Benzophenone-3 = Oxybenzone = 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzone = 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone = benzoyl chloride + 3-methoxyphenol
CAS Number: 131-57-7
Molecular formula: C14H12O3
BENZOPHENONE-3 is classified as :
Organic UV filters like benzophenone-3 (BP-3) are widely used to protect humans and materials from damage by UV irradiation.
Oxybenzone (Benzophenone 3) is a commonly used UV filter in sun tans and skin protectants.
Benzophenone-3 (BP-3) is a compound that is incorporated into cosmetics and other personal hygiene products for its sunscreening effects
Benzophenone-3 is frequently incorporated into personal hygiene products because of its photoprotective activity. BP-3 can also be found in auto care and household products and in plastics.
2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone acts as a broad spectrum ultraviolet filter. 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenonean is effective absorber of UV A & UV B radiation and category 1 sunscreen in USA.
2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone has high resistance to thermal degradation. 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone is compatible with a wide variety of polymers.
2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone helps stabilize fragrances and active ingredients against oxidation. 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone is widely used in sunscreens and cosmetics.
Benzophenone-3 acts as a sunscreen agent/ultraviolet light absorber. Benzophenone-3 is used in sun care applications.
Benzophenone-3 UV filter acts as UV filter. Benzophenone-3 is a secondary UV-B absorber with activity in the UV-A region.
Moreover, Benzophenone-3 provides supplemental UV protection and boosts SPF activity.
Benzophenone-3 filter finds application in formulating sun-care (after-sun, self-tanning and sunscreen application), body- & facial-care formulas and color cosmetics.
2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (benzophenone-3) is commonly employed as broad-band UV-filter in sunscreen cosmetic products. 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone protects skin from the deleterious effects of the sun.
Benzophenone-3 is an effective oil-soluble broad spectrum absorber with max. protection in the short-wave UVB and UVA spectra (UVB at approx. 286 nm, UVA at approx. 325 nm).
Benzophenone-3 is the backbone of many sunscreens & sun protection products, Benzophenone-3 offers UVB protection and some absorbtion in the short UVA II region (320-342 nm).
This product is oil soluble.
Physical form: White yellowish, cream coloured powder
Molecular weight: 228.26 g/mol
Benzophenone-3 acts as a UV filter sunscreen agent.
Benzophenone-3 is highly photostable and provides broadband UV absorption (UVA II and UVB).
Benzophenone-3 is an active ingredient against oxidation and improves the stability of fragrances.
Benzophenone-3 protects cosmetic formulations from damage due to UV exposure.
Benzophenone-3 is recommended for use in fragrances, shower products, sun-, face-, body- and lip care products.
Benzophenone-3 acts as a sunscreen agent/ultraviolet light absorber. Benzophenone-3 is Used in sun care applications.
Benzophenone-3 is a white or pale yellow powder.
Benzophenone-3 is used mostly in the formulation of nail polishes and enamels, but can also be used in bath products, makeup products, hair products, sunscreens and skin care products to protect cosmetics and personal care products from deterioration by absorbing, reflecting, or scattering UV rays.
When used as a sunscreen ingredient, Benzophenone-3 protects the skin from UV rays.
Benzophenone-3 (also known as BP-3 or oxybenzone) is added to sunscreens, plastics, and some coatings to filter UV radiation.
2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)phenylmethanone; 4-Methoxy-2-hydroxybenzophenone; Benzophenone 3; Escalol 567; Eusolex 4360; MOB; Oxybenzone; Uvinul M-40; Spectra-Sorb UV-9; 2-benzoyl-5-methoxyphenol; cyasorb uv 9; syntase 62; UF 3; advastab 45; anuvex; chimassorb 90; cyasorb uv 9 light absorber; MOD; ongrostab hmb; sunscreen uv 15; uvinul 9; uvistat 24; HMB.
This compound is a sunscreen agent used to protect against sunburn (ultraviolet radiation).
Benzophenone-3 is used to prevent skin cancer, premature aging of the skin and various forms of photosensitivity diseases.
Benzophenone-3 is also used as a color preserver in paints, cosmetics, varnishes, hair dyes and soaps.
Benzophenone-3 is common UV-adsorber in dental composite materials and other plastic materials.
Benzophenone-3 is UV-adsorber in topical sunscreens, moisturizers, shampoos, hair care products, lipsticks, lip balms, nail polish, etc
Benzophenone-3, or oxybenzone, primarily functions as a photostabilizer and sunscreen.
Among the vast selection of sunscreen active ingredients, Benzophenone-3 is classified as a "chemical" sunscreen agent.
Inadequate when used alone, benzophenone-3 absorbs UVB and short UVA rays but is a relatively weak chemical UV absorber.
By absorbing UV rays, it also helps preserve the integrity of other cosmetic ingredients, preventing their deterioration under the sun.
For this reason, benzophenone-3 is most often used in conjunction with other sunscreen agents.
Besides sunscreen, it can be found in a variety of personal care products such as nail polish, lotions, and lipstick.
2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, also called oxybenzone or benzophenone-3 (BP-3) absorbs ultraviolet (UV) light and is used in sunscreens, but also to protect polymers from UV damage
Oxybenzone is one of the most commonly-used sunscreen chemicals. This ingredient, sometimes called benzophenone-3, is not to be confused with benzophenone, another sunscreen ingredient.
Oxybenzone is also sometimes found in perfumes – not to protect the wearer from the sun, but to protect the fragrance formulation itself while it sits on the store shelf or your bathroom vanity.
Oxybenzone is a benzophenone derivative used as a sunscreen agent.
Benzophenone-3 is a chemical sunscreen agent that absorbs UVB and short UVA rays (280-350nm) with its peak protection at 288 nm.
Unlike many other chemical sunscreens, Benzophenone-3 is highly stable but its UV absorbing abilities are weak so it always has to be combined with other sunscreen agents for proper protection.
More often than not, Benzophenone-3 is used as a photostabilizer rather than a proper sunscreen agent as it can protect formulas nicely from UV damage.
Oxybenzone or benzophenone-3 or BP-3 (trade names Milestab 9, Eusolex 4360, Escalol 567, KAHSCREEN BZ-3) is an organic compound.
Benzophenone-3 is a pale-yellow solid that is readily soluble in most organic solvents. Oxybenzone belongs to the class of aromatic ketones known as benzophenones.
Benzophenone-3 is a naturally occurring chemical found in various flowering plants as well as being an organic component of many sunscreen lotions.
Benzophenone-3 is also in widespread use in things like plastics, toys, furniture finishes, and more to limit UV degradation
Benzophenone is used in personal care products such as lip balm and nail polish to protect the products from UV light.
Derivatives of benzophenone, such as benzophenone-2 (BP2) and oxybenzone (benzophenone-3 or BP3) are common ingredients in sunscreen.
Oxybenzone is a benzophenone derivative used as a sunscreen agent.
Oxybenzone absorbs UVB and UVA II rays, resulting in a photochemical excitation and absorption of energy.
Upon return to ground state, the absorbed energy results in emission of longer wavelength radiation and decreased skin penetration of radiation which reduces the risk of DNA damage.
NCI Thesaurus (NCIt)
Oxybenzone is a hydroxybenzophenone that is benzophenone which is substituted at the 2- and 4-positions of one of the benzene rings by hydroxy and methoxy groups respectively.
Oxybenzone has a role as a dermatologic drug, a protective agent, an ultraviolet filter, a xenobiotic and an environmental contaminant. Oxybenzone is a hydroxybenzophenone and a monomethoxybenzene.
Oxybenzone is an organic compound used in sunscreens. Oxybenzone is a derivative of benzophenone. Oxybenzone forms colorless crystals that are readily soluble in most organic solvents. It is used as an ingredient in sunscreen and other cosmetics because it absorbs UV-A ultraviolet rays.
Benzophenone-3 is used as a broad-band UV filter in concentrations of up to 10% in sunscreen products alone or in combination with other UV filters.
Beside the usage in sunscreens, Benzophenone-3 is incorporated in other types of cosmetic products at concentrations ranging between 0.05 - 0.5% for product protection (photoprotection).
Benzophenone is a sweet-smelling organic compound that occurs naturally in grapes and other fruits.
The compound is used in some personal care and consumer products and packaging as a UV filter.
FOUND IN: Lip balm, nail polish, foundations, baby sunscreens, fragrance, shampoo, conditioner, hair spray, moisturizers, and foundation
WHAT TO LOOK FOR ON THE LABEL: Benzophenone, ingredients containing the word benzophenone (for example benzophenone-2), BP# (for example BP2), oxybenzone, sulisobenzone, sulisobenzone sodium
In personal care products, benzophenone is used as a fragrance enhancer or to prevent products such as soaps from losing scents and colors in the presence of UV light.
Derivatives of benzophenones such as BP2 and oxybenzone (BP3) are used in sunscreens.
Oxybenzone is used as an ultraviolet light absorber and stabilizer especially in plastics and sunscreen agents.
Benzophenone and oxybenzone are also used in nail polish, and lip balm
Uses & Benefits
In skincare products like soap and lip balm, benzophenone helps prevent the other product ingredients from degrading under UV light – protecting the product’s color and scent. Oxybenzone, a derivative of benzophenone, is also an ingredient in many sunscreens due to its ability to absorb harmful UV rays.
Benzophenone is also widely used in a range of household products and consumer goods. In laundry and cleaning products, benzophenone is added to the product formulation as a perfume compound, and it also helps to protect the product against degradation that could be caused by UV rays and exposure to air.
In consumer products like sunglasses, shoes and sports equipment, benzophenone helps to protect against UV rays that could damage or deteriorate the product. In addition, as an ingredient in non-food plastic packaging, it helps to prevent sun damage and fading of the product inside the packaging.
Benzophenone-3 is proposed to be continued for use in sunscreen products at a maximum concentration at 10% weight/weight.
Benzophenone is used as an ultraviolet curing agent, flavour ingredient, fragrance enhancer and perfume fixative, and as an additive for plastics, coatings and adhesive formulations.
Benzophenone is also used as a screen to prevent ultraviolet light-induced damage to cosmetics.
Oxybenzone or benzophenone-3 or BP-3 is a naturally occurring chemical found in some flowering plants.
BP-3 absorbs and scatters the sun's harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays.
Benzophenone is produced for use as sunscreen in lotions, conditioners, and cosmetics. Oxybenzone or benzophenone-3 is an organic compound. Benzophenone is a pale-yellow solid that is readily soluble in most organic solvents. Oxybenzone belongs to the class of aromatic ketones known as benzophenones.
Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) expert scientific panel states that benzophenone and its derivatives (benzophenone-1, -3, -4, -5, -9 and -11) are safe as typically used in cosmetics and personal care products.
Oxybenzone is a sunscreen agent (also known as benzophenone-3) that protects primarily from UVB rays, and some, but not all, UVA rays. It is part of the benzophenone group of chemicals.
As a group, the benzophenones are used not only for sun protection but also as photostabilizers in cosmetics products.
That means they keep products from turning color or from degrading in the presence of sunlight. They also have other uses, including flavor enhancers in food.
Oxybenzone protects the skin from the sun’s harmful effects.
It mainly absorbs UVB radiation, which is responsible for sunburn and increases the risk of developing skin cancer.
It also absorbs short UVA rays, which are mainly responsible for skin ageing.
Oxybenzone remains stable in light and therefore effective during sun exposure.
IUPAC name: (2-Hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-phenylmethanone
Other names: Oxybenzone
Oxybenzone (INN name)
Oxybenzone (Benzophenone-3) is an oil soluble solid that absorbs both UV-A and short wave UV-B rays extending to less than 350 nm. Maximum usage level allowed in the US and Canada is 6%.
Description: Solid oil soluble UVA/UVB sunscreen. Aromatic ketone (synonyms: 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzophenone, benzophenone-3). Pale yellow crystalline powder, weak rose-like odor. Water-insoluble, soluble in alcohol & oil.
INCI Name: Benzophenone-3
UVA and UVB filter (primarily UVB but also UVA)
Enhances activity of other sunscreens (e.g. homosalate, octyl salicylate, OM-cinnamate, octinoxate)
Protects polymers and organic substances in cosmetic products
Stabilizes complex formulations and color cosmetics
Use: Incorporate into oil phase. Allowed use levels in the USA: up to 6% alone and 2-6% when used in combination with other sunscreen actives. Allowed levels in other countries: EU 10%, Japan 5%. For external use only. Store light- protected.
Applications: Sun care products (incl. baby sun care), color cosmetics with sun protection, various cosmetics & fragrances for product protection.
Raw material source: Benzoyl chloride and 3-hydroxyanisole
Manufacture: Oxybenzone is produced synthetically by the reaction of benzoyl chloride with 3-hydroxyanisole. The product is then recrystallized from water/methanol and dried.
Chemical formula: C14H12O3
Molar mass: 228.247 g·mol−1
Density: 1.20 g cm−3
Melting point: 62 to 65 °C (144 to 149 °F; 335 to 338 K)
Boiling point: 224 to 227 °C (435 to 441 °F; 497 to 500 K)
Acidity (pKa): 7.6 (H2O)
Flash point: 140.5 °C (284.9 °F; 413.6 K)
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):LD50 (median dose> 12800 mg/kg (oral in rats)
Functions of Benzophenone-3
Uv absorber : Protects the cosmetic product from the effects of UV-light
Uv filter : Filters certain UV rays to protect the skin or hair from the harmful effects of these rays.
Stabilising : Improves the ingredients or the stability of the formulation and the shelf life
Oxybenzone is produced by Friedel-Crafts reaction of benzoyl chloride with 3-methoxyphenol
Oxybenzone is used in plastics as an ultraviolet light absorber and stabilizer. It is used, along with other benzophenones, in sunscreens, hair sprays, and cosmetics because they help prevent potential damage from sunlight exposure. It is also found, in concentrations up to 1%, in nail polishes. Oxybenzone can also be used as a photostabilizer for synthetic resins. Benzophenones can leach from food packaging, and are widely used as photo-initiators to activate a chemical that dries ink faster.
As a sunscreen, it provides broad-spectrum ultraviolet coverage, including UVB and short-wave UVA rays. As a photoprotective agent, it has an absorption profile spanning from 270 to 350 nm with absorption peaks at 288 and 350 nm. It is one of the most widely used organic UVA filters in sunscreens today. It is also found in nail polish, fragrances, hairspray, and cosmetics as a photostabilizer. Despite its photoprotective qualities, much controversy surrounds oxybenzone because of its possible hormonal and photoallergenic effects, leading many countries to regulate its use.
Some debate focuses on the potential of oxybenzone as a contact allergen with a 2001 study finding contact dermatitis "uncommon" for oxybenzone. Due to the advent of PABA-free sunscreens, oxybenzone is now the most common allergen found in sunscreens.
In vivo studies
The incidence of oxybenzone causing photoallergy is extremely uncommon, however, oxybenzone has been associated with rare allergic reactions triggered by sun exposure. In a study of 82 patients with photoallergic contact dermatitis, just over one quarter showed photoallergic reactions to oxybenzone.
In a 2008 study of participants ages 6 and up, oxybenzone was detected in 96.8% of urine samples. Humans can absorb anywhere from 0.4% to 8.7% of oxybenzone after one topical application of sunscreen, as measured in urine excretions. This number can increase after multiple applications over the same period of time. Oxybenzone is particularly penetrative because it is the most lipophilic of the three most common UV filters.
When applied topically, UV filters, such as oxybenzone, are absorbed through the skin, metabolized, and excreted primarily through the urine. The method of biotransformation, the process by which a foreign compound is chemically transformed to form a metabolite, was determined by Okereke and colleagues through oral and dermal administration of oxybenzone to rats. The scientists analyzed blood, urine, feces, and tissue samples and found three metabolites: 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (DHB), 2,2-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (DHMB) and 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzophenone (THB). To form DHB the methoxy functional group undergoes O-dealkylation; to form THB the same ring is hydroxylated. Ring B in oxybenzone is hydroxylated to form DHMB.
A study done in 2004 measured the levels of oxybenzone and its metabolites in urine. After topical application to human volunteers, results revealed that up to 1% of the applied dose was found in the urine. The major metabolite detected was DHB and very small amounts of THB were found. By utilizing the Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium strains, DHB was determined to be nonmutagenic. In 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) noted in their recommendations for future study that, "While research indicates that some topical drugs can be absorbed into the body through the skin, this does not mean these drugs are unsafe."
Effects on coral
Media reports link oxybenzone in sunscreens to coral bleaching, although some environmental experts dispute the claim. A small number of studies have been released which linked coral damage to oxybenzone exposure. A 2015 study published in the Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology led to ban of oxybenxzone containing sunscreen in Palau. However, the purported link between oxybenzone and coral decline is widely discussed within the environmental community since most studies on the subject have been conducted in a lab environment. A 2019 study of UV filters in oceans found far lower concentrations of oxybenzone than previously reported, and lower than known thresholds for environmental toxicity.
Health and environmental regulation
Revised as of 2007, the National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS) Cosmetic Guidelines allow oxybenzone for cosmetic use up to 10%.
Revised as of 2012, Health Canada allows oxybenzone for cosmetic use up to 6%.
The Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (SCCP) of the European Commission concluded in 2008 that it does not pose a significant risk to consumers, apart from contact allergenic potential. It is allowed in sunscreens and cosmetics at levels of up to 6% and 0.5% respectively.
Revised as of 2001, the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare notification allows oxybenzone for cosmetic use up to 5%.
The Palau government has signed a law that restricts the sale and use of sunscreen and skincare products that contain oxybenzone, and nine other chemicals.
The ban comes into force in 2020.
The Swedish Research Council has determined that sunscreens with oxybenzone are unsuitable for use in young children, because children under the age of two years have not fully developed the enzymes that are believed to break it down. No regulations have come of this study yet.
Oxybenzone was approved for use in the US by the FDA in the early 1980s. Revised as of April 1, 2013, the FDA allows oxybenzone in OTC sunscreen products up to 6%.
The Hawaii State Legislature has passed a bill that would prohibit the sale of non-prescription sunscreens containing oxybenzone and other chemicals that may be damaging to coral reefs (e.g. octyl methoxycinnamate), effective January 1, 2021.
Key West has also banned the sale of sunscreens that contain the ingredients oxybenzone (and octinoxate). The ban goes into effect on January 1, 2021. However, this legislation was superseded by the Florida State Legislature by Senate Bill 172. Which prohibits local governments from regulating over-the-counter proprietary drugs and cosmetics (such as sunscreen containing oxybenzone and octinoxate). The statute became effective July 1, 2020.
The City of Miami Beach, Florida voted against a ban of oxybenzone, with commissioners citing public health concerns and lack of clarity on scientific evidence supporting such a ban.
What Is It?
Benzophenone-1, -3, -4, -5, -9 and-11 are compounds made from 2-hydroxybenzophenone. T
hese compounds are powders.
In cosmetics and personal care products, Benzophenone-1 and Benzophenone-3 are used mostly in the formulation of nail polishes and enamels.
These Benzophenone ingredients are also used in bath products, makeup products, hair products, sunscreens and skin care products.
Why is it used in cosmetics and personal care products?
Benzophenone-1, Benzophenone-3, Benzophenone-4, Benzophenone-5, Benzophenone-9 and Benzophenone-11 protect cosmetics and personal care products from deterioration by absorbing, reflecting, or scattering UV rays. When used as sunscreen ingredients, Benzophenone-3 and Benzophenone-4 protect the skin from UV rays.
Benzophenone ingredients absorb and dissipate UV radiation, which serves to protect cosmetics and personal care products. As part of sunscreen products, which are OTC drugs in the United States, Benzophenone-3 (Oxybenzone) and Benzophenone-4 (Sulisobenzone) protect the skin from the harmful effects of the sun.
Exposing unprotected skin to UV light (primarily in the UV-B range) can result in sunburn and can promote premature aging of the skin and skin cancer.
Benzophenone-3 is an organic, oil-soluble sun filter that absorbs both UV-A and UV-B radiation.
Benzophenone-3 is being used in a wide range of cosmetic products to provide an appropriate Sun Protection Factor (SPF) in sunscreens or to protect cosmetics against UV radiation.
It also protects colorants against fading and helps stabilizing fragrances and active ingredients against degradation or oxidation.
Approved for the use in sun care preparations in many countries worldwide.
In Europe max 6% in sunscreens and 0.5% in other cosmetic products.
Benzophenone-3 is also known under the names Oxybenzone, 2-Hydroxy-4-Methoxybenzophenone.
EC Inventory, Cosmetic Products Regulation, Annex VI - Allowed UV Filters, Other
Most commonly used chemical UV filter.
High resistance to thermal degradation.
Compatible with a wide variety of polymers.
Cyasorb UV 9
Spectra-sorb UV 9
Cyasorb UV 9 Light Absorber
Uvinul M 40
2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl phenyl ketone
Neo heliopan BB
PreSun 15 (Salt/Mix)
component of Presun 23 (Salt/Mix)
component of Presun 29 (Salt/Mix)
component of Presun 30 (Salt/Mix)
component of Caraloe snow & sun lip balm (Salt/Mix)
2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone 10 microg/mL in Cyclohexane
Oxybenzone, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, certified reference material, TraceCERT(R)
Oxybenzone, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
BP-3 displays a low acute toxicity profile with oral and dermal LD50-values exceeding the classification limit of 2000 mg/kg.
Benzophenone-3 is not considered as being irritating to the skin and the eyes.
The UV filter has been extensively tested for its photoirritating potential in vitro during the validation of the 3T3 NRU PT test and was found negative in the majority of cases.
The SCCP is of the opinion that the use of benzophenone-3 as a UV-filter up to 6% in cosmetic sunscreen products and up to 0.5% in all types of cosmetic products to protect the formulation does not pose a risk to the health of the consumer, apart from its contact allergenic and photoallergenic potential.
cyasorb UV 9
2- hydroxy-4-methoxy benzophenone
2- hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl phenyl ketone
neo heliopan BB (Symrise)
spectra-sorb UV 9