between calcium chloride solution and trisodium phosphate. 

Chemical formula: Ca3(PO4)2
Molar mass: 310.18
Appearance: White amorphous powder
Density: 3.14 g/cm3 
Melting point: 1,670 °C (3,040 °F; 1,940 K) 
Solubility in water: 1.2 mg/kg

Although caries continues to be the most prevalent dental disease worldwide, significant reductions in dental caries have been reported over the past 30 years. 
The decline is attributed to nearly universal use of products containing fluoride, such as toothpastes and oral rinses, as well as professionally applied compounds containing higher concentrations of fluoride.
Fluoride is proven to prevent tooth decay. 
Tricalcium Phosphate does so by inhibiting demineralization, enhancing remineralization, and inhibiting bacterial activity in dental plaque. 
In recent years, we’ve advanced our understanding of the roles calcium and phosphate also play in remineralizing toothpastes and other dental products.
Clinical trials have shown that applying products with high concentrations of both calcium and fluoride may not result in greater protection against tooth decay.
That’s because the calcium and fluoride can combine during storage to form calcium fluoride—which renders the fluoride less effective in preventing tooth decay.
However, 3M ESPE has introduced a proprietary calcium phosphate ingredient, Tri-Calcium Phosphate (TCP), that can be protected from unwanted interactions with fluoride during storage. 
This protected calcium additive works with fluoride to initiate high-quality mineral growth—acting as a catalyst to enhance remineralization and build a high-quality, acid-resistant mineral.
In addition, this innovative technology in toothpaste can be tailored to provide short- or long-term mineral delivery in a variety of dental products.

Tricalcium Phosphates Clinical Applications
Fluoride Toothpaste
As the functionalized TCP ingredient is protected from unwanted interactions with fluoride within the toothpaste during storage, Tricalcium Phosphate remains stable and allows for more fluoride availability. 
During brushing, both fluoride and the TCP ingredient are delivered to the tooth and provide enhanced remineralization and added protection against demineralization. 
Several laboratory studies have proven superior performance when the TCP material is added to fluoride toothpastes at optimal concentration. 

Protects against lesion initiation and progression
The purpose of this study was to determine how well different toothpaste formulations protect against carious lesion formation and progression.
In this study, a well-established pH-cycling model was used to mimic enamel lesion initiation and progression. 
Sound tooth enamel samples were subjected to periods of demineralization with an acid solution, and remineralization with various toothpaste treatments and artificial saliva. 
Samples were analyzed using cross-sectional microhardness to ensure the entire lesion body was analyzed.

High levels of calcium can cause:
-constipation
-nausea
-vomiting
-stomach pain
-muscle pain
-weakness
-excessive urination

Three years of inadvertent excessive inhalation and ingestion of the dust from a dentifrice resulted in the systemic accumulation of tricalcium phosphate crystals and granulomatous lesions in a patient who died from carcinomatosis apparently unrelated to the crystallosis. 
Dyspnea and cough were the only symptoms. 
Crystals detected in the tissues by high magnification and polarized light and identified by x-ray-diffraction analysis matched those of the dentifrice, and of standard tricalcium phosphate. 
Continual heedless exposure to minute, insoluble, airborne crystals dispersed from widely used powdery abrasive substances may have caused other instances of systemic or pulmonic granulomas.

Application: Tricalcium phosphate is a calcium salt of phorphoric acid that has uses in fertilizers, as a food additive, water filtration, and in some medical applications. 
Tricalcium Phosphate serves as a source of phosphorous for some fertilizers. 
As a food additive, Tricalcium Phosphate is used as a raising agent or sometimes as a nutritional supplement. 
Medically, Tricalcium Phosphate has application in bone graphs, but also as an antacid.

Compatibility: Tricalcium phosphate is incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, and alkalis. 
Please see SDS for full safety and compatibility information.

Why is calcium important?
Calcium is a nutrient that is essential for strong bones. 
Ninety-nine percent of your body's calcium is stored in your bones and teeth. 
The other one percent of your body's calcium is found in blood. Blood calcium is necessary to support your body's critical functions such as controlling your blood pressure and maintaining your heartbeat.
The calcium in your bones makes up your bone bank. 
Throughout your lifetime, the calcium from the foods you eat is "deposited" in and "withdrawn" from your bone bank, depending on your needs. 
When your calcium intake is too low to keep your blood calcium normal your body will "withdraw" the calcium it needs from your bones. 
Over time, if more calcium is taken out of your bones than is put in, the result may be thin, weak bones that may break more easily.

Consumers know calcium is important for bone and teeth health. 
Cal-Sistent micronized Tricalcium Phosphate (TCP) from ICL Performance Products helps manufacturers provide calcium fortification without altering the well-established tastes or mouth feel of consumers’ favorite foods and beverages. 
Produced through a unique manufacturing process, a minimum of 95 percent of Cal-Sistent’s TCP particles are less than 20 microns. 
The small particle size makes Cal-Sistent ideal for products with a well-established taste or mouth feel because Tricalcium Phosphate is non-detectable in the human mouth, exhibits excellent suspension properties and does not affect product flavor. 
Cal-Sistent delivers a calcium content of 38 percent and calcium to phosphorus ratios equivalent to those in human bones. 
The calcium and phosphorus work synergistically to help prevent osteoporosis.

Also Known As
Other names include:
Tribasic calcium phosphate
Bone phosphate of lime
Calcium phosphate

Tricalcium phosphate [Wiki]
233-283-6 [EINECS]
7758-87-4 [RN]
Ca3(PO4)2 [Formula]
Calcigenol Simple [Trade name]
calcium diphosphate
calcium orthophosphate
calcium phosphate
Calcium phosphate (3:2) [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Calcium tertiary phosphate
Calciumphosphat (3:2) [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Phosphate de calcium (2:3) [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
tertiary calcium phosphate
tribasic calcium phosphate

White shapeless powder; odorless; relative density: 3.18; hardly soluble in water but easily soluble in diluted Hydrochloric Acid and Nitric Acid; stable in air.
In food industry, Tricalcium Phosphate is used as anti-caking agent, nutritional supplement (calcium intensifier), PH regulator and buffer, e.g. to act as anti-caking agent in flour, additives in milk powder, candy, pudding, condiment, and meat; as auxiliary in refinery of animal oil and yeast food.

tri-Calcium (ortho)phosphate
tricalcium diphosphate
tricalcium orthophosphate
β-Calcium phosphate tribasic
β-Tricalcium phosphate
[7758-87-4]
Bonarka
C020243
CALCIUM DIORTHOPHOSPHATE
Calcium orthophosphate, tri-(tert)
Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles
Calcium phosphate tribasic
Calcium phosphate, tribasic

A white amorphous powder also known as calcium orthophosphate or tertiary calcium phosphate or bone ash. 
Tricalcium Phosphate is found naturally as a rock and also in the skeletons and teeth of vertebrate animals. 
Uses: In powdered spices as an anti-caking agent, a raw material in the production of phosphoric acid and fertilizers, a raising agent, in cheese products, as a nutritional supplement, in porcelain and dental powders, as an antacide, and in gene transfection. CAS# (7758-87-4)

Tricalcium phosphate is a calcium salt of phosphoric acid with the chemical formula Ca3(PO4)2.

Grade
Technical
Food
Other Names

Tricalcium bis(phosphate)
Tribasic calcium phosphate
Bone phosphate of lime
Form

What Is Tribasic Calcium Phosphate?  
Tricalcium phosphate (TCP), also known as tribasic calcium phosphate or E341, is a calcium salt of phosphoric acid produced through chemical synthesis.

Chemical formula
Ca3(PO4)2

Uses of E341
Tricalcium Phosphate is used as a food additive with E number – E341. 
According to the FDA, Tricalcium Phosphate is considered – GRAS (generally recognized as safe). 
The daily limit of TCP is recommended to be 70mg.

Powder
Abbreviations

TCP
BPL

Carbolac
EINECS 231-840-8
EINECS 233-283-6
EINECS 235-330-6
MFCD00015984
MFCD00867081 [MDL number]
Natural whitlockite
PHOSPHORIC ACID CALCIUM SALT
Phosphoric acid calcium(2+) salt (2:3)
PHOSPHORIC ACID, CALCIUM SALT
Phosphoric acid, calcium salt (2:3)
PHOSPHORIC ACID,CALCIUM SALT (1:?)
Posture [Trade name]
Posture (TN)
Synthos
tert-Calcium phosphate
tricalcium bis(orthophosphate)
tricalcium bis(phosphate)
tri-calcium phosphate
UNII:K4C08XP666
UNII-K4C08XP666
α-TCP
α-tri-Calcium phosphate
α-Tricalcium phosphate
β-TCP
β-tri-Calcium phosphate
磷酸钙 [Chinese]

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