BLOWING AGENTS

Blowing agents are used to expand rubber, plastics and ceramics to create a foam.  
Blowing agents is lightweight, creates heat insulation, sound absorbency, elasticity, textures, and shock absorbency.  
Blowing agents is used in automotive under-body coatings, sealants, adhesives, weatherstripping, roof coatings,  printing inks, compositions for boats, modeling clay, wine corks, foam packaging boards, paints, and technical textiles.  

A blowing agent is a substance which is capable of producing a cellular structure via a foaming process in a variety of materials that undergo hardening or phase transition, such as polymers, plastics, and metals. 
Blowing agents are typically applied when the blown material is in a liquid stage. 
The cellular structure in a matrix reduces density, increasing thermal and acoustic insulation, while increasing relative stiffness of the original polymer.
Chemical blowing agents are used to produce vinyl foam for improved foot comfort under the carpet. 
Proper selection of the blowing agent is needed to produce the desired density and cell formation of the foam.

Chemical blowing agents are added to the polymer either prior to or during plasticization. 
Blowing agents consist of organic or inorganic compounds that dissociate gas due to a reaction during processing.
Foam blowing agents encompass a wide variety of applications including refrigerators, buildings, automobiles, furniture, packaging, and many more. 
The blowing agent is used to create a cellular structure from liquid plastic resin, and in the case of foam used for insulation it functions as an insulating component of the foam.


1-) AMMONIUM BICARBONATE

CAS Number: 1066-33-7
Molecular Weight: 79.06
EC Number: 213-911-5

Ammonium bicarbonate is an inorganic compound with bicarbonateh formula (NH4)HCO3, simplified to NH5CO3. 
Ammonium bicarbonate has many names, reflecting Ammonium bicarbonates long history. 
Chemically speaking, Ammonium bicarbonate is the bicarbonate salt of the ammonium ion. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is a colourless solid that degrades readily to carbon dioxide, water and ammonia.

Ammonium bicarbonate is an inorganic salt commonly used in the food industry. 
Ammonium bicarbonate can be generated by the interaction of gaseous carbon dioxide and aqueous ammonia. 
The add Ammonium bicarbonateion of ammonium bicarbonate to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been reported to improve Ammonium bicarbonates functioning by altering the porosity and pore distribution of catalyst layers.
A recent study reports the use of bubble column evaporator (BCE) based analysis of Ammonium bicarbonates thermal degradation in aqueous solution.

Ammonium bicarbonate, a natural chemical, has a faint ammonia smell because Ammonium bicarbonate slowly decomposes to ammonia, carbon dioxide, and water. 
As a pesticide active ingredient, Ammonium bicarbonate acts as a feeding attractant for insects. 
In Ammonium bicarbonates first approved end use products, ammonium bicarbonate is combined with two other active ingredients to control olive flies in olive orchards. 
When used according to label directions on products, Ammonium bicarbonate is not expected to harm people or the environment. 

Uses of Ammonium bicarbonate:
Ammonium bicarbonate is used in the food industry as a leavening agent for flat baked goods, such as cookies and crackers. 
Ammonium bicarbonate was commonly used in the home before modern-day baking powder was made available. 
Many baking cookbooks, especially from Scandinavian countries, may still refer to Ammonium bicarbonate as hartshorn or hornsalt, while Ammonium bicarbonate is known as "hirvensarvisuola" in Finnish, "hjortetakksalt" in Norwegian, "hjortetakssalt" in Danish, "hjorthornssalt" in Swedish, and "Hirschhornsalz" in German. 
Although there is a slight smell of ammonia during baking, this quickly dissipates, leaving no taste. 

Ammonium bicarbonate is used in, for example, Swedish "drömmar" biscuites and Danish "brunkager" Christmas biscuites, and German Lebkuchen. 
In many cases Ammonium bicarbonate may be replaced with baking soda or baking powder, or a combination of both, depending on the recipe composAmmonium bicarbonateion and leavening requirements.
Compared to baking soda or potash, hartshorn has the advantage of producing more gas for the same amount of agent, and of not leaving any salty or soapy taste in the finished product, as Ammonium bicarbonate completely decomposes into water and gaseous products that evaporate during baking. 
Ammonium bicarbonate cannot be used for moist, bulky baked goods however, such as normal bread or cakes, since some ammonia will be trapped inside and will cause an unpleasant taste. 
Ammonium bicarbonate has been assigned E number E503 for use as a food additive in the European Union.

Ammonium bicarbonate is commonly used as an inexpensive Ammonium bicarbonaterogen fertilizer in China, but is now being phased out in favor of urea for quality and stabilAmmonium bicarbonatey. 
This compound is used as a component in the production of fire-extinguishing compounds, pharmaceuticals, dyes, pigments, and Ammonium bicarbonate is also a basic fertilizer, being a source of ammonia. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is still widely used in the plastics and rubber industry, in the manufacture of ceramics, in chrome leather tanning, and for the synthesis of catalysts.
Ammonium bicarbonate is also used for buffering solutions to make them slightly alkaline during chemical purification, such as high-performance liquid chromatography. 
Because Ammonium bicarbonate entirely decomposes to volatile compounds, this allows rapid recovery of the compound of interest by freeze-drying.
Ammonium bicarbonate is also a key component of the expectorant cough syrup "Senega and Ammonia".

A white powder made for use as a leavening agent which is added as an ingredient when preparing many different types of baked goods that will have thin shells or crusts such as puff pasteries, flat breads, crackers, and some cookies. 
Ammonium Biocarbonate is typically used with smaller baked goods that can quickly disperse and evaporate the ammonia gas as Ammonium bicarbonate builds up within the baked Ammonium bicarbonateem. 
During the baking process, an ammonia aroma may be present, but Ammonium bicarbonate will not remain and will not be noticed in the baked goods when they are eaten. 
The result of using Ammonium Bicarbonate is a baked good that will have an light, airy, crispy, and somewhat fluffy texture. 
The term Ammonium Bicarbonate is actually an old term that is now more commonly referred to and replaced in recipes Ammonium bicarbonateh the substance known as baking powder or baking soda. 
However, the use of actual Ammonium Bicarbonate substance is still preferred by some who want a lighter or crispier texture than can be achieved by using baking powder or soda. 

Ammonium Bicarbonate (or baking ammonia or hartshorn salt) is used as a leavening agent in baking of cookies and other edible treats. 
Ammonium bicarbonate gives an explosive and fast leavening for baked goods that are baked for a short time. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is specially suitable for thin, dry cookies. 
When heated Ammonium bicarbonate releases ammonia and carbon dioxide gases, but no water. 
The lack of water allows the cookies to cook and dry out faster.

Ammonium bicarbonate may also be used as a substitute to remove the alkaline-like flavor that at times occurs in some baked goods when baking powder or baking soda is added. 
Many older European and Scandinavian recipes may use the term Baker's Ammonia instead of Ammonium Biocarbonate when referring to this substance. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is also often referred to as Hartshorn or Harts Horn which is a substance that is removed from deer antlers. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is important to understand that Ammonia and leaving agents such as Baker's Ammonia, baking powder or baking soda are not the same as household ammonia which is a poisonous substance and should not be used with foods or baked goods.
Ammonium Biocarbonate is activated when Ammonium bicarbonate is added to a dough or batter mixture and warms to room temperature or is baked, since heat is the catlyst to activate the chemical reaction and the gases. 
The chemical reaction releases an ammonia gas that causes the baked goods to rise. 
Ammonium Biocarbonate should be stored in an airtight sealed container such as a glass jar with an airtight lid. 

When properly stored in a cool dry area, Ammonium Bicarbonate can last for several years. 
If stored in a warm or damp area where air can reach the powder, this substance begins to clump together as the particles go through a chemical reaction, which will affect the flavor adversely when baked goods use the air-exposed Bicarbonate. 
In addition, when exposed to air, the Ammonia may begin to evaporate from the powdered Bicarbonate substance. 
When a recipe suggests the use of Ammonium Bicarbonate, equal amounts of baking powder can be substituted if necessary. 
To determine if Bicarbonate is still active, add a spoonful of the powder to a cup containing lemon juice or vinegar and see if Ammonium bicarbonate fizzes. 
Stale Ammonium Bicarbonate will be flat and will not fizz when combined with the vinegar or lemon juice.

Ammonium bicarbonate will decompose during baking and release ammonia and carbon dioxide leavening gases without reacting with a leavening acid. 
Unlike sodium bicarbonate, which leaves a residue of alkaline sodium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate leaves no residue when Ammonium bicarbonate decomposes by heat. 
Ammonium bicarbonate, therefore, has no effect on the pH of the baked product. 
If there is more than about 5% moisture in the baked product, however, the ammonia gas will dissolve in this water and impart an ammoniacal flavor to the product. 
For this reason, ammonium bicarbonate is used only in low-moisture products such as crackers.

USES AND APPLICATIONS FOR AMMONIUM BICARBONATE
INDUSTRIES
-Pharma
-Lubricants
-Water Treatment
-Cleaning
-Animal NutrAmmonium bicarbonateion
-Coatings & Construction
-Food and NutrAmmonium bicarbonateion
-Agriculture
-Cosmetics
-Polymers

A BITTER TASTE
Ammonium bicarbonate was used in things like cookies because Ammonium bicarbonate did not impart a bitter taste the way some early version of baking soda and powder did. 

ONLY USED IN COOKIES THAT ARE FLAT
The ammonia gas gets trapped in baked goods like a cake where Ammonium bicarbonate cannot escape and will make the cake smell bad, so Ammonium bicarbonate is only used in cookies that are flat and porous where the surface area allows to ammonia to disappear. 

Ammonia powder is ammonium bicarbonate, a leavening agent that is a precursor of today's baking powder and baking soda; Ammonium bicarbonate must be ground to a powder before using. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is also known as hartshorn, carbonate of ammonia or powdered baking ammonia. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is still called for in some recipes especially for cookies.

STORING
If you don't store Ammonium bicarbonate in an airtight jar Ammonium bicarbonate will evaporate. 

PRESERVED THE FLOUR
Baking powders were invented in Germany during a famine when food was scarce and people were dying. 
Using baking powder instead of yeast preserved the flour in the baking process instead of Ammonium bicarbonate being eaten by the yeast. 

Ammonium bicarbonate is an inorganic chemical compound which is usually used as a raising or leavening agent in the food industry. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is utilized as a source of carbon in low-moisture baked foods. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is generally produced by coursing the carbon dioxide through a stream of aqua ammonia. 
The result of the reaction is unstable and thus Ammonium bicarbonate is kept in a cold atmosphere.

The powdered baking ammonia cannot be used for bulky baked foods; however, Ammonium bicarbonates applications are not only bounded to the food industry. 
Ammonium bicarbonates use can found in the agricultural, pharmaceutical, textile, and ceramic industries, among others. 
Ammonium bicarbonate has bestowed the new entrants and emerging players with lucrative opportunities and untapped new avenues for them.

AN OTHER NAME
Ammonium bicarbonate is also called Hartshorn, or Horn Salts. 

A DEER STORY
Hartshorn lAmmonium bicarbonateerally means ground deer horn which was supposedly used before ammonium bicarbonate went into commercial production - not clear if Ammonium bicarbonate has the same properties though, so don't bother trying to grind up antlers. 

SMELLING SALTS
Harsthorn, Horn Salts or ammonium bicarbonate were used as smelling salts. 

Ammonium bicarbonate is a common leavening agent used in the baking industry and has been reported to be used in Guangdong-style steamed breads. 
Ammonium bicarbonate releases carbon dioxide and ammonia gas when the dough temperature reaches 40°C. 
If used at the correct addition rate, Ammonium bicarbonate significantly improves steamed bread color and volume. 
In addition, Ammonium bicarbonate can function as a buffering agent. 
Overuse of ammonium bicarbonate can result in ammoniacal taints in the final steamed bread. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is more commonly used in low-moisture products such as English-style biscuites.

Application
Ammonium bicarbonate (AMBIC) was used in the following studies:
To derivatize histone proteins from human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) by propionylation.
Destaining of silver-stained proteins in polyacrylamide gel bands during the peptide mass profiling using a mass spectrometer.
Digestion of proteins isolated from Xenopus egg extracts in coomassie blue-stained gel bands during the analysis of microtubule-binding proteins.

What are the uses of Ammonium Bicarbonate?
Food Industry
Fertilizer
Pharmaceuticals
Plastic and Rubber
Ceramics
Other Industries

Boiling Point:
N/A
Specific gravity:
N/A
Appearance / Odor:
white crystalline powder
solubility in Water:
17.4 g / 100 mL at 20 °C
Melting Point:
41.9 °C (107.4 °F)
pH:
8.2 at 1 percent solution
Molecular Weight:
79.05

Reactions
Ammonium bicarbonate dissolves in water to give a mildly alkaline solution. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is insoluble in acetone and alcohols.

Ammonium bicarbonate decomposes above about 36 °C into ammonia, carbon dioxide, and water in an endothermic process and so causes a drop in the temperature of the water:
NH4HCO3 → NH3 + H2O + CO2.

When treated with acids, ammonium salts are also produced:
NH4HCO3 + HCl → NH4Cl + CO2 + H2O.
Reaction with base produces ammonia.

Ammonium bicarbonate reacts with sulfates of alkaline-earth metals precipitating their carbonates:
CaSO4 + 2 NH4HCO3 → CaCO3 + (NH4)2SO4 + CO2 + H2O.

Ammonium bicarbonate also reacts with alkali metal halides, giving alkali metal bicarbonate and ammonium halide:
NH4HCO3 + NaCl → NH4Cl + NaHCO3;
NH4HCO3 + KI → NH4I + KHCO3;
NH4HCO3 + NaBr → NH4Br + NaHCO3.
Natural occurrence
The compound occurs in nature as an exceedingly rare mineral teschemacherite.

What is Ammonium Bicarbonate?
Ammonium bicarbonate, NH4HCO3, is a common leavening agent which releases CO2 without the need for an acid. 
Unlike baking powder or soda, Ammonium bicarbonate does not leave an alkaline taste, characteristic of soda or baking powder.

This ingredient is not used in high volume cakes, but mostly in:
-Extra crisp cookies
-Cream-puff pastries
-Crackers

Ammonium bicarbonate (NH₄HCO₃) has been shown to contribute, promote, and speed up acrylamide formation in baked products. 
A proposed mechanism is that NH₄HCO₃ fragments sugars, forming the highly reactive glyoxal and methylglyoxal species, which can react with asparagine, thereby increasing acrylamide levels.

Ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) is an important raising agent for the biscuit and cracker industry and bakers also use Ammonium bicarbonate in some strongly flavored products like gingerbread. 
ABC decomposes on heating at 60°C in a temperature-driven reaction releasing carbon dioxide, ammonia, and water vapor. 
ABC offers major technical benefits, as Ammonium bicarbonate is used for rapid, early expansion in the oven. 
Since ABC does not start acting before the oven, Ammonium bicarbonate means that products do not gas when the dough is mixing or standing which can be important during plant breakdowns. 
Biscuit makers also value the consistent stack height Ammonium bicarbonate gives, and Ammonium bicarbonate leaves no residue and no adverse flavors in low moisture products. 
Another complexity revolves around the fact that the level added to a recipe may change daily because of normal raw material variations. 
In this situation using ABC allows the adaptation of only one, stand-alone, ingredient, whereas other raising agents—that require acids for their action—would be more complicated to adapt. 
Unfortunately, the tendency to promote acrylamide formation is now a major drawback of using ABC.

Origin and Commercial Production
Historically, ammonium bicarbonate was produced in Northern Europe from dry distillation of hair, horn or other nitrogenous organic matter. 
Today, Ammonium bicarbonate is produced commercially by dissolving carbon dioxide in ammonia:
NH4OH + CO2 → NH4HCO3

In gingerbread, NH₄HCO₃ additions of 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 g/100 g dough increased acrylamide formation to acrylamide levels to 170, 501, and 880 μg/kg in the final products. 
In shortbread, acrylamide levels increased from 76 to 162 μg/kg when the ABC level was increased from 3.0 to 11.9 g in shortbread paste.
Conversely, reducing or removing ABC can reduce acrylamide formation.

Properties1
Colorless or white crystals
Faint odor of ammonia
Melting point: 95 °F (35 °C)
solubility: Freely soluble in water. 
Insoluble in ethanol
Decomposes above 34 °C with formation of ammonia gas

Function
Ammonium bicarbonate can release ammonia and carbon dioxide, leavening gases without reacting with a leavening acid. 
Ammonium bicarbonate spontaneously decomposes into this ingredient and ammonia first and in a later step into ammonia and carbon dioxide gas:
NH4HCO3→ NH4HCO3+NH3
NH4HCO3→H2O+CO2+NH3
Baking soda can replace this ingredient in low-moisture products like dry cookies or some cracker products although this may not reproduce the unique texture.

Application
Ammonium bicarbonate is listed in Old World baking recipes. 
Especially, in Scandinavian gingerbread, Polish ammonia cookies and tranditional German Spekulatius Christmas cookies.

Advantages of using this in baked goods include:
The absence of alkaline taste residue often encountered with sodium bicarbonate
Ammonium bicarbonate doesn’t affect the pH of the baked goods
In high moisture baked goods (in excess of 5%), ammonium bicarbonate may lead to the development of ammoniacal flavor. 
This is why Ammonium bicarbonate’s most suited for low-moisture products such as biscuites, crackers, cookies, and waffle cones.

Typically, this ingredient is mixed in with the liquid ingredients to ensure Ammonium bicarbonates dissolution prior to incorporating into the dry mix. 
In some formulas, Ammonium bicarbonate is used in combination with 30-50% baking soda.

IUPAC name
Ammonium hydrogen carbonate
Other names
Bicarbonate of ammonia, ammonium hydrogen carbonate, hartshorn, AmBic, powdered baking ammonia

Production
Ammonium bicarbonate is produced by combining carbon dioxide and ammonia:
CO2 + NH3 + H2O → (NH4)HCO3
Since ammonium bicarbonate is thermally unstable, the reaction solution is kept cold, which allows the precipitation of the product as white solid. 
About 100,000 tons were produced in this way in 1997.
Ammonia gas passed into a strong aqueous solution of the sesquicarbonate (a 2:1:1 mixture of (NH4)HCO3, (NH4)2CO3, and H2O) converts Ammonium bicarbonate into normal ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3), which can be obtained in the crystalline condition from a solution prepared at about 30 °C. 
This compound on exposure to air gives off ammonia and reverts to ammonium bicarbonate.

Formula: CH5NO3 / NH4HCO3
Molecular mass: 79.1
Decomposes at 35-60°C
density: 1.58 g/cm³
solubility in water, g/100ml at 20°C: 17.4 (good) 

Ammonium Bicarbonate is a widely used ingredient in bakery industry because of Ammonium bicarbonates leavening and stabilizing properties and acid regulating capacity.

Common applications of Ammonium Bicarbonate:
Cookies
Crackers
Pastas
Frozen dairy products
Bakery ingredients
Pigments and paints
Agriculture
Fire extinguishers
A leavening agent is a substance that releases gas in baked goods to impart a light texture.

Salt of Hartshorn
compositions containing ammonium carbonate have long been known. 
They were once produced commercially, formerly known as sal volatile or salt of hartshorn. 
Ammonium bicarbonate was obtained by the dry distillation of nitrogenous organic matter such as hair, horn, leather. 
In addition to ammonium bicarbonate, this material contains ammonium carbamate (NH4CO2NH2), and ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3). 
Ammonium bicarbonate is sometimes called ammonium sesquicarbonate. 
Ammonium bicarbonate possesses a strong ammoniacal smell, and on digestion with alcohol, the carbamate is dissolved leaving a residue of ammonium bicarbonate.
A similar decomposition takes place when the sesquicarbonate is exposed to air.

NAmmonium bicarbonaterogen fertilizer
Ammonium bicarbonate is mainly used as fertilizers. 
After being applied to the soil, the ammonium ion (NH4 +) contained in ammonium bicarbonate can be absorbed by soil colloid or lattice-fixed or transformed into nitrate nitrogen. 
After being absorbed by plants, there are no accessory constituents remaining in the soil with a small impact on the soil pH. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is applicable to all kinds of soil and crops, soil without leaving any harmful substance residue for the soil and crops. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer and can be subject to long-term usage.
In order to prevent the loss of fertilizer efficacy due to ammonia volatilization and the burning of the crop stems and leaves, we can apply deep placement and cover soil. 

Ammonium bicarbonate can be used as basic fertilizer for topdressing, but not suitable to be used as seed manure. 
When being used for topdressing, we should prevent the drop of ammonium bicarbonate onto the plant, to avoid ammonia hazards. 
The shortcoming of ammonium bicarbonate as a fertilizer lies in Ammonium bicarbonates chemical instability. 
After the addition of crystalline modifier, the crystal of ammonium bicarbonate is enlarged and the water content is reduced, reducing the phenomenon of easily subjecting to decomposition and agglomeration. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is one of nitrogen fertilizer industrial products, being the major varieties of small nitrogenous fertilizer plants in China, being one of the purification products of coke oven in the coking plant. 
Coking plant takes concentrated ammonia as raw materials for reaction with carbon dioxide to generate ammonium bicarbonate crystals with centrifugal filtering to obtain ammonium bicarbonate products.
Ammonium bicarbonate is easy to be subject to decomposition. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is appropriate to be packed with the combination of inner plastic film and external plastic bag or 3-layers of kraft paper sacks, both need to be sealed and stored in a warehouse of being cool, low-temperature, dry and ventilated to prevent moisture, rain and sun.

Chemical properties
Ammonium bicarbonate appears as white monoclinic or orthorhombic crystals. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is soluble in water, but insoluble in ethanol, carbon disulfide and concentrated ammonia.
Ammonium bicarbonate dissolves in water to give a mildly alkaline solution. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is insoluble in most organic solvents. 
While Ammonium bicarbonate is stable at room temperature (25 °C), Ammonium bicarbonate decomposes at temperatures above 36 °C to form ammonia, carbon dioxide, and water in an endothermic reaction (absorbs energy for the reaction from the surroundings).
NH4HCO3 → NH3 + CO2 + H2O
Ammonium bicarbonate reacts with acids to produce carbon dioxide, and reacts with bases to produce ammonia.

Uses
-Ammonium bicarbonate is used as nitrogen fertilizer, being applicable to a variety of soils, can simultaneously provide the ammonium nitrogen and carbon dioxide demanded by crop growth. 
However, Ammonium bicarbonate contains low nitrogen content and is also easy to caking.
-Ammonium bicarbonate can be used as analytical reagent as well as being used in synthesizing ammonium salt and fabric degreasing.
-Ammonium bicarbonate can promote crop growth and photosynthesis; trigger seedlings and the growth of leaves. 
Ammonium bicarbonate can be used as topdressing as well as being directly applied as ground fertilizer as food leavening agent and bulking agent.
-Ammonium bicarbonate can be used as a senior food fermentation agent. 
Ammonium bicarbonates combination with sodium bicarbonate can be used as the raw materials of leavening agent such as bread, biscuites and pancakes. 
Ammonium bicarbonate can also be used as raw material of foam powder juice, as well as being used for the blanching of green vegetables and bamboo shoots.

Moreover, Ammonium bicarbonate can be used as medicine and reagents.
-Alkali; leavening agent; buffer; aerating agent.
Ammonium bicarbonates combination with sodium bicarbonate can be used as the raw materials of leavening agent such as bread, biscuites and pancakes. 
Baking powder also takes Ammonium bicarbonate as the main ingredient, together with the acidic substances. 
Ammonium bicarbonate can also be used as raw material of foam powder juice. 
The dosage of the blanching of green vegetables and bamboo shoots should be 0.1% to 0.3%.
-Ammonium bicarbonate can be used as analytical reagent; used for ammonium salt synthesis. 
Pharmaceuticals; baking powder; dyeing; Ammonium bicarbonate can be used for fabric degreasing. 
Ammonium bicarbonate can also be used as foamed plastics.

Ammonium bicarbonate Production method
Send the compressed carbon dioxide into the concentrated ammonia, and place Ammonium bicarbonate under the carbon dioxide pressure; simultaneously apply cooling; precipAmmonium bicarbonateate out the crystal; followed by centrifugal separation and dehydration to obtain the final product. 
Upon refining, dissolve Ammonium bicarbonate in water, and add ethanol to re-crystallize Ammonium bicarbonate.
Carbonization method: after the ammonia is absorbed by water; apply carbon dioxide for carbonization, followed by separation and drying to produce ammonium bicarbonate.
NH3 + CO2 + H2O → NH4HCO3
To the carbon dioxide gas originated from the lime kiln and be subject to cleaning and washing, send the ammonia to saturation, followed by centrifugal separation and hot air drying to obtain the finished products.
NH3 + CO2 + H2O → NH4HCO3

Ammonium bicarbonate Chemical Properties
Ammonium bicarbonate is a white crystalline solid with a faint ammonia odor and soluble in water but insoluble in alcohol and acetone. 
Ammonium bicarbonate decomposes above 35℃ to ammonia, carbon dioxide and water vapor, releasing irritant fumes. 
Only 30% of the applied nitrogen of this fertilizer is recovered by plants owing to the unstable nature of ammonium bicarbonate. 
that forms by the reaction of anunonium hydroxide and excess CO2.

Ammonium bicarbonate Physical properties
white crystalline solid; prismatic crystal; faint odor of ammonia; stable at ambient temperature but decomposes on heating at 60°C; melts at 107.5°C on very rapid heating; density 1.586 g/cm3; vapor pressure 435 torr at 25°C; readily dissolves in water (21.6g/100g at 20°C, and 36.6g/100g at 40°C).

Ammonium bicarbonate Uses
A buffer applications such as lyophilization and matrix assisted laser desorption.

Ammonium bicarbonate Uses
Ammonium Bicarbonate is a dough strengthener, a leavening agent, a ph control agent, and a texturizer. prepared by reacting gaseous carbon dioxide with aqueous ammonia. 
crystals of ammo- nium bicarbonate are precipitated from solution and subsequently washed and dried. 
Also known as hartshorn and rock ammonia, ammonium bicarbonate is soluble in water but decomposes when heated. 
Ammonium bicarbonate was used in place of ammonia when making ammonia-ripened gelatin emulsions.

NH4HCO3 Uses (Ammonium bicarbonate)
Ammonium bicarbonate is used in the food industry as a food additive.
Used in fire extinguishers.
Used in the manufacturing of dyes.
Used as a fertilizer.
Used to produce ammonium salt.
Used in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products.
Used in the making of paints.
Used in the manufacturing of ceramics.
Used in leather tanning.
Used in cooling baths.
Production of Ammonium bicarbonate
Ammonium hydrogen carbonate is obtained by combining carbon dioxide (CO2) and ammonia (NH3):

CO2 + NH3 + H2O → (NH4)HCO3

This compound is thermally unstable and the reaction solution is maintained cold to allow the precipitation as a white solid. 
In the year 1997, almost 1,00,000 tons were produced by the above process.

Health hazards
Inhaling Monoammonium carbonate causes respiratory irritation. 
Swallowing is harmful and contact with skin or eyes causes severe irritation. 
When heated, irritating, toxic ammonia gas will be liberated from the compound. 
Ammonium bicarbonate decomposes with explosion and ammonia gas is produced.

Frequently Asked Questions
What are the uses of ammonium bicarbonate?
In the food industry, ammonium bicarbonate is used as a leavening agent for flat baked goods, including cookies and crackers. 
Until modern-day baking powder was made available, this compound was widely used in homes for baking purposes.

Is ammonium bicarbonate toxic?
Ammonium Carbonate is a crystalline, non-toxic, white-coloured salt with the molecular formula (NH4)2CO3. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is also known as baker’s ammonia and also as hartshorn. 
Ammonium carbonate is water-soluble, and the compound decomposes in hot water.

How is ammonium bicarbonate produced?
Ammonium bicarbonate can be produced by reacting ammonia with carbon dioxide in the presence of water. 
Since this compound is thermally unstable, the reaction conditions must be kept relatively cold.

Advantages of Ammonium Carbonate in Baking
Ammonium carbonate lends a distinctive crispness and lightness to the baked good, which why Ammonium bicarbonate is still listed in certain recipes, despite the overwhelming use of baking powder and baking soda in modern baked goods. 
You can substitute baking powder for ammonium carbonate in a pinch, but the final baked product may not have the same texture. 
The designs on molded cookies are also said to keep their shape much better when ammonium carbonate is used.

Using Ammonium Carbonate
Usually, ammonium carbonate is mixed in with the liquid before adding to the dry ingredients, so that Ammonium bicarbonate dissolves well and mixes thoroughly. 
Ammonium bicarbonate must be stored dry, in a well-sealed container, because Ammonium bicarbonate absorbs moisture easily and clumps, To tell if Ammonium bicarbonate is still active, place a small amount in hot water. 
If Ammonium bicarbonate bubbles vigorously, you can use Ammonium bicarbonate in your recipes.

substitions
If ammonium carbonate is not available, baking powder can be substituted in a 1-to-1, 1-to-2, or 1-to-3 ratio. 
You can also add some baking soda together with the baking powder.

CAS Number: 1066-33-7
Assay (purity): 99+%
purity method: by elemental analysis
Molecular weight: 79.06
Form: solid
Appearance: white solid
sensity: heat
Melting point: 107.5C
Molecular formula: (NH4)HCO3
Linear formula: (NH4)HCO3

History of Ammonium Carbonate
Hirschhornsalz was made in the Middle Ages by burning or dry distillation of keratin-containing materials (keratin is a structural protein found in the animal kingdom). 
They did this by heating shredded horns, hooves, antlers, skin, and even decomposed primate urine in lime kilns (Kalköfen), which were ovens built for heating limestone (calcium carbonate). 
This is a manufacturing process which goes back to Greek and Roman times to make quicklime, a building material. 


The residue was collected after the ovens cooled off. 
Since wood ash was often boiled in water and used as a leavening agent, Ammonium bicarbonate is possible that these ashes were used in the same way.
Hartshorn was used to treat diarrhea, dysentery, fevers, and many different types of bites. 
The name was of particular importance in the Middle Ages when people believed that the salt collected from burning particular parts of the animal had special, medicinal value. It was a common smelling salt in Victorian times.

Production and Chemistry
Today, the white powder is chemically produced by heating ammonium chloride or ammonium sulfate with chalk. 
Hirschhornsalz is a mixture of three molecules:

Ammonium carbonate (NH4 )2CO3 → 2NH3 + CO2 + H2 O
Ammonium bicarbonate NH4 HCO3 → NH3 + CO2 + H2 O
Ammonium carbonate (second form) NH4 NH2 CO2 → 2NH3 + CO2
These molecules break down into the gases ammonia, carbon dioxide, and (water) steam when heated to 140 F (60 C) or higher. 
The gases lift the dough or batter (which has air bubbles in Ammonium bicarbonate through creaming) before the batter is set as they rise towards the surface of the cookie. 
As the dough sets up, the bubbles remain but the ammonia, carbon dioxide, and steam are dispersed from the baked good and into the air in the kitchen.
Baker's ammonia can react with certain sugars and amino acids in the dough to make small amounts of acrylamide, a carcinogen.

Recipes With Ammonium Carbonate
If you want to see how this ingredient is used, try making these cookies:

Polish Ammonia Cookies: These rolled sugar cookies have a crisp texture due to ammonium carbonate.
Basler Leckerli: This Swiss-German Christmas gingerbread cookie will keep for weeks. 
Ammonium bicarbonateis dry and filled with nuts and candied orange peel.
Spekulatius Cookies: These are a tranditional Christmas spice cookie in Germany and are also called spekulaas in the Netherlands. 
They are tranditionally formed in a wooden mold, but you can use cookie cutters instead.

Alternate Spellings
ABC-Trieb (Ammonium-bi-carbonate)
E503ii (EU food additive)
Baker's ammonia
Hart's horn
Hartshorn
Hornsalt
Bicarbonate of ammonia
Ammonium hydrogen carbonate
AmBic
Powdered baking ammonia, bicarbonate salt of ammonia
Salt of hart’s horn
Hjortetakksalt

Ammonium bicarbonate is a white crystalline powder used in flat, spiced cookies, such as gingerbreads, and in eclair paste. 
Ammonium bicarbonate must be dissolved in the cold liquid portion of the batter. 
At room temperature, decomposition of CO2 in the batter is minimal. 
When heated to approximately 60°C (140°F) decomposition is more noticeable, and at oven temperature, decomposition takes place in a very short time. 
Ammonium bicarbonate should only be used in low moisture-containing products that are not dense. 
Providing that these conditions are met, there will be no taste and odour remaining from the ammonium.

Ammonium carbonate is a salt with the chemical formula (NH4)2CO3. 
Since Ammonium bicarbonate readily degrades to gaseous ammonia and carbon dioxide upon heating, Ammonium bicarbonate is used as a leavening agent and also as smelling salt. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is also known as baker's ammonia and was a predecessor to the more modern leavening agents baking soda and baking powder. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is a component of what was formerly known as sal volatile and salt of hartshorn.

Ammonium bicarbonate General Description
A white crystalline solid having the odor of ammonia. 
Soluble in water. 
The primary hazard is the threat to the environment. 
Immediate steps should be taken to limit spread to the environment. 
Used to make other ammonium compounds, in food processing, and for other uses.

Ammonium bicarbonate Air & Water Reactions
Soluble in water.

Ammonium bicarbonate reactivity Profile
Heat > 36°C ( produces ammonia and carbon dioxide); strong acids and strong bases (CO2 and NH3).

Agricultural Uses
Ammonium hydrogen carbonate is another name for ammonium bicarbonate (NH4CO3), Ammonium bicarbonate is a low nitrogen containing fertilizer (17% N), used largely in China. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is produced by heating ammonium hydroxide with excess carbon dioxide, followed by evaporation of water.

Ammonium carbonate is used for leavening in cookies, flat biscuites, or crackers. 
In German baking, Ammonium bicarbonate's known as hirschhornsalz or hartshorn, and Ammonium bicarbonate is also called baker's ammonia. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is not used for cakes since the gaseous ammonia given off during baking cannot escape the thicker, higher batters and would make the baked goods smell bad. 
Ammonium bicarbonate leaves no salty or soapy taste residue as baking powder sometimes does since Ammonium bicarbonate completely decomposes into ammonia and carbon dioxide.

What is Ammonium Bicarbonate?
Ammonium Bicarbonate appears as a white crystal or crystalline powder. 
Ammonium bicarbonate volatilizes rapidly at 60 °C, dissociating into ammonia, carbon dioxide, and water, but Ammonium bicarbonate is quite stable at room temperature. 
One gram dissolves in about 6 ml of water. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is insoluble in alcohol.

What grades of Ammonium Bicarbonate are available?
Treated

What are other names (Synonyms) for Ammonium Bicarbonate?
Bicarbonate of Ammonia
Ammonium Hydrogen Carbonate
Harsthorn
Powdered baking ammonia

What is the CAS Number for Ammonium Bicarbonate?
1066-33-7

What is the Chemical Formula for Ammonium Bicarbonate?
NH5CO3

Ammonium bicarbonate Safety Profile
Poison by intravenous route. When heated to decomposition Ammonium bicarbonate emits toxic fumes of NO, and NH3

Ammonium bicarbonate Potential Exposure
Ammonium bicarbonate is used in leavening for some baked goods; in baking powders and fire extinguishers; to make dyes and pigments; in the manufacture of porous plastics; and as an expectorant.

Ammonium bicarbonate Shipping
UN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required.

Ammonium bicarbonate Incompatibilities
Contact with strong caustics, such as potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide will cause the release of ammonia gas. Decomposes as temperature rises >35 C.

Waste Disposal
May be buried in a chemical waste landfill. 
If neutralized ammonium bicarbonate is amenable to treatment at a municipal sewage treatment plant.

Ammonium bicarbonate Description
Shiny, hard, white, prism-shaped crystal. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is used in baking powder and fire-extinguishers. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is also used for degreasing textiles, for chrome leather tanning and as an additive in ceramics. 
Hartshorn, or Ammonium carbonate, is a double salt of Ammonium carbamate and ammonium bicarbonate.

Ammonium bicarbonate Synonyms and Related Terms
ammonium acid carbonate; ammonium hydrogen carbonate; hartshorn; powdered baking ammonia; hjortetakssalt (Dan.); Ammoniumhydrogencarbonat (Deut.); ABC-Trieb (Deut.); bicarbonate d'ammonium (Fr.);

Other Properties
Soluble in water. pH = 7.8 Insoluble in ethanol.

composition: NH4HCO3
CAS: 1066-33-7
Melting Point: 36-60 (dec)
density: 1.586
Molecular Weight: mol. wt. = 79.06

These corrosion data are mainly based on results of general corrosion laboratory tests, carried out with pure chemicals and water solutions nearly saturated with air (the corrosion rate can be quite different if the solution is free from oxygen).
All concentrations are given in weight-% and the solvent is water if nothing else is shown. 
The corrosion data apply to annealed materials with normal microstructure and clean surfaces, throughout.

CAS Number: 1066-33-7 
ChemSpider: 13395 
ECHA InfoCard    100.012.647 
EC Number: 213-911-5
E number: E503(ii) (acidity regulators, ...)
PubChem CID: 14013
RTECS number: BO8600000
UNII: 45JP4345C9 
UN number: 3077
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID5035618

Generic name
Ammonium bicarbonate

CAS no.
1066-33-7

Ammonium bicarbonate Application
Industrial Chemicals>Others

Ammonium bicarbonate Establishes Grain And Structure
Ammonium bicarbonate reacts early in the baking process of small or thin products to establish top grain and structure before the product sets during the latter stage of baking. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is used in cookies, crackers and similar products where the cellular structure is sufficiently porous to permit escape of the gases at the end of the baking process when the product is nearly dried out.

Ammonium bicarbonate Combination
Ammonium bicarbonate is often used in combination with other chemical leavening systems (baking powder or baking soda) to release leavening gases both early and later in the baking process. 
In addition to this two stage release, ammonium bicarbonate increases the spread of cookie doughs, helping them to shape more uniformly. 
Baking powder or baking soda, used in combination with ammonium bicarbonate, will increase the height or crown of the cookie.

Ammonium bicarbonate Formula
Ammonium bicarbonate (commonly known as ammonium hydrogen carbonate) is a mildly basic inorganic compound.

Formula and structure: The chemical formula of ammonium bicarbonate is NH4HCO3. 
Ammonium bicarbonates molecular formula is CH5NO3 and Ammonium bicarbonates molar mass is 79.056 g/mol. 
Ammonium bicarbonates chemical structure consists of the ammonium cation (NH4+) and the bicarbonate anion (HCO3-).

Occurrence: Ammonium bicarbonate is present in small quantities in nitrogenous organic matter, along with other ammonium salts.
Preparation: Ammonium bicarbonate is produced by passing carbon dioxide gas into aqueous ammonia until the ammonium bicarbonate crystals are formed, which are then separated from the solution by filtration or centrifugation. 
To prevent decomposition of the product, the reaction is performed at cold temperatures.
CO2 + NH3 + H2O → NH4HCO3

Ammonium bicarbonate Summary
Colorless, transparent crystal with the smell of ammonia, which is unstable when heated, soluble in water, and displays strong alkalinity when hydrolyzed.

Chemical formula
NH4HCO3

Ammonium bicarbonate Packaging
Paper bag, flexible container

Application
Expanding agent for biscuites etc.
Raw materials for carbonates such as manganese carbonate (raw material for batteries, etc.)
Rare earth sampling
Medicines
Foaming agent for rubber
Other
AccredAmmonium bicarbonateed for Japan’s Specifications and Standards for Food, Food additives, etc.

Physical properties: Ammonium bicarbonate exists as a white crystalline solid with a density of 1.59 g/mL and melting point of 41.9 °C. 
Ammonium bicarbonate has a strong odor of ammonia, and is highly water soluble.

Chemical properties: Ammonium bicarbonate dissolves in water to give a mildly alkaline solution. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is insoluble in most organic solvents. 
While Ammonium bicarbonate is stable at room temperature (25 °C), Ammonium bicarbonate decomposes at temperatures above 36 °C to form ammonia, carbon dioxide, and water in an endothermic reaction (absorbs energy for the reaction from the surroundings).

NH4HCO3 → NH3 + CO2 + H2O
Ammonium bicarbonate reacts with acids to produce carbon dioxide, and reacts with bases to produce ammonia.

Uses: Ammonium bicarbonate is used as a baking powder, in some food processing applications, in cough syrups and as antacid. 
Ammonium bicarbonate also has uses as a fertilizer, pH buffer, and reagent in chemical laboratories. 
In the industry, Ammonium bicarbonate is used in the manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, catalysts, ceramics, fire-retardants, plastics and other products.
Health effects/safety hazards: In low concentrations, Ammonium bicarbonate is not considered hazardous. 
Ammonium bicarbonates main health hazard is Ammonium bicarbonates decomposition reaction giving pungent ammonia gas, which is a serious irritant. 
Inhalation of ammonium bicarbonate can irritate the eyes, skin, nose and entire respiratory system, and cause severe coughing and difficulty in breathing.

Ammonium bicarbonate Effect on pH
Ammonium bicarbonate can also be used as a processing aid. 
Ammonium bicarbonate increases pH of a dough during baking to affect browning while returning pH of the finished product to neutral as the ammonia escapes at the end of the baking process.

Ammonium bicarbonate Air & Water Reactions
Soluble in water.

Ammonium bicarbonate Fire Hazard
Special Hazards of Combustion Products: irritting and toxic ammonia gas may form in fires.
Behavior in Fire: Decomposes, but reaction is not explosive. Ammonia gas is formed.

Assay Percent Range: 98%
Linear Formula: NH4HCO3
Merck Index: 15,494
solubility Information    solubility in water: 220g/L (20°C)
Formula Weight: 79.06
Physical Form: Crystalline Powder, Crystals, and/or Chunks
Percent purity: 98%
Grade: Pure
Infrared Spectrum: Authentic
Packaging: Glass bottle
Color: white
Melting Point: 105°C
Quantity: 25g
Chemical Name or Material: Ammonium bicarbonate

Ammonium bicarbonate is a uniform high purity leavening agent, produced by a chemical reaction of ammonia, carbon dioxide and water. 
Ammonium bicarbonate has a very strong scent and because of this is used primarily used to leaven only low-moisture baked goods like crisp cookies and crackers that thoroughly dry out during baking. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is not used to make cakes because the ammonia gas cannot evaporate when baking cake or other large Ammonium bicarbonateems. 
When using ammonium bicarbonate instead of baking soda to bake crisp cookies, the ammonium bicarbonate produces a lighter, crunchy texture. 
Enjoy our bulk ammonium bicarbonate at wholesale pricing.

Health Hazard
Inhalation may cause respiratory irritation. 
Ingestion could be harmful. 
Contact with eyes or skin causes irritation. 

reactivity Profile
AMMONIUM BICARBONATE decomposes when heated above 36°C, releasing ammonia and carbon dioxide gases; Ammonium bicarbonate can also be decomposed into ammonia and carbon dioxide by strong acids and strong bases.

Chemical formula: NH4HCO3
Molar mass: 79.056 g/mol
density: 1.586 g/cm3
Melting point: 41.9 °C (107.4 °F; 315.0 K) decomposes
solubility in water: 
11.9 g/100 mL (0 °C)
21.6 g/100 mL (20 °C)
24.8 g/100 mL (25 °C)
36.6 g/100 mL (40 °C)
solubility:
insoluble in methanol

-Ammonium bicarbonate used as Raising agent for cookies and flatbreads
Ammonium bicarbonate is used as a leavening / raising agent in the food industry. 
Ammonium bicarbonate contains ammonium bicarbonate with the addition of magnesium carbonate as an anticaking agent. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is a white powder that is readily soluble in water.

-nutritional Supplement
Ammonium bicarbonate is used as a nutritional supplement in the animal feed industry. 
Ammonium bicarbonate is a white powder that is readily soluble in water.

QualAmmonium bicarbonatey Level: 200
vapor density: 2.7 (vs air)
vapor pressure:
513 hPa ( 50 °C)
67.1 hPa ( 20 °C)
product line: ReagentPlus®
assay: ≥99.0%
form: powder or crystals
pH: 7-8.5 (25 °C, 79.1 g/L)
SMILES string: N.OC(O)=O
InChI: 1S/CH2O3.H3N/c2-1(3)4;/h(H2,2,3,4);1H3
InChI key: ATRRKUHOCOJYRX-UHFFFAOYSA-N

An inorganic compound, Ammonium bicarbonate is used in the food industry as a raising agent for flat baked goods, such as cookies and crackers. 
Ammonium bicarbonate also has uses as a fertiliser, pH buffer, and reagent in chemical laboratories. 
Some other uses of Ammonium bicarbonate in the industry are for the manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, catalysts, ceramics, fire-retardants, plastics and other products.

Synonyms: E503, Ammonium Hydrogen Carbonate, Baking soda, Bicarbonate of Ammonia, Powdered Baking Ammonia
INCI: Ammonium Bicarbonate
Chemical Formula: NH4HCO3
CAS Number: 1066-33-7

Ammonium bicarbonate Safety
Ammonium bicarbonate is an irritant to the skin, eyes and respiratory system. 
Short-term health effects may occur immediately or shortly after exposure to ammonium bicarbonate. 
Breathing ammonium bicarbonate can irritate the nose, throat and lungs causing coughing, wheezing and/or shortness of breath. 
Repeated exposure may cause bronchitis to develop with cough, and/or shortness of breath. 

Ammonium bicarbonate CHARACTERISTICS
Chemical Formula: NH4HCO3
CAS Number: 1066-33-7
Molar Weight: 79.055g/mol
Specific gravity: 1.75
Melting Point: 41.9°C

Health effects can occur some time after exposure to ammonium bicarbonate and can last for months or years.
Where possible, operations should be enclosed and the use of local exhaust ventilation at thesite of chemical release is recommended. 
If local exhaust ventilation or enclosure is not used, respirators are necessary.
Wear protective work clothing and change clothes and wash thoroughly immediately after exposure to ammonium bicarbonate.
Ammonium bicarbonate from China used to make cookies was found to be contaminated with melamine, and imports were banned in Malaysia following the 2008 Chinese milk scandal.

    
CAS No.1066-33-7
Chemical Name:Ammonium bicarbonate
Synonyms2,6'-TDI, Oekanal;ammonium bicarbonat;AMMONIUM BICARBONATE;Ammonium dicarbonate;acidammoniumcarbonate;AmmoniumBicarbonateAr;AmmoniumBicarbonateBp;monoammoniumcarbonate;AMMONIUM CARBONATE TS;AmmoniumBicarbonateFcc

Bicarbonates
In chemistry, the word ‘bicarbonate’ is inaccurate and outdated. 
Ammonium bicarbonate was first coined in 1814 by a chemist who observed that there is twice as much carbon as sodium in sodium bicarbonate.
After different types of bicarbonates were identified, with different ratios, the observation became irrelevant, but the habAmmonium bicarbonate lives on.


Bicarbonates are the main form of dissolved inorganic carbon in the ocean. 
In freshwater plants, bicarbonates are released into the water as part of photosynthesis. 
Bicarbonate can shift the water’s pH to toxic alkaline levels. 
Bicarbonate continues until nightfall, when photosynthesis stops and respiration releases carbon dioxide, causing pH to return to normal. 
Bicarbonates commonly act as pH buffers in the human body [plop, plop, fizz, fizz] and in soil. 

Melting point:105 °C
Boiling point:143.04°C (rough estimate)
density 1,586 g/cm3
vapor density 2.7 (vs air)
vapor pressure 67 hPa (20 °C)
refractive index 1.4164 (estimate)
storage temp. Store at RT.
solubility H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
form Solid
color white
Odorfaint ammonia odor
PH7.0-8.5 (25℃, 1M in H2O)
Water solubility 220 g/L (20 ºC)
λmaxλ: 260 nm Amax: ≤0.030
λ: 280 nm Amax: ≤0.020
Merck 14,497
BRN 4329606
Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong acids, alkali metals.
SCOGS (Select Committee on GRAS Substances)Ammonium bicarbonate
CAS DataBase Reference1066-33-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
FDA 21 CFR184.1135; 582.1135
Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS)AMMONIUM BICARBONATE
EWG's Food Scores2
FDA UNII45JP4345C9
EPA Substance Registry Systemit (1066-33-7)

AMMONIUM BICARBONATE
1066-33-7
Ammonium hydrogencarbonate
Ammonium hydrogen carbonate
Monoammonium carbonate
Carbonic acid, monoammonium salt
UNII-45JP4345C9
azanium;hydrogen carbonate
MFCD00012138
Carbonic acid, ammonium salt (1:1)
ammoniumcarbonate
45JP4345C9
carbonic acid monoammonium salt
Acid ammonium carbonate
Ammonium acid carbonate
Ammonium bicarbonate, 98%, pure
Ammonium hydrogencarbonat
Ammonium bicarbonate, 99%, for analysis
CCRIS 7327
HSDB 491
EINECS 213-911-5
Ammonium bicarbonate (1:1)
ACMC-1BVRT
10361-29-2
EC 213-911-5
DTXSID5035618
ANW-73003
AKOS016008582
FT-0622308
J-610004
UNII-NJ5VT0FKLJ component ATRRKUHOCOJYRX-UHFFFAOYSA-N


2-) SODIUM BICARBONATE

Sodium bicarbonate = Baking Soda

CAS Number: 144-55-8 
EC Number: 205-633-8
E number: E500(ii) (acidity regulators, ...)
Chemical formula: NaHCO3
Molar mass: 84.0066 g mol−1


Sodium bicarbonate (bicarb, baking soda) is produced primarily from natural and synthetic soda ash. 
Sodium bicarbonate has a wide variety of uses, and animal feed, food and household applications, flue gas treatment, and pharmaceutical and chemical industry uses account for the largest part of its overall consumption. 
China was the world’s largest producer and consumer of sodium bicarbonate in 2019. 
Sodium Bicarbonate is a water insoluble Sodium source that can easily be converted to other Sodium compounds, such as the oxide by heating (calcination). 
Carbonate compounds also give off carbon dioxide when treated with dilute acids. 

Sodium Bicarbonate is generally immediately available in most volumes.
Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda or bicarbonate of soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. 
Sodium bicarbonate is a salt composed of a sodium cation (Na+) and a bicarbonate anion (HCO3−). 
Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline, but often appears as a fine powder. 
Sodium bicarbonate has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate). 

The natural mineral form of Sodium bicarbonate is nahcolite. 
Sodium bicarbonate is a component of the mineral natron and is found dissolved in many mineral springs.
North America is the second-largest producing region, followed by Western Europe and other Asian countries.
The leading five producers accounted for almost 47% of the installed sodium bicarbonate capacity in 2019; the majority of them operate several facilities in different regions. 
Solvay accounted for about 16.5% of the total, followed by Henan Zhongyuan (15.8%). 
Over the forecast period, capacity is expected to increase at an average annual rate of about 3%.

Uses of Sodium bicarbonate:
Sodium bicarbonate reduces stomach acid. 
Sodium bicarbonate is used as an antacid to treat heartburn, indigestion, and upset stomach. 
Sodium bicarbonate is a very quick-acting antacid. 
Sodium bicarbonate should be used only for temporary relief. 
If you need to treat long-term stomach acid problems (such as peptic ulcer disease, GERD), talk with your doctor about other medications.
Sodium bicarbonate is the active ingredient in baking soda.

Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda or bicarbonate of soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. 
Sodium bicarbonate is a salt composed of a sodium cation (Na+) and a bicarbonate anion (HCO3−). 
Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline, but often appears as a fine powder. 
Sodium bicarbonate has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate). 
The natural mineral form is nahcolite. 
Sodium bicarbonate is a component of the mineral natron and is found dissolved in many mineral springs.

This section contains uses of this drug that are not listed in the approved professional labeling for the drug but that may be prescribed by your health care professional. 
Use Sodium bicarbonate for a condition that is listed in this section only if Sodium bicarbonate has been so prescribed by your health care professional.
This drug may also be used to reduce the risk of gout and kidney stones. 
Sodium bicarbonate makes the urine less acidic, which helps the kidneys get rid of uric acid. 
Uric acid can cause gout or kidney stones. 
Sodium bicarbonate can make some medications (such as sulfonamides) work better or can help your body get rid of too much medication (such as phenobarbital). 
Sodium bicarbonate may also be used for certain metabolic problems (such as acidosis) caused by kidney disease.

Sodium bicarbonate Uses
Cooking
Leavening
Sodium bicarbonate reduces stomach acid. 
Sodium bicarbonate is used as an antacid to treat heartburn, indigestion, and upset stomach. 
Sodium bicarbonate is a very quick-acting antacid. 
Sodium bicarbonate should be used only for temporary relief. 
If you need to treat long-term stomach acid problems (such as peptic ulcer disease, GERD), talk with your doctor about other medications.
Sodium bicarbonate is the active ingredient in baking soda.

In cooking, baking soda is primarily used in baking as a leavening agent. 
When it reacts with acid, carbon dioxide is released, which causes expansion of the batter and forms the characteristic texture and grain in cakes, quick breads, soda bread, and other baked and fried foods. 
The acid–base reaction can be generically represented as follows:
NaHCO3 + H+ → Na+ + CO2 + H2O

Sodium bicarbonate is a systemic alkalinizing agent. 
Sodium bicarbonate most often is administered IV in the treatment of metabolic and respiratory acidosis. 
Sodium bicarbonate is also used in the acute treatment of hyperkalemia, although Sodium bicarbonate should be kept in mind that this represents palliative treatment for this condition. 
Sodium bicarbonate is sometimes used for urinary alkalinization. 
Despite being a highly effective antacid, sodium bicarbonate is rarely used for the chronic treatment of peptic ulcer disease because Sodium bicarbonate can be absorbed and can affect systemic acid-base balance. 
Sodium bicarbonate was in use prior to 1938 and approved by the FDA at Sodium bicarbonates inception.
Mechanism of Action: After oral administration, sodium bicarbonate neutralizes hydrochloric acid in the stomach, forming sodium chloride, carbon dioxide, and water.

Excess bicarbonate ions are absorbed in the small intestine. 
Thus, all of a dose of exogenous sodium bicarbonate eventually reaches the extracellular fluid, and a mild alkalosis can result. 
This usually is corrected quickly by the renal system in patients with normal renal function. 
After IV administration, sodium bicarbonate dissociates to bicarbonate ions, which constitute the conjugate base portion of the body's extracellular buffer system (bicarbonate/carbonic acid buffer). 
Administration of sodium bicarbonate will restore acid-base balance in patients with metabolic or respiratory acidosis; however, metabolic alkalosis can result from the use of sodium bicarbonate.
Excess bicarbonate ions that result from the administration of sodium bicarbonate are excreted in the urine, alkalizing the urine. 
This alkalization decreases renal absorption and increases the clearance of certain drugs, intoxicants, weak acids, and blood pigments.

Acidic materials that induce this reaction include hydrogen phosphates, cream of tartar, lemon juice, yogurt, buttermilk, cocoa, and vinegar. 
Baking soda may be used together with sourdough, which is acidic, making a lighter product with a less acidic taste.

Heat can also by itself cause sodium bicarbonate to act as a raising agent in baking because of thermal decomposition, releasing carbon dioxide at temperatures above 80 °C (180 °F), as follows:
2 NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2

When used this way on Sodium bicarbonates own, without the presence of an acidic component (whether in the batter or by the use of a baking powder containing acid), only half the available CO2 is released (one CO2 molecule is formed for every two equivalents of NaHCO3). 
Additionally, in the absence of acid, thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate also produces sodium carbonate, which is strongly alkaline and gives the baked product a bitter, "soapy" taste and a yellow color. 
Since the reaction occurs slowly at room temperature, mixtures (cake batter, etc.) can be allowed to stand without rising until they are heated in the oven.

Baking powder
Main article: Baking powder
Baking powder, also sold for cooking, contains around 30% of bicarbonate, and various acidic ingredients which are activated by the addition of water, without the need for additional acids in the cooking medium.
Many forms of baking powder contain sodium bicarbonate combined with calcium acid phosphate, sodium aluminium phosphate, or cream of tartar.
Baking soda is alkaline; the acid used in baking powder avoids a metallic taste when the chemical change during baking creates sodium carbonate.

Pyrotechnics
Sodium bicarbonate is one of the main components of the common "black snake" firework. 
The effect is caused by the thermal decomposition, which produces carbon dioxide gas to produce a long snake-like ash as a combustion product of the other main component, sucrose.
Sodium bicarbonate is also used to delay combustion reactions by releasing CO2 and H2O when heated, both of which are flame retardants.

Mild disinfectant
Sodium bicarbonate has weak disinfectant properties, and it may be an effective fungicide against some organisms.
Because baking soda will absorb musty smells, Sodium bicarbonate has become a reliable method for used book sellers when making books less malodorous.

Fire extinguisher
Sodium bicarbonate can be used to extinguish small grease or electrical fires by being thrown over the fire, as heating of sodium bicarbonate releases carbon dioxide.
However, Sodium bicarbonate should not be applied to fires in deep fryers; the sudden release of gas may cause the grease to splatter.
Sodium bicarbonate is used in BC dry chemical fire extinguishers as an alternative to the more corrosive diammonium phosphate in ABC extinguishers. 
The alkaline nature of sodium bicarbonate makes Sodium bicarbonate the only dry chemical agent, besides Purple-K, that was used in large-scale fire suppression systems installed in commercial kitchens. 
Because Sodium bicarbonate can act as an alkali, the agent has a mild saponification effect on hot grease, which forms a smothering, soapy foam.

Neutralization of acids
Sodium bicarbonate reacts spontaneously with acids, releasing CO2 gas as a reaction product. 
Sodium bicarbonate is commonly used to neutralize unwanted acid solutions or acid spills in chemical laboratories.
Sodium bicarbonate is not appropriate to use sodium bicarbonate to neutralize base even though Sodium bicarbonate is amphoteric, reacting with both acids and bases.

Sodium bicarbonate in Medical uses and health
See also: Intravenous sodium bicarbonate
Sodium bicarbonate mixed with water can be used as an antacid to treat acid indigestion and heartburn.
Sodium bicarbonates reaction with stomach acid produces salt, water, and carbon dioxide:

NaHCO3 + HCl → NaCl + H2O + CO2(g)

Sodium bicarbonate , also known as baking soda, is used to relieve heartburn, sour stomach, or acid indigestion by neutralizing excess stomach acid. 
When used for this purpose, Sodium bicarbonate is said to belong to the group of medicines called antacids. 
Sodium bicarbonate may be used to treat the symptoms of stomach or duodenal ulcers. 
Sodium bicarbonate is also used to make the blood and urine more alkaline in certain conditions.

Antacids should not be given to young children (up to 6 years of age) unless prescribed by their doctor. 
Since children cannot usually describe their symptoms very well, a doctor should check the child before giving this medicine. 
The child may have a condition that needs other treatment. 
If so, antacids will not help and may even cause unwanted effects or make the condition worse.
Sodium bicarbonate for oral use is available without a prescription.

Sodium bicarbonate, more commonly known under the name baking soda, is a compound that neutralizes acids and is suitable for a wide range of indigestion and ulcer products and pharmaceuticals.

Synonyms: Baking Soda, Bicarbonate of Soda, Carbonic Acid Monosodium Salt, NaHCO3, Sodium Acid Carbonate, Sodium Bicarbonate
INCI: Sodium Bicarbonate
Chemical formula: NaHCO3
CAS #: 144-55-8

Sodium bicarbonate is available in the following dosage forms:
Tablet
Granule
Solution

A mixture of sodium bicarbonate and polyethylene glycol such as PegLyte, dissolved in water and taken orally, is an effective gastrointestinal lavage preparation and laxative prior to gastrointestinal surgery, gastroscopy, etc.
Intravenous sodium bicarbonate in an aqueous solution is sometimes used for cases of acidosis, or when insufficient sodium or bicarbonate ions are in the blood.
In cases of respiratory acidosis, the infused bicarbonate ion drives the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer of plasma to the left, and thus raises the pH. 
For this reason, sodium bicarbonate is used in medically supervised cardiopulmonary resuscitation. 
Infusion of bicarbonate is indicated only when the blood pH is markedly low (< 7.1–7.0).
HCO3− is used for treatment of hyperkalemia, as Sodium bicarbonate will drive K+ back into cells during periods of acidosis.
Since sodium bicarbonate can cause alkalosis, Sodium bicarbonate is sometimes used to treat aspirin overdoses. 

Aspirin requires an acidic environment for proper absorption, and the basic environment diminishes aspirin absorption in the case of an overdose.
Sodium bicarbonate has also been used in the treatment of tricyclic antidepressant overdose.
Sodium bicarbonate can also be applied topically as a paste, with three parts baking soda to one part water, to relieve some kinds of insect bites and stings (as well as accompanying swelling).
Some alternative practitioners, such as Tullio Simoncini, have promoted baking soda as a cancer cure, which the American Cancer Society has warned against due to both its unproven effectiveness and potential danger in use.
Edzard Ernst has called the promotion of sodium bicarbonate as a cancer cure "one of the more sickening alternative cancer scams I have seen for a long time".
Sodium bicarbonate can be added to local anesthetics, to speed up the onset of their effects and make their injection less painful.
Sodium bicarbonate is also a component of Moffett's solution, used in nasal surgery.
Sodium bicarbonate has been proposed that acidic diets weaken bones.

WHAT IS SODIUM BICARBONATE AND HOW DOES Sodium bicarbonate WORK?
Sodium bicarbonate is indicated in the treatment of metabolic acidosis which may occur in severe renal disease, uncontrolled diabetes, circulatory insufficiency due to shock or severe dehydration, extracorporeal circulation of blood, cardiac arrest and severe primary lactic acidosis. 
Sodium bicarbonate is further indicated in the treatment of certain drug intoxications, including barbiturates (where dissociation of the barbiturate-protein complex is desired), in poisoning by salicylates or methyl alcohol and in hemolytic reactions requiring alkalinization of the urine to diminish nephrotoxicity of hemoglobin and its breakdown products. 
Sodium bicarbonate also is indicated in severe diarrhea, which is often accompanied by a significant loss of bicarbonate.
Treatment of metabolic acidosis should, if possible, be superimposed on measures designed to control the basic cause of the acidosis – e.g., insulin in uncomplicated diabetes, blood volume restoration in shock. 
But since an appreciable time interval may elapse before all of the ancillary effects are brought about, bicarbonate therapy is indicated to minimize risks inherent to the acidosis itself.
Vigorous bicarbonate therapy is required in any form of metabolic acidosis where a rapid increase in plasma total CO2 content is crucial – e.g., cardiac arrest, circulatory insufficiency due to shock or severe dehydration, and in severe primary lactic acidosis or severe diabetic acidosis.

Uses
There are many uses for baking soda, some of which may surprise you. 
The chemical compound is used for a variety of different health conditions and can often be found in at-home remedies, as well as in some over-the-counter (OTC) medications. 
The storied history of the use of baking soda suggests that Sodium bicarbonate is one of the most versatile compounds available.  

Oral Health
Baking soda has been shown to have great effects on oral health because Sodium bicarbonate can act as a bactericidal agent against some periodontal pathogens.
Sodium bicarbonate has also been used as a general mouthwash and as an inexpensive way to whiten teeth.
Canker sores have also shown improvement when treated with a baking soda mouthwash, with ongoing treatment soothing the pain that is associated with the small and painful ulcers.

Digestive Health
Heartburn affects roughly 60 million Americans.
Sodium bicarbonate is a symptom caused by acid reflux and leads to pain and burning up through the esophagus and into the throat. 
When the condition is chronic, Sodium bicarbonate can be difficult to manage.
Because of the neutralizing effects of baking soda on stomach acid, people can find relief from heartburn by mixing a small amount with water. 
Sodium bicarbonate has also been shown to help treat bouts of indigestion.
Sodium bicarbonate should be noted that the ingestion of baking soda for prolonged periods may lead to heart problems and metabolic alkalosis.6

Athletic Performance
Although studies are varied when Sodium bicarbonate comes to the use of baking soda as an exercise aid, some have suggested that Sodium bicarbonate can lead to enhanced performance by improving levels of stamina.
Sodium bicarbonate is thought that the high pH level of the powder decreases fatigue in those performing high-intensity exercises by helping to buffer acidic byproducts that may result from prolonged activity.

Sodium bicarbonate Uses in Treatment
Proper kidney function is important, because the kidneys are designed to remove both waste and excess water from the bloodstream that could build up and cause health problems. 
They also play an integral role in the balance of essential minerals. 
When the kidneys aren't functioning at their best, the acid-base balance in the body can be thrown off, causing systemic and very dangerous problems.
Research suggests that those with less than desirable kidney function might slow the progression of their disease by taking baking soda supplements because of its higher Ph.
Baking soda could also help increase the efficacy of chemotherapy treatments in cancer patients by encouraging a less acidic environment for tumors.
However, neither of these uses should be implemented without the guidance of a medical professional. 
Serious side effects can result with improper use.

Linear Formula    NaHCO3
MDL Number MFCD00003528
EC No.    205-633-8
Beilstein/Reaxys No. 4153970
Pubchem CID 516892
IUPAC Name sodium; hydrogen carbonate
SMILES    C(=O)(O)[O-].[Na+]
InchI Identifier InChI=1S/CH2O3.Na/c2-1(3)4;/h(H2,2,3,4);/q;+1/p-1
InchI Key UIIMBOGNXHQVGW-UHFFFAOYSA-M

Cleaning and Deodorizing
Baking soda has long been used as a cleaning agent. 
The strength of the powder can do wonders for tough kitchen or laundry stains. 
Sodium bicarbonate is suggested that you use enough baking soda mixed with water to create a paste-like substance for best results. 
Sodium bicarbonate has also been shown to be a great way to remove pesticides from fruit.
Sodium bicarbonate's also effective in getting rid of odors, since baking soda neutralizes both acidic and basic molecules.
Sodium bicarbonate can also be used as a personal deodorant, household deodorant for furniture and carpets, and to keep both the fridge and freezer smelling fresh.

Sodium bicarbonate Dowsing Kitchen Fires
Grease fires are hard to combat and must never be put out using water. 
Baking soda can come in handy when there is no fire extinguisher around, because Sodium bicarbonate smothers flames by emitting carbon dioxide. 

Sodium bicarbonate Forms
Baking soda most typically comes in the form of a powder. 
However, Sodium bicarbonate can also be found in capsules, granules, and solutions. 
Some over-the-counter medications contain small amounts of baking soda, including Alka-Seltzer.

One systematic meta-analysis of the research shows no such effect.
Another also finds that there is no evidence that alkaline diets improve bone health, but suggests that there "may be some value" to alkaline diets for other reasons.
Antacid (such as baking soda) solutions have been prepared and used by protesters to alleviate the effects of exposure to tear gas during protests.
Similarly to its use in baking, sodium bicarbonate is used together with a mild acid such as tartaric acid as the excipient in effervescent tablets: when such a tablet is dropped in a glass of water, the carbonate leaves the reaction medium as carbon dioxide gas (HCO3− + H+ → H2O + CO2↑ or, more precisely, HCO3− + H3O+ → 2 H2O + CO2↑). 
This makes the tablet disintegrate, leaving the medication suspended and/or dissolved in the water together with the resulting salt (in this example, sodium tartrate).

When sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) is moistened and heated, it releases carbon dioxide gas. 
If Sodium bicarbonate is moistened and heated in the presence of sufficient acid, it will release twice as much gas as if Sodium bicarbonate is moistened and heated without the presence of an acid.
Slightly acidic ingredients provide the mix with some of the necessary acids for the release of carbon dioxide gas. 
Examples are:
Honey
Molasses
Ginger
Cocoa
Bran

For this reason, some of the mixes contain baking powder only while others contain a combination of baking powder and baking soda. 
If an excessive amount of baking soda is used in a cake batter without the presence of sufficient acid, the normally white cake crumb will have a yellowish-brown colour and a strong undesirable smell of soda.
The gas evolves very fast at the beginning of baking when the pH level is still on the acidic side (pH of around 5 to 6). 
Once the soda neutralizes the acid, the dough or batter quickly becomes alkaline and the release of gas is reduced. 
Mixes and doughs leavened with baking soda must be handled without delay, or the release of the gas may be almost exhausted before the product reaches the oven.

The darker colour of the crumb found on the bottom half of a cake or muffins is caused by the partial dehydration of the batter that is heated first during baking. 
In spiced honey cookies and gingerbread, baking soda is used alone to give them quick colour during baking and yet keep the products soft.
In chocolate cakes, baking soda is used in conjunction with baking powder to keep the pH at a desirable level. 
However, Sodium bicarbonate is important to know whether the cocoa powder you are using is natural or treated by the Dutch process. 
In the Dutch process, some of the acid in the cocoa is already neutralized, and there is less left for the release of gas in the mix. 
This means more baking powder and less baking soda is used.

Baking soda in a chocolate mix not only counteracts the acid content in the baked cake but also improves the grain and colour of the cake. 
A darker and richer chocolate colour is produced if the acid level is sufficient to release all the carbon dioxide gas.
On the other hand, the reddish, coarse, open-grained crumb in devil’s food cake is the result of using baking soda as the principal leavening agent.
The level of baking soda depends on the nature of the product and on the other ingredients in the formula. 
Cookies, for example, with high levels of fat and sugar, do not require much, if any, leavening.
Table 11 provides the recommended amounts of baking soda for different products. 
Note that the percentages appear small compared to the 5% level of baking powder suggested because baking powder contains both an acid agent and a leavening agent.

Generic names: Sodium bicarbonate, bicarbonate of soda, sodium acid carbonate
Chemical formula: NaHCO3
Packing /
shipping method    Flexible containers and paper bags
Grades    
Official drugs
Food additives
Feed additives
Industrial-use (various grain size grades)
General applications    
Pharmaceuticals ingredients (stomach medicine, artificial dialysis)
Food-related material (baking powder, pH control, confectionery ingredients, etc)
Livestock feed additives
Materials for bath salts and detergent

Personal hygiene
Sodium bicarbonate is also used as an ingredient in some mouthwashes. 
Sodium bicarbonate has anticaries and abrasive properties.
Sodium bicarbonate works as a mechanical cleanser on the teeth and gums, neutralizes the production of acid in the mouth, and also acts as an antiseptic to help prevent infections.
Sodium bicarbonate in combination with other ingredients can be used to make a dry or wet deodorant.
Sodium bicarbonate may be used as a buffering agent, combined with table salt, when creating a solution for nasal irrigation.
Sodium bicarbonate is used in eye hygiene to treat blepharitis. 
This is done by addition of a teaspoon of sodium bicarbonate to cool water that was recently boiled, followed by gentle scrubbing of the eyelash base with a cotton swab dipped in the solution.

SODIUM BICARBONATE USES:
Cooking: primarily, used as a leavening agent in baking. 
Sometimes used for green vegetables baking to give them a bright green color.
Baking powder: Sodium bicarbonate is used for cooking. Baking powder contains a high level of composition of Nahcolite.
Pest control: Sodium bicarbonate can be used to kill insects like cockroaches and can be used to control fungal growth.
Paint and corrosion removal: Sodium bicarbonate is used in a process called as soda blasting to remove corrosion.
Personal hygiene: Much toothpaste contains sodium bicarbonates giving better whitening and plaque removal than the toothpaste not having Sodium bicarbonate. 
Sodium bicarbonate is also used in mouthwashes. 
Also used as the buffering agent.
Medical uses: Can be used to treat heartburn and acid indigestion along with water. 
Sodium bicarbonate is used for treatment in case of an overdose of aspirin. 
Can be used to get relieved from some insects bites and stings. 
Sodium bicarbonate can be used to get relieved from some plants allergy. 
Sodium bicarbonate is also used to remove splinters from the skin.
In sports: Used as the supplement for athletes, in speed based events.
Other uses: As a cleaning agent, for alkalinity and also used as a cattle feed supplement. 
Also used in a fire extinguisher and for neutralization of acid and bases.

Veterinary uses
Sodium bicarbonate is used as a cattle feed supplement, in particular as a buffering agent for the rumen.

Sodium bicarbonate Cleaning agent
Sodium bicarbonate is used in a process for removing paint and corrosion called sodablasting. 
As a blasting medium, sodium bicarbonate is used to remove surface contamination from softer and less resilient substrates such as aluminium, copper or timber which could be damaged by silica sand abrasive media.
A manufacturer recommends a paste made from baking soda with minimal water as a gentle scouring powder, and is useful in removing surface rust, as the rust forms a water-soluble compound when in a concentrated alkaline solution; cold water should be used, as hot-water solutions can corrode steel.
Sodium bicarbonate attacks the thin protective oxide layer that forms on aluminium, making it unsuitable for cleaning this metal.
A solution in warm water will remove the tarnish from silver when the silver is in contact with a piece of aluminium foil.
Baking soda is commonly added to washing machines as a replacement for water softener and to remove odors from clothes. 
Sodium bicarbonate is also almost as effective in removing heavy tea and coffee stains from cups as Sodium hydroxide, when diluted with warm water.
During the Manhattan Project to develop the nuclear bomb in the early 1940s, the chemical toxicity of uranium was an issue. 
Uranium oxides were found to stick very well to cotton cloth, and did not wash out with soap or laundry detergent. 
However, the uranium would wash out with a 2% solution of sodium bicarbonate. 
Clothing can become contaminated with toxic dust of depleted uranium (DU), which is very dense, hence used for counterweights in a civilian context, and in armour-piercing projectiles. 
DU is not removed by normal laundering; washing with about 6 ounces (170 g) of baking soda in 2 gallons (7.5 L) of water will help to wash it out.

Sodium bicarbonate may sound like something you’ve never heard of, but chances are there is some sitting in your kitchen cupboard right now. 
Otherwise known as baking soda, Sodium bicarbonate is a salt made of a sodium cation and a bicarbonate anion.
Baking soda is often found as a fine powder substance, despite the fact that Sodium bicarbonate is actually a crystalline solid.
Sodium bicarbonate is considered a monosodium (only containing one atom of sodium) and has a slight alkaline value.

Odor control
Sodium bicarbonate is often claimed that baking soda is an effective odor remover, and Sodium bicarbonate is often recommended that an open box be kept in the refrigerator to absorb odor.
This idea was promoted by the leading U.S. brand of baking soda, Arm & Hammer, in an advertising campaign starting in 1972.
Though this campaign is considered a classic of marketing, leading within a year to more than half of American refrigerators containing a box of baking soda, there is little evidence that Sodium bicarbonate is in fact effective in this application.

Chemistry
Sodium bicarbonate is an amphoteric compound. 
Aqueous solutions are mildly alkaline due to the formation of carbonic acid and hydroxide ion:
HCO−3 + H2O → H2CO3 + OH−

Sodium bicarbonate can be used as a wash to remove any acidic impurities from a "crude" liquid, producing a purer sample. 
Reaction of sodium bicarbonate and an acid produces a salt and carbonic acid, which readily decomposes to carbon dioxide and water:
NaHCO3 + HCl → NaCl + H2CO3
H2CO3 → H2O + CO2(g)

Sodium bicarbonate reacts with acetic acid (found in vinegar), producing sodium acetate, water, and carbon dioxide:
NaHCO3 + CH3COOH → CH3COONa + H2O + CO2(g)

Sodium bicarbonate reacts with bases such as sodium hydroxide to form carbonates:
NaHCO3 + NaOH → Na2CO3 + H2O

Baking soda is an alkaline or basic ingredient. 
If dough contains an acidic ingredient, such as buttermilk, citrus fruit juice, sourdough starter or yogurt, baking soda will react with Sodium bicarbonate to produce leavening. 
Like baking powder, baking soda may negatively affect the color and flavor of finished products and result in a very acidic or bitter taste.
If a recipe contains both baking soda and baking powder, then the baking powder will probably be responsible for the majority of the leavening. 
The baking soda will likely function more to neutralize any acids in the recipe and add tenderness.

Sodium bicarbonate use during CPR is one of the most controversial issues in the cardiac arrest literature. 
This stems from its potential side effects and the lack of evidence in animals and humans of any benefit from receiving bicarbonate during CPR. 
Administration of sodium bicarbonate results in an acid-base reaction in which bicarbonate combines with hydrogen ions to form water and carbon dioxide, resulting in an elevated blood pH:
HCO3-+H+→H2CO3→H2O+CO2
Because bicarbonate generates carbon dioxide, adequate alveolar ventilation must be present before Sodium bicarbonates administration. 
Sodium bicarbonate administration transiently elevates CO2 levels in the blood so that administration during cardiac arrest may worsen preexisting respiratory acidosis if ventilation is not adequate to remove the elevated CO2. 
This may be more of an issue for children because a major cause of cardiac arrest is respiratory failure.

SYNONYMS
Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate; Baking Soda; Carbonic acid monosodium salt; Monosodium carbonate
CAS NUMBER:
144-55-8
MOLECULAR FORMULA:
NaHCO3
MOLECULAR WEIGHT:
84.006 g/mol
BEILSTEIN REGISTRY NUMBER:
4153970
EC NUMBER:
205-633-8

Thermal decomposition
At temperatures from 80–100 °C (176–212 °F), sodium bicarbonate gradually decomposes into sodium carbonate, water, and carbon dioxide. 

The conversion is faster at 200 °C (392 °F):
2 NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2

Most bicarbonates undergo this dehydration reaction. Further heating converts the carbonate into the oxide (above 850 °C/1,560 °F):
Na2CO3 → Na2O + CO2
These conversions are relevant to the use of NaHCO3 as a fire-suppression agent ("BC powder") in some dry-powder fire extinguishers.

Sodium bicarbonate Stability & Shelf Life
If kept cool (room temperature) and dry (an airtight container is recommended to keep out moist air), sodium bicarbonate can be kept without a significant amount of decomposition for at least two or three years.

History
The word natron has been in use in many languages throughout modern times and originated via Arabic naṭrūn from Greek nítron, which can be traced back to ancient Egyptian ntr. 
The Greek nítron (soda, soda, saltpeter) was also used in Latin (sal) nitrum and in German Salniter.
In 1791, French chemist Nicolas Leblanc produced sodium carbonate, also known as soda ash. 
The pharmacist Valentin Rose the Younger is credited with the discovery of sodium bicarbonate 1801 in Berlin. 
In 1846, two American bakers, John Dwight and Austin Church, established the first factory in the United States to produce baking soda from sodium carbonate and carbon dioxide.
Saleratus, potassium or sodium bicarbonate, is mentioned in the novel Captains Courageous by Rudyard Kipling as being used extensively in the 1800s in commercial fishing to prevent freshly caught fish from spoiling.
In 1919, a U.S. Senator declared that bicarbonate of soda could cure the Spanish flu. 
In the midst of the debate on 26 January 1919, Senator Overman interrupted the discussion to announce the discovery of a cure. 
"I want to say, for the benefit of those who are making this investigation," he reported, "that I was told by a judge of a superior court in the mountain country of North Carolina they have discovered a remedy for this disease." 
The purported cure implied a critique of modern science and an appreciation for the simple wisdom of simple people. 
"They say that common baking soda will cure the disease," he continued, "that they have cured it with Sodium bicarbonate, that they have no deaths up there at all; they use common baking soda, which cures the disease."

IUPAC name
sodium hydrogen carbonate
Other names
Baking soda, bicarb (laboratory slang), bicarbonate of soda, nahcolite, natrium hydrogen carbonate, natron

Sodium bicarbonate is widely available in the form of baking soda and combination products. 
Sodium bicarbonate reacts almost instantaneously to neutralize HCl to produce CO2 and NaCl. 
The formation of CO2 results in belching and gastric distention. 
Sodium bicarbonate is often referred to as a “systemic” antacid because the unreacted fraction is readily absorbed into the general circulation and may alter systemic pH. 
The potential for Na+ overload and systemic alkalosis limits its use to short-term relief of indigestion. 
Na+ overload resulting from repeated use of large doses may contribute to fluid retention, edema, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and renal failure. 
Sodium bicarbonate is contraindicated in patients on a low-salt diet.

Sodium bicarbonate Production
Sodium bicarbonate is produced industrially from sodium carbonate:
Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O → 2 NaHCO3

Sodium bicarbonate is produced on the scale of about 100,000 tonnes/year (as of 2001)[dubious – discuss] with a worldwide production capacity of 2.4 million tonnes per year.
Commercial quantities of baking soda are also produced by a similar method: soda ash, mined in the form of the ore trona, is dissolved in water and treated with carbon dioxide. 
Sodium bicarbonate precipitates as a solid from this solution.
Regarding the Solvay process, sodium bicarbonate is an intermediate in the reaction of sodium chloride, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. 
The product however shows low purity (75pc).
NaCl + CO2 + NH3 + H2O → NaHCO3 + NH4Cl

Although of no practical value, NaHCO3 may be obtained by the reaction of carbon dioxide with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide:
CO2 + NaOH → NaHCO3

Mining
Naturally occurring deposits of nahcolite (NaHCO3) are found in the Eocene-age (55.8–33.9 Mya) Green River Formation, Piceance Basin in Colorado. 
Nahcolite was deposited as beds during periods of high evaporation in the basin. 
Sodium bicarbonate is commercially mined using common underground mining techniques such as bore, drum, and longwall mining in a fashion very similar to coal mining.
Limited amounts of product are further obtained by solution mining, pumping heated water through previously mined nahcolite beds and reconstituting the dissolved nahcolite above ground through a natural cooling crystallization process. 
Currently, only Genesis Alkali (formerly Tronox, formerly FMC) in the Green River Wyoming basin has successfully commercially solution mined the product.

In popular culture
Sodium bicarbonate, as "bicarbonate of soda", was a frequent source of punch lines for Groucho Marx in Marx Brothers movies. 
In Duck Soup, Marx plays the leader of a nation at war. 
In one scene, he receives a message from the battlefield that his general is reporting a gas attack, and Groucho tells his aide: "Tell him to take a teaspoonful of bicarbonate of soda and a half a glass of water."
In A Night at the Opera, Groucho's character addresses the opening night crowd at an opera by saying of the lead tenor: "Signor Lassparri comes from a very famous family. His mother was a well-known bass singer. 
His father was the first man to stuff spaghetti with bicarbonate of soda, thus causing and curing indigestion at the same time."
In the Joseph L. Mankewicz classic All About Eve, the Max Fabian character (Gregory Ratoff) has an extended scene with Margo Channing (Bette Davis) in which, suffering from heartburn, he requests and then drinks bicarbonate of soda, eliciting a prominent burp. 
Channing promises to always keep a box of bicarb with Max's name on Sodium bicarbonate.

Formula CHNaO3
CHO3.Na
Net Charge 0
Average Mass 84.00660
Monoisotopic Mass 83.98234
InChI InChI=1S/CH2O3.Na/c2-1(3)4;/h(H2,2,3,4);/q;+1/p-1
InChIKey UIIMBOGNXHQVGW-UHFFFAOYSA-M
SMILES [Na+].OC([O-])=O

How to use Sodium Bicarbonate
Take Sodium bicarbonate by mouth, usually every 4 hours as needed or as directed by your doctor. 
Some tablets should be dissolved in a glass of water before swallowing. 
Other tablets may be swallowed whole or dissolved in water before swallowing. 
Follow all directions on the product package for the product you are taking. 
If you have any questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
If you are self-treating and your acid problems last or get worse after you have used this product for 2 weeks, or if you think you may have a serious medical problem, get medical help right away. 
If you are using Sodium bicarbonate regularly on a daily basis for more than 2 weeks, you may have a medical problem that needs different treatment. 

Ask your doctor if Sodium bicarbonate is the right medication for you.
If your doctor has directed you to take Sodium bicarbonate for acidosis or to alkalinize your urine, your dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment. 
To get the most benefit from Sodium bicarbonate, take Sodium bicarbonate regularly, exactly as directed. 
Sodium bicarbonate is usually taken by mouth several times a day. 
To help you remember, take Sodium bicarbonate at the same times each day. 
Do not increase the dose, take Sodium bicarbonate more often, or continue taking this for longer than prescribed.

Baking soda, also known as sodium bicarbonate, is widely used in baking.
This is because Sodium bicarbonate has leavening properties, meaning Sodium bicarbonate causes dough to rise by producing carbon dioxide.
Aside from cooking, baking soda has a variety of additional household uses and health benefits.
Here are 23 benefits and uses of baking soda.

CAS Number: 144-55-8 
Beilstein Reference: 4153970
ChEBI: CHEBI:32139  
ChEMBL: ChEMBL1353  
ChemSpider: 8609  
DrugBank: DB01390  
ECHA InfoCard: 100.005.122  
EC Number: 205-633-8
E number: E500(ii) (acidity regulators, ...)
IUPHAR/BPS: 4507
KEGG: C12603  
MeSH: Sodium+bicarbonate
PubChem CID: 516892
RTECS number: VZ0950000
UNII: 8MDF5V39QO  
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID9021269

Sodium bicarbonate is a salt that breaks down to form sodium and bicarbonate in water. 
This breakdown makes a solution alkaline, meaning Sodium bicarbonate is able to neutralize acid. 
Because of this, sodium bicarbonate is often used to treat conditions caused by high acidity in the body, such as heartburn.
People use sodium bicarbonate for athletic performance, kidney damage caused by contrast dyes (contrast induced nephropathy), indigestion (dyspepsia), stomach ulcers, dental plaque, tooth discoloration, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.
People also use sodium bicarbonate, or baking soda, as an ingredient in baking.,

How does Sodium bicarbonate work ?
Sodium bicarbonate is a salt that breaks down in fluids, including blood and urine, to form sodium and bicarbonate. 
This breakdown buffers the blood and makes Sodium bicarbonate less acidic. 
This ability to neutralize acid helps treat conditions related to high acidity in bodily fluids, such as indigestion, which is caused by too much acid in the stomach.

Before taking sodium bicarbonate,
tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications you are taking, especially other antacids, aspirin or aspirin-like medicines, benzodiazepines, flecainide (Tambocor), iron, ketoconazole (Nizoral), lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid), methenamine (Hiprex, Urex), methotrexate, quinidine, sulfa-containing antibiotics, tetracycline (Sumycin), or vitamins. 
Take sodium bicarbonate at least 2 hours apart from other medicines.
tell your doctor if you have or have ever had high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, or kidney disease or if you have recently had bleeding in your stomach or intestine.
tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. 
If you become pregnant while taking sodium bicarbonate, call your doctor.

What special dietary instructions should I follow?
Sodium bicarbonate increases the amount of sodium in your body. 
If you are on a sodium-restricted diet, check with your doctor before taking sodium bicarbonate.

What should I do if I forget a dose of Sodium bicarbonate?
If your doctor has told you to take sodium bicarbonate on a certain schedule, take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. 
However, if Sodium bicarbonate is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. 
Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.

Why is Sodium bicarbonate prescribed?
Sodium bicarbonate is an antacid used to relieve heartburn and acid indigestion. 
Your doctor also may prescribe sodium bicarbonate to make your blood or urine less acidic in certain conditions.
Sodium bicarbonate is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.


Appearance: White crystals
Odor: Odorless
Density    
2.20 g/cm3 
Melting point: (Decomposes to sodium carbonate starting at 50 °C)
Solubility in water    
69 g/L (0 °C) 
96 g/L (20 °C) 
165 g/L (60 °C)

Sodium bicarbonate (better known to the world as baking soda) is a soluble white powder that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. 
Sodium bicarbonate’s odorless, non-combustible and reacts with acids to release carbon dioxide gas and heat.

The Versatility of Sodium Bicarbonate
Sodium bicarbonate serves a variety of purposes, ranging from household uses such as baking and cleaning, to treating minor medical ailments like sunburn and insect bites.
Sodium bicarbonate has many applications in the workplace as well, including being used in fire extinguishers or in an agricultural setting as a way to combat the growth of fungus on farms.


Sodium bicarbonate is used for the treatment of metabolic acidosis which may occur in severe renal disease, uncontrolled diabetes, circulatory insufficiency due to shock or severe dehydration, extracorporeal circulation of blood, cardiac arrest and severe primary lactic acidosis. 
Also is indicated in severe diarrhea which is often accompanied by a significant loss of bicarbonate. 
Further indicated in the treatment of certain drug intoxications, including barbiturates (where dissociation of the barbiturateprotein complex is desired), in poisoning by salicylates or methyl alcohol and in hemolytic reactions requiring alkalinization of the urine to diminish nephrotoxicity of blood pigments.

Coughing and sneezing if a high concentration of dust has been inhaled
Gastrointestinal irritation can occur if large amounts have been ingested
Mild irritation, such as redness and slight pain, may result from eye contact
In dry form, Sodium bicarbonate’s typically non-irritating to intact skin; however, Sodium bicarbonate can cause irritation to damaged skin when moisture is present
 
Sodium bicarbonate Solubility: 
0.02 wt% acetone, 
2.13 wt% methanol @22 °C.
insoluble in ethanol
log P: −0.82
Acidity (pKa)    
10.329 
6.351 (carbonic acid) 
Refractive index (nD)    
nα = 1.377 nβ = 1.501 nγ = 1.583

How should Sodium bicarbonate be used?
Sodium bicarbonate comes as a tablet and powder to take by mouth. 
Sodium bicarbonate is taken one to four times a day, depending on the reason you take Sodium bicarbonate. 
Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. 
Take sodium bicarbonate exactly as directed. 
Do not take more or less of Sodium bicarbonate or take Sodium bicarbonate more often than prescribed by your doctor.

What should I know about storage and disposal of Sodium bicarbonate?
Keep Sodium bicarbonate in the container Sodium bicarbonate came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. 
Store Sodium bicarbonate at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom).
Unneeded medications should be disposed of in special ways to ensure that pets, children, and other people cannot consume them. 
However, you should not flush Sodium bicarbonate down the toilet. 
Instead, the best way to dispose of your medication is through a medicine take-back program. 
Talk to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in your community. 
Sodium bicarbonate is important to keep all medication out of sight and reach of children as many containers (such as weekly pill minders and those for eye drops, creams, patches, and inhalers) are not child-resistant and young children can open them easily.

Compound Formula CHNaO3
Molecular Weight 84
Appearance White crystalline powder or granules
Melting Point 3000 °C
Boiling Point N/A
Density    2.16- 2.2 g/cm3
Solubility in H2O N/A
Exact Mass 83.982338
Monoisotopic Mass 83.982338

If you are using sodium bicarbonate as an antacid, Sodium bicarbonate should be taken 1 to 2 hours after meals, with a full glass of water. 
If you are using sodium bicarbonate for another reason, Sodium bicarbonate may be taken with or without food. 
Do not take sodium bicarbonate on an overly full stomach.

Dissolve sodium bicarbonate powder in at least 4 ounces (120 milliliters) of water. 
Measure powdered doses carefully using a measuring spoon.
Do not use sodium bicarbonate for longer than 2 weeks unless your doctor tells you to. 
If sodium bicarbonate does not improve your symptoms, call your doctor.
Do not give sodium bicarbonate to children under 12 years of age unless your doctor tells you to.

SODIUM BICARBONATE
144-55-8
Sodium hydrogen carbonate
Sodium hydrogencarbonate
Baking soda
Carbonic acid monosodium salt
Sodium acid carbonate
Bicarbonate of soda
Sodium hydrocarbonate
Meylon
Acidosan
Neut
Natriumhydrogenkarbonat

Uses for Washing Soda
Washing soda is a good all-purpose cleaner. 
Sodium bicarbonates high alkalinity helps Sodium bicarbonate cut grease, soften water, and disinfect surfaces. 
Keep in mind that sodium carbonate solution irritates the skin and can produce chemical burns in pure form. 
Wear gloves when using Sodium bicarbonate.
Sodium carbonate is used to adjust swimming pool pH, prevent caking in foods, and treat ringworm and eczema. 
Sodium bicarbonate's also used on a commercial scale for making glass and paper products.

NaHCO3
Monosodium carbonate
Jusonin
Soludal
Soda Mint
Soda (van)
Carbonic acid sodium salt (1:1)
Sodium bicarbonate (1:1)
Monosodium hydrogen carbonate
MFCD00003528
Carbonic acid, monosodium salt
UNII-8MDF5V39QO
sodium hydrogencarbonat
8MDF5V39QO
E500

Sodium bicarbonate Nomenclature
Because Sodium bicarbonate has long been known and widely used, the salt has many related names such as baking soda, bread soda, cooking soda, and bicarbonate of soda, and can often be found near baking powder in stores. 
The term baking soda is more common in the United States, while bicarbonate of soda is more common in Australia and Britain, and in many northern/central European countries it is called Natron. 
Abbreviated colloquial forms such as sodium bicarb, bicarb soda, bicarbonate, and bicarb are common.
The word saleratus, from Latin sal æratus (meaning "aerated salt"), was widely used in the 19th century for both sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate.
Sodium bicarbonates E number food additive code is E500.
The prefix bi in bicarbonate comes from an outdated naming system and is based on the observation that the sodium bicarbonate molecule (NaHCO3) contains twice as much carbonate (CO3) as does sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). 
The modern chemical formulas of these compounds express their precise chemical compositions (which were unknown when the names sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate were coined) as sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). 
These names are unambiguous since sodium always has the +1 oxidation state and carbonate the −2 oxidation state.

CHEBI:32139
Natron
Col-evac
Sel De vichy
Natrium bicarbonicum
Soda Ash
Natrii hydrogencarbonas
E 500
E-500
Natrium hydrogencarbonicum
sodium hydrogen-carbonate
Caswell No. 747
Sodium carbonate (Na(HCO3))
Sodium bicarbonate, 99+%, for HPLC
Sodium bicarbonate, 99+%, extra pure
Sodium bicarbonate, 99.5%, for analysis

Sodium Bicarbonate is buffer commonly used for maintaining the pH of cell culture medium in the presence of 4–10% carbon dioxide. 
In addition to buffering, sodium bicarbonate provides some nutritional benefit, while rarely displaying any cell toxicity. 
Formulated as 75 g per liter of water, Sodium Bicarbonate, 7.5% Solution is perfect for supplementing dry powder medium during reconstitution. 
The final Sodium Bicarbonate concentration used in the medium depends on the media formulation and the carbon dioxide concentration used in the incubator.

Sodium bicarbonate Use
For Research Use Only. 
Not for use in diagnostic procedures.

Sodium bicarbonate in plastic container
Meylon (TN)
Sodium bicarbonate, 99.7+%, ACS reagent
CCRIS 3064
HSDB 697
Sodium bicarbonate, 99.5%, for biochemistry
Neut (TN)
NSC-134031
EINECS 205-633-8
Sodium bicarbonate solution
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 073505
NSC 134031
Sodium bicarbonate [USP:JAN]

What Is Sodium Bicarbonate
Sodium bicarbonate also is known as baking soda.

Sodium bicarbonate is used to treat or prevent excess acid in the blood or urine, a condition affecting some children who have had a liver transplant. 
Sodium bicarbonate also can reduce stomach acids, and therefore can be used as an antacid to treat heartburn or indigestion.

Sodium Bicarbonate Dosage
Sodium bicarbonate can be injected or taken by mouth. 
Sodium bicarbonate is available as a solution for injection, in powder form, or as tablets.

Take Sodium bicarbonate by mouth, usually every 4 hours as needed or as directed by your doctor. 
Some tablets should be dissolved in a glass of water before swallowing. 
Other tablets may be swallowed whole or dissolved in water before swallowing. 
Follow all directions on the product package for the product you are taking. 
If you have any questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

If you are self-treating and your acid problems last or get worse after you have used this product for 2 weeks, or if you think you may have a serious medical problem, get medical help right away. 
If you are using Sodium bicarbonate regularly on a daily basis for more than 2 weeks, you may have a medical problem that needs different treatment. 
Ask your doctor if this is the right medication for you.

If your doctor has directed you to take Sodium bicarbonate for acidosis or to alkalinize your urine, your dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment. 
To get the most benefit from Sodium bicarbonate, take Sodium bicarbonate regularly, exactly as directed. 
Sodium bicarbonate is usually taken by mouth several times a day. 
To help you remember, take Sodium bicarbonate at the same times each day. 
Do not increase the dose, take Sodium bicarbonate more often, or continue taking this for longer than prescribed.

How to Properly Take Sodium Bicarbonate
Sodium bicarbonate can be taken with or without food. 
People who are using Sodium bicarbonate should avoid large amounts of dairy products, which can increase the chance of experiencing side effects.

Missed Doses of Sodium bicarbonate:
If your child misses a dose of sodium bicarbonate, Sodium bicarbonate should be taken as soon as you or your child remembers. 
If you remember within two hours of the next scheduled dose, skip the missed dose and resume your child’s usual dosing schedule. 
Do not double the dose to catch up.

sodium bicabonate
sodium bicarbonat
bicarbonate sodium
sodiumbi-carbonate
sodium bi-carbonate
sodium bicarbonate-
Sodium bi carbonate
natriumhydrogencarbonat
CHNaO3
sodium hydrogencabonate
sodiumhydrogen carbonate
PubChem23592
sodium hydrogen cabonate
ACMC-20ajp0
hydrogen carbonate sodium
Sodium bicarbonate, USP
sodium hyd-rogencarbonate
sodium-hydrogen-carbonate
SODIUM BICARBONIATE
EC 205-633-8
CHEMBL1353
INS NO.500(II)

Features of Sodium bicarbonate:
-A mild and weak alkali -
Sodium bicarbonate is a white powder with molecular formula NaHCO3, and pH of 8.5 (1% aqueous solution, 25°C).
Among sodium compounds, Sodium bicarbonate is one of the substances with the lowest alkalinity.

-Sodium bicarbonate can be poured into water as is -
Because the alkalinity is low, Sodium bicarbonate does not exceed the Japanese effluent standard of aqueous solutions (marine areas: between 5.0-9.0, non-marine areas: between 5.8-8.6). 
If you use in other countries, please consult your local laws and regulations.

-Sodium bicarbonate has a buffer effect -
Sodium bicarbonate solutions have the effect of moderating pH changes.

-Sodium bicarbonate is a safe inorganic substance -
Among registered and existing chemical substances, Sodium bicarbonate is extremely safe and can be stored in stable form at room temperature and ordinary pressure.

Generic name: sodium bicarbonate
Chemical formula: NaHCO3
Other names: Bicarbonate of soda, baking soda

CSCL Number  
1-164 (Na2CO3), 1-310 (carbonated water)
Industrial Safety and Health Act Number  
1-164 (Na2CO3), 1-310 (carbonated water)
CAS NO  
144-55-8

What are the alternatives for Sodium bicarbonate?
For many years, the form of baking soda most widely available for consumer products was manufactured from refined minerals that were mined from the earth. 
While this form of baking soda is natural, Sodium bicarbonate requires several processing steps to create. 
Tom's of Maine Peppermint Baking Soda toothpaste was developed and brought to market at a time when this form of baking soda was the only commercially viable source. 
At Tom's we are always searching for natural ingredients that are minimally processed. 
Our Research and Product Development Team has found that Sodium bicarbonate is now possible to obtain commercial quantities of food-grade nahcolite, a naturally occurring form of baking soda. 
Consequently, we formulate our baking soda toothpaste and mouthwash to include nahcolite, the most natural form of baking soda available.

Is Sodium bicarbonate the right option for me?
Baking soda has no known toxicity or carcinogenicity. 
Sodium bicarbonate has a long history of safe use and is Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration. 
Tom's of Maine recognizes that no two people are alike, and even with pure and natural ingredients, some individuals may develop an allergic reaction that is unique to them. 
As with any product, be sure to discontinue use if you experience discomfort or other indications that the product may not be appropriate for your individual body chemistry.
Sodium bicarbonate is formed by mixing carbon, sodium, hydrogen and oxygen molecules. 
This mixture, also known as baking soda, is actually a type of salt.

Main uses of Sodium bicarbonate:
Pharmaceutical, bath additive, baking powder, animal food, poultry feed additive, chemical raw material, agrochemical, fire-extinguishing agent, aqueous blast cleaning media, exhaust gas neutralising material, etc.

Manufacturing process of Sodium bicarbonate:
There are 2 types of manufacturing processes for sodium bicarbonate: Wet and dry.
Generally, the method used for large-scale production is the wet method in which sodium bicarbonate is precipitated as crystals by infusing carbon dioxide gas into caustic soda derived by electrolysis to cause a reaction, and AGC uses this method to manufacture its sodium bicarbonate.

DTXSID9021269
INS-500(II)
Sodium bicarbonate (JP17/USP)
sodium hydrogen carbonate solution
AMY40219
E-500(II)
Sodium bicarbonate -40-+140 mesh
Sodium bicarbonate, Biochemical Grade
AKOS015836321
AKOS015951222
Sodium hydrogen carbonate, Puratronic?
DB01390
Sodium bicarbonate A.C.S. reagent grade
S304
Bicarbonate, 1M buffer solution, pH 8.0
Bicarbonate, 1M buffer solution, pH 8.5

​Sodium bicarbonate administration is a suggested treatment modality for a variety of toxicologic and nontoxicologic conditions such as poisonings by tricyclic antidepressants, toxic alcohols, and salicylates, and other conditions such as hyperkalemia. 
The rationale for its use can be divided into several distinct categories, and Sodium bicarbonates method of administration depends on Sodium bicarbonates clinical indication.

Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is used primarily to combat acidosis, although Sodium bicarbonate’s the treatment of choice in certain cases of overdose. 
Sodium bicarbonate works by mixing with lactic acid that forms in low perfusion states and in periods of inadequate oxygenation, such as shock and cardiac arrest. 
Sodium bicarbonate is then converted to a form of carbonic acid that turns into carbon dioxide, and in turn, is expelled through the lungs during ventilation.
Primarily, NaHCO3 works as a buffer by mixing with acids within the body to reduce the acid—base imbalance. 
Acidosis can develop when excessive amounts of lactic acid are produced during low perfusion states and in periods of inadequate oxygenation. 
In the presence of NaHCO3, the excess acid is converted to a form of carbonic acid, and then into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water. 

The excess CO2 is expelled through the lungs during ventilation. 
Patients who become hypoxic from hypoventilation or poor perfusion are unable to metabolize the products of anaerobic glycolysis, which causes lactic and metabolic acidosis to develop thereby lowering their pH level.
A normal pH is 7.35 to 7.45; a pH less than 7.35 places the patient in a state of acidosis. 
During severe acidosis (pH less than 7.2), the heart is more susceptible to v fib and other arrhythmias. 
Myocardial contractility is suppressed, hypotension occurs, hepatic blood flow is reduced, and oxygen delivery to tissue is impaired.
The body uses bicarbonate as a buffer to offset the increase in acid production, attempting to maintain homeostasis.
Several studies have challenged whether treating serum acidosis with bicarbonate actually influences the true acidosis, which occurs at the intracellular level.

Formula: NaHCO3
Molecular mass: 84.0
Decomposes at 50°C
Density: 2.1 g/cm³
Solubility in water, g/100ml at 20°C: 8.7  

B7292
FT-0645108
S0561
C12603
D01203
3-Phenyl-2-thioxotetrahydropyrimidin-4(1H)-one
Sodium bicarbonate, 1M buffer solution, pH 8.0
Sodium bicarbonate, 1M buffer solution, pH 9.0
Q179731
Sodium bicarbonate, 1M buffer solution, pH 10.0
Sodium bicarbonate, HPLC, Meets ACS Specifications
Sodium bicarbonate 5% w/v solution in water (+/- 0.3%)
Saturated aqueous Sodium bicarbonate solution (~9.6% wt/wt/)


3-) SODIUM ACID PYROPHOSPHATE 

Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate = SAPP = Disodium pyrophosphate

CAS Number: 7758-16-9
EC Number: 231-835-0
E number: E450(i) (thickeners, ...)
Molecular Formula: Na2H2P2O7
Molecular Weight: 222.00


Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate used as buffering agent, leavening agent, sequestrant agent. 
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate can be used in canned food, ham, meat,baking powder and so on.
Disodium pyrophosphate is used as leavening agent in baking powders, combining with sodium bicarbonate to release carbon dioxide. 
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate speeds the conversion of sodium nitrite to nitrite in cured meats and can improve water-holding capacity. 
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is also found in potato products, where Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate prevents darkening. 
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate can be also be used in leather treatment; In some dairy applications for cleaning purposes and in petroleum production; etc.

Sodium acid pyrophosphate, often abbreviated as SAPP is an edible phosphoric salt available as a white crystalline powder in the market. 
In food and beverage industry, sodium acid pyrophosphate is mostly used as a leavening agent in self-rising and baked goods and as a quality improver for meat and fish processing. 
Besides food and beverage, sodium acid pyrophosphate is also used in leather industry for leather processing and petroleum industry in the drilling of oil wells as dispersants. 
Hence, the manufacturers are offering sodium acid pyrophosphate in food grade or chemical so that their product can be utilized in all the above mentioned end-use industries and applications. 
Consumers of sodium acid pyrophosphate such as bakery producers are preferring the use of sodium acid pyrophosphate as Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate can offer variable rates of reaction and leavening by gas production based on Sodium Acid Pyrophosphates granulation. 
They are using sodium acid pyrophosphate alone or in combination with other leavening agents depending on the requirement of product.

What is Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate (SAPP)?
The leavening acid, sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP) is an important component of double acting baking powder as well as self rising flour. 
SAPP reacts in stages and is desirable in baking applications for Sodium Acid Pyrophosphates slow action.

Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate (CAS #7758-16-9) is one of the many popular food-grade chemical ingredients offered by Independent Chemical Corporation.  
Sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP), also known as disodium pyrophosphate, is a white, water soluble solid with chemical formula Na2H2P2O7 that has many applications in the food industry.  
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is manufactured by partially neutralizing food-grade phosphoric acid with sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate to form monosodium phosphate, which is then dehydrated at 250o C to form sodium acid pyrophosphate.

SAPP is commonly used as a leavening agent and is an important component of double acting baking powder as well as self-rising flour.  
Leavening agents provide air and volume to the baked good structure by reacting with baking soda to produce carbon dioxide gas, and also change the characteristics of the dough by forming ionic bonds with the starches and proteins in the dough.  
SAPP dissolves readily to form the anion pyrophosphate, which then interacts with the proteins in a baked good mixture to provide a moist texture.  
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate acts as a buffering agent for the dough in the pH range 7.3 to 7.5, which influences the color of the final product. 

Other uses for SAPP include the following:
-Sequestrant/chelating agent in processed potatoes
-Emulsifying agent in cheese and other dairy products
-Peptizing agent in meat products
-Inhibitor agent in canned tuna
-Curing accelerator in processed meat and poultry products

Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is a white, water-soluble solids that consist of sodium cations and pyrophosphate anion. 
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is used as a food additive in the form of buffering (weak acid or base used to maintain the pH level) and chelating agent(protect against enzymatic reactions that promote deterioration during processing and storage). 
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is widely used in baking to raise dough volume by producing gas. 
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is considered as an important component in self-rising flour and double-acting baking powder.

Properties of Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate:
Chemical formula: Na2H2P2O7
Molecular Weight: 221.94
White crystalline powder or granules
Soluble in water

Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate Description
Innophos offersafull range of sodium acid pyrophosphate leavening acids. 
By controlling certain processing variables during its manufacture, a full range of SAPPs are produced basically having the same chemical base and a uniform neutralizing value of 72.

Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate Benefits
-Full range of product – 5 grades
-Economical to use – 72 neutralizing value
-12 month shelf-life
-Can be used alone or in combination with other acids
-Double-acting leavening action
-Versatile use leavening, for use in many products

Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate (SAPP) Granular is an anhydrous white material. 
This product is used as an acidulant, buffering agent, coagulant, emulsifying agent, dispersing agent, protein modifier, and sequestrant.
In non-dairy creamers, SAPP is added to protect the proteins from heat dehydration, to stabilize the fat emulsion, and to buffer the product. 
Processed potatoes are protected from iron-induced darkening when treated with SAPP. 
Addition of SAPP to albacore tuna during canning decreases or prevents formation of struvite crystals. 
SAPP is used in meat processing to accelerate development of red color in wieners, bologna, and other emulsion-type meat products SAPP can be used as an emulsifying agent during cheese processing to produce a hard, non-melting cheese product.

Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate Application :
-Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is used in leather treatment to remove iron stains
-Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is widely used globally in food industry for baking reaction purpose
-SAPP is also used to stabilize the solution of hydrogen peroxide against reduction
-SAPP is used in petroleum industry as a dispersant in oil well drilling muds
-SAPP also has a wide use in dairy and poultry processes

IUPAC Name Di-sodium di-hydrogen di-phosphate
Molecular Formula Na2H2P2O7
Molecular Weight 222.00
Appearance White fine Powder
PH Range (1% w/v) 3.5 – 4.5
Pyro % (minimum) 98.00
P2O5 content % (minimum) 62.00
‘Na’ Content % (minimum) 20.00
Iron as ‘Fe’ content %    0.02
Chloride as ‘Cl’ content % 0.2
Sulfate as ‘SO4’ content % 0.03

InnophosSAPP Grades Perfection®
The fastest – acting sodium acid pyrophosphate. Used as a leavening agent in doughnuts, cakes and other prepared mixes.
Frequently used with slower-acting SAPPs to increase the reaction rates.
Particularly useful in devil’s food cake formulations because it produces a desirable “foxy red ”crumb color.

Facilitates removal of calcium and reduces pH in cement contaminated fluids
Fast acting and effective at low concentrations 

Sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP) is currently used by the sausage industry to accelerate development of cured meat color. 
The cured color accelerator was examined, through sensory evaluation and instrumental measurements, for Sodium Acid Pyrophosphates effects on the texture of frankfurters. 
The effects of SAPP on other sensory properties and on chemical and physical characteristics were also examined. 
SAPP was found to slightly improve texture by increasing springiness, hardness, and awareness of skin, and by reducing oiliness. 
SAPP had no detrimental effects on texture. 

SAPP caused a slight improvement in flavor by enhancing beef, salt, smoke, and seasoning flavors, and by diminishing fat flavor. and mouthfeel. 
However, the presence of SAPP resulted in intensified sour flavor and decreased aroma and flavor of pork. 
SAPP did not greatly reduce residual nitrite levels or increase the development of meat color. 
SAPP effectively lowered viscosity of the emulsion and held emulsion temperature down during emulsification. 
Unlike alkaline phosphates, SAPP did not improve moisture retention or cook yields; Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate had no effect on proximate analysis. 
SAPP did cause an increase in exudate formation in stored vacuum-sealed packages of frankfurters.

Specifically developed for use in doughnut mixes.
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphates rate of reaction is designed to make Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate ideal for use in doughnut mixes. 
Is sometimes used where a slightly slower reaction rate is needed.

Used in a variety of mixes for institutional, bakery and retail applications and baking powders.
Description SAPP (Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate) inorganic thinner, is a commercial chemical used as a thinner and dispersant in freshwater drilling fluids and as an aid in water well development. 

What is disodium dihydrogen pyrophosphate?
One of dozens of varieties of phosphates used as food additives. 
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate’s derived from mined phosphate rock which is purified to isolate the phosphorous and further processed to add sodium or other desired molecules. 
“Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is basically a mineral that comes out of the ground and is then processed into a synthetic chemical,” says food scientist Mary Mulry, PhD, founder of consulting firm FoodWise.

What’s disodium dihydrogen pyrophosphate used for?
According to the International Food Additives Council, phosphates are used for an array of reasons, serving as leavening agents to fluff up foods, in nondairy creamers to reduce acidity, in lunchmeat to keep it moist, in bread to keep it from molding, and in cheese to help it keep its shape. 
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate’s also used to prevent potato products from blackening and to keep tuna from discoloring or drying out. 
“Cheap seafood is often soaked in sodium phosphate,” says Mulry. 
“Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate’s a way to sell more water than seafood.”

Disodium dihydrogen pyrophosphate concerns
In 2011, the Food and Drug Administration sent a warning to Alexia Foods accusing Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate of misbranding its potato products by using the phrase all natural despite the fact that it contains disodium dihydrogen pyrophosphate “which is a synthetic chemical preservative.” 
The additive was used to retain color in its potato products.

Initially, when moisture is added to form a dough, SAPP reacts with baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) to produce carbon dioxide gas. 
In fact, 22-40% of gas is released during this initial two minute mix. 
The remaining gas, over 50%, is released when heat is applied during the baking process.

Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is one of the two acid components used in commercial baking powders. 
SAPP is reactive not only with sodium bicarbonate, but also with calcium salts, proteins and heat. 
SAPP gives baking powder the time and temperature element contributing to the "Double Acting" power. 
Regular SAPP is used in cakes, sponges and refrigerated dough where a slower reactivity is desired. 
Usage 1g of sodium bicarbonate to 1.38g SAPP or as recipe indicates

Origin
In the eighteenth century and earlier, bakers relied upon yeast to leaven all baked goods. 
However, using yeast for leavening baked goods was tedious and bakers began to explore the use of chemical leavening systems. 
In 1846, baking soda was discovered as a leavening agent and that led to further discoveries of acids to react with baking soda, such as SAPP.

Commercially, sodium acid pyrophosphate was introduced into baking powder blends towards the end of the nineteenth century. 
SAPP is a preferred leavening acid because Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is less expensive and stronger than other leavening acids introduced previously.


What science says about disodium dihyrodgen pyrophosphate
In 2012, German researchers published a report warning that phosphates in general can be hazardous to health when consumed in excess, contributing to renal failure and cardiovascular disease. 
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate added that intakes were rapidly going up because of their presence as food additives and called for clearer labeling of phosphates. 
“Phosphate additives in food are a matter of concern, and their potential impact on health may well have been underappreciated,” the researchers said.

Properties
White powder or granular;Relative density 1.86g/cm3
Soluble in water and insoluble in ethanol
If Sodium Acid Pyrophosphates aqueous solution is heated together with diluted inorganic acid
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate will be hydrolyzed into phosphoric acid
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is hydroscopic, and when absorbing humidity it will become into a product with hexa-hydrates
If Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is heated at a temperature above 220℃, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate will be decomposed into sodium meta phosphate.

Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate Applications
Buffer; emulsifier; leavening agent; sequestrant. 
As a leavening agent Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is applied to roast foodstuffs to control the fermentation speed
When applied to instant noodles, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate can shorten water resetting time and avoid stickiness and mushiness of the noodles
When applied to crackers or cakes, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate may shorten fermentation time, lower the breakage, make the porous space in good order and therefore lengthen the shelf life.

In January 2014, the FDA issued a warning that over-the-counter sodium phosphate medications used to treat constipation should be limited to one dose in 24 hours, or can cause severe dehydration and lead to electrolyte imbalances and organ damage. 
On its website, the International Food Additives Council says “long-term ingestion of extremely high levels” can lead to bone and tooth decay. 
“However, this concern would not be expected to occur in normal food consumption patterns.” 
Most agree that the amounts contained in individual food products are small enough to be benign.

How industry is responding
Sodium phosphates are not allowed in organic products, except in certain dairy applications where no substitute can be found. 
In the absence of a natural standard, their use is a matter of company discretion, said Mulry, and in most cases she would advise companies not to use them. 
“Companies need to be asking themselves: What are you using Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate for, and is Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate an appropriate use that is not misleading the consumer? 
Water retention in seafood is misleading. 
If you are trying to preserve the color with an artificial preservative that is misleading. 
Unless Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is absolutely necessary, and there is no substitute for Sodium Acid Pyrophosphates use, I wouldn’t allow Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate in a natural product.”

Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate Functions
Leavening acids provide air and volume to the baked good structure, but also affect the characteristics of the dough. 
Besides reacting with baking soda to produce the gas carbon dioxide, these acids form ionic bonds with the starches and proteins in the dough.
SAPP dissolves readily to form the anion pyrophosphate which interacts with the proteins in a baked good system to provide a moist texture. 
Also, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate provides a buffer system for the dough in the pH range 7.3-7.5, which influences the color of the baked product.

Nutrition
21 grams of sodium and 28 grams of phosphorus are present in 100 grams of SAPP.

Sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP), or disodium dihydrogen pyrophosphate, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphates food grade is commonly used with sodium bicarbonate as a leavening agent in bakery products; also, it maintains the color in processed potatoes and also prevents struvite crystal in canned seafood. 
The European food additive number for Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is E450(i). 
Generally, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is vegan and gluten free.

What is Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate?
SAPP is an inorganic compound consisting of sodium cations and pyrophosphate anion. 
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is used in food mainly for Sodium Acid Pyrophosphates two properties: 

Disodium pyrophosphate or sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP) is an inorganic compound consisting of sodium cations and pyrophosphate anion.
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is a white, water-soluble solid that serves as a buffering and chelating agent, with many applications in the food industry. 
When crystallized from water, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate forms a hexahydrate, but Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate dehydrates above room temperature. 
Pyrophosphate is a polyvalent anion with a high affinity for polyvalent cations, e.g. Ca2+.
Disodium pyrophosphate is produced by heating sodium dihydrogen phosphate:
2 NaH2PO4 → Na2H2P2O7 + H2O

As a leavening acid which combines with baking soda to release carbon dioxide to improve the texture and volume of baked goods. 
As a chelating agent to chelate iron to prevent discoloration in processed potato. 

CAS Number: 7758-16-9  
ChemSpider: 22859  
ECHA InfoCard: 100.028.941  
EC Number: 231-835-0
E number: E450(i) (thickeners, ...)
PubChem CID: 24451
UNII: H5WVD9LZUD  
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID7044261

Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate Food uses
Disodium pyrophosphate is a popular leavening agent found in baking powders. 
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate combines with sodium bicarbonate to release carbon dioxide:

Na2H2P2O7 + NaHCO3 → Na3HP2O7 + CO2 + H2O
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is available in a variety of grades that affect the speed of its action. 
Because the resulting phosphate residue has an off-taste, SAPP is usually used in very sweet cakes which mask the off-taste.
Disodium pyrophosphate and other sodium and potassium polyphosphates are widely used in food processing; in the E number scheme, they are collectively designated as E450, with the disodium form designated as E450(a). 
In the United States, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is classified as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for food use. 
In canned seafood, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is used to maintain color and reduce purge during retorting. 
Retorting achieves microbial stability with heat.
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is an acid source for reaction with baking soda to leaven baked goods.
In baking powder, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is often labeled as food additive E450.
In cured meats, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate speeds the conversion of sodium nitrite to nitrite (NO2−) by forming the nitrous acid (HONO) intermediate, and can improve water-holding capacity. 
Disodium pyrophosphate is also found in frozen hash browns and other potato products, where Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is used to keep the color of the potatoes from darkening.
Disodium pyrophosphate can leave a slightly bitter aftertaste in some products, but "the SAPP taste can be masked by using sufficient baking soda and by adding a source of calcium ions, sugar, or flavorings."

Other uses of Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate
In leather treatment, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate can be used to remove iron stains on hides during processing. 
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate can stabilize hydrogen peroxide solutions against reduction. 
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate can be used with sulfamic acid in some dairy applications for cleaning, especially to remove soapstone. 
When added to scalding water, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate facilitates removal of hair and scurf in hog slaughter and feathers and scurf in poultry slaughter. 
In petroleum production, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate can be used as a dispersant in oil well drilling muds.
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is used in cat foods as a palatability additive.
Disodium pyrophosphate is used as a tartar control agent in toothpastes.

How is Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate Made? 
SAPP is a condensed phosphate, commonly synthesized by the neutralization of phosphoric acid with sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate at the ratio of 1:1 to produce monosodium phosphate (NaH2PO4), and then heated approximately 250°C to remove the water.
2 NaH2PO4 → Na2H2P2O7 + H2O

Sodium acid pyrophosphate is an inorganic salt. 
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is widely used in food processing and in the United States, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is classified as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for food use. 
In petroleum production, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate can be used as a dispersant in oil well drilling muds.
Sodium acid pyrophosphate dissociates completely in aqueous media to sodium ions (Na+) and pyrophosphate ions (P2O7 4-). 
The pyrophosphate anion is unstable in aqueous solution and hydrolyses into inorganic phosphate. 
Both sodium ions (Na+ ) and phosphate ions (HPO4 2-) are ubiquitous in the environment. 
Both ions are essential to all living organisms and their intracellular and extracellular concentrations are actively regulated. 
Neither sodium acid pyrophosphate nor Sodium Acid Pyrophosphates dissociated ions are expected to bioaccumulate. 
Sodium acid pyrophosphate is expected to be of low toxicity concern to aquatic organisms based on a similar compound.

-Common name:
calcium acid dihydrogendiphosphate
-Trade names:
calcium acid diphosphate; calcium acid pyrophosphate diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1);
calcium dihydrogenpyrophosphate; INS 450(vii); E450(vii)
-Chemical name:
calcium dihydrogen diphosphate
-CAS Registry#:
14866-19-4 (anhydrous form)
-Empirical formula:
CaH2P2O7

Inorganic compound consisting of sodium cations and pyrophosphate anion. 
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is a white, water-soluble solid. 
Used as a buffering and chelating agent, with many applications in the food industry.

Properties
Appearance
White free-flowing crystalline powder or granular. 
SAPP would hydrolyze to sodium orthophosphate if exposed to the environment. 

Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate APPEARANCE
White powder

Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate DESCRIPTION
Disodium pyrophosphate is a popular leavening agent found in baking powders. 
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate combines with sodium bicarbonate to release carbon dioxide. 
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is available in a variety of grades that affect the speed of its action.

FUNCTION
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is used in canned seafood to maintain color and reduce purge during retorting. 
Retorting achieves microbial stability with heat. 
In cured meats, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate speeds the conversion of sodium nitrite to nitrite (NO2-) by forming the nitrous acid (HONO) intermediate, and can improve water-holding capacity. 
Disodium pyrophosphate is also found in frozen hash browns and other potato products, where Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is used to keep the color of the potatoes from darkening.

SYNONYMS
SAPP Powder FCC PODR K SAPP-28; Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate FCC Powder Kosher [SAPP 28]; SAPP; Hi-B283

STORAGE
Container must be sealed tightly and kept in a dry, well-ventilated area.

Solubility 
10g/100ml, 20°C in water. 
The PH value of 1% solution 4-4.5. Insoluble in ethanol.

Other Names
Disodium Pyrophosphate
Disodium Diphosphate
Disodium Dihydrogen Diphosphate
Disodium Dihydrogen Pyrophosphate
Diphosphoric Acid, Disodium Salt
Pyrophosphoric Acid, Disodium Salt
CAS Number
7758-16-9

Chemical formula
Na2H2P2O7

Molecular Weight
221.94

About Sodium acid pyrophosphate
Sodium acid pyrophosphate white powder, relative density 1.86, insoluble in water, insoluble in ethanol, aqueous solution is heated with dilute acid hydrolysis of phosphoric acid, Sodium acid pyrophosphate hygroscopic, absorbing water to form six crystalline hydrate, Sodium acid pyrophosphate heated to above 220 ​​℃ partial decomposition of sodium.
Sodium acid pyrophosphate as fermentation agent, buffer, improvers, emulsifiers, nutrients, canned food preservatives, for baking food, Sodium acid pyrophosphate as a leavening agent in baked foods sodium sodium to control the fermentation speed, for instant noodles, reduce product time and avoid complex viscosity of water. 
Sodium acid pyrophosphate pastry for biscuits, shorten the fermentation time, reduce product breakage, loose gap neatly, Sodium acid pyrophosphate extended storage period. 
Sodium acid pyrophosphate packaging: 25 kg net paper bags or paper-plastic bags. 
Sodium acid pyrophosphate storage and transportation: Stored in dry, ventilated; Sodium acid pyrophosphate to prevent rain and moisture during transportation, loading and unloading should be with care, to prevent the packaging is damaged; stored separately from poisonous substances when.

What are the Uses of Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate?
Generally, SAPP food grade is used as an acid component in baking powder; as a chelating agent or combines with other polyphosphates to sequester magnesium and iron ions, e.g. chelate iron during the processing of potatoes to prevent a dark discoloration.
In the bakery, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is a slow leavening acid and Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate may contain a suitable aluminum and/or calcium salt to control the rate of reaction.

Bakery
Canned SeaFood
Potato Products

SAPP is used together with baking powder as a leavening agent to release carbon dioxide. 
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is ideal for refrigerated doughs, cakes, muffins and pancake mixes where a slow reaction rate is desired. 
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is often used with fast-acting leavenings such as monocalcium phosphate in double-acting baking powder or sometimes added with another slow action leavening acid, GDL.
Both SAPP and GDL have a slightly bitter aftertaste.

Advantages :
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate acts as a general buffer and acidifying agent in cleaning formulations.
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is used for stabilization of Hydrogen peroxide solution.
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is used to remove iron stains during leather tanning.
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate can be used to furnish acidity to product reactions and Sodium Acid Pyrophosphates specific slow acting properties are extremely valuable in commercial baking powder.
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is also used in electroplating and slurry thinning

Canned seafood
Struvite crystal is occasionally found in canned seafood, and SAPP is used to inhibit its formation, such as in canned tuna. 

Potato products
SAPP can be used to replace sulfur dioxide, sulfites and bisulfites to maintain the appearance and texture of cooked potato products. 
The application of SAPP reduces the dark color from after-cooking darkening in cooked and processed potato products, such as in oil-blanched french fries and potato salad.   

E No:E450CAS No:7758-16-9
Einecs No:231-835-0
HS Code:28353990
Specification:95.0%
Routine Packing:25kg,50kg,1000kg
Place of origin:ChinaQC:Haccp, Kosher, Hala,IsoPayment terms:T/T or L/CPort of dispapch:Shanghai,Tianjin,Qingdao
Applications:1.sodium acid pyrophosphate is a popular leavening agent found in baking powders.
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is available in a variety of grades that affect the speed of its action.
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is designated in the United States as generally recognized as safe(GRAS) for food use.
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is used in canned seafood to maintain color and reduce purge[clarification needed] during retorting.
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is an acid source for reaction with baking soda to leaven baked goods.

Appearance: White Powder
PH: 4 To 4.5 %
Loss On drying: <2%
Matter Insoluble In water: <0.5%
P2O5: Min 62%
Heavy metals As Pb: <0.01 %
Assay: >90%

Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate (SAPP-28) is an anhydrous white powdered material, which complies with the specifications of the current Food Chemicals Codex for Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate. 
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is used as an acidulant, buffering agent, and leavening agent. 
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate has a dough reaction rate of 24 - 28. SAPP-28 is an all-purpose phosphate commonly used in prepared mixes, commercial baking powders, and cake doughnut mixes.

Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is the naturally present or equipment iron that generates “after cooking darkening” in potatoes. 
SAPP stabilizes the color of potatoes and prevents the iron complex from forming a dark pigment due to its strong sequestering properties. 

Is Sodium acid pyrophosphate Safe?
Yes, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphates safety when used as a food additive has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Food Safety Authority (EFSA),  Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), as well as other authorities.

Commercial Production
SAPP is manufactured by partially neutralizing food grade phosphoric acid with sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate to form monosodium phosphate. 
Dehydration of monosodium phosphate at 250°C will form SAPP.
Currently, there is no known natural method for the production of SAPP.

Application
Because SAPP is slow acting and does not react quickly with baking soda, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate is the most commonly used leavening acid for self rising flour for the home baker. 
Per 21 C.F.R. § 137.180(a) 2018, self rising flour must contain enough leavening acid to neutralize the baking soda, but the combination of both can not exceed 4.5 parts per 100 parts flour.
The quantity of leavening acid needed hinges on its neutralizing value (NV) which is defined as the quantity of baking soda needed to neutralize 100 parts of leavening acid. 
For SAPP, NV is 70.
Because SAPP can have a slight bitter taste, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate’s important  to use sufficient baking soda in applications as well as use this leavening acid in combination with sugary goods such as doughnuts and cakes. 
Cake doughnuts are an important application for SAPP, where initial gas production is necessary for buoyancy in a fryer system. 
Also, SAPP is useful for cakes, where initial gas production is necessary for consistency of pan fill.
Other non-bakery food applications of SAPP include use as a chelating agent for processed potatoes, an emulsifying agent in cheeses and a curing accelerator in processed meats.

Title: Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate
CAS Registry Number: 7758-16-9
Additional Names: Disodium dihydrogen pyrophosphate
Molecular Formula: H2Na2O7P2
Molecular Weight: 221.94
Percent Composition: H 0.91%, Na 20.72%, O 50.46%, P 27.91%
Line Formula: Na2H2P2O7
Literature References: Prepn: Bell, Inorg. Synth. 3, 98 (1950).
Properties: White, fused masses or powder. Dec at 220°. d (hexahydrate) 1.86. Sol in water, the soln having an acid reaction.
Density: d (hexahydrate) 1.86
Use: Chiefly in baking powders.

Sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP) is currently used by the sausage industry to accelerate development of cured meat color. 
The cured color accelerator was examined, through sensory evaluation and instrumental measurements, for Sodium Acid Pyrophosphates effects on the texture of frankfurters. 
The effects of SAPP on other sensory properties and on chemical and physical characteristics were also examined. 
SAPP was found to slightly improve texture by increasing springiness, hardness, and awareness of skin, and by reducing oiliness. 
SAPP had no detrimental effects on texture. 

SAPP caused a slight improvement in flavor by enhancing beef, salt, smoke, and seasoning flavors, and by diminishing fat flavor and mouthfeel. 
However, the presence of SAPP resulted in intensified sour flavor and decreased aroma and flavor of pork. 
SAPP did not greatly reduce residual nitrite levels or increase the development of meat color. 
SAPP effectively lowered viscosity of the emulsion and held emulsion temperature down during emulsification. 
Unlike alkaline phosphates, SAPP did not improve moisture retention or cook yields; it had no effect on proximate analysis. 
SAPP did cause an increase in exudate formation in stored vacuum-sealed packages of frankfurters.

Specification
Cyclic Phosphates: ≤ 2%
Arsenic: ≤ 3 ppm
Lead: ≤ 2 ppm
Fluoride: ≤ 10 ppm
Loss on drying: ≤ 0.5%
Assay: ≥ 95%
pH value: 3.8 - 4.2

Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate
There's an entire category of preservatives called phosphates, which contain some derivative of the mineral phosphorus. 
Sodium acid pyrophosphate is part of that category. 
Not all phosphates do the same thing, though.

How Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate's Used
Sodium acid pyrophosphate can be used as a leavening chemical for bread to help Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate rise. 
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate's used in sausage to enhance flavor and color. 
In french fries, the chemical reduces levels of a carcinogen called acrylamide, according to an article from the Center for Science in the Public Interest. 
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate also prevents discoloration in potatoes and sugar syrups. 
In canned tuna, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate prevents harmless struvite crystals from forming.

Synonyms
Sodium acid pyrophosphate; SAPP; Dinatriumpyrophosphat [German]; Diphosphoric acid, disodium salt; Disodium acid pyrophosphate; Disodium dihydrogen diphosphate; Disodium dihydrogen pyrophosphate; Disodium diphosphate; Pyrophosphoric acid, disodium salt; [ChemIDplus] Sodium pyrophosphate dibasic;

SODIUM ACID PYROPHOSPHATE
 
Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate Application areas;
-Baking powders
-Meat and cheese processing
-Food products as a buffer and acidity raising agent
-Leather industry to remove iron stains
-Hydrogen peroxide as a stabilizer
-Sea foods and other food products as a preservative to extend shelf life

Synonyms:    
ACID SODIUM PYROPHOSPHATE, DISODIUM DIHYDROGEN DIPHOSPHATE, DISODIUM DIHYDROGEN PYROPHOSPHATE
Chemical Names:    DISODIUM DIHYDROGEN DIPHOSPHATE; DISODIUM DIHYDROGEN PYROPHOSPHATE
CAS number:    
7758-16-9
INS:    
450i
Functional Class:    
Food Additives
ACIDITY_REGULATOR
RAISING_AGENT
SEQUESTRANT

Bu internet sitesinde sizlere daha iyi hizmet sunulabilmesi için çerezler kullanılmaktadır. Çerezler hakkında detaylı bilgi almak için Kişisel Verilerin Korunması Kanunu mevzuat metnini inceleyebilirsiniz.