BAYHIBIT AM

BAYHIBIT AM = PBTC = 2-Phosphonobutane-1,2,4,-tricarboxylic acid

CAS-Number: 037971-36-1
Empirical formula: C7 H11 O9 P
Molar masse: 270,13

BAYHIBIT AM is a phosphonate (PBTC) with a low phosphonate content which works as a corrosion inhibitor and sequestrant.  
BAYHIBIT AM also has outstanding stability in chlorine and hypochlorite bleach, unmatched by most other phosphonates.

BAYHIBIT AM is an aqueous solution of PBTC for water treatment and cleaning agents.  
BAYHIBIT AM can be used in water treatment applications as an effective scale inhibitor in cooling water circuits and process water systems.  
In addition, BAYHIBIT AM is also an excellent corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel.  
BAYHIBIT AM is most effective at neutral to high pH and high hardness, also making it an effective dispersing agent for alkaline cleaning agents and detergents.  
BAYHIBIT AM has outstanding solubility, and can be mixed with strong acid or alkali solutions.

BAYHIBIT AM is a highly effective scale and corrosion inhibitor, which active ingredientPBTC was developed by the Bayer AG. 
Main field of BAYHIBIT AM applications are the treatment of coolingand process water as well as the area of cleaning formulations.

BAYHIBIT AM Applications
-Dyestuffs, pigments and optical brighteners
-Paper Manufacture
-Paper industry
-Textile industry
-Leather industry
-Beamhouse
-Pigments
-Food industry
-Metal industry
-Ceramic
-Textile auxiliaries
-Material protection
-Water Treatment
-Sugar industry
-Corrosion inhibitor
-Washing- and cleaning agent industry
-Scale inhibitor
-Dispersing
-Water softening
-Finishing of metals
-Mineral oil and lubricant
-Petroleum industry
-Dispersing agent for pigments
-Dispersing of fillers
-Slurries

BAYHIBIT AM is a corrosion inhibitor and an additive for industrial cleaners.
BAYHIBIT AM is produced at an EU manufacturing site (Germany) in closed systems.
BAYHIBIT AM has proved highly effective as a threshold inhibitor. 
Very low additions (ppm range), i.e. in far less than sub-stoichiometric concentrations (calculated on the hardness of the water), prevent the formation of scale and incrustations, respectively. 
Under the conditions found in cooling water, BAYHIBIT AM is a good corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel. 
Moreover, the adsorption of the PBTC anion on inorganic particles suspended in water results in a negative charge on their surfaces and thus in an improvement in dispersibility. 
This is why neutralized BAYHIBIT AM is used as a dispersion agent / deflocculation agent for inorganic slurries and slips.
BAYHIBIT AM is a multi-constituent substance that contains of ca. 43% (w/w) 2-phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid ("PBTC"), ca. 49% (w/w) water and several very  low-concentrated impurities. 
For this reason, the main focus of this toxicokinetic statement is on toxicokinetic of 2-phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid ("PBTC") in aqueous solution. 
This approach is in line with OECD SIDS "PBTC" and BUA report 182 on 2-phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid. 
Both reports refer to the aqueous solution of PBTC (respectively BAYHIBIT AM) or of its sodium salts.

BAYHIBIT AM is a multi-constituent, aqueous substance that is liquid at room temperature and completely miscible in water. 
BAYHIBIT AMs main constituent (beside water) at about 43% is 2-phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid with a molecular weight of 270 g/mol. 
The partition coefficient of 2-phosphono-butane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid (logPow = -1.36 at 25°C) was determined by calculation (using the software program EPISuite v. 3.20). 
The water solubility of the main constituent (655 g/L at 25°C ) was also calculated (program WSKOW v1.14). 
The vapour pressure of 2-phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid was calculated to be 8.08 x 10-9Pa at 25 °C (calculated by EPIWIN (v3.12)). 

The pKs values at 20°C were calculated by software ACD ChemSketch ACD/Labs 7.00 Release, Product Version 7.05. as follows:
Dissociation equilibrium       pKs
H5L/H+H4L                      = 0.66 ¿ = 1.5
H4L/H+H3L                      = 3.78 ¿ = 4.2
H3L/H+H2L                      = 4.34 ¿ = 4.54
H2L/H+HL                       = 4.85 ¿ = 5.04
HL/H+L                         = 8.09 ¿ = 9.09

Under the brand name ATAMAN CHEMICALS we offer powerful additives for the formulation of detergents and cleaning agents, additives for circulation and wastewater conditioning or as special processing aids, e.g. for the production of colour pastes, for use as a concrete additive, or for the stabilisation of bleaching agents.
The BAYHIBIT range of products belong to the family of phosphonates and have been proven for many years in the field of detergents and cleaning agents as well as in the stabilisation of the circulation water. 
In addition to a sparing dosage rate in combination with reliable scale inhibition, these products are also characterised by high and consistent quality “Made in Germany”.

Stability to hydrolysis
BAYHIBIT can be used in aqueoussolutions, lyes and acids up to temperaturesconsiderably above 100 °C. 
Investigations ofthe stability have shown that, for example,the half-life (50 % degradation toorthophosphate) in process water with a pHof 9 and a temperature of 200 °C is around20 hours.

Inhibitor loss / turbidity region
When combined with polyvalent cations,threshold inhibitors can form poorly solublesalts which, when they exceed the solubilitylimits, often result in turbidity. 
Fieldexperience and special trials have shownthat the tendency of the inhibitor to preci-pitate caused by, for example, Ca2+ andFe(III) is much lower in BAYHIBIT than inother phosphonates.
For this reason, inhibitor losses are lowwhen BAYHIBIT is used.

synonyms:
BAYHIBIT AM
PBTC
2-Phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid

Applications of BAYHIBIT AM:
Washing and cleaning agents
Water treatment
Textile auxiliaries
Colouring agent and pigment preparations
Metal surface treatment
Ceramics
Concrete industry
Building material preparations
Preparations for the food processing technology
Drinking water purification

In conclusion, 2-phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid revealed a high water solubility, is very hydrophilic, and has a very low vapour pressure. 
Moreover, BAYHIBIT AM is (nearly) non-dissociated at very low pH values and is not completely dissociated at higher pH values.
The pH value of 1% aqueous solution of BAYHIBIT AM was determined to be 1.9, of the undiluted substance 0.0.
 
Dermal absorption
Dermal absorption, the process by which a substance is transported across the skin and taken up into the living tissue of the body, is a complex process. 
The skin is a multilayered biomembrane with particular absorption characteristics. 
BAYHIBIT AM is a dynamic, living tissue and as such BAYHIBIT AMs absorption characteristics are susceptible to constant changes.
The barrier properties of skin almost exclusively reside in BAYHIBIT AMs outermost layer, the stratum corneum, which is composed of essentially dead keratinocytes.
Upon contact with the skin, a compound penetrates into the dead stratum and may subsequently reach the viable epidermis, the dermis and the vascular network. 
During the absorption process, the compound may be subject to biotransformation.
The stratum corneum provides BAYHIBIT AMs greatest barrier function against hydrophilic compounds, whereas the viable epidermis is most resistant to highly lipophilic compounds.
Depending on the high water solubility and the very low logPow (equivalent to a very low lipophilic character), 2-phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid is not likely to penetrate the first skin barrier (stratum corneum).
Thus, upon dermal contact, the bioavailability of BAYHIBIT AM is expected to be very low and therefore negligible.

Resorption after uptake via inhalation
Due to BAYHIBIT AMs very low vapour pressure,2-phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acidis assumed to be toxicologically relevant for inhalation exposure primarily in the form of aerosols released.
Non-polar substances are easily resorbed by the lungs. 
Opposed to that, water-soluble substances are mainly excreted by the nasal and bronchiolar mucosa before reaching the alveolar region.
Thus, the bioavailability of BAYHIBIT AM aerosols is expected to be very low after inhalation. 

Resorption after oral uptake
After oral uptake, water as such is absorbed by the small intestine, is retained in the liver and then transported to and excreted via the kidneys. 
The same is for salts, other nutrients and substances that are resorbed analogously, i.e. can pass the membranes of body cells.
In the gastrointestinal tract, the degree of resorption of substances that dissociate depends on the pH value.
Based on the pKs values, 2-phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid is either nearly not dissociated, in the stomach (pH 1 ¿ 3), or is dissociated to a large extent, in the small intestine (pH 7.6). 
Consequently, absorption takes place mainly in the stomach due to the pH environment.

Product description:
BAYHIBIT AM is a highly effective scale and corrosion inhibitor. 
Main field of application are the treatment of cooling and process water as well as the area of cleaning formulations and can be used without the addition of acids, e.g. at free pH.

BAYHIBIT AM is a highly effective scale and corrosion inhibitor. 
Main field of application are the treatment of cooling and process water as well as the area of cleaning formulations.
Chemical composition: 50% solution of 2-Phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid (PBTC) in water

Storage
The product can be stored in tightly sealedoriginal packaging without a deterioration ofquality for a period of at least two years incase of appropriate storage. 
Material whichhas solidified on account of cold (solidifyingpoint approx. – 15 ° C) can be defrostedwithout a reduction of quality.

Materials
The following materials have proved suitablefor the metering tanks, pumps and lines forBAYHIBIT AM:glass, stainless steel (e.g. DIN W1.4571 =US AISI 316 TI), plastics such as poly-ethylene, polytetrafluoro ethylene (PTFE)and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). 
Seals shouldbe made form PTFE or graphite.

Solubility
BAYHIBIT AM can be mixed in any ratiowith water. 
BAYHIBIT AM is soluble in lyes, e.g. sodiumhydroxide solution, and in acids, e.g. sulfuricacid. 
Because of BAYHIBIT AMs outstanding solubility,even formulations which already containhigh concentrations of other activesubstances can be optimized by the additionof BAYHIBIT AM.

Neutralization
BAYHIBIT AM is a strong acid. 
When BAYHIBIT AM ismixed with alkali, a heat of neutralization ofaround 210 kJ (approx. 50 kcal) is releasedper mole PBTC. 
This is why the finaltemperature of a solution produced withoutcooling by neutralizing BAYHIBIT AM(commercial product) with 20 % sodiumhydroxide solution is around 50 °C higherthan the temperature of the startingsolutions. 
If higher concentrations of sodiumhydroxide are used, it must be expected thatthe solution will begin to boil if BAYHIBIT AM is notcooled.

Phosphonobutane tricarboxylic acid is excellent as both antiscalants and corrosion inhibitors, because of BAYHIBIT AMs structural feature of carboxylic acid and phosphoric acid. 
The PBTC chemical is stable and high efficiency in the condition of high hardness, temperature, pH value, and indexed matter concentration.
While usually building with other organophosphates, PBTC acid also widely works together with zinc salts whose solubility BAYHIBIT AM will increase. 
Phosphonobutane tricarboxylic acid can improve zinc salt solubility. 
PBTC 50% also have a higher tolerance to oxidation agents like chlorine or bromine in the system.
The first reaction for PBTC 50% production is between dialkyl phosphite (usually dimethyl phosphate in China) and maleic acid dimethyl ester under basic catalyst. 
Tetraalkyl ester of phosphonosuccinic acid forms and immediately reacted with methyl acrylate. 
The following thereupon saponification yields PBTC.

Usage:
As an excellent inhibitor to both scale and corrosion, PBTC 50% is an excellent stabilizer for zinc salt. 
BAYHIBIT AM is widely applied in the refilling system and circulated cooling system for oil fields, steel mills, and mines. 
PBTC 50 can be used in situations of high temperature, high hardness, high alkali, and high concentration index.

Besides, phosphonobutane tricarboxylic acid is used to chelate metal ions in lavation and detergent industries as metal detergent. 
In pH 7-10, 5-15 mg/L is recommended if only PBTC acid. 
PBTC 50% is usually used together with the zinc salt, copolymer, organophosphine, imidazole, and other water treatment agents. 
When used alone, the dosage of 5-15 mg/L is preferred.

Package and Storage:
200L plastic drum, IBC (1000L), customers’ requirements. 
Storage for one year in a shady room and dry place.

Safety Protection:
Acidity, Avoid contact with eye and skin, once contacted, flush with water.

Transport Info:
Corrosive. 
IMO class 8, UN 3265.

Engineered to be a tough phosphonate for all scale treatment conditions, the BAYHIBIT can be used as an inhibitor
Bayer Corporationto be a tough phosphonate for all scale treatment conditions, the BAYHIBIT can be used as an inhibitor and as an agent in industrial and institutional cleaning products. 
The company offers three models of this product including the AM, S and N units. 
This system offers a low phosphorous level, scale inhibition, chemical stability, temperature stability, and is synergistic with polyacrylates. 

Keywords:
PBTC
Dequest 7000
Mayoquest 2100
BAYHIBIT AM
Belclene 650
Codex 551
Briquest PBTC, PBTC tricarboxylic acid, 2-phosphonobutane-1 2 4-tricarboxylic acid

Stability to chlorine, bleaching lye andother oxidizing agents
Because of BAYHIBIT AMs outstanding stability tochlorine and bleaching lye, BAYHIBIT isoften used together with bleaching lye indisinfectant alkaline cleaning agents.

Phosphonates derived from phosphorous (phosphonic) acid are employed in the applications of scale Inhibition, sequestration, dispersion and corrosion inhibition in addition to the main applications of agricultural chemicals such as fertilizers, pesticides, and soil conditioners. 
Phosphonates offer a wide range of sequestrants to control metal ions in aqueous systems. 
By forming stable water soluble complexes with multivalent metal ions, phosphonates prevent undesired interaction by blocking normal reactivity of metal ions. 
This ability contributes to function as threshold industrial water treatment and metal treatment processes (antiscalants, corrosion inhibitors, chelants, sludge conditioners, pulp bleachings, deflocculants, dispersants, metal cleaners, electroplating and crystal growth modifiers). 
Phosphonates are also used in manufacturing detergents, cosmetics and personal care products for special functions such as low levels iron control, stain removal, bleach stabilization, peroxide stabilization and anti-encrustation. 
Phosphonates existing in various compounds as acids or salts are marketed in the form of concentrated solutions.

PBTC has three carboxy groups in one molecule. 
This multifunctional carboxylic acid provides covalently linked structure with hydroxy group. 
Carboxylic acids form amide derivatives. 
PBTC is a raw material to produce aromatic polyimide resins having high resistance to thermal stresses. 
BAYHIBIT AM is a metal chelator. 
BAYHIBIT AM is used as a corrosion inhibitor and a metal-cleaning composition. 
BAYHIBIT AM is used as a chemical intermediate. 
BAYHIBIT AMs derivatives, acyl halides, anhydrides, esters, amides and nitriles, are used in making target products such as flavoring agents, pesticides, cosmetic ingredients, dyes, textile treatment agents, fungicides, and pharmaceuticals through further reactions of substitution, catalytic reduction, metal hydride reduction, diborane reduction, keto formation with organometallic reagents, electrophile bonding at oxygen, and Claisen condensation on carboxylic group.

Product safety and storage:
Relevant safety data and references as well as possibly necessary warning labels are to be found in safety data sheet.
The product can be stored in tightly sealed original packaging without a deterioration of quality for a period of up to two years in case of appropriate storage. 
Material which has solidified because of low temperatures can be defrosted without reduction of quality.
The following materials have proved suitable for the metering tanks, pumps and lines for BAYHIBIT AM: glass, stainless steel (e.g. DIN W1.4571 = US AISI 316 TI), plastics such as polyethylene, polytetrafluoro ethylene (PTFE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). 
Seals should be made from PTFE or graphite.

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