ANTIOXIDANTS

Antioxidants play a major part in ensuring that our foodstuffs keep their taste and colour and remain edible over a longer period.
Their use is particularly important for avoiding oxidation of fats and fat-containing products.
When antioxidants are thoroughly mixed with fat or oil, the onset of the final stages of autoxidation when rancidity -development of unpleasant off-flavours and odours- becomes evident, is delayed. 
Another important reason is that certain vitamins and various amino acids can easily be destroyed by exposure to air, and antioxidants serve to protect them. 
They also help to slow down the discoloration of fruit and vegetables.
Antioxidants are compounds produced in your body and found in foods. 
They help defend your cells from damage caused by potentially harmful molecules known as free radicals.

Antioxidants are substances that may protect your cells against free radicals, which may play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases. 
Free radicals are molecules produced when your body breaks down food or when you're exposed to tobacco smoke or radiation.
Antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E and carotenoids, may help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. 
Other naturally occurring antioxidants include flavonoids, tannins, phenols and lignans. 
Plant-based foods are the best sources. 
These include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, seeds, herbs and spices, and even cocoa.
As a bonus, fruits, vegetables and whole grains high in antioxidants are also typically high in fiber, low in saturated fat and cholesterol, and good sources of vitamins and minerals. 

One simple way, for example, of stopping apples going brown is to add a small amount of lemon juice. 
The ascorbic acid (vitamin C) contained in many citrus fruits is a natural antioxidant and for this reason finds frequent use in food production (E 300-E 304). 
Vitamin C and its various salts are added to protect soft drinks, jams, condensed milk and sausage.
Other natural antioxidants are the tocopherols (E 306-E309), which are members of the vitamin E family. 
Tocopherols are found mainly in nuts, sunflower seeds and soya and maize shoots, and they are mostly used for preserving vegetable oils, margarine and cocoa products.


1-) ASCORBIC ACID

Ascorbic acid = Vitamin C = Ascorbate = E300

CAS Number: 50-81-7
Formula: C6H8O6
Molar mass: 176.124 g·mol−1

Vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid and ascorbate) is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary supplement.
Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy.
Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters.
Ascorbic acid is required for the functioning of several enzymes and is important for immune system function.
Ascorbic acid also functions as an antioxidant.
Most animals and plants are able to synthesize their own vitamin C, however, humans and other apes, most bats, some rodents and certain other animals cannot and must acquire it from dietary sources.

There is some evidence that regular use of supplements may reduce the duration of the common cold, but Ascorbic acid does not appear to prevent infection.
Ascorbic acid is unclear whether supplementation affects the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, or dementia.
Ascorbic acid may be taken by mouth or by injection.

Vitamin C is generally well tolerated.
Large doses may cause gastrointestinal discomfort, headache, trouble sleeping, and flushing of the skin.
Normal doses are safe during pregnancy.
The United States Institute of Medicine recommends against taking large doses.

Vitamin C was discovered in 1912, isolated in 1928, and, in 1933, was the first vitamin to be chemically produced.
Ascorbic acid is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.
Vitamin C is available as an inexpensive generic and over-the-counter medication.
Partly for Ascorbic acids discovery, Albert Szent-Györgyi and Walter Norman Haworth were awarded the 1937 Nobel Prizes in Physiology and Medicine and Chemistry, respectively.
Foods containing vitamin C include citrus fruits, kiwifruit, guava, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, bell peppers and strawberries.
Prolonged storage or cooking may reduce vitamin C content in foods.

Uses of Ascorbic acid:
Vitamin C has a definitive role in treating scurvy, which is a disease caused by vitamin C deficiency. 
Beyond that, a role for vitamin C as prevention or treatment for various diseases is disputed, with reviews reporting conflicting results. 
A 2012 Cochrane review reported no effect of vitamin C supplementation on overall mortality.
Ascorbic acid is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.

Ascorbic acid is a nutrient that the human body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. 
An antioxidant, ascorbic acid can help prevent cell damage caused by free radicals —unstable molecules that can damage cells. 
Ascorbic acid also helps prevent and treat scurvy.
According to the U.S. National Cancer Institute, ascorbic acid can help the human body fight bacterial infections and help form collagen, an important protein in fibrous tissue, teeth, bones, skin and capillaries.

Food and Beverages of Ascorbic acid:
Vitamin C occurs naturally in many fresh fruits and vegetables, from oranges and grapefruits to broccoli, Brussel sprouts and tomatoes. 
In these foods however, vitamins can be diminished by heat, boiling water or air.
Many foods are fortified with ascorbic acid to help replenish vitamin C content that may be lost in these ways. 
Ascorbic acid is often added to fruit juices, cereals, fruit-flavored candies, dried fruit, cured meats and frozen fruits, to fortify or add a citrus flavor.
Ascorbic acid also acts as a preservative to keep food such as bread, cured meats, jams and jellies, from spoiling.

Ascorbic acid and personal Care Products & Cosmetics
Cosmetics and other personal care products may include less acidic forms of ascorbic acid, such as calcium ascorbate, magnesium ascorbate, magnesium ascorbyl phosphate, sodium ascorbate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate, which act as antioxidants to slow deterioration of the finished product caused by exposure to the air and also to control the pH of the product.

Ascorbic acid and Industrial/Manufacturing Uses
Ascorbic acid is used in a range of industrial and manufacturing applications, including as a developing agent and preservative in photo production, and in water purification, where it is used to help remove the taste of iodine in sterilized, potable water. 
Scientists also use ascorbic acid in fluorescence microscopy, an essential tool to understanding cell biology. 
In this application, ascorbic acid helps increase fluorescence, making cells more visible to researchers. 
In plastic manufacturing, ascorbic acid helps bring about the chemical reaction that makes plastic.

Ascorbic acid: Vitamin C, an essential nutrient found mainly in fruits and vegetables. 
The body requires ascorbic acid in order to form and maintain bones, blood vessels, and skin. 
Ascorbic acid also promotes the healing of cuts, abrasions and wounds; 
helps fight infections; inhibits conversion of irritants in smog, tobacco smoke, and certain foods into cancer-causing substances; 
appears to lessen the risk of developing high blood pressure and heart disease; 
helps regulate cholesterol levels; 
prevents the development of scurvy; appears to lower the risk of developing cataracts; and aids in iron absorption. 
Ascorbic acid can cause adverse reactions when taken with some drugs.

Why is Ascorbic acid prescribed?
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is used as a dietary supplement when the amount of ascorbic acid in the diet is not enough. 
People most at risk for ascorbic acid deficiency are those with a limited variety of food in their diet, or who have intestinal malabsorption problems from cancer or kidney disease. 
Ascorbic acid is also used to prevent and treat scurvy (a disease that causes fatigue, gum swelling, joint pain, and poor wound healing from a lack of vitamin C in the body). 
Ascorbic acid is in a class of medications called antioxidants. 
Ascorbic acid is needed by the body to help wounds heal, to enhance the absorption of iron from plant foods, and to support the immune system. 
Ascorbic acid works as an antioxidant to protect your cells against free radicals, which may play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases.

How should Ascorbic acid be used?
Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, chewable tablets, chewable gels (gummies), and liquid drops to be given by mouth. 
Ascorbic acid usually is taken once a day or as directed by your doctor. 
Ascorbic acid is available without a prescription, but your doctor may prescribe ascorbic acid to treat certain conditions. 
Follow the directions on the package or on your product label or doctor's instructions carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. 
Take ascorbic acid exactly as directed. 
Do not take more or less of it or take Ascorbic acid more often than recommended by your doctor.

Ascorbic acid may take up to 4 weeks for symptoms of scurvy to improve.
Ascorbic acid supplements are available alone and in combination with other vitamins.

Other uses for Ascorbic acid
Ascorbic acid is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

What is ascorbic acid?
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) occurs naturally in foods such as citrus fruit, tomatoes, potatoes, and leafy vegetables. 
Vitamin C is important for bones and connective tissues, muscles, and blood vessels. 
Vitamin C also helps the body absorb iron, which is needed for red blood cell production.
Ascorbic acid is used to treat and prevent vitamin C deficiency.
Ascorbic acid may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

What special precautions should I follow?
Before taking ascorbic acid,
tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to ascorbic acid, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in ascorbic acid products. 
Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ingredients.
tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. 
Be sure to mention any of the following: chemotherapy medications, fluphenazine, and niacin taken in combination with simvastatin (Flolipid, Zocor). 
Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.
tell your doctor if you have or have ever had medical conditions.
tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. 
If you become pregnant while taking ascorbic acid, call your doctor.
tell your doctor if you use tobacco products. 
Cigarette smoking may decrease the effectiveness of ascorbic acid and you may need to take a larger dose. 
Talk to your doctor or pharmacist about your dose of ascorbic acid if you use tobacco products.

What happens if I miss a Ascorbic acid dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. 
Skip the missed dose if Ascorbic acid is almost time for your next scheduled dose. 
Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What should I avoid while taking ascorbic acid?
Follow your doctor's instructions about any restrictions on food, beverages, or activity.

How should I take ascorbic acid?
Use exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. 
Do not use in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.
The recommended dietary allowance of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) increases with age. 
Follow your healthcare provider's instructions. 
You may also consult the Office of Dietary Supplements of the National Institutes of Health, or the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Nutrient Database (formerly "Recommended Daily Allowances") listings for more information.
Drink plenty of liquids while you are taking ascorbic acid.
The chewable tablet must be chewed before you swallow it.

What special dietary instructions should I follow when using Ascorbic acid?
Some forms of ascorbic acid contain sodium and should be avoided if you are on a sodium- or salt-restricted diet.

What should I do if I forget a Ascorbic acid dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember Ascorbic acid. 
However, if Ascorbic acid is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. 
Do not take Ascorbic acid double dose to make up for a missed one.

Scurvy
The disease scurvy is caused by vitamin C deficiency and can be prevented and treated with vitamin C-containing foods or dietary supplements.
Ascorbic acid takes at least a month of little to no vitamin C before symptoms occur.
Early symptoms are malaise and lethargy, progressing to shortness of breath, bone pain, bleeding gums, susceptibility to bruising, poor wound healing, and finally fever, convulsions and eventual death.
Until quite late in the disease the damage is reversible, as healthy collagen replaces the defective collagen with vitamin C repletion. 
Treatment can be oral supplementation of the vitamin or by intramuscular or intravenous injection.
Scurvy was known to Hippocrates in the classical era. 
The disease was shown to be prevented by citrus fruits in an early controlled trial by a Royal Navy surgeon, James Lind, in 1747, on board HMS Salisbury and from 1796 lemon juice was issued to all Royal Navy crewmen.

Ascorbic acid infection
Further information: Vitamin C and the common cold
Black and white photo of Nobel Prize winner, Linus Pauling.
The Nobel prizewinner Linus Pauling advocated taking vitamin C for the common cold in a 1970 book.
Research on vitamin C in the common cold has been divided into effects on prevention, duration, and severity. 
A Cochrane review which looked at at least 200 mg/day concluded that vitamin C taken on a regular basis was not effective in prevention of the common cold. 
Restricting analysis to trials that used at least 1000 mg/day also saw no prevention benefit. 
However, taking vitamin C on a regular basis did reduce the average duration by 8% in adults and 14% in children, and also reduced severity of colds.
A subsequent meta-analysis in children found that vitamin C approached statistical significance for prevention and reduced the duration of upper respiratory tract infections.
A subset of trials in adults reported that supplementation reduced the incidence of colds by half in marathon runners, skiers, or soldiers in subarctic conditions.
Another subset of trials looked at therapeutic use, meaning that vitamin C was not started unless the people started to feel the beginnings of a cold. 
In these, vitamin C did not affect duration or severity.
An earlier review stated that vitamin C did not prevent colds, did reduce duration, did not reduce severity.

The authors of the Cochrane review concluded that:
The failure of vitamin C supplementation to reduce the incidence of colds in the general population indicates that routine vitamin C supplementation is not justified.
Regular supplementation trials have shown that vitamin C reduces the duration of colds, but this was not replicated in the few therapeutic trials that have been carried out. 
Nevertheless, given the consistent effect of vitamin C on the duration and severity of colds in the regular supplementation studies, and the low cost and safety, it may be worthwhile for common cold patients to test on an individual basis whether therapeutic vitamin C is beneficial for them."
Vitamin C distributes readily in high concentrations into immune cells, has antimicrobial and natural killer cell activities, promotes lymphocyte proliferation, and is consumed quickly during infections, effects indicating a prominent role in immune system regulation.
The European Food Safety Authority found a cause and effect relationship exists between the dietary intake of vitamin C and functioning of a normal immune system in adults and in children under three years of age.

What is Ascorbic Acid and how is Ascorbic acid used?
Ascorbic Acid is an over the counter and prescription medicine used to treat the symptoms of Ascorbic Acid Deficiency (Scurvy), Urinary Acidification and as a nutritional supplement. 
-Ascorbic Acid may be used alone or with other medications.
-Ascorbic Acid belongs to a class of drugs called Vitamins, Water-Soluble.

Ascorbic Acid (vitamin c) Injection is a sterile solution. 
Each mL contains: Ascorbic Acid (vitamin c) 250 mg and Edetate Disodium 0.025% in Water for Injection qs. 
Prepared with the aid of Sodium Bicarbonate. 
Sodium Hydroxide and/or Hydrochloric Acid may have been used to adjust pH.

No preservative added.
DESCRIPTION
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a water-soluble vitamin. 
Ascorbic acid occurs as a white or slightly yellow crystal or powder with a slight acidic taste. 
Ascorbic acid is an antiscorbutic product. On exposure to light, it gradually darkens. 
In the dry state, Ascorbic acid is reasonably stable in air, but in solution it rapidly oxidizes. 
Ascorbic acid (vitamin c) is freely soluble in water; sparingly soluble in alcohol; insoluble in chloroform, in ether, and in benzene. 
The chemical name of ascorbic acid (vitamin c) is L-ascorbic acid (vitamin c) . 
The empirical formula is C6H806, and the molecular weight is 176.13. 

Take this vitamin by mouth with or without food, usually 1 to 2 times daily. 
Follow all directions on the product package, or take as directed by your doctor.
If you are taking the extended-release capsules, swallow them whole. 
Do not crush or chew extended-release capsules or tablets. 
Doing so can release all of the drug at once, increasing the risk of side effects. 
Also, do not split extended-release tablets unless they have a score line and your doctor or pharmacist tells you to do so. 
Swallow the whole or split tablet without crushing or chewing. 
Take this product with a full glass of water (8 ounces/240 milliliters) unless your doctor directs you otherwise.
If you are taking the wafers or chewable tablets, chew them thoroughly and then swallow. 
If you are taking the lozenges, place the lozenge in your mouth and allow it to slowly dissolve.
If you are taking the powder, mix Ascorbic acid thoroughly in the proper amount of liquid or soft food and stir well. 
Take all of the mixture right away. 
Do not prepare a supply for future use. 
If you are using the liquid form of this vitamin, carefully measure the dose using a special measuring device/spoon. 
Do not use a household spoon because you may not get the correct dose.
Dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment.
Use this vitamin regularly to get the most benefit from it. 
To help you remember, take Ascorbic acid at the same time(s) each day.
If you think you may have a serious medical problem, seek immediate medical attention.

Biology:

Ascorbic acid significance:
Vitamin C is an essential nutrient for certain animals including humans. 
The term vitamin C encompasses several vitamers that have vitamin C activity in animals. 
Ascorbate salts such as sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate are used in some dietary supplements. 
These release ascorbate upon digestion. 
Ascorbate and ascorbic acid are both naturally present in the body, since the forms interconvert according to pH. 
Oxidized forms of the molecule such as dehydroascorbic acid are converted back to ascorbic acid by reducing agents.

Vitamin C functions as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions in animals (including humans) that mediate a variety of essential biological functions, including wound healing and collagen synthesis. 
In humans, vitamin C deficiency leads to impaired collagen synthesis, contributing to the more severe symptoms of scurvy.
Another biochemical role of vitamin C is to act as an antioxidant (a reducing agent) by donating electrons to various enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions.
Doing so converts vitamin C to an oxidized state - either as semidehydroascorbic acid or dehydroascorbic acid. 
These compounds can be restored to a reduced state by glutathione and NADPH-dependent enzymatic mechanisms.
In plants, vitamin C is a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase. 
This enzyme utilizes ascorbate to neutralize excess hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by converting it to water (H2O) and oxygen.

CAS Number: 50-81-7 
as salt: 134-03-2 
PubChem CID: 54670067
as salt: 23667548
IUPHAR/BPS: 4781
DrugBank: DB00126 
as salt: DB14482 
ChemSpider: 10189562 
as salt: 16736174 
UNII: PQ6CK8PD0R
as salt: S033EH8359 
KEGG: D00018 
as salt: D05853
ChEBI: CHEBI:29073 
as salt: CHEBI:113451 
ChEMBL: ChEMBL196
as salt: ChEMBL591665
NIAID ChemDB: 002072
PDB ligand: ASC (PDBe, RCSB PDB)
E number: E300 (antioxidants, ...) 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID5020106
ECHA InfoCard: 100.000.061 

Deficiency:

Main article: Scurvy
Vitamin C blood serum levels are considered saturated at levels > 65 μmol/L (1.1 mg/dL), achieved by consuming amounts which are at, or above, the Recommended Dietary Allowance, while adequate levels are defined as ≥ 50 μmol/L. 
Hypovitaminosis in the case of vitamin C is defined as ≤ 23 μmol/L and deficiency occurs at ≤ 11.4 μmol/L.
For those 20 years of age or above, data from the U.S. 2003-04 NHANES survey showed mean and median serum concentrations of 49.0 and 54.4 μmol/L, respectively. 
The percent of people reported as deficient was 7.1%.

Scurvy is a disease resulting from a deficiency of vitamin C. 
Without this vitamin, collagen made by the body is too unstable to perform its function and several other enzymes in the body do not operate correctly.
Scurvy is characterized by spots on and bleeding under the skin, spongy gums, 'corkscrew' hair growth, and poor wound healing. 
The skin lesions are most abundant on the thighs and legs, and a person with the ailment looks pale, feels depressed, and is partially immobilized. 
In advanced scurvy there are open, suppurating wounds, loss of teeth, bone abnormalities and, eventually, death.

Notable human dietary studies of experimentally induced scurvy were conducted on conscientious objectors during World War II in Britain and on Iowa state prisoners in the late 1960s to the 1980s. 
Men in the prison study developed the first signs of scurvy about four weeks after starting the vitamin C-free diet, whereas in the earlier British study, six to eight months were required, possibly due to the pre-loading of this group with a 70 mg/day supplement for six weeks before the scorbutic diet was fed. 
Men in both studies had blood levels of ascorbic acid too low to be accurately measured by the time they developed signs of scurvy. 
These studies both reported that all obvious symptoms of scurvy could be completely reversed by supplementation of only 10 mg a day.

Ascorbic acid
Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin, meaning that your body doesn't store it. 
You have to get what you need from food, including citrus fruits, broccoli, and tomatoes.

You need vitamin C for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of your body. 
Ascorbic acid helps the body make collagen, an important protein used to make skin, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. 
Vitamin C is needed for healing wounds, and for repairing and maintaining bones and teeth. 
Ascorbic acid also helps the body absorb iron from nonheme sources.

Vitamin C is an antioxidant, along with vitamin E, beta-carotene, and many other plant-based nutrients. 
Antioxidants block some of the damage caused by free radicals, substances that damage DNA. 
The build up of free radicals over time may contribute to the aging process and the development of health conditions such as cancer, heart disease, and arthritis.

Ascorbic acid’s rare to be seriously deficient in vitamin C, although evidence suggests that many people may have low levels of vitamin C. 
Smoking cigarettes lowers the amount of vitamin C in the body, so smokers are at a higher risk of deficiency.

Signs of vitamin deficiency include dry and splitting hair;
gingivitis (inflammation of the gums) and bleeding gums;
rough, dry, scaly skin;
decreased wound-healing rate, easy bruising;
nosebleeds;
and a decreased ability to ward off infection. 
A severe form of vitamin C deficiency is known as scurvy.

Low levels of vitamin C have been associated with a number of conditions, including high blood pressure, gallbladder disease, stroke, some cancers, and atherosclerosis, the build up of plaque in blood vessels that can lead to heart attack and stroke. 
Getting enough vitamin C from your diet by eating lots of fruit and vegetables may help reduce the risk of developing some of these conditions. 
There is no conclusive evidence that taking vitamin C supplements will help or prevent any of these conditions.

Vitamin C plays a role in protecting against the following:

-Heart Disease
Results of scientific studies on whether vitamin C is helpful for preventing heart attack or stroke are mixed. 
Vitamin C doesn't lower cholesterol levels or reduce the overall risk of heart attack, but evidence suggests it may help protect arteries against damage.
Some studies suggest that vitamin C can slow down the progression of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). 
Ascorbic acid helps prevent damage to LDL ("bad") cholesterol, which then builds up as plaque in the arteries and can cause heart attack or stroke. 
Other studies suggest that vitamin C may help keep arteries flexible.
In addition, people who have low levels of vitamin C may be more likely to have a heart attack, stroke, or peripheral artery disease, all potential results of having atherosclerosis. 
Peripheral artery disease is the term used to describe atherosclerosis of the blood vessels to the legs. 
Ascorbic acid can lead to pain when walking, known as intermittent claudication. 
But there is no evidence that taking vitamin C supplements will help.
The best thing to do is get enough vitamin C through your diet. 
That way, you also get the benefit of other antioxidants and nutrients contained in food. 
If you have low levels of vitamin C and have trouble getting enough through the foods you eat, ask your doctor about taking a supplement.

-High Blood Pressure
Population-based studies (which involve observing large groups of people over time) suggest that people who eat foods rich in antioxidants, including vitamin C, have a lower risk of high blood pressure than people who have poorer diets. 
Eating foods rich in vitamin C is important for your overall health, especially if you are at risk for high blood pressure. 
The diet physicians most frequently recommend for treatment and prevention of high blood pressure, known as the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet, includes lots of fruits and vegetables, which are loaded with antioxidants.

-Common Cold
Despite the popular belief that vitamin C can cure the common cold, scientific evidence doesn't support that theory. 
Taking vitamin C supplements regularly (not just at the beginning of a cold) produces only a small reduction in the duration of a cold (about 1 day). 
The only other piece of evidence supporting vitamin C for preventing colds comes from studies examining people exercising in extreme environments (athletes, such as skiers and marathon runners, and soldiers in the Arctic). 
In these studies, vitamin C did seem to reduce the risk of getting a cold.

-Cancer
Results of many population-based studies suggest that eating foods rich in vitamin C may be associated with lower rates of cancer, including skin cancer, cervical dysplasia (changes to the cervix which may be cancerous or precancerous, picked up by pap smear), and, possibly, breast cancer. 
But these foods also contain many beneficial nutrients and antioxidants, not only vitamin C, so it's impossible to say for certain that vitamin C protects against cancer. 
Taking vitamin C supplements, on the other hand, has not been shown to have any helpful effect.
In addition, there is no evidence that taking large doses of vitamin C once diagnosed with cancer will help your treatment. 
In fact, some doctors are concerned that large doses of antioxidants from supplements could interfere with chemotherapy medications. 
More research is needed. 
If you are undergoing chemotherapy, talk to your doctor before taking vitamin C or any supplement.

-Osteoarthritis
Vitamin C is essential for the body to make collagen, which is part of normal cartilage. 
Cartilage is destroyed in osteoarthritis (OA), putting pressure on bones and joints. 
In addition, some researchers think free radicals may also be involved in the destruction of cartilage. 
Antioxidants such as vitamin C appear to limit the damage caused by free radicals. 
However, no evidence suggests that taking vitamin C supplements will help treat or prevent OA. 
What the evidence does show is that people who eat diets rich in vitamin C are less likely to be diagnosed with arthritis.
Taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can lower your levels of vitamin C. 
If you take these drugs regularly for OA, you might want to take a vitamin C supplement.

Age-related Macular Degeneration
Vitamin C (500 mg) appears to work with other antioxidants, including zinc (80 mg), beta-carotene (15 mg), and vitamin E (400 IU) to protect the eyes against developing macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of legal blindness in people over 55 in the United States. 
The people who seem to benefit are those with advanced AMD. 
Ascorbic acid isn't known whether this combination of nutrients helps prevent AMD or is beneficial for people with less advanced AMD. 
This combination includes a high dose of zinc, which you should only take under a doctor’s supervision.

-Pre-eclampsia
Some studies suggest that taking vitamin C along with vitamin E may help prevent pre-eclampsia in women who are at high risk. 
Pre-eclampsia, characterized by high blood pressure and too much protein in the urine, is a common cause of premature births. Not all studies agree, however.

-Asthma
Studies are mixed when Ascorbic acid comes to the effect of vitamin C on asthma. 
Some show that low levels of vitamin C are more common in people with asthma, leading some researchers to think that low levels of vitamin C might increase the risk for this condition. 
Other studies seem to show that vitamin C may help reduce symptoms of exercise-induced asthma.

-Other
Although the information is limited, studies suggest that vitamin C may also be helpful for:
-Boosting immunity
-Maintaining healthy gums
-Improving vision for those with uveitis (an inflammation of the middle part of the eye)
-Treating allergy-related conditions, such as asthma, eczema, and hay fever (called allergic rhinitis)
-Reducing effects of sun exposure, such as sunburn or redness (called erythema)
-Alleviating dry mouth, particularly from antidepressant medications (a common side effect from these drugs)
-Healing burns and wounds
-Decreasing blood sugar in people with diabetes
Some viral conditions, including mononucleosis; Although scientific evidence is lacking, some doctors may suggest high-dose vitamin C to treat some viruses

-Dietary Sources
Excellent sources of vitamin C include oranges, green peppers, watermelon, papaya, grapefruit, cantaloupe, strawberries, kiwi, mango, broccoli, tomatoes, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage, and citrus juices or juices fortified with vitamin C. 
Raw and cooked leafy greens (turnip greens, spinach), red and green peppers, canned and fresh tomatoes, potatoes, winter squash, raspberries, blueberries, cranberries, and pineapple are also rich sources of vitamin C. 
Vitamin C is sensitive to light, air, and heat, so you'll get the most vitamin C if you eat fruits and vegetables raw or lightly cooked.

-Available Forms
You can purchase either natural or synthetic vitamin C, also called ascorbic acid, in a variety of forms. 
Tablets, capsules, and chewables are probably the most popular forms, but vitamin C also comes in powdered crystalline, effervescent, and liquid forms. 
Vitamin C comes in doses ranging from 25 - 1,000 mg.
"Buffered" vitamin C is also available if you find that regular ascorbic acid upsets your stomach. 
An esterified form of vitamin C is also available, which may be easier on the stomach for those who are prone to heartburn.

How to Take Ascorbic acid
The best way to take vitamin C supplements is 2 - 3 times per day, with meals, depending on the dosage. 
Some studies suggest that adults should take 250 - 500 mg twice a day for any benefit. 
Talk to your doctor before taking more than 1,000 mg of vitamin C on a daily basis and before giving vitamin C to a child.
Daily intake of dietary vitamin C (according to the National Academy of Sciences) is listed below.

Pediatric
Birth - 6 months: 40 mg (Adequate intake)
Infants 6 - 12 months: 50 mg (Adequate intake)
Children 1 - 3 years: 15 mg
Children 4 - 8 years: 25 mg
Children 9 - 13 years: 45 mg
Adolescent girls 14 - 18 years: 65 mg
Adolescent boys 14 - 18 years: 75 mg

Adult
Men over 18 years: 90 mg
Women over 18 years: 75 mg
Pregnant women 14 - 18 years: 80 mg
Pregnant women over 18 years: 85 mg
Breastfeeding women 14 - 18 years: 115 mg
Breastfeeding women over 18 years: 120 mg
Because smoking depletes vitamin C, people who smoke may need an additional 35 mg per day.
The dose recommended to prevent or treat many of the conditions mentioned in the Uses section is often 500 - 1,000 mg per day.

Precautions
Because of the potential for side effects and interactions with medications, you should take dietary supplements only under the supervision of a knowledgeable health care provider.
Vitamin C supplements have a diuretic effect, meaning the help the body get rid of excess fluid. 
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids when taking them.
Most commercial vitamin C is made from corn. 
People sensitive to corn should look for alternative sources, such as sago palm.
Vitamin C increases the amount of iron absorbed from foods. 
People with hemochromatosis, an inherited condition where too much iron builds up in the body, should not take vitamin C supplements.
Vitamin C is generally considered safe because your body gets rid of what it does not use. 
But at high doses (more than 2,000 mg daily) it can cause diarrhea, gas, or stomach upset. 
If you experience these side effects, lower the dose of vitamin C.
People with kidney problems should talk to their doctor before taking vitamin C.
People who smoke or use nicotine patches may need more vitamin C because nicotine makes vitamin C less effective in the body.

Infants born to mothers taking 6,000 mg or more of vitamin C may develop rebound scurvy because their intake of vitamin C drops after birth. 
If you are pregnant, talk to your doctor before taking more than 1,000 mg of vitamin C.
People with sickle cell anemia, as well as people with a metabolic disorder called G6PD, can potentially have serious side-effects from taking high levels of vitamin C.
Thalassemia and Hemochromatosis patients could be negatively affected by increased iron absorption, which may occur from vitamin C supplementation.
Vitamin C may raise blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. 
In older women with diabetes, doses of vitamin C above 300 mg per day were associated with an increased risk of death from heart disease.
Taking vitamin C right before or after angioplasty may interfere with healing.
If you are being treated for cancer, talk to your oncologist before taking vitamin C. 
Vitamin C may potentially interact with some chemotherapy drugs.

Possible Interactions
If you are being treated with any of the following medications, you should not use vitamin C supplements without first talking to your health care provider:
Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) -- Both aspirin and NSAIDs can lower the amount of vitamin C in the body because they cause more of the vitamin to be lost in urine. 
In addition, high doses of vitamin C can cause more of these drugs to stay in the body, raising the levels in your blood. 
Early research suggests that vitamin C might help protect against stomach upset that aspirin and NSAIDs can cause. 
If you regularly take aspirin or NSAIDs, talk to your doctor before taking more than the recommended daily allowance of vitamin C.
Acetaminophen (Tylenol) -- High doses of vitamin C may lower the amount of acetaminophen passed in urine, which could cause the levels of this drug in your blood to rise.
Aluminum-containing antacids -- Vitamin C can increase the amount of aluminum your body absorbs, which could cause the side effects of these medications to be worse. 
Aluminum-containing antacids include Maalox and Gaviscon.
Barbiturates -- Barbiturates may decrease the effects of vitamin C. 
These drugs include phenobarbital (Luminal), pentobarbital (Nembutal), and seconobarbital (Seconal).
Chemotherapy drugs -- As an antioxidant, vitamin C may interfere with the effects of some drugs taken for chemotherapy. 
However, some researchers speculate that vitamin C might help make chemotherapy more effective. 
If you are undergoing chemotherapy, do not take vitamin C or any other supplement without talking to your oncologist.
Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) -- Vitamin C can cause a rise in estrogen levels when taken with these drugs. 
Oral estrogens can also decrease the effects of vitamin C in the body.
Protease inhibitors -- Vitamin C appears to slightly lower levels of indinavir (Crixivan), a medication used to treat HIV and AIDS.
Tetracycline -- Some evidence suggests that taking vitamin C with the antibiotic tetracycline may increase the levels of this medication. 
It may also decrease the effects of vitamin C in the body. 
Other antibiotics in the same family include minocycline (Minocin) and doxycycline (Vibramycin).
Warfarin (Coumadin) -- There have been rare reports of vitamin C interfering with the effectiveness of this blood-thinning medication. 
In recent follow-up studies, no effect was found with doses of vitamin C up to 1,000 mg per day. 
However, if you take warfarin or another blood thinner, talk to your doctor before taking vitamin C or any other supplement.

ascorbic acid
vitamin C
l-ascorbic acid
50-81-7
L(+)-Ascorbic acid
ascorbate
Cevitamic acid
Ascoltin
Ascorbicap
Cenolate
Natrascorb
Hybrin
Allercorb
Ascorbajen

Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin. 
Unlike most mammals and other animals, humans do not have the ability to synthesize vitamin C and must obtain it from the diet.
Vitamin C is an essential cofactor in numerous enzymatic reactions, e.g., in the biosynthesis of collagen, carnitine, and neuropeptides, and in the regulation of gene expression. 
Ascorbic acid is also a potent antioxidant. 
Prospective cohort studies indicate that higher vitamin C status, assessed by measuring circulating vitamin C, is associated with lower risks of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and stroke. 
There is some evidence to suggest that vitamin C may be a useful adjunct to conventional medical practice to reduce myocardial injury and arrhythmia following a cardiac procedure or surgery in patients with cardiovascular disease.
There are insufficient data to suggest a link between vitamin C status and the risk of developing a given type of cancer. 
Most observational studies examining vitamin C intake in relation to cancer incidence have found no association. 
Randomized controlled trials have reported no effect of vitamin C supplementation on cancer risk. 
Current evidence of the efficacy of intravenous vitamin C in cancer patients is limited to observational studies, uncontrolled interventions, and case reports. 
There is a need for large, longer-duration phase II clinical trials that test the efficacy of intravenous vitamin C in cancer progression and overall survival. 
Overall, regular use of vitamin C supplements shortens the duration of the common cold but does not reduce the risk of becoming ill. 
Taking supplements once cold symptoms have already begun has no proven benefits.
Vitamin C supplements are available in many forms, but there is little scientific evidence that any one form is better absorbed or more effective than another. 
There is no scientific evidence that large amounts of vitamin C (up to 10 grams [g]/day in adults) exert any adverse or toxic effects. 
An upper intake level of 2 g/day is recommended in order to prevent some adults from experiencing diarrhea and gastrointestinal disturbances.
Supplemental vitamin C increases urinary oxalate concentrations, but whether an increase in urinary oxalate elevates the risk for kidney stones is not yet known. 
Those predisposed for kidney stone formation may consider avoiding high-dose (≥1 g/day) vitamin C supplementation.  

Function
Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) is a potent reducing agent, meaning that it readily donates electrons to recipient molecules. 
Related to this oxidation-reduction (redox) potential, two major functions of vitamin C are as an antioxidant and as an enzyme cofactor.
Vitamin C is the primary water-soluble, non-enzymatic antioxidant in plasma and tissues. 
Even in small amounts, vitamin C can protect indispensable molecules in the body, such as proteins, lipids (fats), carbohydrates, and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), from damage by free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are generated during normal metabolism, by active immune cells, and through exposure to toxins and pollutants (e.g., certain chemotherapy drugs and cigarette smoke). 
Vitamin C also participates in redox recycling of other important antioxidants; for example, vitamin C is known to regenerate vitamin E from its oxidized form.
The role of vitamin C as a cofactor is also related to its redox potential.
By maintaining enzyme-bound metals in their reduced forms, vitamin C assists mixed-function oxidases in the synthesis of several critical biomolecules.
These enzymes are either monooxygenases or dioxygenases. 
Symptoms of vitamin C deficiency, such as poor wound healing and lethargy, likely result from the impairment of these vitamin C-dependent enzymatic reactions leading to the insufficient synthesis of collagen, carnitine, and catecholamines (see Deficiency). 
Moreover, several dioxygenases involved in the regulation of gene expression and the maintenance of genome integrity require vitamin C as a cofactor. 
Indeed, research has recently uncovered the crucial role played by enzymes, such as the TET dioxygenases and Jumonji domain-containing histone demethylases, in the fate of cells and tissues. 
These enzymes contribute to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression by catalyzing reactions involved in the demethylation of DNA and histones.

M.Wt: 176.12
Formula: C6H8O6
Solubility: Soluble to 500 mM in water and to 100 mM in DMSO
Purity: ≥99%
Storage: Store at RT
CAS No: 50-81-7

Ascorbutina
Ascorteal
Cescorbat
Cetemican
Cevitamin
Citriscorb
Laroscorbine
Lemascorb
Proscorbin
Roscorbic
Secorbate
Testascorbic
Vitacimin
Vitamisin
Vitascorbol
Ascorin
Ascorvit
Cantaxin
Cebicure
Cebione
Cegiolan

Ascorbic acid is vitamin C, an antioxidant that’s sometimes used as a dietary supplement or to prevent and treat scurvy (a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in the body).  
People also commonly take vitamin C to lessen the severity of symptoms associated with the common cold.
Vitamin C is important for maintaining healthy bones, teeth, connective tissue, muscles, skin, and capillaries. 
Ascorbic acid also helps your body absorb iron.
Many foods are naturally high in vitamin C, including citrus fruits, leafy vegetables, and tomatoes.

Ascorbic acid BENEFITS:
-Provides advanced environmental protection by neutralizing damaging free radicals
-Visible anti-aging benefits, such as the improvement of the appearance of lines and wrinkles, loss of firmness, and brightens skin’s complexion
-Neutralizes free radicals on the upper layer of the skin to help prevent the impact of ozone damage to skin
-Once absorbed, this vitamin C serum remains effective for a minimum of 72 hours
-Paraben-free and ideal for normal, dry, and sensitive skin types
-Tested suitable for use post-laser, always consult with a physician for individual post-procedure care

Your body uses extra vitamin C during times of increased need such as illness or infection so unless extra care is taken to increase dietary intake during these times, daily supplies are likely to fall short. 
This is when supplemental vitamin C may be a useful addition to your diet.
-Ascorbic acid is the form of vitamin C found naturally in food. 
Ascorbic acid has good bioavailability but some people find it too acidic on their gut and can’t tolerate higher doses.
-Bioflavonoids are beneficial plant compounds often added to vitamin C supplements. 
They deliver extra immune benefits and may help to increase bioavailability.
-Mineral ascorbates such as calcium and magnesium ascorbate are often called ‘buffered’ vitamin C. 
Many people find these to be gentler forms of vitamin C that are better tolerated by the gut. 
Ascorbic acid is important however to consider the accompanying dose of mineral (calcium, magnesium etc.) when taking higher levels.
-Time-release vitamin C is often the preferred choice since vitamin C has better bioavailability when taken in smaller doses throughout the day. 
A time-release formula aims to solve this problem without taking multiple tablets, by releasing the vitamin C slowly throughout the day.

What is Ascorbic acid?
Ascorbic Acid, also known as Vitamin C, is a naturally occurring organic compound with antioxidant properties found in many foods like citrus fruits, tomatoes, and red peppers.  
Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient for the human body and also a common dietary supplement.
Historically, Ascorbic acid was common knowledge to sailors in the 18th century that lemon and lime juice could help prevent scurvy. 
By early 1907, two Norwegian physicians investigating dietary-deficiency diseases discovered an essential disease-preventing compound in foods, which eventually came to be called vitamin C.

What does Ascorbic acid do?
Ascorbic acid’s primary function in our personal care products is as an antioxidant. 
While ascorbic acid when taken as a supplement helps prevent cell damage in the human body, the antioxidant properties in the finished product help to protect the product integrity and extend the shelf life of the product. 
Ascorbic acid can also be used as a pH adjuster.

How is Ascorbic acid made?
Our Stewardship Model guides us to select ingredients which have been processed in a manner that supports our philosophy of human and environmental health.
Ascorbic acid can be sourced from citrus fruits or prepared from corn glucose by a method based on the historical “Reichstein process”. The ascorbic acid that we use is derived from citrus fruits.

What are the alternatives?
There are many ingredients with antioxidant properties, including vitamin E – another commonly used natural antioxidant. There are also many synthetic antioxidants like butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) that Tom’s of Maine would not consider as they do not meet our Stewardship Model guidelines.

Ceglion
Celaskon
Cemagyl
Cenetone
Cergona
Cetamid
Cevalin
Cevatine
Cevimin
Cevital
Cevitan
Cevitex
Colascor
Concemin
Redoxon
Vicelat
Viforcit
Viscorin
Vitacee
Vitacin
Adenex

Ascorbic acid (ascorbic acid) is a nutrient your body needs to form blood vessels, cartilage, muscle and collagen in bones. 
Vitamin C is also vital to your body's healing process.
Ascorbic acid is an antioxidant that helps protect your cells against the effects of free radicals — molecules produced when your body breaks down food or is exposed to tobacco smoke and radiation from the sun, X-rays or other sources. 
Free radicals might play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases. 
Vitamin C also helps your body absorb and store iron.
Because your body doesn't produce vitamin C, you need to get it from your diet. 
Ascorbic acid is found in citrus fruits, berries, potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli and spinach. 
Vitamin C is also available as an oral supplement, typically in the form of capsules and chewable tablets.
Most people get enough vitamin C from a healthy diet. 
Ascorbic acid deficiency is more likely in people who:

Smoke or are exposed to secondhand smoking
Have certain gastrointestinal conditions or certain types of cancer
Have a limited diet that doesn't regularly include fruits and vegetables
Severe vitamin C deficiency can lead to a disease called scurvy, which causes anemia, bleeding gums, bruising and poor wound healing.

If you take vitamin C for its antioxidant properties, keep in mind that the supplement might not offer the same benefits as naturally occurring antioxidants in food.
The recommended daily amount of vitamin C is 90 milligrams for adult men and 75 milligrams for adult women.

Ascorb
Cantan
Cebid
Cebion
Cecon
Cemill
Cereon
Cevex
Ciamin
Cipca
Hicee
Ribena
Vitace

What are the possible side effects of Ascorbic Acid?
Ascorbic Acid may cause serious side effects including:
-nausea,
-vomiting,
-heartburn,
-stomach cramps, and
-headache
Get medical help right away, if you have any of the symptoms listed above.

L-Ascorbic acid is an inhibitor of Cav3.2 channels (IC50 = 6.5 μM); displays no effect on Cav3.1 or Cav3.3 channels heterologously expressed in HEK 293 cells. 
Also enhances the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from mouse and human somatic cells by increasing reprogramming efficiency. 
Commonly used antifade reagent in live cell microscopy. 
Naturally occurring antioxidant.

Xitix
L-ascorbate
Davitamon C
Arco-cee
Planavit C
Catavin C
Ce lent
Liqui-Cee
Vicomin C
Cee-Vite
Cevi-Bid
Scorbu-C
C-Level
C-Vimin
Cetane-Caps TD
Duoscorb
Scorbacid
Cewin
Antiscorbic vitamin
C-Long

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, has several important functions.
Ascorbic acid include:
-helping to protect cells and keeping them healthy
-maintaining healthy skin, blood vessels, bones and cartilage
-helping with wound healing
-Lack of vitamin C can lead to scurvy.

Good sources of vitamin C
Vitamin C is found in a wide variety of fruit and vegetables.

Good sources include:
-citrus fruit, such as oranges and orange juice
-peppers
-strawberries
-blackcurrants
-broccoli
-brussels sprouts
-potatoes

How much vitamin C do I need?
Adults aged 19 to 64 need 40mg of vitamin C a day.

You should be able to get all the vitamin C you need from your daily diet.
Vitamin C cannot be stored in the body, so you need it in your diet every day.

What happens if I take too much vitamin C?
Taking large amounts (more than 1,000mg per day) of vitamin C can cause:
-stomach pain
-diarrhoea
-flatulence
These symptoms should disappear once you stop taking vitamin C supplements.

What does the Department of Health and Social Care advise?
You should be able to get all the vitamin C you need by eating a varied and balanced diet.
If you take vitamin C supplements, do not take too much as this could be harmful.
Taking less than 1,000mg of vitamin C supplements a day is unlikely to cause any harm.

C-Quin
C-Span
Meri-C
Cee-Caps TD
L-Lyxoascorbic acid
L-Xyloascorbic acid
Antiscorbutic vitamin
Cetane-Caps TC
3-Oxo-L-gulofuranolactone
Ce-Mi-Lin
IDO-C
Natrascorb injectable
L-(+)-Ascorbic Acid
CE-VI-Sol
Ferrous ascorbate
Acidum ascorbinicum
Ascor-B.I.D.

What is the difference between Vitamin C and ascorbic acid?
Vitamin C and ascorbic acid are chemically identical. 
The vitamin C that occurs naturally in an orange or lemon is the same molecule as synthetic ascorbic acid developed in a laboratory.

What are the health benefits of ascorbic acid?
Ascorbic acid is also well studied for Ascorbic acids health benefits. 
Oregon State University’s Micronutrient Information Center states that the antioxidant properties of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and Ascorbic acids role in collagen synthesis make it a vital molecule for skin health.
According to NCI, dietary antioxidants like vitamin C can neutralize damage to cells caused by free radicals, which may play a role in the prevention of cancer and other health conditions.

Acidum ascorbicum
Celin
Dora-C-500
Kyselina askorbova
3-Keto-L-gulofuranolactone
Cortalex
Ferancee
Stuartinic
Tolfrinic
(R)-5-((S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl)-3,4-dihydroxyfuran-2(5H)-one
Acido ascorbico
Acide ascorbique
Antiscorbutic factor
L-3-Ketothreohexuronic acid lactone
L-Threoascorbic acid
Chromagen
Kyselina askorbova [Czech]

Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a water-soluble vitamin and a recognized antioxidant drug that is used topically in dermatology to treat and prevent the changes associated with photoaging, as well as for the treatment of hyperpigmentation. 
Ascorbic acid has neutralizing properties of free radicals, being able to interact with superoxide, hydroxyl and free oxygen ions, preventing the inflammatory processes, carcinogens, and other processes that accelerate photoaging in the skin. 
Current research focuses on the search for stable compounds of ascorbic acid and new alternatives for administration in the dermis. 
Unlike plants and most animals, humans do not have the ability to synthesize our own ascorbic acid due to the deficiency of the enzyme L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, which catalyzes the passage terminal in the ascorbic acid biosynthesis. 
To deal with this situation, humans obtain this vitamin from the diet and/or vitamin supplements, thus preventing the development of diseases and achieving general well-being. 
Ascorbic acid is involved in important metabolic functions and is vital for the growth and maintenance of healthy bones, teeth, gums, ligaments, and blood vessels. 
Ascorbic acid is a very unstable vitamin and is easily oxidized in aqueous solutions and cosmetic formulations. 
Ascorbic acid is extensively used as an ingredient in anti-aging cosmetic products, as sodium ascorbate or ascorbyl palmitate. 
This review discusses and describes the potential roles for ascorbic acid in skin health and their clinical applications (antioxidative, photoprotective, anti-aging, and anti-pigmentary effects) of topical ascorbic acid on the skin and main mechanisms of action. 
Considering the instability and difficulty in administering ascorbic acid, we also discuss the importance of several factors involved in the formulation and stabilization of their topical preparations in this review.

Caswell No. 061B
Vicin
Acide ascorbique [INN-French]
Acido ascorbico [INN-Spanish]
Acidum ascorbicum [INN-Latin]
Sodascorbate
Ascorbicin
NCI-C54808
L-threo-Hex-2-enonic acid, gamma-lactone
L-threo-Ascorbic acid
FEMA No. 2109
3-Oxo-L-gulofuranolactone (enol form)
UNII-PQ6CK8PD0R

Possible interactions include:
Aluminum: 
Taking vitamin C can increase your absorption of aluminum from medications containing aluminum, such as phosphate binders. 
This can be harmful for people with kidney problems.
Chemotherapy:
There is concern that use of antioxidants, such as vitamin C, during chemotherapy might reduce the effect of chemotherapy drugs.
Estrogen:
Taking vitamin C with oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy might increase your estrogen levels.
Protease inhibitors:
Oral use of vitamin C might reduce the effect of these antiviral drugs.
Statins and niacin: 
When taken with vitamin C, the effects of niacin and statins, which might benefit people with high cholesterol, could be reduced.
Warfarin (Jantoven):
High doses of vitamin C might reduce your response to this anticoagulant.

monodehydro-L-ascorbic acid
MFCD00064328
Cetebe
Ascorbin
(+)-Ascorbic acid
Hex-2-enonic acid gamma-lactone, L-threo-
Iron(II) ascorbate
PQ6CK8PD0R
component of E and C-Level
component of Endoglobin Forte
Vasc
Ascorbicab
CHEBI:29073
CCRIS 57
component of Cortalex
component of Ferancee
HSDB 818
NCGC00164357-01
E300
DSSTox_CID_106
E-300
hex-1-enofuranos-3-ulose
Iron-ascorbic acid complexes
DSSTox_RID_75370
DSSTox_GSID_20106
Kangbingfeng
Chewcee

Ascorbic acid—also known as L-ascorbic acid—has the most research of any form of vitamin C when it comes to skin, and in fact is the most abundant naturally occurring antioxidant in our skin. 
Concentrations between 5–20% can improve numerous the appearance of signs of aging, including discolorations, wrinkles, and loss of firmness due to sun damage. 
Lower concentrations such as those between 0.3–2% also offer benefits, such as improvement of uneven skin tone, fine lines, and boosting skin’s antioxidant supply.
Ascorbic acid is also a powerhouse when mixed with other antioxidants, especially vitamin E, and is particularly great for evening out skin tone when used alone in higher concentrations, such as 15%, 20%, or greater. 
Vitamins C and E work together to keep each other stabilized and able to exert their benefits in skin longer.
In order to be most effective in higher concentrations, any water-based vitamin C formula’s pH should be 3.5 or lower. 
This helps improve stability and permeability of ascorbic acid, allowing it to do more than work as an antioxidant.
Ascorbic acid is a particularly vulnerable antioxidant when exposed to UV light and air, so it must be packaged to protect it from these elements during routine use. 
If not, its effectiveness will gradually become diminished to the point of not working at all. 
You will see this as discoloration from oxidation which causes the product to turn a copper to brownish color. 
For this reason, avoid any vitamin C (ascorbic acid) products packaged in traditional, open-mouthed jars or clear bottles.
Dropper-based dispenser-type packaging should also have air-restrictive capabilities to improve stability. 
And for maximum potency, it’s best to use a water-based vitamin C treatment within 3 months of opening. 
With once-daily usage, most people will find they go through their vitamin C product within a couple months.
Considered safe as used in cosmetics, ascorbic acid is also fine to use with retinol and niacinamide without any of these ingredients causing the other to break down or lose effectiveness beyond what would normally occur due to air and light exposure, which is why ingredients like these need to be routinely applied.

Citrovit
Juvamine
6730-29-6
Ceklin
L(+)-Ascorbic acid, 99%
(+)-Sodium L-ascorbate
Rovimix C
Scorbu C
Ascorbinsaeure
Parentrovite
Cell C
L(+)-Ascorbic acid, ACS reagent
Viscorin 100M
(2R)-2-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-2H-furan-5-one
Ronotec 100
Suncoat VC 40
(5R)-5-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-one
Rontex 100
Ascorbicap (TN)
Xyloascorbic acid, L-
Ascoltin (TN)

Ascorbic Acid is a naturally occurring lactone that is produced by plants and many animals, but not humans or other primates. 
Ascorbic acid acts as an electron donor (i.e. reducing agent), and shows antioxidant activity, particularly against reactive oxygen species. 
Ascorbic Acid is a cofactor for monooxygenase and dioxygenase as well as other enzymes (Arrigoni & De Tullio; Du et al.).

Ascorbic acid REPROGRAMMING
-Increases the efficiency of reprogramming mouse and human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells (Esteban et al.) partly through JHDM1 histone demethylase activity (Wang et al.).
-Prevents aberrant DNA methylation of the Dlk1-Dio3 locus during reprogramming of mouse somatic cells to iPS cells (Stadtfeld et al.).

Ascorbic acid MAINTENANCE AND SELF-RENEWAL
-Supports proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (Choi et al.).

Ascorbic acid DIFFERENTIATION
-Promotes differentiation of osteoblasts from human and mouse mesenchymal cells (Pittenger et al.; Tropel et al.).
-Promotes differentiation of osteoblasts from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells (zur Nieden et al.).
-Enhances differentiation of cardiomyocytes from mouse ES cells (Takahashi et al.).

Some notes on ascorbic acid
Ascorbic acid is an unnecessary additive, which can weaken the gluten in longer-fermented doughs.
One of its functions is to help ‘convey the impression of improved freshness to the customer.
We believe that bakers improving their knowledge and skills to get the most out of natural ingredients is more beneficial all round than falling back on an artificial additive
By helping gluten to ‘relax’ it can have the incidental effect of increasing the speed of rising, which is moving in the wrong direction of our aim to encouraging bakers to prolong dough fermentation

What are the possible side effects of ascorbic acid?
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Stop using ascorbic acid and call your doctor at once if you have:
joint pain, weakness or tired feeling, weight loss, stomach pain;
chills, fever, increased urge to urinate, painful or difficult urination; or
severe pain in your side or lower back, blood in your urine.
Common side effects may include:

heartburn, upset stomach; or
nausea, diarrhea, stomach cramps.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. 
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. 

What is the most important information I should know about ascorbic acid?
Follow all directions on your medicine label and package. 
Tell each of your healthcare providers about all your medical conditions, allergies, and all medicines you use.

[14C]ascorbic acid
Ascorbic acid [BAN:INN:JAN]
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
[14C]-ascorbic acid
ascorbic acid (vit C)
L-Ascorbic acid, meets USP testing specifications
2-(1,2-Dihydroxyethyl)-4,5-dihydroxyfuran-3-one
299-36-5
EINECS 200-066-2
NSC 33832
Cevitamate
Ascor
L-lyxoascorbate
L-xyloascorbate
.Ascorbinsaure
NSC-33832
Vitamin B mixture with vitamin C
3eka
NSC-218455
Ester C
Ester-C
(+)-ascorbate
L(+)-ascorbate

Isn’t ascorbic acid just vitamin C?
Consuming the ascorbic acid that can be used in baking does not provide the beneficial effects of vitamin C found in, say, an orange as it is:
-Used in far smaller quantities than the recommended daily intake
-Largely denatured (or degraded) and its residues no longer have any beneficial properties of vitamin C
-A highly-refined substance, without the many complex bioflavonoids and other beneficial micronutrients that accompany vitamin C in fresh fruit
Like many processing aids and other food additives, is it not destroyed (as industrial loaf fabricators sometimes like to claim about such things) in the sense that its residues remain in the loaf.

How do I know if there’s ascorbic acid in flour or a loaf?
All bakers using The Real Bread Loaf Mark have signed an agreement that they will only use it for loaves baked without the use of any artificial additives or processing aids.
By law, any mill that has added ascorbic acid (E300) to its flour or baking mixes has to declare so on the label – you will find it on the ingredients, perhaps alongside other unnecessary extras, such as added enzymes… 
The same applies to wrapped loaves and other pre-packed baked goods – though if deemed by the producer to be ‘processing aids’ the added enzymes would not have to appear on a loaf wrapper.
At present, bakers and retailers do not have to provide ingredients lists for unwrapped loaves. 
As noted in our call for an Honest Crust Act, we demand a change in law to require that they do and in the meantime urge all bakers to do so voluntarily.  

L-threo-hex-2-enono-1,4-lactone
L-Ascorbic acid, free radical form
L-(+)-ascorbate
Ascorbic acid [USP:INN:BAN:JAN]
Ascorbic acid mixture with Vitamin B
Vitamin C,(S)
E 300
178101-88-7
PubChem18445
Ascorbic Acid DC97SF
(2R)-2-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-4,5-dihydroxyfuran-3-one
(5R)-5-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-3,4-dihydroxyfuran-2(5H)-one
Prestwick3_000325
L-Ascorbic acid, 99%
Ascorbic Acid mixture with Vitamin B Complex
ASCOR (TN)
SCHEMBL785
bmse000182
SCHEMBL4430

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid, ascorbate) has a controversial history in cancer treatment. 
Emerging evidence indicates that ascorbate in cancer treatment deserves re-examination. 
As research results concerning ascorbate pharmacokinetics and its mechanisms of action against tumor cells have been published, and as evidence from case studies has continued to mount that ascorbate therapy could be effective if the right protocols were used, interest among physicians and scientists has increased. 
In this review, high-dose vitamin C therapy in cancer treatment is re-evaluated.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid, ascorbate) has been well documented to reduce the incidence of most malignancies in humans. 
What has been hotly debated is whether vitamin C has any therapeutic effect in the treatment of cancer. 
Cameron and Pauling reported in 1976 and 1978 that high-dose vitamin C (typically 10 g/day, by intravenous infusion for about 10 days and orally thereafter) increased the average survival of advanced cancer patients and for a small group of responders, survival was increased to up to 20 times longer than that of controls. 
Other researchers reported benefit consisting of increased survival, improved well-being and reduced pain. 
However, two randomized clinical trials with oral ascorbate conducted by the Mayo Clinic showed no benefit. 
These negative results dampened, but did not permanently extinguish, interest in ascorbate therapy or research. 
Some research groups conducted rigorous research, particularly in the area of administering mega-doses of ascorbate intravenously 

L-Ascorbic acid, FCC, FG
BSPBio_000329
(r)-5-(1,2-dihydroxy-ethyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5h-furan-2-one
MLS002153776
CHEMBL40274
BPBio1_000363
GTPL4532
GTPL4781
INS NO.300
L-Ascorbic acid, reagent grade
DTXSID5020106
L-Ascorbic acid, >=99.0%
DTXSID50986567
INS-300

How does Vitamin C work for our skin?
Generally, vitamin C helps brighten skin tone, even out skin texture, and smooth out fine lines and wrinkles. 
Ascorbic acid’s also known as the MVP of protecting the skin against free radicals and UV ray damage from the sun because of its high levels of antioxidants. 
When you look closely in the deeper layers of the skin, vitamin C is responsible for stimulating production of collagen and elastin, which are essential in keeping your skin bouncy, firm, and youthful. 

Unfortunately, with many benefits comes some disadvantages. 
In some cases, pure ascorbic acid is irritating to work with, especially for sensitive skin types. 
In other cases, ascorbic acid itself is an unstable ingredient. 
This means that it is highly sensitive to environmental factors such as temperature, light, humidity, and air. 
This sensitivity eventually translates to loss in efficacy over time and a potential to go bad in a short period of time. 
But this doesn’t mean that you should turn away from it right away! 
There is a lot of scientific evidence that shows vitamin C being an effective ingredient for helping the skin. 
Since Ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid can be very unstable and potent, it can be quite irritating to some people, especially if you have sensitive skin. 
Luckily, there are many products formulated using Vitamin C derivatives. 
But to sum it up, the derivatives are very stable and can provide similar effects as ascorbic acid: from brightening the skin to delivering antioxidants for protecting the skin against the sun. 
Some of the common derivative ingredients include tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate (THD), magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (MAP), and ascorbyl glucoside. 
There’s also derivatives like bis-glyceryl ascorbate and 3-O ethyl ascorbic acid that may also appear as an ingredient in your skincare products. 

Ascorbic acid (JP17/USP/INN)
HMS2096A11
HMS2231N16
HMS3713A11
L-Ascorbic acid ACS reagent grade
(2R)-2-[(1S)-1,2-Dihydroxyethyl]-4,5-dihydroxy-furan-3-one
BCP27915
HY-B0166
Tox21_110315
Tox21_112104
Tox21_202127

Ascorbic acid
Ascorbic acid is by far one of the known forms of vitamin C. 
Ascorbic acid is a water-soluble vitamin that helps keep our skin, hair, and bones healthy. 
Most fruits and vegetables contain ascorbic acid, and its drug form helps treat those who have vitamin C deficiency, scurvy, delayed wound, and bone healing.

Tox21_302958
ANW-73969
gamma-lactone L-threo-Hex-2-enonate
L-Ascorbic acid, analytical standard
L-Ascorbic acid, AR, >=99.5%
s3114
AKOS016843589
Tox21_112104_1
ZINC100006770
ZINC100019304
CCG-207946
DB00126
L-Ascorbic acid, mixt. with vitamin B
NSC 218455
gamma-lactone L-threo-Hex-2-enonic acid
L-Ascorbic acid, ACS reagent, >=99%
NCGC00091517-01
NCGC00091517-02
NCGC00091517-03
NCGC00091517-06
NCGC00188972-01
NCGC00256504-01
NCGC00259676-01
53262-66-1
BP-12831
SMR001233160

Is a glass of OJ or vitamin C tablets your go-to when the sniffles come? Loading up on this vitamin was a practice spurred by Linus Pauling in the 1970s, a double Nobel laureate and self-proclaimed champion of vitamin C who promoted daily megadoses (the amount in 12 to 24 oranges) as a way to prevent colds and some chronic diseases.
Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin. 
This means that Ascorbic acid dissolves in water and is delivered to the body’s tissues but is not well stored, so it must be taken daily through food or supplements. 
Even before its discovery in 1932, nutrition experts recognized that something in citrus fruits could prevent scurvy, a disease that killed as many as two million sailors between 1500 and 1800.
Vitamin C plays a role in controlling infections and healing wounds, and is a powerful antioxidant that can neutralize harmful free radicals. 
Ascorbic acid is needed to make collagen, a fibrous protein in connective tissue that is weaved throughout various systems in the body: nervous, immune, bone, cartilage, blood, and others. 
The vitamin helps make several hormones and chemical messengers used in the brain and nerves.

L-Ascorbic acid, plant cell culture tested
AB0010512
L-Ascorbic acid, reagent grade, crystalline
A0537
A8158
AB00376923
Ascorbic Acid (L-Ascorbic Acid; Vitamin C)
SW198791-2
L-Ascorbic acid, BioUltra, >=99.5% (RT)
L-Ascorbic acid, tested according to Ph.Eur.
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3466-EP2270008A1
3466-EP2270011A1
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3466-EP2272516A2
3466-EP2272537A2
3466-EP2272822A1
3466-EP2272834A1
3466-EP2272835A1
3466-EP2272844A1

Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid or simply ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. 
Humans, unlike most animals, are unable to synthesize vitamin C endogenously, so it is an essential dietary component. 
Vitamin C is required for the enzymatic amidation of neuropeptides, production of adrenal cortical steroid hormones, promotion of the conversion of tropocollagen to collagen, and metabolism of tyrosine and folate. 
Ascorbic acid also plays a role in lipid and vitamin metabolism and is a powerful reducing agent or antioxidant. 
Specific actions include: activation of detoxifying enzymes in the liver, antioxidation, interception and destruction of free radicals, preservation and restoration of the antioxidant potential of vitamin E, and blockage of the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines. 
In addition, vitamin C appears to function in a variety of other metabolic processes in which its role has not been well characterized.
Prolonged deficiency of vitamin C leads to the development of scurvy, a disease characterized by an inability to form adequate intercellular substance in connective tissues. 
This results in the formation of swollen, ulcerative lesions in the gums, mouth, and other tissues that are structurally weakened. 
Early symptoms may include weakness, easy fatigue and listlessness, as well as shortness of breath, and aching joints, bones, and muscles.
The need for vitamin C can be increased by the use of aspirin, oral contraceptives, tetracycline, and a variety of other medications. 
Psychological stress and advancing age also tend to increase the need for vitamin C. 
Among the elderly, lack of fresh fruit and vegetables often adds vitamin C depletion to the inherently increased need, with development of near-scurvy status.

Ascorbate is transported across the plasma membrane via a Na+-dependent transporter enriched in neuroendocrine tissue, SVCT2. 
How cytosolic ascorbate reaches the lumen of the secretory pathway is currently unclear. 
Nevertheless, concentrations of ascorbate are 5- to 10-fold higher in the lumen of the secretory pathway than in the cytosol. 
The millimolar concentrations of ascorbate in the lumenal compartment ensure that lumenal copper is reduced, as required for the enzymatic cleavage of molecular oxygen by PHM. 
In this oxidation–reduction reaction, PHM converts 2 mol of ascorbate into 2 mol of semidehydroascorbate, which disproportionate to form dehydroascorbate and ascorbate. 
Other single-electron reductants can substitute for ascorbate to provide reducing equivalents for Cu2+; consistent with this, no ascorbate-specific binding site has been identified on PHM.

3466-EP2275413A1
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3466-EP2281823A2
3466-EP2284149A1
3466-EP2284150A2
3466-EP2284151A2
3466-EP2284152A2

What is the most important information I should know about ascorbic acid?
Follow all directions on your medicine label and package. 
Tell each of your healthcare providers about all your medical conditions, allergies, and all medicines you use.

What is ascorbic acid?
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) occurs naturally in foods such as citrus fruit, tomatoes, potatoes, and leafy vegetables. 
Vitamin C is important for bones and connective tissues, muscles, and blood vessels. 
Vitamin C also helps the body absorb iron, which is needed for red blood cell production.

Ascorbic acid is used to treat and prevent vitamin C deficiency.
Ascorbic acid may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking ascorbic acid?
You should not use ascorbic acid if you have ever had an allergic reaction to a vitamin C supplement.

Ask a doctor or pharmacist about using ascorbic acid if you have:
-kidney disease or a history of kidney stones;
-hereditary iron overload disorder (hematochromatosis); or
-if you smoke (smoking can make ascorbic acid less effective).
Your dose needs may be different during pregnancy or while you are breast-feeding a baby. 
Do not use ascorbic acid without your doctor's advice in either case.

Major Food Sources
-Strawberries
-Broccoli
-Kiwi
-Oranges
-Green or red peppers
-Cantaloupe
-Tomato juice
-Avacado
-Baked potato
-Green peas
-Spinach

Health Implications
Populations at Risk for Vitamin C Deficiency
The following populations may be at risk for vitamin C deficiency and may require a supplement:

People who smoke cigarettes—Due to an increased metabolic turnover of vitamin C, smokers have lower blood vitamin C levels. 
Ascorbic acid is recommended that smokers take 35 mg more per day than the applicable RDA.
People who drink excessive amounts of alcohol—This may, in part, be due to a nutritionally inadequate diet.
The elderly—Studies have shown that older adults have lower levels of serum vitamin C. 
This may be due to a diet lacking in essential nutrients.
Infants—Feeding babies evaporated or boiled milk can cause vitamin C deficiency. 
This is because heat can destroy the vitamin C found in cow's milk.
People with limited variety in their diet—People whose diets are affected by poverty; food faddists; and people with mental illness may not prepare meals that contain a variety of foods to obtain enough vitamin C.
People with malabsorption and certain chronic diseases—Those with certain medical conditions like severe intestinal malabsorption, renal disease, or cancer may not be able to absorb enough vitamin C.

Antioxidant Capabilities
Free radicals are normal by-products of metabolism, but they can cause chain reactions that result in cell damage. 
This cell damage can, in turn, increase the risk of chronic diseases, including certain forms of cancer and cardiovascular disease.
Antioxidants have the ability to stop this chain reaction. 
Vitamin C functions in the body as an antioxidant. 
Because of this antioxidant capability, vitamin C is being studied for a possible role in prevention of certain conditions like age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. 
Currently there is not sufficient evidence to recommend vitamin C for any of these conditions.

Respiratory Infections
Many people believe that taking mega-doses of vitamin C will cure a cold.
There is no scientific evidence to support this idea in the general population. 
However, there may be some preventative benefit in people exposed to extreme physical stress, cold environments, or those not getting enough vitamin C normally. 
Studies have found that taking vitamin C daily may help slightly reduce the symptoms and the duration of a cold. 
But taking vitamin C after the onset of the cold does not appear to effect the course of the illness. 
In addition, a review of studies on vitamin C found that it may be able to prevent and treat pneumonia, particularly in people who do not get enough vitamin C in their diet.

Tips For Increasing Your Vitamin C Intake:
To help increase your intake of vitamin C:
-Serve fruits and vegetables raw whenever possible.
-Leave the skin on potatoes and sweet potatoes.
-Add sliced strawberries, mango, or kiwi to your breakfast cereal.
-Use mashed avocado in place of mayonnaise as a sandwich spread.
-Throw snow peas in your stir-fry.
-Replace your morning coffee with a glass of orange or grapefruit juice.
-If you take a vitamin supplement, make sure it contains vitamin C.

3466-EP2284153A2
3466-EP2284155A2
3466-EP2284156A2
3466-EP2284164A2
3466-EP2284171A1
3466-EP2284178A2
3466-EP2284179A2
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3466-EP2287148A2

Vitamin C absorption and megadosing
The intestines have a limited ability to absorb vitamin C. Studies have shown that absorption of vitamin C decreases to less than 50% when taking amounts greater than 1000 mg. 
In generally healthy adults, megadoses of vitamin C are not toxic because once the body’s tissues become saturated with vitamin C, absorption decreases and any excess amount will be excreted in urine. 
However, adverse effects are possible with intakes greater than 3000 mg daily, including reports of diarrhea, increased formation of kidney stones in those with existing kidney disease or history of stones, increased levels of uric acid (a risk factor for gout), and increased iron absorption and overload in individuals with hemochromatosis, a hereditary condition causing excessive iron in the blood.
Absorption does not differ if obtaining the vitamin from food or supplements. 
Vitamin C is sometimes given as an injection into a vein (intravenous) so higher amounts can directly enter the bloodstream. 
This is usually only seen in medically monitored settings, such as to improve the quality of life in those with advanced stage cancers or in controlled clinical studies. 
Though clinical trials have not shown high-dose intravenous vitamin C to produce negative side effects, it should be administered only with close monitoring and avoided in those with kidney disease and hereditary conditions like hemochromatosis and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

Vitamin C is involved with numerous metabolic reactions in the body, and obtaining the RDA or slightly higher may be protective against certain disease states. 
However, a health benefit of taking larger amounts has not been found in people who are generally healthy and well-nourished. 
Cell studies have shown that at very high concentrations, vitamin C can switch roles and act as a tissue-damaging pro-oxidant instead of an antioxidant.
Ascorbic acids effects in humans at very high doses well beyond the RDA are unclear, and can lead to increased risk of kidney stones and digestive upset.

3466-EP2287150A2
3466-EP2287153A1
3466-EP2287156A1
3466-EP2289510A1
3466-EP2289883A1
3466-EP2289890A1
3466-EP2289892A1
3466-EP2292227A2
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Ascorbic acid is another name for vitamin C.
One dose a day of 25-75 mg is sufficient to prevent vitamin C deficiency. 
Higher doses are sometimes prescribed by doctors to treat a condition called scurvy (although this occurs only rarely in the UK).
Some ascorbic acid tablets should be chewed before they are swallowed and others need to be dissolved in water first.

3466-EP2292592A1
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3466-EP2295419A2
3466-EP2295426A1
3466-EP2295427A1
3466-EP2295435A1
3466-EP2298735A1

vitamin C, also called ascorbic acid, water-soluble, carbohydrate-like substance that is involved in certain metabolic processes of animals. 
Although most animals can synthesize vitamin C, it is necessary in the diet of some, including humans and other primates, in order to prevent scurvy, a disease characterized by soreness and stiffness of the joints and lower extremities, rigidity, swollen and bloody gums, and hemorrhages in the tissues of the body. 
First isolated in 1928, vitamin C was identified as the curative agent for scurvy in 1932.

The most common side effects of Ascorbic Acid include:
-injection site soreness,
-faintness, and
-dizziness

Ascorbic acid is also known as vitamin C. 
Our bodies need vitamin C to make a substance called collagen which is required for the health and repair of our skin, bones, teeth and cartilage. 
We get vitamin C from the food we eat, particularly fruit and vegetables. 
A lack of vitamin C in our diet over a period of time can lead to a condition called scurvy, although this is rare in the UK. 
Symptoms of scurvy include bleeding from the gums, bruising, and joint and muscle pains. 
Ascorbic acid has also been suggested that a lack of vitamin C may cause poor wound healing and problems fighting infection, although this has not been proved. 
Vitamin C deficiency can be treated with supplements of vitamin C (as ascorbic acid tablets) and eating foods which are rich in vitamin C.
Ascorbic acid is an ingredient of a number of vitamin preparations and some cough and cold remedies that are available to buy from retail outlets.

Tell the doctor if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away.
These are not all the possible side effects of Ascorbic Acid. 
For more information, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. 
You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

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3466-EP2311453A1

What should I tell my health care provider before I take this medicine?
They need to know if you have any of the following conditions:
-anemia
-diabetes
-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
-kidney stones
-low sodium diet
-an unusual or allergic reaction to ascorbic acid, tartrazine, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives
-pregnant or trying to get pregnant
-breast-feeding

How should I use this medicine?
Take this medicine by mouth. Chew it completely before swallowing. 
Follow the directions on the package or prescription label. 
You may take this medicine with or without food. 
If it upsets your stomach take it with food. 
Take your medicine at regular intervals. 
Do not take your medicine more often than directed.

Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. 
While this drug may be prescribed for selected conditions, precautions do apply.

Overdosage: If you think you have taken too much of this medicine contact a poison control center or emergency room at once.

NOTE: This medicine is only for you. 
Do not share this medicine with others.

Ascorbate serves as an important line of defense against H2O2 along with ascorbate peroxidase (APX).
Two molecules of ascorbate are used by APX for reduction of H2O2 to H2O. 
In addition, ascorbate reacts with other forms of ROS such as hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals and singlet O2. 
Ascorbate quenches ROS directly, acts as a substrate in both violaxanthin de-epoxidase and APX reactions and regenerate α-tocopherol. 
MDA is produced by reaction of ascorbate with ROS produces. 
The enzyme monodehydro ascorbate reductase reduces MDA back to ascorbate by using electrons from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen (NADPH) or ferredoxin. 
MDA disproportionates to form dehydroascorbate (DHA) and ascorbate, if not reduced immediately.

3466-EP2311455A1
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Vitamin C is a water-soluble, essential nutrient necessary for the normal structure and function of the skin. 
The antioxidant properties of vitamin C are due to its ability to donate electrons to neutralize free radicals. 
Vitamin C also helps to regenerate another antioxidant, vitamin E. 
Vitamin C is necessary in the hydroxylation of proline and lysine during collagen crosslinking, and the transcriptional regulation of collagen synthesis. 
Vitamin C also inhibits the elastin biosynthesis seen in aged elastotic skin.
The role of vitamin C in photoaging is linked to its ability to stimulate collagen repair as well as to prevent UVB-induced erythema and sunburn cell formation, both markers of photodamage. 
Several well controlled studies have shown its benefits in decreasing the appearance of fine lines, Vitamin C increases type I collagen mRNA, aids in elastic tissue repair, and clinically improve skin texture and pigmentation.

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C 1000
C00072
D00018
L-Ascorbic acid, p.a., ACS reagent, 99.0%
93398-EP2380568A1
AB00376923_04
AB00376923_05
L-Ascorbic acid 1000 microg/mL in Acetonitrile
L-Ascorbic acid, JIS special grade, >=99.0%
L-Ascorbic acid, Vetec(TM) reagent grade, 99%
L-Ascorbic acid, BioXtra, >=99.0%, crystalline
Q199678
L-Ascorbic acid, puriss. p.a., >=99.0% (RT)
Q27101942
47A605F0-4187-47A8-B0CE-F9E7DA1B0076
L-Ascorbic acid, p.a., ACS reagent, reag. ISO, 99.7%
Ascorbic acid, British Pharmacopoeia (BP) Reference Standard
Ascorbic acid, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
L-Ascorbic acid, certified reference material, TraceCERT(R)
L-Ascorbic acid, powder, cell culture tested, gamma-irradiated
3,4-Dihydroxy-5beta-[(S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]furan-2(5H)-one
Ascorbic acid, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
(2R)-2-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrofuran-3-one
4-((E)-2-[(2-HYDROXYETHYL)SULFANYL]DIAZENYL)BENZENECARBOXYLICACID
(5R)-5-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-3,4-dihydroxyfuran-2(5H)-one (non-preferred name)
L-Ascorbic acid solution, 1.0 mg/mL in acetonitrile: water, certified reference material
L-Ascorbic acid, anhydrous, free-flowing, Redi-Dri(TM), ACS reagent, >=99%
L-Ascorbic acid, suitable for cell culture, suitable for plant cell culture, >=98%
L-Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)-13C6 solution, 500 mug/mL in acetonitrile: water, certified reference material, ampule of 1 mL
L-Ascorbic acid, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., 99.7-100.5% (oxidimetric)
Valeryl fentanyl hydrochloride solution, 100 mug/mL in methanol (as a free base), certified reference material, ampule of 0.5 mL


2-) BUTYLATED HYDROXYTOLUENE

Butylated hydroxytoluene = BHT = dibutylhydroxytoluene = Butyl hydroxytoluene

CAS Number: 128-37-0 
EC Number: 204-881-4
Chemical formula: C15H24O
Molar mass: 220.356 g/mol

Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), also known as dibutylhydroxytoluene, is a lipophilic organic compound, chemically a derivative of phenol, that is useful for its antioxidant properties.
BHT is widely used to prevent free radical-mediated oxidation in fluids (e.g. fuels, oils) and other materials, and the regulations overseen by the U.S. F.D.A.—which considers BHT to be "generally recognized as safe"—allow small amounts to be added to foods. 
BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) is a lab-made chemical that is added to foods as a preservative. 
People also use Butylated hydroxytoluene as medicine.
BHT is used to treat genital herpes and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Some people apply BHT directly to the skin for cold sores.

BHT is used in various cosmetic products, including certain formulas containing fats or in aqueous emulsions containing certain active ingredients or plant extracts. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene is an antioxidant used in certain products to stabilise and protect the raw materials themselves, and less as an ingredient in and of itself. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene can resist high temperatures (unlike some natural antioxidants): Butylated hydroxytoluene is therefore very useful in certain raw material manufacturing processes. 
We only use Butylated hydroxytoluene as an ingredient for Butylated hydroxytoluenes antioxidant properties, helping to protect the products from oxidation and ensure the quality and stability of formulas. 

What is Butylated hydroxytoluene?
Butylated hydroxytoluene, commonly known as BHT, is an organic compound that is used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industry as an antioxidant. 
BHT is a substituted derivative of phenol. 
BHT helps to prevent the formation of free radicals and oxidation. 
When used in food products, Butylated hydroxytoluene delays oxidative rancidity of fats and oils, and prevents loss of activity of oil-soluble vitamins. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene may be found in pharmaceutical gels, creams and liquid or gelatin capsules, tablets and other pharmaceutical dosage forms. 
The ability of oral BHT to lead to cancer is a controversial topic, but most food industries have replaced it with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). 
A large review from 2002 concluded that BHT is safe for use on the skin in cosmetics.

Butylated hydroxytoluene is used for food plastic, polymer material for packing food, grease product of animal and plant, in greases and lubricants of animal and plant, and other various food, grain and oil product and cosmetis. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene is used in other industrial consumer products, polyamine resin materials , chemical synthetic product, industrial oil product, etc. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene is the antioxidant stabilizer of good effect, low cost and good quality.
BHT is a general phenolic antioxidants, which is usually being used as food antioxidants, stabilizers to delay food spoilage in food grade plastic and food package.
Butylated hydroxytoluene can also be used as antioxidant invarious lubricants, gasoline, paraffin, and various crudeoil to prevent the increasing of acid rate and viscosity.

How does Butylated hydroxytoluene work ?
BHT is an antioxidant. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene may damage the protective outer layer of viral cells. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene may keep the viruses from multiplying and/or doing more damage.

USES & EFFECTIVENESS of Butylated hydroxytoluene:
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for:
-Cold sores caused by a type of virus called herpes. 
-Developing evidence suggests that putting BHT on cold sores may help them heal faster.
-Genital herpes.
-Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
-Other conditions.
-Animal feeds 
-Cosmetics 
-Embalming fluid
-Foods  
-Beverages 
-Gum  
-Ice cream 
-Fruits  
-Cereal  
-Butter  
-Baked goods  
-Snack food  
-Dehydrated potato chips  
-Beer  
-Preserved meat  
-Dessert mixes
-Glues 
-Fuel additive 
-Medicated creams and gels 
-Paints 
-Petrolatum products 
-Plastic 
-Rubber

APPLICATIONS of Butylated hydroxytoluene:
-As food additive, Antioxidant.
-Household product ingredient.
-Industrial additive.
-Personal care product/cosmetic ingredient.
-Pesticide ingredient.
-Plastic/Rubber ingredient.
-Medical/Veterinary.

Primarily acts as an antioxidant food additive because of its ability to preserve fats. 
In cosmetics, Butylated hydroxytoluene is also used as a preservative. 
As an antioxidant, Butylated hydroxytoluene helps fight against the deterioration of cosmetic products caused by chemical reactions with oxygen. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene's also known to work synergistically with other antioxidants. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene's mostly used in makeup products such as eyeliner, lipstick, blush and foundation, but you can also find Butylated hydroxytoluene in various other cosmetic products like moisturizer, cleanser and perfume.

Natural occurrence
Phytoplankton, including the green algae Botryococcus braunii, as well as three different cyanobacteria (Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Microcystis aeruginosa and Oscillatoria sp.) are capable of producing BHT as a natural product.
The fruit lychee also produces BHT in Butylated hydroxytoluenes pericarp.
Several fungi (example Aspergillus conicus) living in olives produce BHT.

Industrial production of Butylated hydroxytoluene:
The chemical synthesis of BHT in industry has involved the reaction of p-cresol (4-methylphenol) with isobutylene (2-methylpropene), catalyzed by sulfuric acid: 
CH3(C6H4)OH + 2 CH2=C(CH3)2 → ((CH3)3C)2CH3C6H2OH
Alternatively, BHT has been prepared from 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol by hydroxymethylation or aminomethylation followed by hydrogenolysis.

Reactions of Butylated hydroxytoluene:
The species behaves as a synthetic analog of vitamin E, primarily acting as a terminating agent that suppresses autoxidation, a process whereby unsaturated (usually) organic compounds are attacked by atmospheric oxygen. 
BHT stops this autocatalytic reaction by converting peroxy radicals to hydroperoxides. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene effects this function by donating a hydrogen atom:
RO2• + ArOH → ROOH + ArO•
RO2• + ArO• → nonradical products where R is alkyl or aryl, and where ArOH is BHT or related phenolic antioxidants. 
Each BHT consumes two peroxy radicals.

Applications of Butylated hydroxytoluene:
BHT is listed by the NIH Hazardous Substances Data Bank under several categories in catalogues and databases, such as food additive, household product ingredient, industrial additive, personal care product/cosmetic ingredient, pesticide ingredient, plastic/rubber ingredient and medical/veterinary/research.

Butylated hydroxytoluene as food additive
BHT is primarily used as an antioxidant food additive.
In the United States, Butylated hydroxytoluene is classified as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) based on a National Cancer Institute study from 1979 in rats and mice.
Butylated hydroxytoluene is approved for use in the U.S. by the Food and Drug Administration: For example, 21 CFR § 137.350 allows BHT up to 0.0033% by weight in "enriched rice", while 9 CFR § 381.147] allows up to 0.01% in poultry "by fat content".
Butylated hydroxytoluene is permitted in the European Union under E321.
BHT is used as a preservative ingredient in some foods. 
With this usage BHT maintains freshness or prevents spoilage; Butylated hydroxytoluene may be used to decrease the rate at which the texture, color, or flavor of food changes.
Some food companies have voluntarily eliminated BHT from their products or have announced that they were going to phase Butylated hydroxytoluene out.

Butylated hydroxytoluene as antioxidant
BHT is also used as an antioxidant in products such as metalworking fluids, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, rubber, transformer oils, and embalming fluid. 
In the petroleum industry, where BHT is known as the fuel additive AO-29, Butylated hydroxytoluene is used in hydraulic fluids, turbine and gear oils, and jet fuels.
BHT is also used to prevent peroxide formation in organic ethers and other solvents and laboratory chemicals.
Butylated hydroxytoluene is added to certain monomers as a polymerisation inhibitor to facilitate their safe storage.
Some additive products contain BHT as their primary ingredient, while others contain the chemical merely as a component of their formulation, sometimes alongside butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA).

Description of Butylated hydroxytoluene:
Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is a man-made chemical commonly used as a preservative in processed foods. 
Similar to the synthetic preservative butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) with which Butylated hydroxytoluene is often used, BHT is an antioxidant that is soluble in oils and animal fats (it actually has greater solubility than does BHA). 
Both BHA and BHT are used to extend shelf life of processed foods by reducing the occurrence of oxidation and rancidity. 
Instead of being added directly to the food itself, BHT is usually added to the packaging material from where Butylated hydroxytoluene vaporizes into the food during storage. 
Since Butylated hydroxytoluene may be classified as an incidental food additive when used in this manner, Butylated hydroxytoluene does not legally need to be listed with other ingredients on the food label.
Processed foods most likely to contain BHT include chewing gum, active dry yeast, frozen convenience foods, prepared cereal products, prepared snacks, dried and processed meat, potato flakes, enriched rice products and shortening. 
BHT is also a chemical preservative used in animal feeds and drugs; therefore eatomg non-organic meats and dairy products may be another way in which exposure occurs. 
In addition to Butylated hydroxytoluenes use in food preservation, BHA is also used in the manufacture of rubber, tires and petroleum and is an ingredient in some cosmetics.

While BHT is on the Federal Drug Administrations Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) list of food additives, Butylated hydroxytoluene carries with it risk of toxicity. 
Although not been enough research has been conducted involving humans to establish whether or not BHT is a carcinogen (chemical capable of causing cancer), limited evidence in animals suggests that BHT is carcinogenic. 
Some of BHT's potential carcinogenicity may come from Butylated hydroxytoluenes ability to cause toxic disruption of cell signaling, a process where chemical information is transferred from one cell to another or between different structures within the same cell. 
Proper cellular communication is not only important for optimal functioning of the bodys systems, but researchers now believe that poor communication between cells may be one of the causes of overgrowth of cells, a condition which eventually leads to cancer.

BHT has been found to have other some adverse effects in animals including inhibiting normal growth patterns and causing reversible liver enlargement. 
At high levels in animals, BHT has caused significant brain and behavioral changes. 
Since BHT has been found to inhibit the enzymes that white blood cells (phagocytes) use to destroy bacteria, BHT disrupts the proper functioning of the immune system. 
Additionally, BHT seems to be capable of uncoupling a critical cellular energy-producing process known as phosphorylation with the result being a diminished supply of cellular energy available to power the cells, and therefore, the body.
Antioxidant used in foods, cosmetics, petroleum products, etc. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene may inhibit some neoplasms and facilitate others.

Butylated Hydroxytoluene or BHT is a stabiliser that can be found in cosmetic products. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene acts as an antioxidant that helps maintain the properties and performance of a product as Butylated hydroxytoluene is exposed to air (to avoid a change in odor, in color, in texture...). 
To identify BHT in our products, take a look at the ingredients list on packaging. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene can be found under the acronym BHT.

Sources
Instead of being added directly to the food itself, BHT is usually added to the packaging material from where Butylated hydroxytoluene can vaporize into the food during storage. 
Since Butylated hydroxytoluene may be classified as an incidental food additive when used in this manner, Butylated hydroxytoluene does not legally need to be listed with other ingredients on the food label. 
Processed foods most likely to feature BHT include chewing gum, active dry yeast, frozen convenience foods, prepared cereal products, prepared snacks, dried and processed meat, potato flakes, enriched rice products and shortening. 
BHT is also a chemical preservative used in animal feeds and drugs; therefore consumption of non-organic meats and dairy products may be another vector for exposure. 
In addition to Butylated hydroxytoluenes use in food preservation, BHA is also used in the manufacture of rubber, tires and petroleum and is an ingredient in some cosmetics.

Physical Effects of Butylated hydroxytoluene:
While BHT is on the Federal Drug Administrations Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) list of food additives, Butylated hydroxytoluene carries with Butylated hydroxytoluene risk of toxicity. 
Although there has not been enough research conducted involving humans to establish whether or not BHT is a carcinogen (chemical capable of causing cancer) there is limited evidence in animals that BHT is carcinogenic. 
Some of Butylated hydroxytoluenes potential carcinogenicity may come from its ability to cause toxic disruption of cell signaling, a process where chemical information is transferred from one cell to the other or between different structures within the same cell. 
Proper cellular communication is not only important for optimal functioning of the bodys systems but researchers now believe that poor communication between cells may be one of the causes of overproliferation of cells, a condition which eventually leads to cancer.
BHT has been found to have other some adverse effects in animals including inhibiting normal growth patterns and causing reversible liver enlargement while at high levels, significant brain and behavioral changes have also been observed. 
Since Butylated hydroxytoluene has been found to inhibit the enzymes that phagocytes (white blood cells) use to destroy bacteria, BHT disrupts the proper functioning of the immune system. 
Additionally, BHT seems to be capable of uncoupling a cellular energy-producing process known as phosphorylation with the result being a diminished supply of cellular energy available to power the cells, and therefore, the body.

Preferred IUPAC name
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol

We are among the pioneers in the industry, offering Butylated Hydroxytoluene to our esteemed customers. 
The offered compound is a derivative of phenol and is widely utilized as a food additive. 
This compound is formulated by our vendors using quality inputs, under hygienic environmental conditions. 
Owing to Butylated hydroxytoluenes antioxidant properties, Butylated hydroxytoluene is highly appreciated by the customers.

Features of Butylated hydroxytoluene:
-Formulated using quality inputs
-Standard formulation
-Antioxidant properties

Why Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) is Restricted
-BHT is very toxic to aquatic life and is also a skin and eye irritant.
-BHT can be transferred from the plastic packaging to the fabric which can react with the nitrogen oxide in the air and in alkaline conditions can form nitrobenzenes. 
This reaction can cause phenolic yellowing. 
Although this can occur with all colors, Butylated hydroxytoluene is most visible with white and pastel colors. 
Darker colors may appear duller in appearance.
-The solvent in the adhesive tape used to seal the packaging can leach the BHT out of the packaging film and onto the garment.

Other names
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol
3,5-Di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene
DBPC
BHT
E321
AO-29
Avox BHT
Additin RC 7110
Dibutylated hydroxytoluene
4-Methyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl phenol
3,5-(Dimethylethyl)-4-hydroxytoluene

Consumer Uses of Butylated hydroxytoluene:
Butylated hydroxytoluene is used in the following products: washing & cleaning products, lubricants and greases, plant protection products, adhesives and sealants, polishes and waxes, coating products and fertilisers. 
Other release to the environment of Butylated hydroxytoluene is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners), outdoor use, indoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. cooling liquids in refrigerators, oil-based electric heaters) and outdoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. hydraulic liquids in automotive suspension, lubricants in motor oil and break fluids).

SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS & WARNINGS
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: BHT is safe when eaten as food, but there's not enough information to know if Butylated hydroxytoluene's safe in the larger amounts that are used as medicine. 
If you are pregnant or breast-feeding, stick with food amounts until more is known.

BHT Technical Grade
Butylated hydroxytoluene is used in technical application: manufacturing of wide range of polymeric materials and rubbers. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene is a heat stabilizer for polyoefines, polystyrene, thermoplastic glue, coatings, ink; Butylated hydroxytoluene protects lubricating and transformation oils, petrol, different type of fuel from oxidation.

DOSING
The appropriate dose of BHT depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. 
At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for BHT. 
Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. 
Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

Use in foods
BHT was patented in 1947 and received approval of the Food and Drug Administration for use as a food additive and preservative in 1954. 
BHT reacts with free radicals, slowing the rate of autoxidation in food, preventing changes in the food's color, odor, and taste.
BHT is found in cereal, chewing gum and food high in fats such as potato chips and shortening.

Controversy
Concerns have been raised about the use of BHT in food products.
The compound has been banned for use in food in Japan (1958), Romania, Sweden, and Australia. 
The US has barred Butylated hydroxytoluene from infant foods.
Some food industries have voluntarily eliminated Butylated hydroxytoluene from their products. 
However, BHT is also marketed as a health food supplement in capsule form. 
In different studies, BHT has been reported to cure some cancers, but to encourage others. 
BHT is well studied because of public concern over synthetic preservatives. 
BHT was largely removed from food in the 1970s, to be replaced with the less well studied BHA.

CAS Number: 128-37-0 
CHEBI:34247 
ChEMBL: ChEMBL146 
ChemSpider: 13835296
ECHA InfoCard: 100.004.439
EC Number: 204-881-4
E number: E321 (antioxidants, ...)
KEGGD: D02413 
PubChem CID: 31404
RTECS number: GO7875000
UNII: 1P9D0Z171K
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID2020216

General information about Butylated hydroxytoluene:
Butylated hydroxytoluene, a cresol derivative, is an additive used as an antioxidant in foods, such as packet cake mixes, potato crisps, salted peanuts, and dehydrated mashed potatoes. 
In March 1990 the Danish Product Register included 440 products containing butylated hydroxytoluene; the content was below 50 ppm in 66% of these products; the main categories were paints/lacquers and hardeners for paints, glues, and fillers. 
The safety of butylated hydroxytoluene, and of a number of other food additives, has been critically reviewed in a Danish study.

Chemical formula: C15H24O
Molar mass: 220.356 g/mol
Appearance: White to yellow powder
Odor: Slight, phenolic
Density: 1.048 g/cm3
Melting point: 70 °C (158 °F; 343 K)
Boiling point: 265 °C (509 °F; 538 K)
Solubility in water: 1.1 mg/L (20 °C)
log P: 5.32
Vapor pressure: 0.01 mmHg (20 °C)

Note: The chemical specifications for some items on this product page may differ from the specifications listed above. 
For more information, consult the Safety Data Sheet or contact your Ward's representative.
Delivery information: Butylated hydroxytoluene is designed for educational and teaching laboratories, and no certificate of analysis is available

Butylated Hydroxy Toluene, butylhydroxytoluene, or BHT is a fat-soluble organic compound in a white powder form that is primarily used as an antioxidant food additive and cosmetics and, pharmaceuticals. 
Technical applications include additives in jet fuels, rubber, petroleum products, electrical transformer oil, and embalming fluid. CAS # 128-37-0

Substance name:2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol
Trade name:Butylated Hydroxy Toluene
EC no:204-881-4
CAS no:128-37-0
HS code:29153900
KH product code:100071
Formula:C15H24O

BHT is an antioxidant that prevents the oxidation of products, and in particular the fatty phase of formulas that are likely to rancor or degrade when in contact with the air. 
Oxydation is a chemical reaction through which a componant of the formula react with the oxygen. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene enables to maintain the properties and performance of a product when exposed to air.
We use BHT at an optimal and regulated concentration level: 0.1% in leave-on products and 0.5% in rinse-off products. 
The safety of our products and ingredients is an absolute priority. 
We only market products that are safe which have been subject to a very strict evaluation of their quality and safety by internal and third party experts.
As part of our commitment to continuous improvement, we are working with our suppliers to stop the use of BHT as a protecting agent of raw materials.

2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol
Butylated hydroxytoluene
128-37-0
Butylhydroxytoluene
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol
2,6-Di-t-butyl-4-methylphenol
Ionol
BHT
DBPC

Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), chemically 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (DBPC), is a white crystalline solid with a faint characteristic odor. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene is insoluble in water and in propylene glycol, but is freely soluble in alcohol. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene is obtained by alkylation of p-cresol with isobutene or by monobutylation of m,p-cresol mixtures. 
BHT is used as a chemical antioxidant for food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals much like butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). 
BHA is insoluble in water, but is freely soluble in alcohol and in propylene glycol. 
BHA is the mixture of 3-tert-buryl-4-hydroxyanisole (typically 90% w/w) and 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole. 
These phenol derivatives react with the free radicals (called free radical scavengers) can slow the rate of autoxidation that can lead to changes in the food's color and taste. 
Other antioxidants for food are phosphoric acid, citric acid, gallic acid, ascorbic acid and their esters which form complexes with the pro-oxidative metal traces. 
Antimicrobial process is also important in preserving foods. 
BHT and BHA  are used as an antioxidant in plastics, elastomers and petroleum (lubes, greases and waxes), practically bigger market size than food field. 
BHT is also used as a stabilizer to inhibit the auto-polymerization of organic peroxides.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF ANTIOXIDANT: Antioxidant is a substance added in small quantities to hydrocarbons which are susceptible to oxidation, such as rubbers, plastics, foods, and oils to inhibit or slow oxidative processes, while being itself oxidized. 
Antioxidants work in two different ways. 
In primary antioxidants (also called free-radical scavengers), antioxidative activity is implemented by the donation of an electron or hydrogen atom to a radical derivative. 
These antioxidants are usually hindered amines (p-Phenylene diamine, trimethyl dihydroquinolines, alkylated diphenyl amines) or substituted phenolic compounds with one or more bulky functional groups such as a tertiary butyl at 2,6 position commonly. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is a common example of hindered phenolic antioxidant. 
The reaction rate, or carbocation stability, in SN1 mechanism is 3° > 2° > 1° > CH3 (no SN1) so, tertiary alkyl moiety exists in lots of phenolic antioxidant compounds. 
Primary antioxidants are free radical scavengers which combine with peroxy radicals and break autocatalytic cycle. 
In secondary antioxidants ( also called peroxide decomposers), activity is implemented by the removal of an oxidative catalyst and the consequent prevention of the initiation of oxidation. 
Examples of peroxide decomposer type of antioxidant are trivalent phosphorous and divalent sulfurcontaining compound such as sulfides, thiodipropionates and organophosphites. 
Synergistic effect is expected when primary antioxidants are used together with secondary antioxidants as primary antioxidants are not very effective against the degradation by UV oxidation. 
Sometimes, chelating agents are added to scavenge metal impurities which can initiate decomposition.

Dibunol
Stavox
Ionol CP
Phenol, 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl-
Impruvol
Topanol
Dalpac
Deenax
Ionole

Description: BHT = butylated hydroxy-toluene (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol). 
Melting point 70°C (158°F). Purity 99%. Off white to yellowish crystals, characteristic odor. 
Insoluble in water. Partly soluble in ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol and oils.
CAS: 128-37-0.
INCI Name: Butylated hydroxytoluene
Benefits:
Neutralizes free oxygen radicals and acts as potent antioxidant
Prevents auto-oxidation of organic materials (prevents rancidity of fats & oils)
Extends shelf-life & stabilizes colorants of cosmetics
Use: Add to fat phase, typical usage 0.01-0.1%, best used in combination with EDTA. For external use only.
Applications: For stabilizing all kinds of cosmetics like creams, lotions, shampoos, makeup & sunscreen products.
Country of Origin: USA
Raw material source: P-cresol and isobutylene
Manufacture: BHT is produced by the reaction of p-cresol (4-methylphenol) with isobutylene (2-methylpropene) catalyzed by sulfuric acid.

butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) retard the development of rancidity produced by oxidation in margarine, shortening, and a variety of foods containing fats and oils. 
Antibiotics such as the tetracyclines are used to prevent the growth of harmful bacteria

What are some products that may contain butylhydroxytoluene (bht)?
-Bar Soaps
-Body Washes
-Cosmetics
-Deodorants
-Hair Care
-Household Products
-Liquids/Creams/Lotions
-Powders
-Shaving Products
-Sunscreen
-Toothpaste

BHA is a white or pale yellow waxy solid with a faint pleasant odor. 
BHT is a white crystalline solid. Both compounds are members of the phenol family of organic compounds. 
The phenols are compounds containing a benzene ring of six carbon atoms to which is attached at least one hydroxyl (-OH) group.

Vianol
Antioxidant KB
3,5-Di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene
Antioxidant 4K
Sumilizer BHT
Topanol O
Topanol OC
Vanlube PC
Antioxidant DBPC
Sustane BHT
Tenamene 3
Vanlube PCX
Antioxidant 29
Antioxidant 30
Nonox TBC

What is Butylated hydroxytoluene? 
BHA and BHT are used as preservatives (antioxidants) in foods, cosmetics, medicaments, and in industry.  
Antioxidents protect from oxidation which lead to a rancid odor & color changes in some foods

How can I avoid Butylated hydroxytoluene? 
Skin contact with BHA and BHT is required for it to cause a rash. 
Discontinuation of exposure to products containing BHA and BHT should result in improvement and/or resolution of your dermatitis. 
By law, all products made in the US for topical use have the ingredients listed either on the product package or the box that contains Butylated hydroxytoluene, so check the labeling of you skin care products for this ingredient.  
If there is no information ask your pharmacist.  
At work, request a material safety data sheet (MSDS) to help identify potential sources of exposure

Other names: 
Phenol, 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl-
p-Cresol, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-
Advastab 401
Antioxidant DBPC
Antioxidant KB
Antioxidant 29
Antioxidant 30
Antioxidant 4K
AO 29
AO 4K
Butylhydroxytoluene
BHT
BUKS
Catalin Antioxydant 1
Catalin CAO-3
Chemanox 11

Butylated Hydroxytoluene Benefits

Antimicrobial Properties: Butylated hydroxytoluenes strong antimicrobial properties prevent the spread of viruses and bacteria that damage your skin. 
Butylated Hydroxytoluene is not only a good addition to makeup products like eyeliners, blush, lipsticks, foundations but it can also be used in cosmetic applications like skin cleansers, creams, moisturizers, etc.

Contain Antioxidant: Butylated Hydroxytoluene can also be added as a preservative in skincare products and cosmetic products as Butylated hydroxytoluene contains potent antioxidants that prevent the deterioration of formulas due to reactions of other ingredients with oxygen.

Butylated hydroxytoluene used in Cosmetic Formulations: BHT also offers some penetration ability to the cosmetic formulas. 
Still, the penetration isn’t deep enough, and therefore, you might have to combine Butylated Hydroxytoluene with other cosmetic raw materials that improve the delivery of active ingredients.

Cosmetic Stabilizer: Butylated Hydroxytoluene has a neutralizing effect on free oxygen radicals that might prove to be hazardous for your skin. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene negates the chances of cosmetic ingredients going rancid. 
BHT also stops or slows down the deterioration of fats and oils in cosmetic formulations. 
Butylated Hydroxytoluene is also used to stabilize color cosmetics by stabilizing the colorants used in them.

Where is butylhydroxytoluene (bht) found?
Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) is an antioxidant food additive and is also found in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, jet fuels, rubber, petroleum products, and embalming fluid.

How to Use Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT)?
Butylated Hydroxytoluene should be added when the formula is in the fat phase, and the typical use level can be between 0.01 to 0.1%. 
For best results, combine Butylated hydroxytoluene with EDTA.

Raw Material Source: Isobutylene & P-cresol
Manufacturing Process: Butylated hydroxytoluene is produced from P-cresol and Isobutylene by using sulfuric acid as a catalyst.
Chemical Formula: C15H24O
CAS Number: 128-37-0
INCI Name: Butylated Hydroxytoluene
Molecular Weight: 220.35 g/mol
Boiling Point: 265 °C
Odor: Odourless
Color: White to pale yellow
Grade Standard: Industrial Grade
Shelf Life: 24 months
Alternative Names: dibutylhydroxytoluene
Solubility: Yes
Applications: Creams, lotions, makeup products, sunscreens, shampoos, etc. might contain this ingredient due to its stabilizing properties.

CAO 1
CAO 3
Dalpac
Deenax
Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol
Di-tert-butyl-p-methylphenol
Di-tert-butylcresol
Dibunol
Dibutylated hydroxytoluene
DBPC
Impruvol
Ionol

Chemical Identity:
Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT)
2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol
4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl phenol
C15H24O
CAS# 128-37-0

General Information:
Trade names: Agidol, Ionol, Naugard BHT, Vanlube PCX, CAO-3 Antioxidant, Lowinox BHT.

Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT) is a manufactured antioxidant (preservative) commonly used in plastics, rubber, petroleum products, foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics.

BHT, is the most prevalent and approved antioxidant in the world. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene is known to be effective and safe in a great variety of hydrocarbon-products. 
BHT has been approved for use in foods and food packaging in low concentrations by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 
In Europe Butylated hydroxytoluene is well known antioxidant under E321 index.  
As an antioxidant, BHT preserves organic materials by reducing the effects of time, heat and light.

BHT is generally manufactured by reacting para-cresol and iso- butylene in the presence of an acid catalyst. 
Alternatively, BHT is prepared from 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol by hydroxymethylation or aminomethylation followed by hydrogenolysis.

Butylated hydroxytoluene uses:
Some common uses of BHT include: Plastics—Comprising over 65% of the worldwide application of BHT, plastics require the BHT antioxidant to stabilize the polymer during processing and protect it throughout the service life of the finished product. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene is recognized as safe and is approved for use in plastic food containers and wrappings.  
Rubbers & Elastomers—BHT is a non-staining, non- discoloring antioxidant and is used in conjunction with other antioxidants in white and light-colored rubber products. 
Lubricating & Specialty Oils—BHT is an effective stabilizer and antioxidant for synthetic oils and fluids such as cutting, spindle, hydraulic and slushing oils, transformer oils, transmission fluids, and brake fluids. 
Industrial Fats, Oils & Fatty Acids—BHT prevents the development of rancidity in animal and vegetable fats and oils.  
Bio-Diesel Fuel Blends—BHT is an effective antioxidant to prevent rancidity in bio-diesel fuel blends at concentrations of less than 0.1%.  
Linseed, Soy, & Other Plant-Derived Oils— BHT is used in various plant-derived oils as an antioxidant for industrial uses such as printing ink bases.  
Printing Inks and Coatings— BHT serves as an anti- skinning agent in paints and inks.

Ionol (Antioxidant)
Ionol CP
Ionol 1
Ionole
Nonox TBC
P 21
Parabar 441
Stavox
Sumilizer BHT
Sustane BHT
Tenamene 3

There is some controversy around BHT. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene's not a new ingredient, Butylated hydroxytoluene has been used both as a food and cosmetics additive since the 1970s. 
Plenty of studies tried to examine if Butylated hydroxytoluene's a carcinogen or not. 
This Truth in Aging article details the situation and also writes that all these studies examine BHT when taken orally.

SMILES: Cc1cc(c(O)c(c1)C(C)(C)C)C(C)(C)C
InChi Code: InChI=1S/C15H24O/c1-10-8-11(14(2,3)4)13(16)12(9-10)15(5,6)7/h8-9,16H,1-7H3
InChi Key: NLZUEZXRPGMBCV-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is a derivative of cresol, an aromatic organic compound in which two additional hydrogen atoms in the benzene ring are replaced by tertiary butyl groups. 
Butylated hydroxytoluenes technical name is 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol. 
In Butylated hydroxytoluenes pure form BHT is a white crystalline solid with a melting point of 158°F (70°C) and a boiling point of 509°F (265°C). 
Butylated hydroxytoluene is normally insoluble in water, but for commercial applications, Butylated hydroxytoluene can be converted to a soluble form.

Tenox BHT
Topanol
Topanol O
Topanol OC
Vanlube PC
Vanlube PCX
Vianol

Butylated hydroxytoluene in food
Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is a synthetic antioxidant authorized for use in fats and oils, only for the professional manufacture of heat-treated food, in frying oil and frying fat (excluding olive pomace oil) and in lard, fish oil, beef, poultry and sheep fat 19). 
Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is permitted alone or in combination with other antioxidants such as gallates, tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) in amounts up to 100 mg/kg expressed as fat. 
In addition, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is permitted in chewing gum alone or in combination with the aforementioned antioxidants at a maximum level of 400 mg/kg chewing gum 20).

No data on the actual levels of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in foods have been found during literature searches in the databases ToxNet, PubMed and CAPlus, or on the web pages of the Food Standards Agency of Great Britain. 
The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration has reported a project on monitoring and control of food additives in which butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) levels were analyzed in 122 samples of emulsified and non-emulsified sauces (dressings, ketchup etc.) and fruit- and vegetable preparations (chutney, tomato paste etc.). 
Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was not identified in any of these samples 21).

2,6-Bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methylphenol
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-methylphenol
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol
3,5-Di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene
4-Hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butyltoluene
4-Methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol
2,6-Di-t-butyl-4-methylphenol
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-1-hydroxy-4-methyl benzene
2,6-di-Butyl-para-cresol
2,6-di-tert-Butyl-methylphenol
o-Di-tert-butyl-p-methylphenol
Bht(food grade)
Butylated hydroxytoluol
Dbpc(technical grade)

BHT was first used as an antioxidant food additive in 1954. 
An antioxidant is a substance that prevents the oxidation of materials with which it occurs. 
BHT, therefore, prevents the spoilage of food to which it is added.
BHT has grown to be very popular among food processors and is now used in a great range of products that include breakfast cereals, chewing gum, dried potato flakes, enriched rice, potato chips, candy, sausages, freeze-dried meats, and other foods containing fats and oils. 
BHT is sometimes used in conjunction with a related compound, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) as a food additive.

DBMP
NCI-C03598
Paranox 441
1-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylbenzene
2,6-Di-terc.butyl-p-kresol
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-cresol
4-Methyl-2,6-di-terc. butylfenol
4-Methyl-2,6-tert-butylphenol
Di-tert-Butylparamethylphenol

BHT (Butylated Hydroxtoluene) is a white crystalline solid, about the same granular size as household sugar. 
BHT is used in products containing oils. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene is useful in cosmetics like lipsticks, powders, personal care products, as well as in perfumes, moisturizers, and personal cleanliness products, skin cleansers, and skin care products
BHT is an antioxidant that helps delay rancidity of oils and fats in natural oils, food products and cosmetics.

Di-tert-Butyl-4-methylphenol
2,6-Di-t-butyl-p-cresol
Phenol, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methyl-
4-Methyl-2,6-di-t-butyl-phenol
Annulex BHT
Antrancine 8
Lowinox BHT
Nipanox BHT
Ralox BHT
Sustane

Sourcing Compliant Materials from Your Suppliers
-Contact your suppliers and explain that you require their manufactured materials to be compliant with the current AFIRM Packaging RSL limits.2
-Require suppliers to submit a confirmation of material compliance or a test report from a third-party laboratory.
-When materials are received, consider performing risk-based testing to ensure the current AFIRM Packaging RSL limits for BHT are met.
-Share this information sheet with your material suppliers so they have full visibility and understand your sourcing requirements. 

Molecular Formula : C15H24O
Molecular Weight : 220.35
Part A
Storage : Room Temperature
Shelf Life : 60 Months
HSN Code : 29071290
IMDG Identification :UN No.:3077 , IMCO Class No.:9 , Packing Group:III

Storage: 
Store in a cool, dry place. 
Do not store in direct sunlight. 
Keep container closed when not in use.

Handling: Wash thoroughly after handling.
Wash hands before eating. 
Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. 
Use with adequate ventilation. 
Avoid contact with skin and eyes. 
Avoid ingestion and inhalation.

Protection
Eyes: 
Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. 
Skin: 
Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. 
Clothing:
Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators    
Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149. 
Always use a NIOSH or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator when necessary.
Small spills/leaks    
Vacuum or sweep up material and place into a suitable disposal container. 
Reduce airborne dust and prevent scattering by moistening with water. 
Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. 
Avoid generating dusty conditions. 
Provide ventilation.
Disposal code: 3
Stability    
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures.
Incompatibilities    
Acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, oxidizing agents, bases, steel (corrodes it), brass, copper, copper alloys, and direct sunlight.
Decomposition    
Carbon monoxide, irritating and toxic fumes and gases, carbon dioxide.

Vulkanox KB
BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene)
2,6-di-ter-butyl-4-methyl-phenol
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-para-methylphenol
2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (BHT)
Butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT)
Dibutylhydroxytoluene
Dibutylcresol
2,6-Bis(tert-butyl)-4-methylphenol
2,6-Di(tert-butyl)hydroxytoluene
Ionol BHT

To use BHT in soapmaking, heat a portion of the oil(s) to be treated to 160+ and slowly stir the BHT into the oil.
When Butylated hydroxytoluene is totally dissolved and well mixed, stir the oil into the rest of your oils and stir well. 
Always treat the oils before adding the lye/water to the oils. 
Usage rate for BHT is .01% - .1% w/w (by weight), .05% w/w is typically used for treating soapmaking oils. 
For treating 5 pounds of oils you would use approximately .04 oz. or 1.135g of BHT, or about 1 tsp.
For best results, use BHT with tetrasodium EDTA. 
The EDTA ties up the metal ions and helps the BHT work better, but also BHT alone will tend to yellow the soap. 
BHT can be used to treat oils for use in cosmetics other than soap. 
Liquid oils with shorter shelf lives are best treated as soon as you receive or open them.
BHT, although used a small amount in foods, and in soap making, is more widely used in fuels and oils. 
BHT works very well to reduce the oxidation of biodiesel and should be used especially when biodiesel is expected to be stored over a long period of time. 
Biodiesel that's exposed to air will become oxidized or rancid, and can corrode engine parts and reduce the life of an engine and its fuel system components.
To use BHT with Biodiesel, first dissolve 200g of BHT into 800g of Biodiesel to make a 20% solution. 
Next, filter the solution down to 10 micron or less to remove any residue remaining in the solution. 
This makes Butylated hydroxytoluene easy for proper mixing into your stored biodiesel.

BHT Swanox
Agidol
2,6-di-ter-butul-4-methyl-phenol
4-Methyl-2,6-di-tert.-butylphenol
Di-ter-butyl p-cresol
butylated OH tolueno
Dibutyl-p-cresol
Ergotamine, dihydro-, monomethanesulfonate (salt)
Hydagen DEO (Salt/Mix)

Sourcing Compliant Formulations from Your Chemical Suppliers
-For all formulations, request SDS documentation that meets current GHS requirements.
-Contact your chemical suppliers and explain that you require formulations with no intentionally-added BHT.
-Discuss with your chemical supplier whether any safer alternatives are available that are suitable substitutes for your production needs.
-Check the Safety Data Sheet (SDS) of all chemical formulations to ensure that BHT is not listed as an ingredient.
-Perform risk-based checks of your chemical suppliers’ formulations by submitting samples to a third-party laboratory for testing to ensure the BHT limits are not exceeded.
-Prior to procuring any formulation, the chemical properties must be reviewed to ensure that proper protective equipment, chemical storage facilities, facility engineering controls, and associated treatment/disposal facilities are appropriate for the chemical(s)

Tenox BHT
Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol
Chemanox 11
2,6-ditert-butyl-4-methylphenol
Ionol 1
Agidol
Catalin CAO-3
Advastab 401
Ionol (antioxidant)
BUKS
Parabar 441
Paranox 441
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-cresol
Catalin antioxydant 1
Antrancine 8
Butylated hydroxytoluol

Butylated Hydroxy Toluene is a non-staining, hindered phenolic antioxidant commonly used in a wide variety of applications including plastics, elastomers, petroleum products, and food. 
Available in several physical forms, including crystalline.

Vulkanox KB
Dibutylated hydroxytoluene
Ional
2,6-Bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methylphenol
AO 4K
CAO 1
CAO 3
Di-tert-butyl-p-methylphenol
o-Di-tert-butyl-p-methylphenol
4-Methyl-2,6-tert-butylphenol
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-1-hydroxy-4-methylbenzene
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-methylphenol
AO 29
NCI-C03598

Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) is probably the most efficient anti-oxidant used in perfumery. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene is almost odourless in use but as a pure white to off-white crystalline powder has a very faint musty cresylic phenolic odour. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene used from 0.1% in citrus oils, alipihatic aldehydes, fixed oils and many other oxygen sensitive materials, compounds and finished products it can greatly extend their shelf and odour life and also slow down, but not completely stop, colour changes.
Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is an antioxidant used in a variety of products. 
Intended uses include products like food, animal feed, cosmetics, packaging materials, pharmaceuticals, polymers and paints.
BHT toxicity is generally considered as being low.
Since BHT is used in many near consumer products population wide exposure is expected.

2,6-DI-T-BUTYL-P-CRESOL
4-Methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol
Butyl hydroxy toluene
2,6-Di-terc.butyl-p-kresol
4-Hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butyltoluene
MFCD00011644
FEMA No. 2184
P 21
Bht(food grade)
4-Methyl-2,6-di-terc. butylfenol
1-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylbenzene
Di-tert-butylcresol
UNII-1P9D0Z171K
Butylated hydroxytoluene (bht)
Dbpc(technical grade)
E321
p-Cresol, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-
2,6-ditert-butyl-4-methyl-phenol
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methyl-phenol
CHEMBL146
CHEBI:34247

Butylated hydroxytoluene, commonly known as BHT, is an organic compound that is used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industry as an antioxidant. 
BHT is a substituted derivative of phenol. 
BHT helps to prevent the formation of free radicals and oxidation. 
When used in food products, Butylated hydroxytoluene delays oxidative rancidity of fats and oils, and prevents loss of activity of oil-soluble vitamins. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene may be found in pharmaceutical gels, creams and liquid or gelatin capsules, tablets and other pharmaceutical dosage forms. 
The ability of oral BHT to lead to cancer is a controversial topic, but most food industries have replaced Butylated hydroxytoluene with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). 
BHT was first used as an antioxidant food additive in 1954. 
BHT does have other commercial uses, as in animal feeds and in the manufacture of synthetic rubber and plastics, where Butylated hydroxytoluene also acts as an antioxidant. 
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has deemed that BHT is safe enough when used in limited concentrations. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene currently permits Butylated hydroxytoluenes use in concentrations of about 0.01% to 0.02% in most foods. 
As an emulsion stabilizer in shortening, Butylated hydroxytoluene may be used in a somewhat higher concentration, 200 parts per million.

1P9D0Z171K
NSC-6347
2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol
2,6-bis(tert-butyl)-4-methylphenol
NCGC00091761-03
Kerabit
Tonarol
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, 99%
DSSTox_CID_216
Antioxidant MPJ
Antioxidant 4
Toxolan P
Alkofen BP
Swanox BHT

Description of Butylated hydroxytoluene:
White to pale-yellow, crystalline solid with a slight, phenolic odor; (food preservative); [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses of Butylated hydroxytoluene:
Butylated hydroxytoluene is used as an anti-oxidant in gasoline, oils, waxes, rubbers, paints, and plastics; purified forms are used as anti-oxidants in foods; Used as an "anti-skinning agent in paints and inks"; BHT is a preservative and anti-oxidant used in food, cosmetics, and medications. 
Industrial applications include: animal feeds, jet fuels, rubber, plastics, paints, and glues.

Comments
Permitted in food at levels up to 200 ppm; Despite Butylated hydroxytoluenes widespread use, BHT is a rare skin sensitizer; Percent positive patch test responses were 0.1% in a US series in 1992-4; Contact urticaria has been reported; May have effects on the liver; 

Tenamen 3
Antox QT
Antioxidant 264
DSSTox_RID_75440
Agidol 1
DSSTox_GSID_20216
Bht (food grade)
Antioxidant T 501
Nocrac 200
Caswell No. 291A
Dbpc (technical grade)
Annulex BHT
AOX 4K

Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is a synthetic antioxidant that is widely used as an additive in foodstuffs to prevent spoiling. 
The physical-chemical properties of BHT and many related phenols have been examined previously although the mechanisms by which Butylated hydroxytoluene exerts Butylated hydroxytoluenes antioxidant properties are poorly understood. 
The reactivity of BHT with singlet oxygen [O2(1 delta g)] and a number of radical species has been examined using the techniques of time resolved luminescence and pulse radiolysis. 
In benzene solution BHT reacted with O2(1 delta g) at a bimolecular rate constant of 1.3 x 10(6)M-1s-1. 
The one-electron oxidized, phenoxyl type BHT radical was generated using pulse radiolysis and the absorption spectrum showed a maximum at 400 nm. 
BHT reacts slowly with many radical species and upper limits for the bimolecular rate constant for reaction with several electron transfer processes are presented. 
The antioxidant role of BHT is discussed in terms of its reactivity, localization, and stability. 

AOX 4
CAS-128-37-0
Butylohydroksytoluenu
CCRIS 103
Butylohydroksytoluenu [Polish]
Ionol CP-antioxidant
1,3-Dioxolane, 99.5+%, pure, stabilized
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, 99.8%
Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (VAN)
HSDB 1147
BHT 264
NSC 6347
EINECS 204-881-4
2,6-Di-terc.butyl-p-kresol [Czech]
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 022105
Dibutylcresol
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylhydroxybenzene
Popol
AI3-19683
4-Methyl-2,6-di-terc. butylfenol [Czech]
Lowinox BHT
Nipanox BHT
1,3-Dioxolane, 99.8%, anhydrous, stabilized with 75 ppm BHT, AcroSeal(R)
BHT Swanox
BHT, food grade
4-Methyl-2,6-di-t-butyl-phenol

Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and the related compound butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) are phenolic compounds that are often added to foods to preserve fats and oils and keep them from becoming rancid. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene is added to food, cosmetics, and packing of products that contain fats to maintain nutrient levels, color, flavor, and odor. BHT is also sold as a dietary supplement for use as an antioxidant. 
The chemicals are found in an extensive list of products, yet there is concern about their safety. 
Take a look at the chemical properties of these molecules, how they work, and why their use is controversial.

BHA Characteristics
BHA is a mixture of the isomers 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole. 
Also known as BOA, tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, (1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methoxyphenol, tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol, antioxyne B, and under various trade names
Molecular formula C11H16O2
White or yellowish waxy solid
Faint characteristic aromatic odor

BHT Characteristics
Also known as 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene; methyl-di-tert-butyl phenol; 2,6-di-tert-butyl-para-cresol
Molecular formula C15H24O
White powder

How Do They Preserve Food?
BHA and BHT are antioxidants. 
Oxygen reacts preferentially with BHA or BHT rather than oxidizing fats or oils, thereby protecting them from spoilage. 
In addition to being oxidizable, BHA and BHT are fat-soluble. 
Both molecules are incompatible with ferric salts. 
In addition to preserving foods, BHA and BHT are also used to preserve fats and oils in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

What Foods Contain BHA and BHT?
BHA is generally used to keep fats from becoming rancid. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene is also used as a yeast de-foaming agent. 
BHA is found in butter, meats, cereals, chewing gum, baked goods, snack foods, dehydrated potatoes, and beer. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene is also found in animal feed, food packaging, cosmetics, rubber products, and petroleum products.

Butylhydroxytoluenum
Ionol BHT
Ralox BHT
2, food grade
Butylated hydroxytoluene [BAN:NF]
Dibutyl-para-cresol
butylated-hydroxytoluene
PubChem20842
Spectrum_001790
ACMC-1BUTL
SpecPlus_000768
Methyldi-tert-butylphenol
Spectrum3_001849
Spectrum5_001612
Hydagen DEO (Salt/Mix)
EC 204-881-4
2,6-di-Butyl-para-cresol
2.6-di-t-butyl-p-cresol
SCHEMBL3950
2,6-ditert-butyl-p-cresol
p-Cresol,6-di-tert-butyl-
Di-tert-Butylparamethylphenol
BSPBio_003238
KBioSS_002281
2,6-di-tert.butyl-p-cresol
Di-tert-Butyl-4-methylphenol
MLS000069425
BIDD:ER0031
Butylated hydroxytoluene (NF)
DivK1c_006864
SPECTRUM1600716
2,6-bis-tert-butyl-p-cresol

BHT protects pheromones by reacting much faster with free radicals than the pheromones do. 
Once formed, the phenolic free radical of BHT forms an inactive dimer or reacts once more with a free radical, terminating the chain. 
Since BHT terminates a free radical chain reaction, Butylated hydroxytoluene is called a free radical scavenger or quencher.
Addition of BHT to a pheromone formulation can increase the lifespan of the double bond system from 2 weeks to 8 weeks. 

2,6-di-tert-butyl-paracresol
BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene)
2,6-di-tert. butyl-p-cresol
2,6-di-tert.-butyl-p-cresol
INS NO.321
2,6-di-tert-butyl-para-cresol
2,6-di-tert-Butyl-methylphenol
2,6-ditertbutyl-4-methylphenol
DTXSID2020216
2,6-di-t butyl-4-methylphenol
2.6-di-t-butyl-4-methylphenol
FEMA 2184
KBio1_001808
KBio2_002280
KBio2_004848
KBio2_007416
KBio3_002738

Butylated hydroxytoluene Uses/Applications:
BHT, one of the best antioxidants in food, has been widely used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, jet fuel, rubber.
Due to Butylated hydroxytoluenes strong antioxidant effect (5-7 times better than BHA, BHT, PG), Butylated hydroxytoluene is ideal for use in foods containing animal and vegetable fats especially for oil blends. salad and cooking oil.
BHT has the effect of slowing down oil oxidation and improving the stability of food products, thus extending the shelf life of greases and fatty foods.
BHT prevents fat oxidation. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene is commonly used to preserve food's odor, color, and flavor. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene is also added directly to shorten the oxidation of coke, milk and dairy products. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene is good in stabilizing animal fats, meat, fish.

2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylenol
2,6-di-tert-butyl-4methylphenol
2,6-di-tert-butyl4-methylphenol
2,6-di-tertbutyl-4-methylphenol
2,6-ditert.butyl-4-methylphenol
Butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT)
INS-321
NSC6347
2,6-Di(tert-butyl)hydroxytoluene
2,6-di(t-butyl)-4-methylphenol
2,6-di-t- butyl-4-methylphenol
2,6-di-t-butyl 4-methyl phenol
2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methyl phenol
2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methyl-phenol
3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene
HMS2091E21
HMS2231M22
HMS3369G17
HMS3750M21
Pharmakon1600-01600716

BHT is an antioxidant due to its ability to scavenge free radicals. 
Free radicals are very reactive species characterized by unpaired electrons. 
Free radicals initiate a chain reaction, reacting many times until the chain is terminated by electron pairing.
Free radicals can be formed by thermal cleavage of a hydrocarbon chain or hydrocarbon reaction with oxygen or light.

Oxygen reacts with the double bonds present in insect pheromones forming peroxides. 
The peroxide bond is weak and is photochemically or thermally cleaved into two free radicals. 
At higher temperatures molecular oxygen can react directly with a hydrocarbon, removing a hydrogen atom and producing a free radical.

2,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methylphenol
2,6-di-tert-butyl 4-methylphenol
2,6-di-tert-butyl-4 methylphenol
2,6-di-tert-butyl4-methyl phenol
2,6-di-tert.butyl-4-methylphenol
2,6-ditert.-butyl-4-methylphenol
2.6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol
4-methyl-2,6-di-tert.butylphenol
2,6-di-ter-butyl-4-methyl-phenol
2,6-Di-tert.-Butyl4-methylphenol
2,6-ditertiarybutyl-4-methylphenol
2.6-di- t-butyl- 4-methylphenol

Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methyl-phenol) is a commonly used antioxidant allowed in foods in amounts up to 0.02% of the weight of fat present. 
BHT helps prevent undesirable oxidation reactions from occurring by acting as a free radical scavenger. 
BHT is also used as a stabilizer in pesticides, gasolines and lubricants, soaps and cosmetics, and as an antiskinning agent in paints and inks. 
As a class of chemical compounds, quinone methides have been shown to react with cellular nucleophiles including amines, carbohydrates, alcohols, thiols, and olefins.

AMY40200
HY-Y0172
STR04334
ZINC1481993
2,6 -di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol
2,6-di(tert-butyl)-4-methylphenol
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol, 8CI
2,6-di-tert.-butyl-4-methylphenol
Tox21_113537
Tox21_201093
Tox21_303408
2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (BHT)
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-para-methylphenol
ANW-19063
BDBM50079507
NSC759563
s6202
SBB040854
STL277184
2,6-di-tert. butyl-4-methyl phenol
2,6-Di-(tert-butyl)-4-methylphenol
AKOS000269037
Tox21_113537_1
CCG-207937
CM14391
CS-W020053
MCULE-4627478482

Density: 1.048
Quantity: 100g
Packaging: Granules
Color: White
Assay Percent Range: 0.99
Linear Formula: ((CH3)3C)2CH3C6H2OH
Formula Weight: 220.35
Chemical Name or Material: Butylated Hydroxy Toluene

NSC-759563
Phenol, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methyl-
NCGC00091761-01
NCGC00091761-02
NCGC00091761-04
NCGC00091761-05
NCGC00091761-06
NCGC00091761-07
NCGC00257275-01
NCGC00258645-01
AC-10553
AK-90086
L133
SMR000059076
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT)
SBI-0052890.P002
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, >=99%
Butylated hydroxytoluene, >=99%, FCC, FG
D0228
E-321
FT-0610731
Phenol,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl-
ST50214443
2,6-bis-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methylphenol
4-Methyl-2,6- di(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol
PK04_181024
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-1-hydroxy-4-methyl benzene
C14693
D02413
M-6087
MLS-0146297.0001
AB00053233_09
Phenol, 3,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl-
2,6-Bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methylphenol, 9CI
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, puriss., 99%
AC-907/25014329
Q221945
SR-01000735918
SR-01000735918-2
W-108376

BHT also prevents oxidative rancidity of fats. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene is used to preserve food odor, color, and flavor. 
Many packaging materials incorporate BHT. 
Butylated hydroxytoluene is also added directly to shortening, cereals, and other foods containing fats and oils.

9FC4DFC8-480D-487C-A74A-2EC9EECE92C4
BENZENE,1,3-DITERT.BUTYL,2-HYDROXY,5-METHYL
BRD-K53153417-001-01-3
BRD-K53153417-001-06-2
2,6-D[(CH3)3C]2C6H2(CH3)OHi-tert-butyl-p-cresol
F0001-0395
Z955123624
2,6-DI(TERT-BUTYL-D9)-4-METHYLPHENOL-3,5,O-D3
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, purum, >=99.0% (GC)
WLN: 1X1 & 1 & R BQ E1 CX1 & 1 & 1
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, >=99.0% (GC), powder
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, SAJ first grade, >=99.0%
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, tested according to Ph.Eur.
3,5-Di-tert-4-butylhydroxytoluene (BHT), analytical standard
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol 1000 microg/mL in Acetonitrile
Butylhydroxytoluene, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, certified reference material, TraceCERT(R)
Butylated Hydroxytoluene, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Butylated hydroxytoluene, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard

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