CALCIUM PROPIONATE

Calcium propionate = E282 = Calcium propanoate

CAS Number: 4075-81-4 
EC Number: 223-795-8
E number: E282 (preservatives)
Chemical formula: C6H10CaO4
Molar mass: 186.2192 g/mol

Calcium propionate (also known as E282) is the calcium salt of propanoic acid. 
Calcium propionate is used as a food preservative and is commonly found in commercial bread and other baked goods. 
However, Calcium propionate can also be found in processed meat, whey, and other dairy products. 
Calcium propionate meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS). 
As a bread preservative, Calcium propionate helps keep baked goods fresher longer by preventing mold and bacterial growth. 
While you might find good mold in certain cheeses, moldy bread is never a good thing.
By prohibiting mold and bacterial growth, calcium propionate extends the normal shelf-life of bread and baked goods. 
Calcium propanoate or calcium propionate has the formula Ca(C2H5COO)2. 
Calcium propionate is the calcium salt of propanoic acid.

Calcium propionate is an organic salt that helps preserve food by interfering with the ability of microorganisms, such as molds and bacteria, to reproduce.
For large-scale baking operations, including bread that is found sliced, wrapped, or foiled in grocery stores, this cuts down on product spoilage and waste. 
Ordinarily, the high moisture content of bread is an ideal environment for mold growth. 
However, calcium propionate severely inhibits this problem. 
Calcium propionate’s best used with yeast-leavened bakery products because the calcium ions interfere with the chemical agents in non-yeast leavened bakery products.
Besides preserving the food for longer periods of time, calcium propionate also contributes to the nutritional value of the food because it is a source of calcium. 
Calcium is, of course, a very important mineral for the human body. 
Calcium contributes to bone and tooth health, blood clotting, nerve function, hormone and chemical regulation, and even helps keep a regular heartbeat in the human body.

Properties of Calcium propionate:
White crystal granules or crystalline powder. odorless; has hygroscopicity, easily soluble in water, insoluble in alcohols.
Calcium Propionate is a new food additive is approved for use by the WHO and FAO secure food and feed preservatives. 
Calcium Propionate for mold, yeast and bacteria with a wide range of antibacterial activity.
Calcium propionate is a food additive present in many foods, especially baked goods.
Calcium propionate acts as a preservative to help extend shelf life by interfering with the growth and reproduction of microorganisms.
Though Calcium propionate has its benefits for food manufacturers, you may wonder whether calcium propionate is safe to eat.

Uses of Calcium propionate:
As a food additive, Calcium propionate is listed as E number 282 in the Codex Alimentarius. 
Calcium propionate is used as a preservative in a wide variety of products, including but not limited to bread, other baked goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products.
In agriculture, Calcium propionate is used, amongst other things, to prevent milk fever in cows and as a feed supplement
Propionates prevent microbes from producing the energy they need, like benzoates do. 
However, unlike benzoates, propionates do not require an acidic environment.
Calcium propionate is used in bakery products as a mold inhibitor, typically at 0.1-0.4%
Calcium propionate can be used as a pesticide.

Calcium propionate uses
As a food additive, Calcium propionate is listed as E number 282 in the Codex Alimentarius. Calcium propionate is used as a preservative in a wide variety of products, including: bread, other baked goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products.
In agriculture, Calcium propionate is used, amongst other things, to prevent milk fever in cows and as a feed supplement.
Propionates prevent microbes from producing the energy they need, like benzoates do. However, unlike benzoates, propionates do not require an acidic environment.
Calcium propionate is used in bakery products as a mold inhibitor, typically at 0.1-0.4% (though animal feed may contain up to 1%). 
Mold contamination is considered a serious problem amongst bakers, and conditions commonly found in baking present near-optimal conditions for mold growth.
A few decades ago, Bacillus mesentericus (rope), was a serious problem, but today's improved sanitary practices in the bakery, combined with rapid turnover of the finished product, have virtually eliminated this form of spoilage.
Calcium propionate and sodium propionate are effective against both B. mesentericus rope and mold.

Metabolism of propionate begins with Calcium propionates conversion to propionyl coenzyme A (propionyl-CoA), the usual first step in the metabolism of carboxylic acids. 
Since propanoic acid has three carbons, propionyl-CoA can directly enter neither beta oxidation nor the citric acid cycles. 
In most vertebrates, propionyl-CoA is carboxylated to D-methylmalonyl-CoA, which is isomerised to L-methylmalonyl-CoA. 
A vitamin B12-dependent enzyme catalyzes rearrangement of L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA, which is an intermediate of the citric acid cycle and can be readily incorporated there.
Children were challenged with calcium propionate or placebo through daily bread in a double‐blind placebo‐controlled crossover trial. 
Although there was no significant difference by two measures, a statistically significant difference was found in the proportion of children whose behaviours "worsened" with challenge (52%), compared to the proportion whose behaviour "improved" with challenge (19%).
When propanoic acid was infused directly into rodents' brains, Calcium propionate produced reversible behavior changes and brain changes partially mimicking human autism.
Calcium propionate can be used as a fungicide on fruit.
In a 1973 study reported by the EPA, the waterborne administration of 180 ppm of calcium propionate was found to be slightly toxic to bluegill sunfish.

Calcium Propionate can be used as food and feed preservatives, bread and cakes for the preservation agent. 
Calcium Propionate easily mixed with flour, fresh as a preservative while providing essential calcium, Calcium Propionate play the role of fortified foods.
Propionate can cause bread to mold and produce sticky silk material aerobic Bacillus inhibit no inhibitory effect on yeast.
Calcium Propionate in starch, protein and fat substances on fungi, aerobic spore-producing bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, aflatoxin and other effective, Calcium Propionate has a unique anti-mildew, anti-corrosion properties.
Calcium Propionate food, brewing, feed, aspects of traditional Chinese medicines, a new, safe, efficient, broad-spectrum food and feed preservatives.
In addition, Calcium Propionate also be used as toothpaste, cosmetics additives, Calcium Propionate can play a good antiseptic.

Calcium propionate, also known as “calcium propanoate” in some places, is a chemical commonly used as a food additive to ward off mold and other bacterial growth in a range of different packaged and prepared foods. 
Calcium propionate is a carbolyic acid and is the calcium salt of propionic acid, and has the chemical formula Ca(C2H5COO)2. 
One of Calcium propionates primary jobs is to break down and decompose certain amino acids that occur in nature, and can be found pretty easily in human and animal sweat, as well as in situations of bacterial fermentation. 
Modern manufacturers often synthesize Calcium propionate in labs and isolate Calcium propionate specifically for food production. 
Calcium propionate’s a common addition to many commercial bread products since Calcium propionate helps them resist mold and makes it possible for grocers to store them for weeks on the shelf. 
Commercial dairy products often incorporate Calcium propionate, too, and Calcium propionate’s commonly mixed in with a range of canned foods to help keep them tasting fresh. 
Sometimes Calcium propionate can be added to livestock feed to help prevent diseases, particularly among dairy cows. 
In small quantities Calcium propionate’s generally considered safe for human consumption, though there have been some reports of side effects and allergies.

Calcium propionate is perhaps most commonly used as a preservative in bread and dairy products, since these are often at high risk of spoilage. 
The acid is typically added in small amounts, usually in liquid form, and works on the cellular level to prevent mold and bacterial growth. 
This allows retailers to keep foods looking and tasting fresh for far longer than they would otherwise, which can increase profits and sales margins; it can also benefit the consumer by allowing food to stay fresher for longer either on the counter or in the fridge.

Calcium propanoate is common in nature in settings where bacterial growth is likely, and v tends to be most prolific in moist, energy-rich environments. 
Raw milk generally contains trace amounts naturally. 
Researchers are also able to create Calcium propionate chemically, too, which tends to be a lot faster and less expensive than extracting it from pre-existing sources. 
The synthetic version is registered as "E number 282".
Codex General Standard for Food Additives, a document written by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization. 
The "E" rating means that Calcium propionate is accepted by the European Union for the same applications and definitions.

This acid’s ability to preserve and maintain biological balance also makes it attractive as an additive to livestock feed, particularly for animals used to produce milk. 
Sheep, goats, and dairy cows sometimes get food treated with this chemical from time to time, usually as a way to prevent the spread of milk fever disease. 
This is a blood disease that usually happens when milking animals are living in very close proximity to one another, and can contaminate the milk they produce and, in extreme cases, lead to serious illness and death. 
Farmers and ranchers sometimes also use the chemical in pesticides for food crops, though this isn’t common. 
There are usually several other more effective treatments to prevent mold and bacterial spread in plants.

Is Calcium Propionate Vegan?
When Calcium propionate comes to calcium, we often think of dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt. 
However, calcium is found in many foods, including those supplemented with additional minerals. 
Perhaps the strong association with calcium and animal products is why so many people wonder whether calcium propionate is vegan.

The short answer is yes, calcium propionate is vegan.
With the growing popularity of plant-based diets, there is always concern over reading labels and identifying possible ingredients that may prevent a food from being considered vegan. 
Calcium salt of propionic acid, or E282, is formed by the reaction of calcium hydroxide with propionic acid. 
Calcium propionate is also naturally-occurring in some foods and acts as a natural preservative. 
Swiss cheese is an example and can contain up to 1% natural propionic acid.
While calcium propionate can be found naturally in cheeses and may be used to preserve meat and dairy products, commercial E282 is synthesized in a lab and is, for all intents and purposes, vegan-friendly. 

Calcium propionate is a naturally occurring organic salt formed by a reaction between calcium hydroxide and propionic acid.
Calcium propionate’s commonly used as a food additive — known as E282 — to help preserve various food products, including:
-Baked goods: breads, pastries, muffins, etc.
-Dairy products: cheeses, powdered milk, whey, yogurt, etc.
-Beverages: soft drinks, fruit drinks, etc.
-Alcoholic drinks: beers, malt beverages, wine, cider, etc.
-Processed meats: hot dogs, ham, lunch meats, etc.
-Calcium propionate extends the shelf life of various goods by interfering with the growth and reproduction of molds and other microorganisms.

Calcium Propionate is generally immediately available in most volumes, including bulk quantities. 
American Elements can produce most materials in high purity and ultra high purity (up to 99.99999%) forms and follows applicable ASTM testing standards; a range of grades are available including Mil Spec (military grade), ACS, Reagent and Technical Grade, Food, Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Grade, Optical Grade, USP and EP/BP (European Pharmacopoeia/British Pharmacopoeia). 
We can also produce materials to custom specifications by request, in addition to custom compositions for commercial and research applications and new proprietary technologies. 
Typical and custom packaging is available, as is additional research, technical and safety (MSDS) data. 
Please contact us above for information on specifications, lead time and pricing.

Mold and bacterial growth are a costly issue in the baking industry, as baking provides conditions that are close to ideal for mold growth.
Calcium propionate has been approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), World Health Organization (WHO), and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

Calcium propionate description
Calcium propionate, also known as calcium salt and propanoic acid is a white powder that has a faint smell. 
Calcium propionate is stable at room temperature. 
Calcium propionate is hygroscopic and incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. 
Calcium propionate has a melting point of 300oC and a pH value of 7 to 9. 
Calcium propionate is slightly soluble in alcohol and fully soluble in water.
Calcium Propionate as the newer food antifungal agent, is the calcium salt of propanoic acid which is a antifungal agent. 
Calcium propionate appears as white crystalline or powder, odorless or having slight specific odor of propionic acid, stable under light and heat , hygroscopic, soluble in water while aqueous solution is alkaline, slightly soluble in methanol and ethanol, not soluble in benzene and acetone. 
Calcium propionate is deliquescent in moist air and loses crystal water when heated to 120 ℃ .
Calcium propionate changes phase at 200~210 ℃ and decomposes to calcium carbonate at 330~340 ℃ . 
Under acidic conditions, Calcium propionate generates free propanoic acid which is weaker than sorbic acid while stronger than acetic acid, and has an antibacterial effect on Aspergillus niger and gas bacillus rather than yeast . 
Calcium Propionate is a normal intermediate product of animal metabolism and is safe eaten by animals. 
Calcium propionate has a broad antibacterial activity to mold bacteria and yeast bacteria, inhibiting the propagation of microorganisms, preventing feed molding, which can be used as a fungicide on food and feed and a preservative for bread and pastries. 
As a feed additive , Calcium propionate can effectively prevent feed molding and prolong shelf life of feed . 
If combined with other inorganic complexes, Calcium propionate can also improve the appetite of livestock, increase milk production in cows, and its dosage is less than 0.3% of the combined feed (use propionic acid to count).

Calcium propionate as food preservative
Calcium Propionate is an acid-type food preservative, with its inhibitory effected by the environmental pH.
When PH5.0 minimum inhibitory concentration is 0.01%, PH6.5 is 0.5%. 
In the acidic medium , Calcium propionate has a strong inhibitory effect on the various types of fungi, aerobic bacillus or gram-negative bacilli. 
Calcium propionate has a specific effect on preventing the production of Aflatoxin streptozotocin, but has little effect on the yeast. 
In the food industry, Calcium propionate is mainly used in vinegar, soy sauce, bread, cakes and soy products,whose maximum usage (use propionic acid to count, the same below)is 2.5g/kg; while the largest usage in the wet dough products is 0.25g/kg . 
Calcium propionate can be used for feed antifungal agent.
Calcium propionate is used for breads, pastries and cheese preservatives and feed fungicide. 

Calcium Propionate as a food preservative, calcium propionate is mainly used for bread, because sodium propionate keeps pH of bread rising, delays the fermentation of the dough; sodium propionate is more widely used for cake, because the pastry gets bulky by using leavening agent, there is no problem about yeast development caused by tincrease in the pH . 
As a feed preservative, sodium propionate is better than calcium propionate. 
But Calcium Propionate is more stable than sodium propionate. 
In food industry , except uses for bread, pastries, cheese, Calcium Propionate can also be used for preventing soy sauce from getting moldy which inhibits the refermentation . 
In medicine, Calcium Propionate can be made into powders, solutions and ointments to treat skin disease caused by parasitic fungi. 
Ointment (liquid) contains 12.3% sodium propionate, while a powder contains15% Calcium Propionate.

Preparation of Calcium propionate:
Calcium propionate is produced by reacting calcium hydroxide with propionic acid.

Mechanism of Action of Calcium propionate:
Calcium propionate suppresses mold and bacteria growth on bread and cakes, but does not inhibit yeast. 
However, Calcium propionates addition to bread does not interfere with the fermentation of yeast. 
Calcium ion affects Calcium propionate leaving action, therefore is not usually utilized in cake. 
Since Calcium propionate can enrich bread and rolls, Calcium propionate is normally used in their production.

Calcium propionate uses

Calcium propionate in Food:
During dough preparation, calcium propionate is added with other ingredients as a preservative and nutritional supplement in food production such as bread, processed meat, other baked goods, dairy products, and whey. 
Calcium propionate is mostly effective below pH 5.5, which is relatively equal to the pH required in the dough preparation to effectively control mold. 
Calcium propionate can assist in lowering the levels of sodium in bread. 
Calcium propionate can be used as an browning agent in processed vegetables and fruits. 
Other chemicals that can be used as alternatives to calcium propionate is sodium propionate. 

Calcium propionate in Beverage
Calcium propionate is used in preventing the growth of microorganisms in beverages. 

Calcium propionate in Pharmaceuticals
Calcium propionate powder is utilized as an anti-microbial agent.
Calcium propionate is also used in retarding mold in key aloe vera holistic therapy for treating numerous infections. 
Large concentrations of aloe vera liquid that is normally added to feel pellets cannot be made without using calcium propionate to inhibit mold growth on the product. 

Calcium propionate in Agriculture
Calcium propionate is used as a food supplement and in preventing milk fever in cows. 
Calcium propionate can also be used in poultry feed, animal feed, for instance cattle and dog food. 
Calcium propionate is also used as a pesticide. 

Calcium propionate in Cosmetics 
Calcium propionate E282 inhibit or prevent bacterial growth, therefore protect cosmetic products from spoilage. 
Calcium propionate is also used in controlling the pH of personal care and cosmetic products.

Calcium propionate industrial Uses
Calcium propionate is used in paint and coating additives. 
Calcium propionate is also used as plating and surface treating agents. 

Calcium propionate in Photography 
Calcium propionate is used in making photo chemicals and photographic supplies. 

Regulatory Amount
FAO/WHO (1984): Processed cheese 3000mg/kg (alone or in combination with propionic acid, sorbic acid and its salts ).
Japan (use propionic acid to count): 2.5g/kg ( the product 3.15g).
Calcium propionate is mainly used for bread and pastry. 
1.0g calcium salt (monohydrate) equals 0.790g propanoic acid ). 
The excess of amount will prevent the growth of yeast in the bread, which damages the flavor. 
Calcium propionate can be used to prevent growth of Aspergillus niger (Asp.Niger), aerobic spore-forming bacteria (B.Subtilis) .
USDA, 9CFR, §318.7 (2000): flour products, 0.32% (use wheat flour amount to count, alone or together with the amount of sodium propionate).
USDA§381.147 (1994): The new pie dough 3% (use wheat flour amount to count).
Calcium salt is generally used in bread while sodium salt is used in West Point.
Alkalinity resulting from the use of sodium causes the delaying of the dough fermentation but use of calcium can strengthen the role of calcium. 
If calcium salt is used in West Point, then Calcium propionate can react to the sodium bicarbonate in the leavening agent, producing insoluble calcium carbonate, which reduces the amount of CO2 generated,so sodium salt is mainly used .

Calcium propionate description
Calcium propanoate or calcium propionate has the formula Ca(C2H5COO)2. 
Calcium propionate is the calcium salt of propanoic acid.

Calcium propionate chemical Properties
white powder(s) or monoclinic crystal(s); uses: mold-retardant additive for bread, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, antifungal agent [HAW93]

Calcium propionate uses
Calcium Propionate is the salt of propionic acid which functions as a preservative. 
Calcium propionate is effective against mold, has limited activity against bacteria, and no activity against yeast. 
Calcium propionate is soluble in water with a solubility of 49 g/100 ml of water at 0°c and insoluble in alcohol. 
Calcium propionate is less soluble than sodium propionate. 
Calcium propionates optimum effectiveness is up to ph 5.0 and it has reduced action above ph 6.0. 
Calcium propionate is used in bakery products, breads, and pizza crust to protect against mold and “rope.” 
Calcium propionate is also used in cold-pack cheese food and pie fillings. 
typical usage level of Calcium propionate is 0.2–0.3% and 0.1–0.4% based on flour weight.
As a food additive, Calcium propionate is listed as E number 282 in the Codex Alimentarius.
 
Calcium propanoate is used as a preservative in a wide variety of products, including but not limited to bread, other baked goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products. 
In agriculture, Calcium propionate is used, amongst other things, to prevent milk fever in cows and as a feed supplement Propanoates prevent microbes from producing the energy they need, like benzoates do. 
However, unlike benzoates, propanoates do not require an acidic environment.
Calcium propanoate is used in bakery products as a mold inhibitor, typically at 0.1- 0.4 % (though animal feed may contain up to 1 % ).
According to the Pesticide Action Network North America, calcium propionate is slightly toxic. 
This rating is not uncommon for food products; vitamin C is also rated by the same standards as being slightly toxic. 
Calcium propanoate can be used as a fungicide on fruit.
Calcium propionate is the most widely used antimycotic in breadmaking. 
Calcium propionate is often utilized at about 0.2%, flour basis; higher concentrations lead to flavor problems and begin to inhibit yeast fermentation.

What Is Calcium propionate?
Propionic Acid is a naturally occuring organic acid. 
Ammonium Propionate, Calcium Propionate, Magnesium Propionate, Potassium Propionate and Sodium Propionate are salts of Propionic Acid.

Why is Calcium propionate used in cosmetics and personal care products?
Propionic Acid, Ammonium Propionate, Calcium Propionate, Magnesium Propionate, Potassium Propionate and Sodium Propionate prevent or retard bacterial growth, and thus protect cosmetic products from spoilage. 
Propionic Acid is also used to control the pH of cosmetics and personal care products.

Scientific Facts about Calcium propionate: 
Ammonium Propionate, Calcium Propionate, Magnesium Propionate, Potassium Propionate and Sodium Propionate are salts of Propionic Acid. 
Propionic Acid is produced biologically from the metabolic breakdown of fatty acids and some amino acids.

Safety Information of Calcium propionate: 
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) includes Propionic Acid, Calcium Propionate and Sodium Propionate as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) as direct food substances. 
The European Commission permits the use of Propionic Acid and its salts including Ammonium Propionate, Calcium Propionate, Magnesium Propionate, Potassium Propionate and Sodium Propionate as preservatives in cosmetics and personal care products at a maximum concentration of 2%.

Ammonium Propionate, Calcium Propionate, Magnesium Propionate, Potassium Propionate and Sodium Propionate are salts of Propionic Acid, a carboxylic acid. 
In cosmetics and personal care products, these ingredients function as preservatives. 
Propionic Acid also functions as a pH adjuster.

Appearance: White crystalline solid
Solubility in water: 
49 g/100 mL (0 °C)
55.8 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Solubility: 
slightly soluble in methanol, ethanol
insoluble in acetone, benzene

Is Calcium propionate safe to eat?
Calcium propionate was extensively studied by the FDA before it was classified as “generally recognized as safe”.
What’s more, the WHO and FAO have not established an acceptable daily intake, which means it’s considered very low risk.
An animal study showed that feeding rats 1–3 grams of calcium propionate daily over 4–5 weeks had no impact on growth.
Similarly, a 1-year study in rats showed that consuming a diet comprising 4% calcium propionate — a higher percentage than people would consume daily — had no toxic effects.
Most lab studies on calcium propionate and toxicity came back negative, except for a few that used exceptionally high amounts.
For example, in one of these studies, researchers injected high amounts of calcium propionate into the yolk sacs of chicken embryos, resulting in abnormalities.
Calcium propionate’s also worth noting that your body does not store calcium propionate, which means it won’t build up in your cells. 
Instead, Calcium propionate is broken down by your digestive tract and readily absorbed, metabolized, and eliminated.
Calcium propionate has been extensively studied, and research shows that it is safe to eat, which is why the FDA labels it as “generally recognized as safe.”

Preferred IUPAC name: Calcium dipropanoate
Other names:
Calcium propionate
Calcium dipropionate
Mycoban

Calcium propionate is used as a preservative in bread and other baked goods, and it may be combined with propionic acid and sodium propionate.
Calcium propionate helps keep baked goods fresh by preventing mold and bacterial growth that would otherwise cause them to go bad. 
Calcium propionate also occurs naturally in butter and some types of cheese.
Sometimes consumers have questions about the safety of calcium propionate.
Many people are concerned about the idea of preservatives that are used as ingredients in the foods we eat. 
But think of Calcium propionate this way: Do you want to eat bacteria- or mold-infested bread? Probably not. 
Preservatives such as calcium propionate are important for keeping some healthy foods safe.

Calcium Propionate Safety Studies
Calcium propionate has been studied for potential toxicity and for any possibility that it might cause cancer.
For the most part, the laboratory findings were negative.
The accumulation of research evidence indicates that calcium propionate is non-toxic and safe to use in the amounts currently used by food manufacturers.
The research was enough for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Select Committee on Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) Substances to conclude in 1979:
"There is no evidence in the available information on propionic acid, calcium propionate, and sodium propionate that demonstrates or suggests reasonable grounds to suspect a hazard to the public when they are used at levels that are now current or that might reasonably be expected in the future."

What Happens When You Eat Calcium Propionate
Your body doesn't store calcium propionate, so Calcium propionate doesn't build up in any of your cells. 
When your digestive system is busy breaking down all the foods you eat, Calcium propionate also splits the calcium apart from the propionic acid, which is readily absorbed and metabolized, just like any other fatty acid.
Then your body eliminates Calcium propionate.
There are anecdotal claims that some people are sensitive to calcium propionate and may suffer from migraine headaches triggered by exposure to foods that contain the preservative. 
But there isn't enough scientific research that backs that claim. 
That doesn't mean Calcium propionate isn't possible that calcium propionate causes headaches in some people, though.
If you think you may have an issue with calcium propionate, it's a good idea to speak with your healthcare provider. 
They can help you determine what's causing your health problem and talk to you about eating (or avoiding) foods that contain calcium propionate.

Calcium propionate function
Calcium propionate is commonly used as a preservative in yeast-raised baked products such as pre-packed and sliced bread, and in some chemically-leavened goods like tortillas. 
Calcium propionate is added during the dough phase and its optimal use level is mainly dependent on the formula and the desired shelf life of the finished product.

Commercial production
Calcium propionate is formed by neutralizing chemically-synthesized propionic acid with calcium hydroxide. 
Although Calcium propionate has been a preservative of choice in bakery for decades, in recent years it has been increasingly challenged as non-clean label by many consumers and leading retailers, resulting in a push to reduce or altogether eliminate it from formulations. 

Application of Calcium propionate:
Here are some factors that bakers and formulators must consider when using this ingredient:
Calcium propionate is most active in the pH range below 5.5. Therefore, it is common to use acids to adjust the pH to optimize the activity. 
Moreover, salts of benzoic or sorbic acid are recommended for use in products with higher pH levels, such as in many chemically leavened sweet baked goods. 
In tortillas, calcium propionate and potassium sorbate are commonly used together, to achieve a broad spectrum of mold inhibition while maintaining product quality.  
Calcium propionate is the ideal preservative for bread and rolls because it has little effect on yeast and does not interfere with its fermentation. 
In some applications such as cakes, however, it may not be a good preservative option, as the high use level and its available calcium interfere with the chemical leavening.
In contrast, sodium propionate will delay fermentation of yeast and is not recommended for use in breads or rolls, but it is preferred for the preservation of cakes.
Calcium propionate is effective at inhibiting growth of mold and ropy bacteria when its dose relative to the number of microbial cells present is adequate to block cell metabolism. 
If the baked good is produced in an environment without effective current good manufacturing practices (cGMP), the dose may not be effective in inhibiting microbial growth.
Calcium propionate is used as a preservative in a wide variety of products, including but not limited to bread, other baked goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products. 
Calcium Propionate is preferred for yeast based pastry products. 
Use SODIUM propionate if Baking powder is used. 

Calcium propionate regulations
In the United States, calcium propionate is affirmed as a Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) food substance under the following conditions:
-Calcium propionate is used as an antimicrobial agent
-Calcium propionate is used in accordance with current good manufacturing practices and use does not exceed what is needed for desired effect
-Calcium propionate is used in baked goods, cheeses, confections, frostings, gelatins, puddings, fillings, jams or jellies.
-Meets the specifications of the Food Chemical Codex (FCC) 3rd edition.

Items: Standards
COLOR: WHITE POWDER OR GRANULAR
CONTENT: ≥99%
LOSS ON DRYING: ≤9.0%
ARSENIC: ≤0.0003%
HEAVY METAL(As Pb): ≤0.001%
FLUORIN: ≤0.003%
WATER IN SOLUBLE: ≤0.30%
FE: ≤0.005%

What is Calcium Propionate?
Calcium propionate is the calcium salt of propionic acid. 
Calcium propionate is a preservative commonly used in baked goods around the world, where it extends their shelf life by inhibiting the growth of spoilage microorganisms, namely mold and ropy bacteria.   

Characteristics of calcium propionate include: 
-Chemical formula: C6H10O4 Ca
-Molecular Weight: 186.22
-Works best at pH below 5.5
-Recommended usage level in bakery: 0.1-0.3% flour weight, but higher levels not uncommon
-Nutrition: 21 grams of calcium are present in 100 grams of calcium propionate5

Specific Uses of Calcium propionate:
“Propionic acid and Calcium propionates salts, sodium and calcium propionates are approved in the United States as GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) substances for food use. 
Their antimicrobial action is directed to molds and rope bacteria, with almost no effect on yeast, thus making them an ideal choice for products that use commercial yeast as an ingredient. 
Like other preservatives, propionates effectiveness is affected by the pH of the food, with 5.5 pH being the upper effective limit. 
They are used mainly as mold and rope inhibitors in bread; although they are also useful in cheese, non-alcoholic beverages, confections, fillings, frostings, fresh dough, pizza crust, puddings, gelatins, jams, jellies and some meat products.” 
“Typical usage level of propionic acid and propionates is 0.1 to 0.4 %. 
Federal regulations limit the maximum level for flour, white bread and rolls at 0.32% based on the weight of the flour; for whole wheat products at 0.38% based on the weight of the flour; and for cheese products at 0.3 %. 
Calcium propionate is important to know that the addition of sodium and calcium propionate to a food product will raise the pH by approximately 0.1 to 0.5 pH units depending on the amount, pH and type of product. 
Additional adjustment of the pH might be needed to keep the pH at a safe level.” 
“Calcium propionate is used as an inhibitor of mold and other microorganisms in food, animal feed, tobacco, pharmaceuticals in butyl rubber to improve process ability and Scorching resistance.” 

How Calcium propionate Is Produced
Calcium propionate is produced by the neutralization of an organic acid (propanoic acid) by a base (calcium hydroxide). 
The resulting salt – calcium propionate is then dried and packaged.
Calcium propionate is an antimicrobial agent often used in bread production. 
Calcium propionate is useful in extending the shelf life of bread by preventing all forms of microbial growth in the bread. 
Calcium propionate also suppresses the growth of bacteria on bread and does not affect the activity of yeast during bread making.
For a more effective result, calcium propionate should be used at a pH condition of slightly below 5.5. 
However, the pH should be effectively monitored and controlled because if the conditions become too acidic, dissociation of the propanoic acid occurs.
Calcium propionate also helps in the reduction of the concentration of sodium in bread. 
When the concentration of sodium in bread is reduced, its mold-free shelf life is usually increased but when increased, shelf life of bread is adversely affected.
The addition of calcium propionate in bread adds to its nutritional value as it supplies calcium. 
The calcium ions of calcium propionate does not interfere with the rising of bream since yeast, and not chemical rising agent is used.

CAS No.:4075-81-4
Other Names:CALCIUM PROPIONATE
MF:2(C3H6O2)CA
EINECS No.:223-795-8
FEMA No.:2997
Place of Origin:Hunan, China
Type:Preservatives
Brand Name:Arshine
Model Number:edon
Product Type:CALCIUM PROPIONATE
Appearance:white or a kind of white crystal powder

Calcium propionate or calcium propanoate, the calcium salt of propionic acid, is a common bread and meat preservative which functions by inhibiting the growth of mold & other bacterial and therefore prolong food shelf life. 
Calcium propionate also provides nutritional value as a source of calcium. 
The European food additive number for Calcium propionate is E282.

What is Calcium Propionate?
Calcium propionate is a new type of food preservative developed in recent decades with its considered safety over sodium benzoate (E211), and price lower than potassium sorbate (E202).
Calcium propionate is made from the reaction of propionic acid with calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide. 

Calcium propionate is a safe and reliable food and feed additive. 
Calcium propionate can be metabolized and absorbed by humans and animals as a precursor for glucose synthesis. 
In addition, calcium propionate provides essential calcium to mammals. 
In the perinatal period of dairy cows, many cows cannot adjust to the tremendous metabolic, endocrine, and physiological changes, resulting in ketosis and fatty liver due to a negative energy balance (NEB) or milk fever induced by hypocalcemia. 
On hot weather days, cow feed (TMR or silage) is susceptible to mildew, which produces mycotoxins. 
These two issues are closely related to dairy health and performance. 
Propionic acid is the primary gluconeogenic precursor in dairy cows and one of the safest mold inhibitors. 
Therefore, calcium propionate, which can be hydrolyzed into propionic acid and Ca2+ in the rumen, may be a good feed additive for alleviating NEB and milk fever in the perinatal period of dairy cows. 
Calcium propionate can also be used to inhibit TMR or silage deterioration in hot weather and regulate rumen development in calves. 
This paper reviews the application of calcium propionate in dairy cows.

The key difference between sodium propionate and calcium propionate is that sodium propionate contains a sodium cation bound to the propionate anion, whereas calcium propionate contains a calcium cation bound to two propionate anions.
Sodium propionate and calcium propionate are ionic compounds containing a cation and an anion. 
These compounds are two different salts of propionic acid. 
More importantly, both these compounds are important as food preservatives.

Calcium propionate or calcium propanoate is the calcium salt of propionic acid. 
The chemical formula of Calcium propionate is Ca(C2H5COO)2. 
Calcium propionate appears as a white crystalline solid, and the molar mass of this compound is 186 g/mol.
Calcium propionate is slightly soluble in water and alcohols such as methanol and ethanol. 
Moreover, Calcium propionate is insoluble in acetone and benzene. 
The crystal structure of this compound is monoclinic.

There are several uses of calcium propionate. 
Calcium propionate is mainly used as a food additive. We can list it as E 282. Further, it is an important food preservative. 
Calcium propionate is useful as a food additive in bread, bakery items, processed meat, whey, and most of the dairy products. 
Other than that, Calcium propionate is important in agriculture to prevent milk fever in cows, as a feed supplement, etc.

Is Calcium propionate Vegan?
Yes, Calcium propionate is vegan as made from the chemical reaction, the raw materials used are both manufactured without the use of animal matter or products derived from animal origin. 
So Calcium propionate is vegan and appropriate for vegetarians.

Does Calcium propionate Contain Dairy?
Calcium propionate is not derived from milk so Calcium propionate is dairy free. 
People who’re lactose intolerance or with milk allergy can eat the food with Calcium propionate.

Calcium propionate specification:

Appearance:
A white crystalline powder or granular, possessing not more than a faint odor of propionic acid, stable to heat and light.

Other Names: Calcium propanoate, Calcium dipropionate

Calcium Propionate Ca(C2H5COO)2 Calcium propanoate is used as a preservative in a wide variety of products, including but not limited to bread, other baked goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products. 
However, unlike benzoates, propanoates do not require an acidic environment. 
For acidic environment, use Sodium Propionate.
Calcium propanoate is used in bakery products as a mold inhibitor, typically at 0.1-0.4% against total weight

Properties:
-Solubility
-PH
-Antimicrobial Activity

Solubility
In water: Calcium propionate is freely soluble in water with the solubility 49 g/100 mL (0 °C), and 55.8 g/100 mL (100 °C). 
Calcium propionate dissociates propanoic acid which has antimicrobial activity.
In organic solvent: slightly soluble in methanol and ethanol, insoluble in acetone and benzene.
Water solubility is an important property as only dissolved preservatives can have antimicrobial action against microorganisms. 
That’s why another two preservatives, benzoic acid (E210) and sorbic acid (E200) are not commonly used in food due to their low solubility in water and made to their salts. 

Is used as a preservative in a wide variety of products, including but not limited to bread, other baked goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products. 
A mold inhibitor in bakery products at levels of 0.1 - 0.4%. 
In agriculture Calcium propionate is used to prevent milk fever in cows and as a feed supplement. 
Propionates prevent microbes from producing the energy they need, like benzoates do. 
However, unlike benzoates, propionates do not require an acidic environment.

PH of Calcium propionate:
PH value is another important role as preservatives need a suitable pH range for their antimicrobial activity. 
That’s to say, calcium propionate’s ability to inhibit the growth of mold and other microorganisms will be influenced if with an inappropriate PH value.

What is the Difference Between Sodium Propionate and Calcium Propionate?
The key difference between sodium propionate and calcium propionate is that sodium propionate contains a sodium cation bound to the propionate anion, whereas calcium propionate contains a calcium cation bound to two propionate anions. 
The chemical formula of sodium propionate is Na(C2H5COO), whereas the chemical formula of calcium propionate is Ca(C2H5COO)2.
Moreover, sodium propionate can be produced via the reaction between propionic acid and sodium carbonate while calcium propionate is produced via the reaction between propionic acid and calcium carbonate. 
When considering the uses of sodium propionate, it is important as a food preservative, food additive, important in bakery products, especially for mould inhibiting. 
Calcium propionate is useful as a food additive in bread, bakery items, processed meat, whey, and most dairy products.

Studies show that its bacteriostatic and fungistatic activity is better in acid than in neutral or slightly alkaline solution because the antimicrobial action is due to the undissociated acid. 
Calcium propionate has good activity in the PH below 5.5.
Meanwhile, its addition to food will raise the pH value.

What is Calcium propionate powder?
Propionate also commonly known as CP powder in the baking world is used as a preservative. 
Calcium propionate is an anti-bacterial used to extend the shelf life of baking goods and prevents the formation of mold and other bacteria.

Uses of Calcium propionate powder
-Recommended usage of calcium propionate is 0.1 to 0.3% of the dry flour, which is equals to approx. a pinch.
-Calcium propionate is completely safe for usage in edible goods, apart from baked goods it is also used in jams, jellies , puddings, fillings and cheeses to preserve.
-We have used Calcium propionate powder in the multigrain homemade bread recipe.

Antimicrobial activity of Calcium propionate:
Calcium propionate is more active than sodium benzoate against molds, but have no activity against yeast, thus making it an ideal choice for bakery products (proper amount at the concentration 0.1-0.4%) that use yeast as an ingredient. 
Calcium propionate can also be functioned as mold and rope inhibitors in cheese, non-alcoholic beverages, confections, fillings, frostings, fresh dough, pizza crust, puddings, gelatins, jams, jellies and some meat products.
Propionic acid (E280) will go into the cells of mold and then inhibits the enzyme metabolism; at the same time, Calcium propionate will inhibit microbial growth by competing with alanine or other essential amino acids which are needed for microbial growth. 
That is the mechanism of calcium propionate work to prevent mold and other microorganisms.
Propionic acid is also a preservative that can be found in natural foods. 
Calcium propionate has the best preservation activity when compared with calcium propionate and sodium propionate. 
Sodium propionate is also used as a mold inhibitor, but calcium form is better as Calcium propionate can help reduce sodium levels in food, also provide the nutritional value of calcium.

What are the Uses of Calcium Propionate?
Calcium propionate is used as a preservative in a wide variety of products that include bakery, cheese, meat, dairy products and etc. 
Calcium propionate is also used for the prevention of milk fever in cattle.

Calcium propionate is an organic salt formed by the reaction of calcium hydroxide with propionic acid (also known as propanoic acid). 
Calcium propionates chemical formula is Ca(OOCCH2CH3)2. 
The compound occurs in either crystalline or powder form. 
Calcium propionate is soluble in water and only very slightly soluble in alcohol .
Calcium propionate is used as a food preservative in breads and other baked goods because of its ability to inhibit the growth of molds and other microorganisms . 
Calcium propionate is not toxic to these organisms, but does prevent them from reproducing and posing a health risk to humans.
Propionic acid occurs naturally in some foods and acts as a preservative in those foods. 
Some types of cheese, for example, contain as much as 1% natural propionic acid.

Beyond Calcium propionates role as a food additive, calcium propionate finds some application in the manufacture of butyl rubber. 
Adding Calcium propionate to the raw product makes it easier to process the rubber and protects the rubber from scorching during manufacture.

Calcium propionate in food
Bread is easy to be contaminated with mold in a hot, humid environment and on the equipment although they were killed during the baking process. 
Calcium propionate is the mold inhibitor commonly used in bread and other yeast-based bakery goods without interfering with Calcium propionates fermentation as Calcium propionate has no activity against yeast.
In addition, Calcium propionate can enhance calcium nutrition. 
Sodium propionate is not recommended to use in bread or rolls because Calcium propionate will delay fermentation of yeast, but Calcium propionate is suggested in the preservation of cakes while calcium (from calcium propionate) alters the action of chemical leavening agents in cakes.

How to Use Calcium propionate in Bread?
Calcium propionate is commonly added with the other ingredients during the dough-mixing process. 

How Much to be Used Calcium propionate?
Baked goods with low pH (higher acidity) such as bread (ph 5.3-5.8), cheese (Swiss Gruyere cheese PH 5.1 – 6.6), and cakes (angel cake, PH 5.2 – 5.6) require smaller quantities; higher pH products such as cake chocolate (ph 7.2-7.6) require more as the dissociated propionic acid is less.
During periods of high humidity and high temperature, a higher use amount is required.

Calcium propionate is an organic salt formed by the reaction of calcium hydroxide with propionic acid (also known as propanoic acid). 
Calcium propionates chemical formula is Ca(OOCCH2CH3)2. The compound occurs in either crystalline or powder form. 
Calcium propionate is soluble in water and only very slightly soluble in alcohol.

Feed
Calcium propionate can also function as a mold inhibitor and treat milk fever for swine, ruminant (horses and cattles), poultry, fish, pet and other animal feed.

Metabolism
Calcium propionate will be hydrolyzed to propionic acid and calcium after entering into the feed body. 
Propionic acid is an important volatile fatty acid, a small amount of it will be converted to lactic acid, and the rest will turn to glucose or provide energy after oxidation. 
Calcium propionate can be seen that calcium propionate is an important energy substance.
Meanwhile, Calcium propionate is a supplement of calcium which benefits teeth, muscles, nerves, and cells work normally and also build and maintain strong bones. 

Treat Milk Fever
Milk fever is a disorder that mainly occurs in dairy cows. 
The absorption of calcium will be reduced and excretion will be increased after calving, resulting in the calcium concentration below 5.0 mg/dl in the blood which will lead to milk fever and accompanies body function disorder.
Calcium propionate can effectively prevent and treat nutritional metabolic diseases such as ketosis and milk fever. 

How to Use Calcium propionate in Feed?
Calcium propionate can be added directly to animal feed in the dry form or dissolved in water before the application due to its good solubility. 

HISTORY
As early as 1906, calcium propionate was discovered to be effective against ropy bacteria in bread. 
Both propionic acid and its calcium salt derivative have been well established as antimicrobials. 
Since the 1930s, propionates have been used to preserve bread in the U.S.

As a food additive, Calcium propionate is listed as E number 282 in the Codex Alimentarius. 
Calcium propionate is used as a preservative in a wide variety of products, including but not limited to: bread, other baked goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products. 
In agriculture, Calcium propionate is used, amongst other things, to prevent milk fever in cows and as a feed supplement Propionates prevent microbes from producing the energy they need, like benzoates do. 
However, unlike benzoates, propionates do not require an acidic environment.
Calcium propionate is used in bakery products as a mold inhibitor, typically at 0.1-0.4% (though animal feed may contain up to 1%). 
Mold contamination is considered a serious problem amongst bakers, and conditions commonly found in baking present near-optimal conditions for mold growth.

Calcium propionate PRODUCTION
Calcium propionate serves to mitigate a costly issue in the baking industry: mold and bacterial growth. 
As a food additive, Calcium propionate is used to extend the shelf life of various goods in a wide variety of products, including but not limited to: bread, other baked goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products. 

Cosmetics
Per the “European Commission database for information on cosmetic substances and ingredients”, calcium propionate acts as a preservative in cosmetic and personal care products.

Is Calcium Propionate Safe to Eat?
Yes, Calcium propionates safety when used as a food additive has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), as well as other authorities.
Calcium propionate is used as a food preservative in breads and other baked goods because of its ability to inhibit the growth of molds and other microorganisms. 
Calcium propionate is not toxic to these organisms, but does prevent them from reproducing and posing a health risk to humans.
Propionic acid occurs naturally in some foods and acts as a preservative in those foods. 
Some types of cheese, for example, contain as much as 1% natural propionic acid.

Calcium propionate is a food preservative also known as E282. 
Calcium propionate stops molds, bacteria, and other microorganisms from reproducing in the food. So it helps prevent the food from going bad.
If you’re interested in the chemistry: Calcium propionate is the calcium salt of propanoic acid, which is a carboxylic acid. 
All of the amino acids in protein are also carboxylic acids, and so is acetic acid in vinegar.

calcium dipropanoate
calcium dipropionate
calcium propionate FCC
calcium propanoate
calcium propionate FCC agglomerate
calcium propionate hydrate
calcium propionate powder FCC
calciumdipropionate
jarace CP
propanoic acid calcium salt
propanoic acid, calcium salt
propanoic acid, calcium salt (2:1)
propionic acid calcium salt

Is Calcium Propionate gluten free?
Calcium Propionate is gluten free and widely used in gluten free food to provide better appearance and longer shelf-life to bread, other baked goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products.

Why is Calcium Propionate gluten free?
To answer this question, we need to clarify another question: what is gluten. 
Gluten is protein composite found in wheat and related grains, including barley and rye. (Wikipedia) First, gluten is a protein. 
Second, gluten is mainly found in wheat and related grains. 
As we mentioned before, Calcium Propionateis a propionate salt which is significantly different from protein. 
Raw materials used in manufacturing of Calcium Propionate are Propionic acid with calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate; Calcium Propionate barely includes gluten impurity. 
So, Calcium Propionate is gluten free.

How is Calcium Propionate used in gluten free food?
Calcium Propionate is widely used in food processing to provide better appearance and longer shelf-life to bread, other baked goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products. 
Calcium Propionate is usually used in processed food rather than daily recipe.

Why should you go Gluten free?
Celiac disease: Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease that attacks the small intestine due to the presence of gluten, for which a gluten-free diet is the only medically-accepted treatment. 
In 2009 research showed between 0.5 and 1.0 percent of people in the US and UK are sensitive to gluten due to celiac disease. 
So people with Celiac disease have to stick to gluten free diet to avoid unexpected side effect caused by consumption of gluten.

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity: Some people may be sensitive to gluten but do not have celiac disease and feel better on a diet with less gluten. 
However, there are no specific symptoms confirmed. 
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity also drives more people to gluten free diet when people believe that they feel better when eating gluten free.

FDA
Calcium propionate is an antimicrobial agent used in food with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. 
Calcium propionate is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient in baked goods, cheeses, confections and frostings, gelatins, puddings, and fillings and jams and jellies. 

Calcium propionate was petitioned for use as a livestock treatment for Milk fever and a mold inhibitor. 
Calcium propionate is a synthetic substance. 
Calcium propionate is a safe and effective treatment given for one or two days to prevent milk fever and/or to support treatment of milk fever. 
Calcium propionate is an extra calcium source for cattle. 
Calcium propionate is used as a mold inhibitor in key dietary aloe vera holistic therapy for treating various infections. 
Large levels of aloe vera liquid is added to dry feed pellets and cannot be made without calcium propionate to prevent mold growth on the product.
Calcium propionate is not officially listed anywhere in the NOP final rule. 
As in section 205.600 of the NOP final rule, “any synthetic substance used as a processing aid or adjuvant will be evaluated against the following criteria: 
Calcium propionate’s manufacture, used and disposal do not have adverse effects on the environment and are done in a manner compatible with organic handling.” 
Calcium propionate is not explicitly listed in section 205.603 as a synthetic substance, allowed for use in organic livestock production nor is it listed in section 205.604 as a prohibited substance. 

EFSA
Calcium propionate (E282) is listed in Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012 as an authorised food additive and categorized as “additives other than colours and sweeteners” 

Safety Re-evaluation in 2014
After the studies of genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive & developmental toxicity and other researches, EFSA concluded that “it would not be a safety concern from the maximum concentrations of propionic acid and its salts at their currently authorised uses and use levels as food additives.” 

Authorised Uses And Use Levels
Calcium propionates application is listed together with propionic acid (E280), sodium propionate (E281) and potassium propionate (E283). 
Calcium propionates maximum permitted levels (MPLs) ranging from 1000 to 3000 mg/kg in foods. 
The following foods may contain with Calcium propionate:
-Ripened cheese
-Prepacked sliced bread and rye bread, energy-reduced bread; partially baked prepacked bread; prepacked rolls, tortilla and pitta   
-prepacked fine bakery wares
-UK Food Standards Agency
-Categorized in “Preservatives”
 
Calcium propionate is an approved ingredient in Australia and New Zealand with the code number 282.

Calcium propionate is widely used in the food industry as an edible preservative and antifungal agent; products such as fruit, packed meat, cheese, and bread are routinely sprayed with heavily diluted calcium propionate to prevent mold from taking root and causing spoilage. 
While the chemical is effective in Calcium propionates antifungal role, research suggests that calcium propionate may contribute to the development and exacerbation of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) due to its impact on the gut microbiome. 
As a result of the relationship between calcium propionate and autism, many consumers are now seeking to avoid products containing the preservative, and food producers are reformulating their offerings in response to this changing demand. 
However, simply limiting intake of calcium propionate might not be enough to restore gut health and prevent damage. 
Instead, those seeking to minimize or eliminate calcium propionate exposure should simultaneously support the body’s natural gastrointestinal defenses through butyric acid supplementation.

JECFA
Function Class: food additives, preservative. 

Acceptable daily intake: ADI “not limited” set in 1973. 

Product description
Calcium propionate is the most commonly used bread preservative globally. 
Calcium propionate is an effective growth inhibitor of most molds and some bacteria.

Benefits of Calcium propionate:
Calcium propionate is used in foods as a preservative and mold inhibitor.
Calcium propionate is a food additive used in food industry to extend the shelf life of numerous products.

Calcium propionate is found in either crystalline or powder form.
Quick details:
Works best at pH below 5.5
Recommended usage level in bakery: 0.1-0.3% flour weight, but higher levels not uncommon
Nutrition: 21 grams of calcium are present in 100 grams of calcium propionate

Health Concerns on Children
A study in 2002 found that calcium propionate may cause irritability, restlessness, inattention and sleep disturbance in some children in healthy foods consumed daily. 
And the adverse reactions can be reduced if lower its concentrations. 

Due to this study, an article posted in Forbs in 2018 said that McDonald might be getting rid of calcium propionate.

May Linked to Diabetes and Autism
An article published in MERCOLA in 2019 found that the addition of calcium propionate in food may create an imbalance in gut microbiota, triggering altered neurobehavior and insulin resistance.

Is Calcium propionate Safe for Pregnant?
Yes, Calcium propionate is generally safe but better consult with your doctor in the condition of use.

Frequently asked questions
Is Calcium propionate an Artificial Preservative?
Yes. Calcium propionate is obtained from the chemical synthesis, propionic acid and calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide as the main raw materials. 
So Calcium propionate is not natural.

Is Calcium propionate Halal?
Yes, Calcium propionate is generally recognised as halal as it is permitted under the Islamic Law and fulfill the conditions of Halal. 
And we can find some manufacturers certificated with MUI halal.

Is Calcium propionate Kosher?
Yes, Calcium propionate is kosher. 
Calcium propionate meets all the “kashruth” requirements and has been certified as kosher. 
Kosher is a Hebrew word that means fit, proper or correct. 
Nowadays, Calcium propionate mostly describes food and drink that complies with Jewish religious dietary law.

Function: Preservative – antimicrobial mould inhibitor, especially those which occur in bread.
Effects: Some reports link propionate with migraine headaches. 
The Bakers’s Union in the UK has banned it’s use in its pure form because it provokes skin rashes in bakery workers.

Do we really need mould inhibitors in our bread? 
Wouldn’t you rather eat it before Calcium propionate got old and stale? Especially if Calcium propionate can cause migraines in people with already sensitive immune systems and digestion.

Is Calcium propionate Gluten free?
Yes, Calcium propionate is typically gluten-free and people with celiacs can eat Calcium propionate. 
Calcium propionate is an ingredient commonly found in both gluten-free and gluten-containing food labels. 
The production complying with the FDA’s definition of gluten free, that Calcium propionate does not contain wheat, rye, barley, or crossbreeds of these grains.

Baked Goods
Bread and other baked goods that are stored for any length of time develop mold.
To extend the storage time of commercially prepared baked goods such as bread dough, pizza dough, bread and pastries, manufacturers add chemical preservatives, such as calcium propionate, that inhibit mold formation. 
Calcium propionate works best in baked goods with a pH of 5.5 or less and and in products that use yeast, rather than baking powder, as a rising agent. 
Other grain foods that may be preserved with calcium propionate include breakfast cereals, pasta and noodles.

Dairy Products
Dairy foods containing calcium propionate include dried and condensed milk; flavored milks and yogurt drinks; ripened, unripened and processed cheeses; dairy desserts such as flavored yogurts and puddings; and dairy-based spreads. 
Some cheeses, such as Emmentaler or Swiss cheese, contain naturally occurring calcium propionate, which develops as the cheese ripens and acts as a preservative in the cheese.

Meats
Meat products containing calcium propionate include processed meat, poultry and game products; sausage casings; and preserved fish, including canned fish and shellfish. 
Calcium propionate is also added as a preservative to livestock and poultry feed.

Other Foods
Other foods containing calcium propionate include alcoholic beverages such as beer, malt beverages, cider and distilled spirits with more than 15 percent alcohol. 
In addition, the preservative can be found in sports drinks, diet foods and beverages, commercially prepared salads such as potato salad, condiments such as vinegar and mustard, soups, sauces and dried or otherwise processed mushrooms, beans, seaweeds and nut butters.

Conclusion
Now you may have a knowledge of the preservative – Calcium propionate (E282), from the following aspects:

Manufacturing process
How Calcium propionate works as a preservative, the similarity with sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate
Calcium propionate uses in food and feed
Comparison with sodium propionate

Safety
Side effects
FAQs: is Calcium propionate vegan, does Calcium propionate contain dairy, and etc.

CAS Number: 4075-81-4
Chemical formula: Ca(OOCCH2CH3)2
Molar Mass: 186.22

Action:
“Propionic acid is rapidly absorbed from the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. 
Propionic acid is a normal intermediary metabolite in the body. 
Calcium propionate is utilized by most organs and tissues, and can be metabolized to glucose, carbohydrates, amino acids, and lipids. 
Calcium propionate is produced in large quantities in ruminants. 
In nonruminants, propionic acid is one of the metabolic products from the breakdown of several amino acids. 
Propionic acid is formed in the oxidation of fatty acids and from the side chain of cholesterol.”
“Propionic acid is not a component of the edible fats and oils, but arises in the intermediary metabolism of the body as the terminal three-carbon fragment in form of propionyl coenzyme A in the oxidation of odd-number carbon fatty acids. 
Oxidation of the side-chain of cholesterol by rat liver mitochondria yields propionate as the immediate product of cleavage.

Calcium propionate is has been widely used in low-cost foods to stop mold since the 1960s
Calcium propionate changes the mold (bacteria) in your gut
Consumption is correlated with increase in autism and diabetes

Compound Formula: C6H10O4Ca
Molecular Weight: 186.22
Appearance: White powder or colorless crystals
Melting Point: N/A
Boiling Point: N/A
Density: ~4 g/cm3
Solubility in H2O: N/A
Exact Mass: 186.0205
Monoisotopic Mass: 186.0205

Propionates are metabolized and utilized in the same way as normal fatty acids and even after large doses no significant amounts of propionic are excreted in the urine. 
In vitro propionic acid is completely oxidized by liver preparations to CO2 and water.
The metabolic fate of propionates varies in microorganisms. 
Some have enzyme systems converting succinate to propionyl-coenzyme A and by various further steps to propionate, CO2 or propionyl phosphate.
Others convert propionic acid to B-alanine or directly to CO2. 
The inhibiting effect for microbials is probably related to competition with acetate in the acetokinase systems, to blockage of pyruvate conversion to acetyl-coenzyme A and to interference with B-alanine in pantothenic acid syntheses. 
In mammals observations have shown easy absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and absence of any excretion in the urine whatever the mode of administration. 
Decomposition by bacteria in the gut also occurs .” 
“Many factors influence the effectiveness of mold inhibitors, and proper attention to these factors can enhance the benefits they provide. 
Mold inhibitors cannot be effective unless they are completely and thoroughly distributed throughout the feed. 

bioban-c
CAPROSIL SALZ
MAGNESIA 87264
MAGGRAN(R) CPR
CAPROSIL SALT G
calciumpropanoate
CALCIUM PROPIONATE
CalClum propionate
Calcium propiohate
propionatedecalcium

Ideally, this means that the entire surface of each feed particle should come in contact with the inhibitor and that the inhibitor should also penetrate feed particles so that interior molds will be inhibited. 
The particle size of the carriers for mold-inhibiting chemicals should be small so that as many particles of feed as possible are contacted. 
In general, the smaller the inhibitor particles the greater the effectiveness. 
Some propionic acid inhibitors rely on the liberation of the chemical in the form of a gas or vapor from fairly large particle carriers. 
Presumably, the inhibitor then penetrates the air spaces between particles of feed to achieve even dispersion. 
Certain feed ingredients may also affect mold inhibitor performance. 
Protein or mineral supplements (for example, soybean meal, fish meal, poultry by-product meal, and limestone) tend to reduce the effectiveness of propionic acid. 
These materials can neutralize free acids and convert them to their corresponding salts, which are less active as inhibitors.
Dietary fat tends to enhance the activity of organic acids, probably by increasing their penetration into feed particles. 
Certain unknown factors in corn also alter the effectiveness of organic acid inhibitors.” 

CALCIUM PROPIONATE
4075-81-4
Calcium dipropionate
Calcium propanoate
Propanoic acid, calcium salt
Mycoban
calcium;propanoate
UNII-8AI80040KW
Propanoate (calcium)
propionic acid calcium
Propionic acid calcium salt
Calcium propionate [NF]
8AI80040KW

Origin of Calcium propionate:
Calcium salt of propionic acid, a natural acid present in small quantities in many foods, sometimes in high concentrations produced by bacteria in fermented foods, such as types of Swiss cheese. 
Calcium propionate is also produced on a large scale by the bacteria in the large intestine.

Function & characteristics of Calcium propionate:
Propionic acid and propionates are used as preservatives, mainly against fungi.

Calcium propionate products:
bakery products

Calcium propionate is synthesized by reaction of calcium hydroxide with propionic acid, and it also occurs naturally in some types of butter and cheese. 
Calcium propionate is available in various forms in the market such as powder, liquid, and compressed. 
Calcium propionates use as a mold inhibitor is desirable in various dairy products, animal feedstock, and agricultural applications. 
Calcium propionate acts as a food preservative and is used to increase the shelf life of the bakery products. 
Calcium propionate is influenced by the varying storage conditions such as low temperature and humidity. 
Calcium propionate, changing climatic conditions is further influencing the market growth. 
Apart from the baked products, Calcium propionate is used as a food additive in wines, vinegar, soy sauce, and others. 
Additionally, Calcium propionate prevents milk fever in cows and provides nutritional supplement for dogs, cattle, and horse. 
The agricultural applications of Calcium propionate include its use as a pesticide and fungicide. 
Calcium propionate is also used as a leavening agent for delaying the fermentation in bakery products. 
Calcium propionate exhibits anti-microbial nature, which makes it useful in the pharmaceuticals and cosmetics industry.

The growing food industry is anticipated to fuel the global calcium propionate market during the forecast period. 
The changing food consumption pattern coupled with disposable income is expected to boost the calcium propionate market. 
Moreover, increasing demand for the processed and ready-to-eat food is likely to fuel the market growth in the coming future. 
Calcium propionate is cost-effective and relatively less toxic as compared to other substitutes such as sorbates and sulfites, which may further drive the market growth. 
Surging demand for the product in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics to inhibit microbial growth and prevent spoilage is also anticipated to favor the market growth during the years to follow. 
However, the shifting consumer patterns away from the consumption of food containing chemical additives and preservatives may hamper the market growth in the coming years.

Daily intake:
no limit

Side effects :
No side effects. Propionate is a normal small chain fatty acid and is used in many metabolic pathways in the body.

Dietary restrictions :
None, propionic acid and propionates can be consumed by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians.

Identification
Chemical names: Calcium Propionate
CAS: 4075-81-4
Molecular formula: Ca(C2H5COO)2
Molecular weight: 186.22
Other Names: Calciumpropionatemonohydrate; Propionic acid calcium salt hydrate; calcium dipropionate;
Calcium propionate hydrate; Calcium Propionate; Calcium propionate

calcium dipropanoate
Propanoic acid, calcium salt (2:1)
Bioban-C
Calcium propionate, 98+%
Calcium propionate;Bioban-C; Calcium dipropionate
Caswell No. 151
CHEBI:81716
Propionic acid, calcium salt
Propionic acid calcium salt hydrate
HSDB 907
MFCD00167354

General description of Calcium propionate
Calcium propionate is generally used as a food preservative in bread. 
Calcium propionate has also been reported to reduce milk fever in dairy cows.

Application of Calcium propionate
Calcium propionate was used as an antifungal agent in bread. 
Calcium propionate was also used to investigate the influence of calcium salts on growth, polygalacturonase activity and infection of peach fruit by Monilinia fructicola.

Calcium propionate is the most commonly used bread preservative globally. 
Calcium propionate is an effective growth inhibitor of most molds and some bacteria. 
Calcium propionate is widely employed in bread and other yeast-based bakery goods to prevent mold and rope formation and to extend their normal shelf life.
Used in foods as a preservative and mold inhibitor
White powder, possessing not more than a faint odor of propionic acid. 
One gram dissolves in about 3 ml of water.
Origin: USA. Other Name: Propanoic Acid, Sodium Propionate, Calcium Salt, Calcium Propanoate
Calcium propionate is a food additive used in food industry to extend the shelf life of numerous products. 
Calcium propionate is found in either crystalline or powder form. 
Calcium propionate is industrially obtained from calcium oxide and propionic acid.

EINECS 223-795-8
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 077701
Calcium propinate
ACMC-1AGCZ
Calcium Propionate, FCC
DSSTox_CID_7556
EC 223-795-8
C6H10CaO4
DSSTox_RID_78503
DSSTox_GSID_27556
SCHEMBL52363
CHEMBL3186661
DTXSID1027556
AMY37013
Tox21_202432
ANW-29489
AKOS015903218
NCGC00259981-01
M140
CAS-4075-81-4
FT-0623409
P0503
Q417394
Propionic acid calcium 1000 microg/mL in Acetonitrile:Water

As a food Preservatives, Calcium propionate is listed as E number 282 in the Codex Alimentarius. 
Calcium Propionate is used as a preservative in a wide variety of products, including but not limited to bread, other baked goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products. 
In agriculture, Calcium propionate is used, amongst other things, to prevent milk fever in cows and as a feed supplement Propionates prevent microbes from producing the energy they need, like benzoates do. 
However, unlike benzoates, propionates do not require an acidic environment.
Calcium propionate is used in bakery products as a mold inhibitor, typically at 0.1-0.4% (though animal feed may contain up to 1%). 
Mold contamination is considered a serious problem amongst bakers, and conditions commonly found in baking present near-optimal conditions for mold growth. 
Calcium propionate (along with propionic acid andSodium Propionate) is used as a preservative in bread and other baked goods. 
Calcium propionate also occurs naturally in butter and some types of cheese. 
Calcium propionate keeps bread and baked goods from spoiling by preventing mold and bacterial growth. 
Although you may be concerned about the idea of preservative use in food, on the flip-side, you certainly don want to eat bacteria- or mold-infested bread.

How to Made Calcium propionate:
“Propionic acid naturally occurs in animals and in dairy products in small amounts. 
Calcium propionate can be obtained from natural gas by the Fischer-Tropsch process, as a byproduct in the pyrolysis of wood, and by the action of microorganisms on a variety of materials in small yields. 
Very pure propionic acid can be obtained from propionitrile.” 
“Substantial levels of propionate occur naturally in the diet and as part of the metabolism of odd chain fatty acids.”

Calcium propionate properties:
Non-hazardous for air, sea and road freight.
Stability: Stable. Hygroscopic. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
Toxicology: May act as a skin, eye or respiratory irritant. 
Melting Point: 300 °C
pH (10% aqueous solution): 6.2 - 9.0
Solubility in water: 1g / 3 ml of water

Product Name: Calcium Propionate
Standard adopted: GB25548-2010
Assay: 99% ~ 99.58%
Appearance: White powder
Insoluble in water: ≤3    
Losing on drying: ≤9.5
As: <0.0003
Heavy metals: ≤0.001
Fluoride: ≤0.003
Fe: ≤0.005
Result: Qualified

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