Azodicarbonamide = ADCA = ADA = azo(bis)formamide

CAS Number: 123-77-3
EC Number: 204-650-8
Molecular Weight: 116.08
Linear Formula: NH2CON=NCONH2
E number: E927a (glazing agents, ...)

Azodicarbonamide, ADCA, ADA, or azo(bis)formamide, is a chemical compound with the molecular formula C2H4O2N4.
Azodicarbonamide is a yellow to orange-red, odorless, crystalline powder. 
Azodicarbonamide, the diamide of azodicarboxylic acid, is an orange-red crystalline solid. 
Azodicarbonamide is made industrially by the condensation reaction between hydrazine sulfate and urea under high temperature and pressure, followed by oxidation with NaOCl.
Azodicarbonamide has several commercial uses: Azodicarbonamide is a blowing agent for foaming rubbers and plastics, a bleaching (oxidizing) agent in cereal flours, and a dough conditioner for baking bread.
Azodicarbonamide is sometimes called a 'yoga mat' chemical because of Azodicarbonamides widespread use in foamed plastics.

Azodicarbonamide is used as a blowing agent in plastics. 
As a blowing agent, azodicarbonamide allows for plastic polymers to flow more freely. 
With the addition of azodicarbonamide into plastics, Azodicarbonamide allows for bubbles to be form allowing for the polymer to become a foam material. 
As a food additive, Azodicarbonamide serves as a flour bleaching agent and an improving agent.

Azodicarbonamide Uses in Plastics
Azodicarbonamide, when heated, releases gassy bubbles like nitrogen, carbon dioxide, etc. 
So, adding Azodicarbonamide to vinyl helps to make nice springy foam rubber mats.
Azodicarbonamide was first described by John Bryden in 1959.

Azodicarbonamide Applications
Blowing agent
The principal use of azodicarbonamide is in the production of foamed plastics as a blowing agent. 
The thermal decomposition of azodicarbonamide produces nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and ammonia gases, which are trapped in the polymer as bubbles to form a foamed article.
Azodicarbonamide is used in plastics, synthetic leather, and other industries and can be pure or modified. 
Modification affects the reaction temperatures. 
Pure azodicarbonamide generally reacts around 200 °C. 
In the plastic, leather, and other industries, modified azodicarbonamide (average decomposition temperature 170 °C) contains additives that accelerate the reaction or react at lower temperatures.
An example of the use of azodicarbonamide as a blowing agent is found in the manufacture of vinyl (PVC) and EVA-PE foams, where Azodicarbonamide forms bubbles upon breaking down into gas at high temperature. 
Vinyl foam is springy and does not slip on smooth surfaces.
Azodicarbonamide is useful for carpet underlay and floor mats. 
Commercial yoga mats made of vinyl foam have been available since the 1980s; the first mats were cut from carpet underlay.

Azodicarbonamide is employed as an organic chemical blowing agent for the manufacturing of polymer foam, which is used in rubber compounds, polymer melts, and PVC plastisols. 
Azodicarbonamide is also used as a blowing agent in foamed rubber and plastics products for instance in products such as yoga mats, window gaskets, floor mats, toys, and shoe soles. 
Azodicarbonamide is widely used as a dough conditioner and as a flour bleaching agent, as Azodicarbonamide hastens the speed of processing, improves the bread texture, and makes the bread appear whiter and larger than its normal appearance.

Demand for azodicarbonamide is estimated to increase in plastic and rubber industries by 2027. 
Azodicarbonamide is used in most of the conventional plastics manufacturing processes such as extrusion, injection molding, calendering, coatings, slush, and rotational molding. 
Foamed plastics usage lead improve electrical and thermal insulation improve strength to weight ratio, eliminate sink marks in injection-molded parts and reduce material costs. 
Demand for foamed plastics is anticipated to increase in the next few years. 
Azodicarbonamide, is anticipated propel its use of azodicarbonamide as a blowing agent. 
Demand for azodicarbonamide is expected to increase in the rubber industry for producing products such as glass jars rubber seals, shoes, and gymnasium products during the forecast period.

Azodicarbonamide as Food additive
As a food additive, azodicarbonamide is used as a flour bleaching agent and a dough conditioner.
Azodicarbonamide reacts with moist flour as an oxidizing agent.
The main reaction product is biurea, which is stable during baking.
Secondary reaction products include semicarbazide and ethyl carbamate.
Azodicarbonamide is known by the E number E927.
Many restaurants in the US fast food industry removed the additive in response to negative publicity.

Common Uses
Azodicarbonamide is used to bleach and “improve” flour.  
Azodicarbonamide is banned in Europe but allowed in Canada and the U.S. Freshly milled flour has a yellowish colour. 
When stored for several months, the flour oxidizes.  
Azodicarbonamide becomes whiter and the baking qualities improve. 
Unfortunately, this process is slow and the results are inconsistent. 
Aging flour can be costly and time consuming for industrial producers. 
Azodicarbonamide is used to speed up the oxidation process. 
This allows companies to produce a more consistent product and get the flour to market sooner. 

Other bleaching agents include:
Acetone Peroxide,
Calcium Peroxide,
Nitrogen Dioxide, and
Chlorine Dioxide

other uses
Azodicarbonamide is used as a foaming agent in the production some plastic products.  
Azodicarbonamide’s use in yoga mats has received a lot of publicity.
Azodicarbonamide is also used in the rubber that forms seals on glass jars.  
In this case, there has been concern that it could break down and contaminate the food stored in the jars.  
The World Health Organization has called for data related to the possible health issues.  
They are particularly concerned about baby food.  
This is because babies eat most of their food from jars.

Azodicarbonamide, or azobisformamide, is a chemical compound being used as a food additive to bleach and increase the shelf life of breads, among other uses. 
In 2014, Azodicarbonamide appeared in the news when a consumer food blogger brought to attention that Subway, McDonald's and others were using Azodicarbonamide in their breads. 
The concern is with regard to the safety and effects of the compound on human health. 

What’re the Uses of Azodicarbonamide? 
Food grade ADA is used for the purpose of making flour white and strengthening dough in bread. 
Due to the functions of bleaching and oxidation, azodicarbonamide is a fast-acting gluten enhancer that strengthens the elasticity and toughness of gluten, and makes a high-strength dough. 
Azodicarbonamide works immediately even if the flour is wet. 

The "yoga mat" chemical officially known azodicarbonamide hit the headlines last week when Subway announced they were dropping the ingredient from their sandwiches. 
But chances are, you're still eating Azodicarbonamide - the chemical is in close to 500 foods still on the market - and in your kitchen - according to a report issued today by the Environmental Working Group.
Bread, bagels, pastries, pizza, tortillas, hamburger and hot dog buns often contain azodicarbonamide, which is used to bleach flour, and to make dough more elastic.

Why is azodicarbonamide (ADA) called the "yoga mat" chemical? 
Because Azodicarbonamides primary use is in plastic and rubber products like yoga mats and flip flops, where Azodicarbonamide's used to make them softer and more stretchy. 
According to the scientists at the EWG, azodicarbonamide functions "like champagne for plastics," aerating plastic with tiny bubbles to make Azodicarbonamide lighter, spongier, and more flexible.

The concern: Azodicarbonamide is known to increase the risk of asthma, allergies and skin problems - and some experts believe Azodicarbonamide hasn't been adequately tested in humans at the concentrations people may ingest if they eat numerous products that contain Azodicarbonamide.
In Azodicarbonamides report, provocatively titled "500 Ways to Make a Yoga Mat Sandwich," the Environmental Working Group lists more than 130 companies, from Betty Crocker to Pillsbury to Little Debbie, which use azodicarbonamide in their products. 
But the big "conventional" bakers aren't the only ones on the list; more "health"-oriented brands like Earth Grains, Artisan's Choice, and even Manischewitz use it also. 
(Including, experts warn, in products labeled "natural" and "whole grain".

Azodicarbonamide is a chemical additive approved by the FDA for a variety of uses, including a bleaching agent for flour and a general stabilizer for many packaged foods. 
Azodicarbonamide is also used in the manufacture of plastics, Styrofoam and rubber. 
Azodicarbonamide’s not difficult to see where the problem lies. 
As used in modern industry Azodicarbonamide is dangerous enough, and has been proven to trigger asthma attacks and other respiratory problems in workers exposed to the chemical.

CAS Number: 123-77-3  
ChEMBL: 28517  
ChemSpider: 4575589  
ECHA InfoCard: 100.004.229  
EC Number: 204-650-8
E number: E927a (glazing agents, ...)
PubChem CID: 31269
UNII: 56Z28B9C8O  
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID0024553

Azodicarbonamide uses and applications include: 
-Blowing agent for plastics, wire coatings, foamed polyolefins for trimming, upholstery, insulation, sealing, sound deadening in construction, linings, protective padding, flotation devices, sport shoes, protective packaging
-flour treatment agent
-bleaching agent in cereal flour
-maturing agent for flour
-chemical foaming agent for ABS, acetal, acrylic, EVA, HDPE, LDPE, PPO, PP, PS, HIPS, flexible PVC, TPE
-blowing agent in food-contact rubber articles for repeated use
-blowing agent in food-contact foamed plastics
-in closure-sealing gaskets for food containers.

Food (ingestion)
In some jurisdictions, the use of azodicarbonamide as a flour bleaching agent has been phased out. 
For example, Azodicarbonamide is no longer authorized for use in Australia and the European Union as a food additive.
Azodicarbonamide as a blowing agent in plastics has been banned in the European Union since August 2005 for the manufacture of plastic articles that are intended to come into direct contact with food.
In the United States, azodicarbonamide has a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status and is allowed to be added to flour at levels up to 45 ppm.
However, use in products intended for human consumption is in decline under pressure of the public opinion.
In 2014, amid public discomfort with the dual uses of azodicarbonamide, the sandwich franchise Subway and hamburger franchise Wendy's announced that they would no longer use it as a dough conditioner.
As of February 2014, the Center for Science in the Public Interest stated azodicarbonamide "has been poorly tested" and advocates for reducing the amount of azodicarbonamide that is allowed to be used in food.

Chemical formula: C2H4N4O2
Molar mass: 116.080 g·mol−1
Appearance: Yellow to orange/red crystalline powder
Melting point: 225 °C (437 °F; 498 K) (decomposes)

E Number
The E number of Azodicarbonamide is 927.

Azodicarbonamide, or azo(bis)formamide, is a chemical compound with the molecular formula C2H4O2N4.
Azodicarbonamide is a yellow to orange red, odorless, crystalline powder.
As a food additive Azodicarbonamide is known as E927 and used as a bleaching agent  in packaged, processed foods like frozen dinners, pasta and flour mixes in baked goods.
The principal use of azodicarbonamide is in the production of foamed plastics as a blowing agent.

IUPAC name
Other names
Azodicarboxamide; Azobisformamide; C,C'-Azodi(formamide); Diazenedicarboxamide

What is Azodicarbonamide (ADA)?
Azodicarbonamide is an ingredient used as a whitening agent in cereal flour and as a dough conditioner in bread baking, approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Azodicarbonamide is a compound with the molecular formula C2H4O2N4. 
ADA is:
-yellow to orange red
-crystalline powder

Azodicarbonamide is a chemical made famous in the United States by Van Hari aka The Food Babe as “the chemical in yoga mats” as well as rubber shoes. 
Azodicarbonamide is used as a foaming agent to help in making certain kinds of plastics. 
Azodicarbonamide is also used widely in the baking industry as a dough conditioner. 
Van Hari started the attack on this as used in food, zeroing in on Subway rolls and causing the company to stop using the compound. 
The McDonald’s “McRib” has also been specifically named. 
To be clear, although Van Hari, who attacks large well-known brands and relies on the Goliath Effect to create a stir, focused on Subway, in particular, azodicarbonamide is used in hundreds of food products.

Azodicarbonamide is introduced as a flour maturing agent by Wallace and Tiernan, Inc. and Azodicarbonamide was approved for use in 1962.

Bleaching agent: Azodicarbonamide makes the bread whiter by reacting with cartonene in the flour.

Commercial Production
Azodicarbonamide is manufactured by reacting dihydrazine sulfate and urea under higher pressure and high temperature. 
The resulting product is combined with sodium chlorate and oxidized, then centrifuged. 
Azodicarbonamide is extracted from the resulting slurry, washed, and drained. 
Pure azodicarbonamide powder is obtained and then micronized to fine powder particles.

Azodicarbonamide doesn’t react in dry flour, but does react in the process of making dough. 
When mixed into dough, Azodicarbonamide oxidizes the sulfhydryl (SH) groups and exerts an improving effect.
The oxidation is rapid and almost complete during the mixing of dough for 2.5 min. 
Neither further mixing or prolonged resting could give a significant and additional decrease in the –SH content. 
ADA is used where a faster maturing agent is required. 
Treatment levels ranging from 2 to 45 p.p.m. of azodicarbonamide are required to accomplish maturing, the amount depending on the grade of flour.
If trying to create a more organic product, Azodicarbonamide is best to find a natural substitute for ADA.

If you’re concerned about azodicarbonamide, make sure you read ingredient labels.  
Azodicarbonamide is relatively easy to find products that do not list Azodicarbonamide as an ingredient.  
Look for unbleached flour.

Dough conditioner: ADA matures flour through oxidation. 
When mixed into doughs, Azodicarbonamide oxidized the sulfhydryl (SH) groups and exerts an improving effect. 
The main reaction products is biurea, a derivative of urea, which is stable during baking.

ADA-treated flours produce dried and more cohesive doughs than chlorine dioxide-treated flours.
These dried doughs can tolerate higher absorption, show better gas-retention properties and are superior in machining properties. 
The bread made from ADA-treated flour is characterized by increased loaf volume and improved grain texture and outside appearance. 
Azodicarbonamide does not accelerate the onset of rancidity in flour. 
Natural or enrichment vitamins are unaffected by azodicarbonamide.

Appearance: A yellow to orange-red, odorless crystalline powder 
Other names: Azodicarboxamide, Azobisformamide
CAS number: 123-77-3
Chemical formula: C2H4O2N4
Molecular weight: 116.08
Solubility: Insoluble in water and most organic solvents, easily soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide and N,N-dimethylformamide.

Formamide, 1,1'-azobis-; C,C'-azodi(formamide); Diazenedicarboxamide;Azodicarbonamide;ABFA; ADA; ADC; Azobisformamide; 1,1-Azobisformamide Azodicarbonic acid diamide; Azodicarboxamide; Azoformamide; Diazenedicarboxamide; Formamide, 1,1-azobis-

Linear Formula: NH2CON=NCONH2
CAS Number: 123-77-3
Molecular Weight: 116.08
Beilstein/REAXYS Number: 1704003
EC Number: 204-650-8
MDL number: MFCD00007958
PubChem Substance ID: 24891486

What is azodicarbonamide (ADA)?
Azodicarbonamide (ADA) is a chemical substance approved for use as a whitening agent in cereal flour and as a dough conditioner in bread baking.

-On what basis did FDA approve the use of ADA?
FDA approved the use of ADA as a food additive in cereal flour and as a dough conditioner based on a comprehensive review of safety studies, including multi-year feeding studies.

-What about studies that show breakdown products of ADA, specifically semicarbazide, to be a carcinogen?
During bread making, ADA completely breaks down to form other chemicals, one of which is SEM. 
At high levels, SEM has been shown to increase the incident of tumors when fed to female mice, but not to male mice or either gender of rat. 
These studies were conducted in rodents at levels of SEM that far exceed estimates of human exposure from the consumption of ADA-treated flour or bread products.

-Does FDA recommend consumers change their diets?
Based on the science, FDA is not recommending that consumers change their diets because of exposure to ADA/SEM. 
FDA considers ADA a safe food additive when used for the purposes and at the levels specified in the FDA regulations.

How does ADA work?
Azodicarbonamide itself almost does not work with flour, but when mixed with flour and water to form a dough, Azodicarbonamide quickly releases active oxygen and oxidizes the sulfhydryl groups of amino acids to disulfide bonds in the molecule of protein. 
Therefore Azodicarbonamide improves the elasticity, toughness and uniformity of the dough. 
Noodles produced with azodicarbonamide are smooth, soft, white, and resistant to boiling. 
Flour with low protein and low gluten content requires an efficient and low-cost dough conditioner. 

Blowing agent
Azodicarbonamide can also act as a general-purpose blowing agent in the industrial production of rubber and plastics, such as polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and other synthetic materials. 
Azodicarbonamide can be used to manufacture rubber soles, artificial leather and yoga mates as Azodicarbonamide decomposes to gases of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and ammonia which are trapped in the form of tiny bubbles in the polymer during the production process of above industrial uses, that increases the elasticity and strength of the product and makes them in a foamed state.

Azodicarbonamide is prepared in two steps via treatment of urea with hydrazine to form biurea, as described in this idealized equation:
2 OC(NH2)2 + N2H4 → H2NC(O)-N(H)-N(H)-C(O)NH2 + 2 NH3
Oxidation with chlorine or chromic acid yields azodicarbonamide:
H2NC(O)-N(H)-N(H)-C(O)NH2 + Cl2 → H2NC(O)-N=N-C(O)NH2 + 2 HCl

Quality Level: 100
assay: 97%
mp: 220-225 °C (dec.) (lit.)
solubility: water: soluble 0.033 g/L at 20 °C
SMILES string: NC(=O)\N=N\C(N)=O
InChI: 1S/C2H4N4O2/c3-1(7)5-6-2(4)8/h(H2,3,7)(H2,4,8)/b6-5+

-How do I know whether bread products contain ADA?
ADA, like all ingredients intentionally added to food, must be listed on the ingredient label. 
Consumers are able to identify the addition of ADA by looking for “azodicarbonamide” on the label.

-Is ADA necessary to make bread?
No. The use of ADA as a whitening agent and dough conditioner is not necessary to make bread and there are alternative ingredients approved for use available.

-Does ADA have other uses?
Yes, ADA is also authorized for use as a blowing agent in sealing caps for food containers such as ketchup bottles. 
In 2005, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) assessed the risk from the use of ADA as a blowing agent and concluded that Azodicarbonamide is not of concern for human health given the levels that have been found in foods packaged in glass jars and bottles. 
However, EFSA had also noted that exposure to SEM should be limited where possible, and the European Union banned this use of ADA.

The ban on ADA in food is mostly motivated by the weak carcinogenic property of semicarbazide, a side product of ADA use.
The EU banned ADA in food containers despite an EFSA report considering such exposure "not a concern" due to low levels produced. 
The FDA's review maintains that ADA is safe at amounts allowed.
As of February, 2021, in contrast to direct competitors like Wendy's that have phased out the ingredient, A&W continues to use azodicarbonamide in an unspecified quantity ("under 2 %") in their standard hamburger buns.


Azodicarbonamide (ADC) is an odorless yellow, orange color chemical widely used as a blowing agent, foaming agent and also as a food additive in baking. 
Azodicarbonamide (ADC) is also called as ‘yoga – mat’ chemical due to Azodicarbonamides primary use in rubber and a plastic product like a flip flop or yoga mat. 
Azodicarbonamide provides softness and elasticity, considering this property Azodicarbonamide is used in the food industry for several years. 
Azodicarbonamide (ADC) is abundantly practiced by commercial bakers as a whitening agent and conditioner for bread dough. 
This crystalline solid is poorly soluble in water, but when water temperature is raised Azodicarbonamide become marginally soluble, Azodicarbonamide devours thermally unstable property and hence while baking, Azodicarbonamide break down to form other chemicals, one of which is Semicarbazide (SEM). 

Celogen AZ
Porofor ChKhZ 21

The use of azodicarbonamide, H2N–CO–N=N–CO–NH2 (ADA) for maturing flour was patented in 1959. 
The optimum addition level for flour is between 10 and 20 mg per kg flour. 
ADA is one of the fastest oxidants used as a dough improver in breadmaking reacting within a few minutes after flour and water are mixed. 
The action of ADA is similar to that of iodate, but even faster. 
Azodicarbonamide reduces the SH content of dough and thereby is converted into biurea. 
The reaction scheme shows that one molar equivalent of ADA is required to oxidise two equivalents of thiols.

Azodicarbonamide, also known as ADA, was found as an ingredient in breads, bagels, tortillas, hamburger and hot dog buns, pizza, pastries, and other food products, according to a report by the Environmental Working Group, based in Washington.
Some consumer groups have called for the removal of azodicarbonamide from use in foods. 
Fast food chain Subway said earlier this month that Azodicarbonamide was removing the chemical from Azodicarbonamides products, but stated that ADA is a safe and widely used ingredient for many foods.
Azodicarbonamide is fully approved for use in food by the United States Food and Drug Administration and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 
But ADA is banned as an additive in Australia and some European countries.
As a food additive, azodicarbonamide is used as a flour bleaching agent and as an oxidizing agent in dough to improve Azodicarbonamides performance for bakers. 
Azodicarbonamide is also used in plastics to improve elasticity and can be found in yoga mats and shoes.

Genitron AC
Yunihomu AZ
Genitron EPC
Celosen AZ
Unifoam AZ
Uniform AZ
Lucel ADA
Porofor ADC/R
Genitron AC 2
Genitron AC 4
Ficel EP-A
Pinhole ACR 3
Pinhole AK 2
Porofor DhKhZ 21
Kempore 125
Porofor 505
Azodicarboxylic acid diamide

Meet Azodicarbonamide (E927.), the famous rubber/bead chemical that made headlines. 
Popular blogger Food Babe, created a petition that not only changed how Subway made Azodicarbonamides bread; Azodicarbonamide got the attention of New York Senator, Chuck Schumer. 

Azo is a food additive used mostly in breads to make the bread fluffy. 
The FDA claims that Azodicarbonamide can be safely used at levels up to 45 parts per million as a dough conditioner, aging, and bleaching ingredient. 
In addition to making food fluffy, Azo also extends the shelf life of a product.

Azodicarbonamide: What is Azodicarbonamide and Why is Azodicarbonamide in My Food?
Azodicarbonamide has become known as the “yoga mat” chemical. 

But, what is Azodicarbonamide really? 
Azodicarbonamide is a chemical compound added to flour as a bleaching and improving agent. 
Azodicarbonamide is also used as a foaming agent in the production some plastic products (such as yoga mats).

The fast food chain, Subway, made headlines recently when it stopped using the additive in bread.  
This move came after a successful online campaign and petition.

Azodicarbonamide is a crystalline powder.
Azodicarbonamide is yellow to orange red in colour. 
Azodicarbonamide is odourless.  
The full chemical formula is C2H4O2N4.

Porofor ChKhZ 21R
Celogen AZ 130
Celogen AZ 199
Kempore R 125
ChKhz 21
ChKhZ 21r
Formamide, 1,1'-azobis-
Azodicarbonamide, 97%
Poramid K 1
Unifoam AZH 25
Kempore 60/40
Porofor-lk 1074 (bayer)

Azodicarbonamide is a chemical compound which ranges in color from yellow to orange red, odorless by nature and is in form of crystalline powder. 
Azodicarbonamide is extensively used as a blowing agent, food additive, and a foaming agent. 
Azodicarbonamide is basically used in rubber and plastic products such as yoga mats. 
Thus, Azodicarbonamide is commercially practiced by bakers as a whitening conditioner for bread dough.

As a blowing agent, Azodicarbonamide is used in plastics, synthetics leather, and other industries. 
Pure azodicarbonamide usually reacts approximately around 200 °C. 
While using Azodicarbonamide for plastics, leather and other utilities it contains additives that strengthen the reaction or react at lower temperatures. 
As a food additive, Azodicarbonamide is used as a flour bleaching agent and a dough conditioner. 
As an oxidizing agent, Azodicarbonamide reacts with moist flour. 
The secondary reaction products include semicarbazide and ethyl carbamate.

HSDB 1097
EINECS 204-650-8
NSC 41038
NSC 674447
Azoform A
Paramid K1
Azobis CA 51C
Azobis CA 110B
Azodicarboxamide, 97%

One scare relating to Azodicarbonamide occurred in 2003. 
Not in regards to regards to Azodicarbonamides use IN food but in food contacting containers. 
At this time a baby food company was monitoring it’s products for prohibited chemicals, namely nitrofurazone, which is a veterinary antibiotic prohibited in European foods. 
The company found traces of semicarbazide (SEM), which they thought to be a metabolite of nitrofurazone, thus indicating its presence. 
They found that Azodicarbonamide came from the breakdown of azodicarbonamide.

EC 204-650-8
Azodicarboxamide, 99%, FCC

Azodicarbonamide is used as a flour bleaching agent to improve the appearance of the final product.
Azodicarbonamide reacts with moist flour as an oxidizing agent; the main reaction product is biurea, a derivative of urea, which is stable during baking.
The World Health Organization has linked azodicarbonamide to respiratory issues, allergies, and asthma among individuals at workplaces where azodicarbonamide is manufactured or handled in raw form.
In the United States and China, limited amounts of azodicarbonamide are considered safe and Azodicarbonamides addition to flour is allowed up to 45 and 20 mg/Kg, respectively.3,4
In Australia and Europe, azodicarbonamide is banned as a food additive.
Therefore, Azodicarbonamide is necessary to establish efficient and sensitive methods to determine azodicarbonamide in flour, and HPLC with UV detection offers the advantages of method accuracy and ruggedness.

Azodicarbonamide, also known as azo(bis)formamide or Diazenedicarboxamide, is a chemical compound used as a food additive, a flour bleaching agent, and a dough conditioner. 
Ungraded products supplied by Spectrum are indicative of a grade suitable for general industrial use or research purposes and typically are not suitable for human consumption or therapeutic use.

Azodicarboxamide, analytical reference material
Azodicarbonamide [UN3242] [Flammable solid]
1,2-Diazendicarboxamid [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
1,2-Diazenedicarboxamide [ACD/Index Name] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
1,2-Diazènedicarboxamide [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
204-650-8 [EINECS]
Azodicarbonamide [Wiki]
1, 1'-Azobis[formamide]
123-77-3 [RN]
97707-96-5 [RN]

MSDS Name: Azodicarbonamide, 97%
Catalog Numbers: AC105160000, AC105160050, AC105165000
Synonyms: 1,1'-Azobisformamide.
Company Identification:
Acros Organics N.V.
One Reagent Lane
Fair Lawn, NJ 07410
For information in North America, call: 800-ACROS-01
For emergencies in the US, call CHEMTREC: 800-424-9300

Azodicarbonamide Origin:
Obtained from carbonamide.

Azodicarbonamide Function & Characteristics:
Bread enhancer. Bleaching agent for flour.

Azodicarbonamide Products:
Bread but practically not used.

Acceptable Azodicarbonamide daily intake (ADI) :
Up to 45 mg/kg bodyweight

This azodicarbonamide is used not only to produce plastics and synthetic leathers, Azodicarbonamide is also used in food.  
Azodicarbonamides primary use is to bleach flour.  

Why does your flour need bleaching?  
To make Azodicarbonamide more white, first of all, so that Azodicarbonamide looks nice.  
But that’s incidental.  
Freshly milled flour simply doesn’t make a good loaf of bread.  
Bread made with fresh flour tends to be slack, tough, and saggy.  
Bread flour needs to age.  
This frees up groups of sulfur ions at the ends of chains of glutenin (one of the two natural compounds that react in wet flour to create gluten) so that they bond into gluten strands more strongly, resulting in a proud, high loaf.  
But naturally ageing flour takes a long time.  
And manufacturers can speed up this oxidation process by bleaching the flour, often with azodicarbonamide.  
This quickly, chemically oxidizes the flour, so Azodicarbonamide can immediately be shipped to consumers and result in a strong, happy loaf of bread.  
The alternative is unbleached flour, which is aged naturally until Azodicarbonamide oxidizes, and this explains why unbleached flour is more expensive than bleached flour…which always made about as much sense to me as why low-sodium chicken stock would cost more than regular sodium.  

There’s LESS sodium, so why is Azodicarbonamide more expensive?  
The answer for flour is that production costs are higher to age the flour naturally, because the process takes longer.  
A few cents worth of azodicarbonamide and the flour is ready to go immediately.  
I’m a staunch user of unbleached flours, but most pastry chefs won’t touch the stuff.  
Azodicarbonamide’s bleached or nothing for them, because Azodicarbonamide results in a superior product.

Azodicarboxylic acid diamide
Celogen AZ
Celogen AZ 130
Celogen AZ 199
Celosen AZ
ChKhz 21R

Eyes: Flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. 
Get medical aid immediately.
Skin: Get medical aid. 
Flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. 
Wash clothing before reuse.
Ingestion: If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. 
Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. 
Get medical aid immediately.
Inhalation: Remove from exposure and move to fresh air immediately. 
If not breathing, give artificial respiration. 
If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. 
Get medical aid.
Notes to Physician: Treat symptomatically and supportively.

Ficel EP-A
Formamide, 1,1'-azobis-
Genitron AC
Genitron AC 2
Genitron AC 4
Kempore 125
Kempore R 125
Lucel ADA
Pinhole ACR 3
Pinhole AK 2
Porofor 505
Porofor adc/R
Porofor Chkhz 21
Porofor Chkhz 21R
Porofor DhKhZ 21
Unifoam AZ
Uniform AZ
Yunihomu AZ

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