CALCIUM STEARATE    

Calcium stearate = Stearic acid + Calcium oxide


CALCIUM STEARATE    
Calcium distearate
Octadecanoic acid, calcium salt
Stearic acid, calcium salt    
CAS #: 1592-23-0
EC Number: 216-472-8


CAS names
Octadecanoic acid, calcium salt (2:1)

IUPAC names
calcium dioctadecanoate
Calcium Distearate
calcium octadecanoate
Calcium stearate
calcium-distearat
calcium;octadecanoate


Trade names
Calcium distearate
Calcium stearate


Calcium stearate is widely used as a waterproofing agent and also to prevent efflorescence in the construction industry. 
Calcium stearate is mixed with concrete and is used in construction activities such as buildings, floors, and also prefabrication industry. 
Calcium stearate is used in powder form in mortars and putties, and emulsion forms for prefabricated systems.

Calcium stearate also called octadecanoic acid calcium salt or stearic acid calcium salt is a universally accepted metallic stearate for industrial and commercial applications
Calcium stearate is a  synthetic ingredient that can be used as an anti-caking agent, release agent, lubricant, binder, emulsifier, and thickener in food with the European food additive number E470a. It also can be used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, plastics and other applications.


Calcium stearate, the calcium salt of stearic acid derived from animal fats & oils or vegetable oils, with the chemical formula Ca(C18H35O2)2. 

Calcium stearate's uses include that of a flating agent in paint, a lubricant, plasticizer and leveler for paper coatings, suspending agent in paints, a release agent in plastic and other mouldings, a tabletting agent, a water repellant, and a cosmetic component, etc

Calcium stearate, one of the most commonly used metallic stearate for industrial and commercial applications, is a nontoxic and non-irritating carboxylate of calcium. It is commercially produced by the reaction of stearic acid with calcium oxide. It is sold in the form of a white waxy powder. Although calcium stearate has numerous applications, most of it is used as a lubricant in the plastic and rubber industries during the production of PVC, HDPE, and PP; and as an anti-caking agent in rubber processing. Calcium stearate is listed as "generally regarded as safe" in the FDA database, and is used in the production of oral drug formulations and candies in the pharmaceutical and food industries. Apart from the aforementioned uses, calcium stearate also finds usage in the construction, personal care, and paper industries.

Increased application of calcium stearate in rubber industry is one of the key trends upcoming in the market. These stearates, including zinc, calcium, and magnesium, have been used to prevent coagulation in uncured rubber, as well as to release the final product from the molds in cured rubber processing.

According to the report, growth of global plastics industry is one of the key drivers of this market. As calcium stearate is used extensively in plastics manufacturing, vendors in the calcium stearate market have benefitted from this growth. In this industry, calcium stearate is used as a lubricant in PVC resin production, and as a neutralizer, color stabilizer, and deagglomerator in various PP and PE applications.

Calcium stearate is a carboxylate of calcium, classified as a calcium soap. Calcium stearate is a component of some lubricants, surfactants, as well as many foodstuffs. It is a white waxy powder. Calcium stearate is a waxy material with low solubility in water, unlike traditional sodium and potassium soaps. Calcium stearate is also easy and cheap to produce and exhibits low toxicity. These attributes are the basis of many of its applications.

Calcium stearate is carboxylate of calcium that is found in some lubricants and surfactants. Calcium Stearate is a white waxy powder and is also the main component of soap scum.

Calcium Stearate is commonly used in products such as foods, fabrics, concrete, paper, plastics, and many more.


Calcium stearate is a compound of calcium with a mixture of solid organic acids obtained from edible sources. Calcium stearate is generally used as a solid-phase lubricant that reduces friction between particles of the substance to which it is added.
Calcium stearate is a carboxylate of calcium, classified as a calcium soap. Calcium stearate is a component of some lubricants, surfactants, as well as many foodstuffs. It is a white waxy powder.

Production and occurrence
Calcium stearate is produced by heating stearic acid and calcium oxide:

2 C17H35COOH + CaO → (C17H35COO)2Ca + H2O
Calcium stearate is also the main component of soap scum, a white solid that forms when soap is mixed with hard water. 
Unlike soaps containing sodium and potassium, calcium stearate is insoluble in water and does not lather well.
Commercially it is sold as a 50% dispersion in water or as a spray dried powder. As a food additive it is known by the generic E number E470.

CALCIUM STEARATE is octadecanoic acid (calcium soap). Calcium stearate acts as a mould release-, antistatic- and antifogging agent. Used in thermosetting resins, rubbers, polyolefin, PVC and plastics.
Calcium Stearate is used as a stabilizer for plastics with co-stabilizer of Ba-Cd soap. It is also used as a plasticizer in plastic industry as well as in cosmetics. It is used as a flatting and sanding agent in lacquers, coatings & inks. It is applied in tablet manufacturing. It is used as a drying lubricant and dusting agent for rubbers. It is used as a catalyst in chemical synthesis. It is used as a waterproofing additive in concrete, rockwool, textiles and paper.

Calcium stearate is recognized as physiologically safe, and is insoluble in most solvents. Compared to waxes, calcium stearate has a relatively high softening point, and, consequently, do not become greasy at higher temperatures.

Calcium stearate is primarily used as an acid scavenger, release agent and lubricant in the plastics industry, for waterproofing in construction, and as an anti-caking additive in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics

Calcium Stearate is a superior molder and internal lubricator. It is proper to plastic and construction industiral appications. It can be manufactured with demanded particular size and density, according to production process and industry .

Calcium stearate is carboxylate of calcium that is found in some lubricants and surfactants. 

Calcium stearate is used as a flow agent in powders including some foods (such as Smarties), a surface conditioner in hard candies such as Sprees, a waterproofing agent for fabrics, a lubricant in pencils and crayons. 
The concrete industry uses calcium stearate for efflorescence control of cementitious products used in the production of concrete masonry units i.e. paver and block, as well as waterproofing. In paper production, calcium stearate is used as a lubricant to provide good gloss, preventing dusting and fold cracking in paper and paperboard making. 
In plastics, Calcium stearate can act as an acid scavenger or neutralizer at concentrations up to 1000ppm, a lubricant and a release agent. 
Calcium stearate may be used in plastic colorant concentrates to improve pigment wetting. 
In rigid PVC, Calcium stearate can accelerate fusion, improve flow, and reduce die swell. Applications in the personal care and pharmaceutical industry include tablet mold release, anti-tack agent, and gelling agent. Calcium stearate is a component in some types of defoamers.

Applications
Calcium stearate is a waxy material with low solubility in water, unlike traditional sodium and potassium soaps. 
Calcium stearate is also easy and cheap to produce, and exhibits low toxicity. These attributes are the basis of many of its applications. 
Related applications exist for the magnesium stearate.

Calcium stearate is used as a flow agent and surface conditioner in some candies such as Smarties, jawbreakers and Sprees.
Calcium stearate is a waterproofing agent for fabrics.
Lubricants containing polar groups, which preferentially wet the metal surface in the presence of PVC, such as calcium stearate, are excellent metal lubricants.
Calcium stearate is a lubricant in pencils and crayons.
Calcium stearate is a very efficient lubricant in the dry drawing method of wire production
In paper production, calcium stearate is used as a lubricant to provide good gloss, preventing dusting and fold cracking in paper and paperboard making.
The concrete industry uses calcium stearate for efflorescence control of cementitious products used in the production of concrete masonry units i.e. paver and block, as well as waterproofing.[3]

In plastics, Calcium stearate can act as an acid scavenger or neutralizer at concentrations up to 1000ppm, a lubricant and a release agent. 
Calcium stearate may be used in plastic colorant concentrates to improve pigment wetting. In rigid PVC, Calcium stearate can accelerate fusion, improve flow, and reduce die swell.
Calcium stearate is a kind of thermo-stabilizer and lubricant of nontoxic polyvinyl chloride product, is that polyvinyl chloride plastic item is processed indispensable auxiliary agent series products

Applications in the personal care and pharmaceutical industry include tablet mold release, anti-tack agent, and gelling agent.
Calcium stearate is a component in some types of defoamers.
Calcium stearate is also an Anticaking agent.


Uses: Extremely low solubility makes calcium stearate a very versatile substance. 
Calcium stearate is mainly used as a dough conditioner and is commonly used with other dough softeners such as mono- and diglycerides. 
Food grade calcium stearate can also be used as an emulsifier, flavoring agent, anti-dusting agent, stabilizer, release agent, and/or thickening agent (Merck 2001). 
Other uses include waterproofing, as a releasing agent for plastic molding powders, as a stabilizer for polyvinyl chloride resins, lubricant, and as a conditioning agent in various pharmaceutical products (Merck 2001).


USES & APPLICATIONS
Food, Pharma and Nutraceuticals: Mold Release for Tableting, Stabilizer, Emulsifier, Source of Calcium, Excipient, Anti-Tack Agent


Cosmetics: Anti-Caking Agent in Powdered Cosmetics. Cosmetic Uses include anticaking agents, cosmetic colorants, emulsion stabilisers and viscosity controlling agents

Its functions in Cosmetics (INCI)
Anticaking : Helps to ensure the fluidity of solid particles and to limit their agglomeration in cosmetic products in powder or hard mass
Cosmetic colorant : Color cosmetics and / or give a color to the skin
Emulsion stabilising : Promotes the emulsification process and improves the stability and shelf life of the emulsion
Viscosity controlling : Increases or decreases the viscosity of cosmetics


Lubricants and Greases: Thickening Agent

Personal Care: Anti-Tack and Gelling Agent

Plastics: Internal and External Lubricant in PVC Rigid Extrusion, Polyethylene Chain Length Modifier and a De-Dusting Agent. Calcium Stearate reduces extruder pressure build-up of rigid PVC compounds when used as a processing aid during the manufacture of pipe, siding and injection molded fittings 

Rubber: Release Aid, Adhesion Prevention. Calcium Stearate is used by the rubber and plastic industries as an effective elastomer processing aid and release agent.
Calcium stearate has many potential uses, including as a flow agent, stabilizing agent and surface conditioner in the production of certain foods — notably, many candies. 

Calcium stearate is used as a mold-release agent for pharmaceutical tablets and capsules, as an anti-caking agent in cosmetics and as a thickener in lubricants and greases. 
Calcium stearate is also a stabilizer found in many plastics and is used to process concrete and paper.

Use: Flow Agent, Excipient, Mold Release Agent, Source of Calcium, Tableting Agent. 
Also used as a PVC Rigid Extrusion Internal/External Lubricant, Polyethylene Chain Length Modifier and as a De-Dusting Agent.

Use: water repellent, flatting agent in paints, lubricant in making tablets, emulsions, cements, wax crayons, stabilizer for vinyl resins, mold release agent.

Use: Calcium stearate is carboxylate of calcium that is found in some lubricants and surfactants. Calcium Stearate is a white waxy powder and is also the main component of soap scum.


Calcium Stearate is a non-toxic stabilizer and lubricant, mold release agent of polyvinyl chloride and water repellent of textiles.
Calcium Stearate is a lubricant of coating paper and paint.
Calcium Stearate functions as an internal lubricant and non-toxic stabilizers of polyvinyl chloride, and as mold release agents of the foundry industry.
Calcium Stearate is an anti-caking agent; adhesive; emulsifier; lubricants; mold release agents; stabilizers; thickeners; flavoring agents.
Calcium Stearate acts as stabilizers and lubricants of polyvinyl chloride, and as non-toxic food packaging, medical devices and other soft film containers. 
As halogen absorbent of polyethylene and polypropylene, it can eliminate residual catalyst in resin. As lubricant of resin colors and molding products, but also as release agents of phenolic, amino thermosetting plastic and plastics and lubricant of polyester reinforced plastic, as thickening agent of grease, waterproofing agents of textile and flatting agent of paint. Food grade Calcium stearate can serve as an anti-caking agent to prevent powdered or crystalline food from aggregation and agglomeration, keeping free-flowing. But China's GB2760-86 allowing the use of anti-caking agent is currently only potassium ferrocyanide which is used for salt. According to the FAO/WHO regulations, Calcium stearate can be used for coating glucose powder, sucrose powder and stock cube, etc. , the maximum allowable amount is15 g/kg.
As a waterproofing agent, Calcium Stearate is used in lubricant and plastic additives. 
Calcium Stearate  is widely used in food, medicine, cosmetics, plastics and rubber industries, mainly used for lubricants, emulsifiers, stabilizers, release agents, accelerators, cosmetic base materials. 
In the rigid plastics, Calcium Stearate can increase the speed of the condensate. 
Calcium Stearate  can also be used for food packaging, medical devices and other non-toxic flexible film, but also has the effect of stabilizing agent and good long-term stability. As stabilizers and lubricants of polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride. As halogen absorbent of polyethylene and polypropylene, it can eliminate the adverse effects of residual resin on catalyst resin color and stability. It widely used to improve the heat resistance of plastic in foreign countries, improving weather resistance initial color and breathability. It will replace the toxic stabilizers with same performance.

Its end-use application segments the calcium stearate market into the pharmaceutical industry, cement & construction sector, paper production industry, rubber processing industry, plastic manufacturing industry, lubricant industry, and the personal care industry.

The growing applications of plastic in the packaging, consumer durables, and electrical & electronics industry is expected to contribute to the demand for calcium stearate. 
Calcium Stearate is widely used as an external lubricant in plastic manufacturing companies for the production of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), High-density polyethylene (HDPE), and Polypropylene (PP).
Calcium Stearate meets the quality and processing demands of polyolefin, polystyrene and polyester manufacture. 

Calcium stearate also serves as an anti-caking agent in rubber processing industries to prevent coagulation of uncured rubber and to release the final product from molds in the rubber processing industry. 
The increasing demand for rubber additive on account of the growing demand for rubber in the automobile industry is projected to drive the calcium stearate market during the forecast period.

According to the FDA database, calcium stearate is considered fit for human consumption. 
Therefore, Calcium Stearate has gained wide acceptance for use in oral drug formulations in the pharmaceutical industry. 
Calcium stearate prevents chemicals from sticking to the processing equipment during the production of solidified tablets. 
It is also used at the transportation phase to prevent chemicals from sticking to each other.

Calcium stearate is employed in the production of candies and other confectionaries in the food industry. 
The non-sticky property of calcium stearate is one of the primary reasons for its acceptance in the food and pharmaceutical industry. 
Liquid calcium stearate is used in the cement industry to prevent secondary efflorescence so as to reduce the loss of solvated salts due to continuous exposure of adhesive to air. 
The growth of the cement & construction industry on account of increasing infrastructural activities and demand in residential & commercial construction is expected to drive the demand for calcium stearate over the forecast period.

The paper production industry uses calcium stearate to provide a matte finish to the paper. 
In the lubricant industry, calcium Stearate is used as a thickening agent for lubricating grease. 
Calcium stearate works as an anti-tack agent and gelling agent in the personal care industry. 
In the plastic production industry, calcium Stearate is used as a neutralizer, color stabilizer, and deagglomerate for various PP and PE applications.

Applications for calcium stearate in the plastic and rubber production industry are expected to account for a significant market share in 2015. 
These industries are expected to continue their dominance over the market from 2016 to 2024 on account of the growing applications of plastic and rubber in a vast number of industries such as tire manufacturing, packaging, electronic products.


Calcium Stearate acts as an external and internal lubricant, it is a thermal co-stabilizer very used in all the PVC industry, both in rigid and flexible formulations. Acid neutralizer and lubricant in phenolic compounds, ABS, reinforced fibers and other polyolefins Aid in the dispersion of pigments for masterbatches, color concentrates, and coatings.

We have both Industrial and NF Grade materials, and for use in rigid PVC it is listed by the NSF for pipe and fitting components.
We have both powder and granular presentations that allow for a dust-free process, care of the environment and reduction of waste.

Main uses:
•Cables
•Pipes and fittings
•Polyolefins - Rubber
•Pigment dispersion
•Packaging
•Pharmaceuticals

Food Additives. 
Plastic Compounding and Masterbatch
Polyolefin manufacture
PVC pipe
Coatings


calcium bis(stearate)
     calcium dioctadecanoate
     calcium distearate
     calcium octadecanoate
     calcium stearate FCC bulky
     calcium stearate kosher
     calcium stearate PLC
     calcium stearate SP kosher
     calcium stearate vegetable 50% dispersion
     calcium stearate WLC
     calciumstearate
     flexichem
     octadecanoic acid calcium salt (2:1)
     octadecanoic acid, calcium salt
     octadecanoic acid, calcium salt (2:1)
     stavinor 30
     stearic acid calcium salt
     witco G 339S

Preferred IUPAC name: Calcium di(octadecanoate)
E470

CAS Number    
1592-23-0

Properties
Chemical formula: C36H70CaO4
Molar mass: 607.030 g·mol−1
Appearance: white to yellowish-white 
Product forms : Calcium stearates are available in various product forms – as powder or low-dust products – and as derivatives from animal or vegetable raw materials.
Density: 1.08 g/cm3
Melting point: 155 °C (311 °F; 428 K)
Solubility in water: 0.004 g/100 mL (15 °C)
Solubility: soluble in hot pyridine
slightly soluble in oil
insoluble in alcohol, ether


Calcium stearate is recognized as physiologically safe, and is insoluble in most solvents. Compared to waxes, it has a relatively high softening point, and, consequently, do not become greasy at higher temperatures.

Calcium stearate is primarily used as an acid scavenger, release agent and lubricant in the plastics industry, for waterproofing in construction, and as an anti-caking additive in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. In addition, Baerlocher has developed special thermostable calcium stearate products designed to withstand exceptionally high temperatures.

TYPICAL APPLICATIONS
Polyolefins
PBT
Stationery
Phenolic Resins


Applications:
Fusion Promoter and stabilizer for PVC.
Lubricant for ABS and PS .
Neutralizer catalyst residues in PE and PP .
Anti-caking agent for » rubber pellets » .
Antistatic for polymer.
Waterproofing for concrete.
Ingredient for paper coatings .
Anti-caking agent for powder fire extinguisher .
Anti-caking agent for various powders .
Additive against secondary efflorescence on concrete.


CALCIUM STEARATE
1592-23-0
Octadecanoic acid, calcium salt
Calcium octadecanoate
Calcium distearate
Stearates
Stearic acid calcium salt
UNII-776XM7047L
Stearic acid, calcium salt
66071-81-6
Flexichem
776XM7047L
Aquacal
Flexichem CS
calcium dioctadecanoate
Stavinor 30
Calcium bis(stearate)
Nopcote C 104
Witco G 339S
HSDB 905
Calcium stearate, 6.4 to 7.4% (Ca), powder
Calcium distearate, pure
EINECS 216-472-8
G 339S
G 339 S
Calcium stearate [JAN:NF]
AI3-01335
Hydrogenated tallow fatty acids calcium salts
Fatty acids, tallow, hydrogenated, calcium salts
EINECS 266-106-6
Stearic acid calcium
Calcium Stearate TCG
Calcium Stearate TCP
calcium stearate powder
Octadecanoic acid, calcium salt (2:1)
ACMC-209djm
Lubimax Calcium Stearate
Rashayan Calcium Stearate
Calcium Stearate H-NRML
Calcium Stearate NF/FCC
Hydrogenated tallow fatty acids, calcium salt
Tallow fatty acids, hydrogenated, calcium salt
SCHEMBL2371
Fatty acids, tallow, hydrogenated, calcium salt
C36H70CaO4
Calcium stearate (JP17/NF)
CHEMBL2106092
DTXSID7027419
Calcium Stearate (technical grade)
Fatty acids, tallow,hydrogenated, calcium salts

What is Calcium Stearate?
Calcium stearate is obtained from the reaction of stearic acid and lime.

2 C17H35COOH + CaO → (C17H35COO) 2Ca + H2O

Calcium Stearate is a white and silky fine powder to the touch.
Calcium Stearate is very stable in high temperature conditions.
Calcium Stearate is non-toxic and is even used as a food additive.
Calcium Stearate is highly water resistant and has water repellent properties.
Calcium Stearate acts as a lubricant, release agent, stabilizer and thickener in various processes.
Calcium Stearate is an excellent process facilitator used in injection and extrusion processes. Calcium Stearate increases product homogeneity, reduces energy consumption and saves on raw material. 
Calcium Stearate is also used as a stabilizer where it is possible to achieve better transparency, good color retention, long term stability and weather resistance properties.

Calcium Stearate is used as an anti-caking agent in cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food and chemical formulations due to its lubricating and water-repellent properties. 
Calcium Stearate prevents the products from absorbing moisture and sticking, and increases plasticity. 
Calcium stearate is added to increase efficiency in production by extruding and laminating plastics and metals.


CALCIUM STEARATE IN FOOD INDUSTRY: 
Calcium stearate is an anticaking agent used in a wide variety of foods including salt, spices, confections, snack products and dry mixes. The VRG noticed while doing a Spring 2015 update on stearic acid and its derivatives that several websites and books list calcium stearate as being primarily derived from cows or pigs. When we discovered from food ingredient manufacturers and suppliers that most calcium stearate used today in food products is from vegetable oils, we decided to check food labels and contact food companies to confirm if the calcium stearate present today in foods was indeed mostly or even solely vegetable-derived.

To accomplish this, we made extensive use of the Internet for locating edible products containing calcium stearate. Google® images of nutrition and supplement labels listed thousands of mostly pharmaceutical products. We went through the pages excluding supplements and any foods containing meat and/or dairy.

An immediate observation we made while searching for calcium stearate-containing foods was that very few products today contain calcium stearate unlike twenty years ago when it was more common. There are many substitute ingredients available today to take its place in foods such as silicon dioxide. (Calcium stearate, magnesium stearate as well as stearic acid are more commonly included today in dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals serving as binders or lubricants.

Calcium stearate is a nonagricultural product. 
Calcium stearate is virtually nontoxic, and its unctuous properties make it ideal for use in food products (Osol and Hoover, 1975). 
Commercially Calcium stearate is used in flour enrichment and dough conditioning products marketed to bakeries. 
The Petitioner’s intended use is “as a flow agent (anti-dusting agent) to be used in flour enrichments which are added at flour mills, and also to be used as a flow agent or anti-dusting agent in dry flour-based ingredients containing enzymes which may be either added at the flour mill or at the bakery (dough improvers)” (NOSB Petition addendum). 
In this way, calcium stearate improves the manageability of dough and minimizes airborne bakery dust

The alkaline earth and transition metal salts of the fatty acids are called metal soap.
Although the alkali salts of the fatty acids such as sodium (Na) and potassium (K) are water-soluble, metal soaps are water insoluble but more soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. 
These compounds have the general formula M(CnH2n+1COO)x; M and x refer to the metal ion and its charge, respectively. 
These long chain carboxylates of metal ions are compounds of considerable commercial importance and find applications in areas such as lubricant and stabilizer for rigid and flexible PVC, polyolefin acid scavenger, mold release agent in polymers; lubricant, free-flow promoter, anticaking agent in pharmaceuticals; waterproofing, flatting, and drier agents in coatings and paints; component of lubricating greases, catalyst and catalyst modification, fuel additives, and etc. 
The precipitation process generally produces metal soap by the reaction of an aqueous solution of a water-soluble metal salt and a fatty acid alkali metal salt at a temperature below the boiling point of water under atmospheric pressure. 
Filtering, washing, and drying are the important steps in this method. 
Paulenat et al.2 reported 98.5% conversion of sodium soap upon calcium chloride addition


2C17H35COO-+Na(aq) + Ca2+(aq)  = (C17H35COO)2Ca(s) + 2Na+(aq) (1)
NaSt(aq) + CaCl2(aq) = CaStCl(s) + NaCl(aq) (2)
CaStCl(aq) + NaSt(aq) = CaSt2(s) + NaCl(aq) (3)


where St represents the C17H35COO- ion.
Beneventi et al.3 has shown that solubility of calcium soaps was greatly influenced by the presence of unsaturations in the hydrocarbon chain: the higher the number of CdC unsaturations, the higher the solubility of calcium soap. 
The solubility product of CaSt2 was reported as 10-14.8 mol/L3


The International Pharmacopoeia - Ninth Edition, 2019 Calcium stearate (Calcii stearas)

C36H70CaO4
Chemical name: Calcium stearate; calcium octadecanoate; CAS Reg. No. 1592-23-0.
Description: A white to yellowish white, fine, bulky powder; odour, slight, characteristic.
Solubility:  Practically insoluble in water, ethanol (~750 g/l) TS, acetone R, and ether R.
Category: Tablet and capsule lubricant.
Storage: Calcium stearate should be kept in a well-closed container.
Additional information:  The degree of lubrication depends on the particular form and size of the material.

Requirements
Definition: Calcium stearate consists of calcium salts mainly of stearic acid and palmitic acid in variable proportions.
Calcium stearate contains not less than 9.0% and not more than the equivalent of 10.5% of CaO, calculated with reference to the dried substance.

Identity tests
A. Heat 1 g with a mixture of 25 mL of water and 5 mL of hydrochloric acid (~420 g/l) TS; fatty acids are liberated and float as an oil on the surface of the liquid. 
The aqueous layer yields the reactions described under 2.1 General identification tests as characteristic of calcium.

B. Mix 25 g with 200 mL of hot water, add 60 mL of sulfuric acid (~100 g/l) TS, and heat the mixture until the separated fatty acids layer is clear. 
Wash it with boiling water until free from sulfates, transfer it to a beaker, and warm on a water-bath until the water separates and the fatty acids are clear. 
Allow to cool, pour off the water layer, melt the fatty acids, and filter into a dry beaker. 
Dry at 105 °C for 20 minutes; congealing temperature, not lower than 54 °C.
Loss on drying. Heat at 105 °C for 2 hours and weigh; repeat the heating using 2-hour increments until a constant mass is obtained; not more than 40 mg/g.

Assay. 
To about 1.2 g, accurately weighed, add 50 mL of hydrochloric acid (0.1 mol/l) V, and heat to boiling for 10 minutes or until the separated fatty acids layer is clear, adding water if necessary to maintain the original volume. 
Cool, filter, and wash the filter and the flask thoroughly with water until the washing is free from acid when tested with litmus paper R. Neutralize the filtrate with sodium hydroxide (1 mol/l) VS against litmus paper R and proceed with the titration as described under 2.5 Complexometric titrations for calcium.
Each mL of disodium edetate (0.05 mol/l) VS is equivalent to 2.804 mg of CaO.
Calcium stearate (Calcii stearas)


Calcium stearate preparation technology
Abstract
The invention discloses a calcium stearate preparation technology. 
The technology comprises the following steps: 
1, adding 40-45 parts ofstearic acid, 10-15 parts of calcium hydroxide, 1-5 parts of zinc oxide and 20-30 parts of distilled water into a reaction kettle, and uniformly stirring; 
2, heating the reaction kettle to 90DEG C while starting a vacuum system; 
3, sampling, analyzing free acids and calcium hydroxide, and ending the reaction if continuous three-time detection results show that the content of calcium hydroxide is zero and the content of the free acids is smaller than 0.5%; and 
4, separating the obtained product from raw materials, and drying the product until the water content is smaller than 2% in order to obtain the calcium stearate product. 
The product prepared in the invention has the advantages of large density, reduced fluidity, unlikely suspension in air, and reduction of the dust pollution.

Calcium stearate is obtained from the reaction of stearic acid and lime.

 

It is a fine powder, white and silky to the touch, with the following properties:

 

It is very stable under high temperature conditions
It is non-toxic and is even used as a food additive, E470
It is highly resistant to water and has water-repellent properties
It serves as a lubricant, stabilizer and thickener in various processes.
 

You can buy 50% liquid calcium stearate emulsion, which makes even distribution, dosage and handling easier.

 

We also have a dust-free/granulated product which is very suitable for pneumatic conveyance; it has a more precise dose and is cleaner.

 

 

Manufacturing of Plastics
 

Calcium Stearate is an excellent solid lubricant used in injection and extrusion processes.

Calcium Stearate is also used as a stabilizer with which it is possible to obtain properties of better transparency, good colour maintenance, good long-term stability, low odour, low migration and volatility, and resistance to weather conditions.

In the manufacture of PVC, calcium stearate neutralizes hydrochloric acid, HCl, which can be released from PVC, prolonging its life.

 

It can be used in the following plastics:

Acrylonitrile Butadiene… (ABS)
Polypropylene (PP)
Vinyl polychloride (PVC)
Polyethylene (PE)
Polyamide (PA)
Polystyrene (PS)
Sheet and bulk moulding (SMC/BMC)
 

 

Separating Agent: Rubber, Plastic and Ceramics
 

Unlike other separating agents, stearates are characterized by their high melting point, so they can be used just like graphite as a dry lubricant added as a fine powder.

 
Among the industries that work with calcium stearate as a separating agent are:

Metal
Rubber
Plastic
Ceramic
 

The separating agent is usually used in different forms, in diffusers as the final product, emulsion stearate, or by the dosing in the form of chippings or raw material.

 
Water Repellent in Construction
A small addition of calcium stearate in solid or emulsion in small proportions, between 1% and 6% with respect to cement, significantly improves the water-repellent properties of the mixture.
In this way, in addition to providing impermeability to the mixture, the appearance of efflorescence is avoided. 
Within the construction sector,ATAMAN KIMYA provides calcium stearate to the following industries:
 

Prefabricated concrete
Mortar
Floors
Terrazo
Ceramic tiling and concrete
 

In the prefabrics industry, emulsion stearate is widely used, while the powder form is used in the manufacture of mortars and putties.

 
Anti-Caking
It is used in cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food and chemical formulations as an anti-caking agent due to its lubricating and water-repelling properties. Prevents products from absorbing moisture and sticking and increases plasticity.
The addition of calcium stearate provides a more homogeneous image to the product it is added to and makes its dosing and transportation easier.

Fertilizers


Detergents
 

Paper Industry
The paper industry uses calcium stearate as this is a low cost additive which lengthens the life of the paper and gives it a semi-matte appearance.
For this application high quality stearate and very special fine grinding is required, or what is even better, the use of our stearate emulsion which guarantees a homogeneous spread of the product and also facilitates its application.

 
Anti-Foaming Agent
Calcium stearate is commonly used in the formulations of different anti-foaming agents.
Generally, anti-foaming agents consist of insoluble agents in foam medium. It is important that these anti-foamers have low viscosity and are easily dispersed quickly in the medium.
The dose of stearate is usually 0.5% to 1% on top of the solid matter in the dispersal.

 
Textiles and Footwear
Calcium stearate is added to provide impermeability to different fabrics, footwear and even rock wool that is used as an insulator.
Another advantage of calcium stearate is its effectiveness as a waterproofing and its low cost.

 

Lubricant in Extruders
To improve productivity in production by extrusion and laminating plastics and metals, calcium stearate is added. 
Calcium stearate acts as an additive and a solid lubricant, adding between 0.3 – 1.0% of calcium stearate to the mixture in the feed hopper. 
Calcium stearate remains stable at high temperatures and improves the following aspects in manufacturing;

 
Flame Retardant
At a concentration of around 2%, both calcium stearate and zinc stearate are used in the production of flame retardant materials.
This is also the case in the market of sound-proofers and other composite products for construction; false ceilings and panels. 
Stearates act as stabilizers of the formula and as a lubricant at the time of production / forming.

 

- Tallow grade calcium stearate is used as a lubricant, mold release agent, anti-caking agent, emulsifying agent, water repellent and thickening agent.

- The calcium salt of distilled, hydrogenated fatty acids, it is typically used as a catalyst neutralizer or lubricant in polypropylenes. Choice of grade is often based on particle size.

- Calcium stearate is a fine, white powder. It is an insoluble salt of calcium, stearic acid, and palmitic acid.
Calcium stearate, which is recognized as physiologically safe, has become increasingly important in recent years. Calcium stearate is insoluble in most solvents. It dissolves only slightly when heated in aromatic compounds, chlorinated hydrocarbons or vegetable and mineral oils and waxes.
Calcium stearate is primarily used as a release agent, lubricant and acid scavenger by the rubber and tire industry.


Calcium stearate Chemical Properties,Uses and Production

Calcium stearate also known as calcium octadecanoic acid. 
Light white crystalline powder. 
Chemical formula (C17H35COO) 2Ca. 
The molecular weight is 607.00. Melting point 179~180 ℃, decomposed by heat. 
Insoluble in water, cold ethanol and diethyl ether, soluble in hot benzene, toluene, and turpentine, slightly soluble in hot ethanol and diethyl ether. 
It reacts with strong acid to be decomposed into stearic acid and corresponding calcium salt. Water absorption in the air. 
Intolerance lipolytic microorganisms. 
Pyrolysis to generate stearin ketones and hydrocarbons. 
Non-toxic. 
Industrial often mixed with the corresponding oleate.
As stabilizers and lubricants of polyvinyl chloride; as halogen absorbent of polyethylene and polypropylene; as lubricants of polyolefin fibers and molded products; as lubricant and release agent of phenolic, amino and other thermosetting plastics; as intensifier of lubricating grease; as waterproofing agent of waterproof fabric; etc. Food grade Calcium stearate serves as an anti-caking agent. 
Dilute soap is made by the reaction of melt stearic acid and sodium hydroxide, reacting with calcium chloride, and Calcium stearate is obtained .
It can be used as heat stabilizer of polyvinyl chloride, it has excellent lubricity. 
Thermal stability performance is general, and is less than barium stearate, lead stearate, tin stearate and cadmium stearate. But it is cheap, low toxicity, good processability. Combined with Zinc soap and an epoxy compound, it shows a synergistic effect, improving the thermal stability, and it is commonly used for requirements nontoxic soft products, such as food packaging films, medical instruments, etc. It combines with the base lead salts and lead soaps used for hard products, increasing the gelation speed. Calcium stearate is used for polyethylene and polypropylene, and it can eliminate the adverse effects of residual catalyst on the resin color and stability. This product is also widely used as lubricant and release agent of thermosetting plastics, such as polyolefin, polyester reinforced plastics, phenolic resin, amino resin, etc.
The disadvantage of Calcium stearate is initial color. 
When heating at above 100 ℃ with longer time, Calcium stearate will make the white PVC become a reddish color. 
Particularly when titanium dioxide exists in formula, coloring is particularly serious. 
At this point, if 0.06~0.12% Na2CO3 or 0.09~0.19 NaHCO3 are added, it can overcome this shortcoming. 
But because these substances are too alkaline, they are not used in practice. 
In addition, when the amount of this product is large, there is segregation scaling phenomenon.

Anti-caking agent
Anti-caking agent, also known as caking inhibitor, is used to prevent the particles and powdered food from aggregation and agglomeration, maintaining its loose or free flowing substances. 
Its particles is tiny, loose porous and strong adsorption. 
It easily absorbs the water and oil which lead to the formation of agglomerates, making food to maintain a powder or granules state.
There are five species of anti-caking agent which are permitted to be used in China: potassium ferrocyanide, sodium aluminosilicate, tricalcium phosphate, silica and microcrystalline cellulose.
Anti-caking agents are varied, in addition to five kinds which are permitted in China, aluminum, silica, calcium silicate, Calcium stearate, magnesium carbonate, magnesium stearate, magnesium, magnesium phosphate, magnesium silicate, kaolin, talc and ferrocyanide are permitted to be used in Foreign. 
In addition, they have anti-caking effect, and some also have other effects, for example, calcium silicate and kaolin also has the function of filter aids, and Calcium stearate and magnesium stearate have emulsifying effect. 
And in addition that ferrocyanide has limited ADI value, security of other varieties are very good, ADI values are no provisions. 
Based on requirement, proper developments are still needed.

Wire drawing lubricants
During the process of the metal wire drawing, it sever as technological lubrication material. 
Its role is to form a lubricant film between the drawing metal and wire drawing die wall, reducing friction of interface, and preventing metal from bonding with wall because of heat, so as to reduce energy consumption and temperature when wire drawing, extend the service life of the die, ensure the surface quality of the product and make deformation uniform.
Steel wire drawing lubricants are classified into solid and liquid lubricants.
Solid lubricant is powder lubricant, used for dry wire drawing. 
Its constitution is a variety of single metal soap or metal soap which is added certain additives. 
Metal soap is a metal salt of fatty acids. 
Metallic soap as a lubricant is required to have a higher softening point and transition temperature (coefficient of friction is a sudden rise in temperature), good wear resistance and pressure resistance. Metal soap used as drawing lubricants commonly are sodium soaps and calcium soap. 
Sodium soda and sodium soaps are sodium stearate C17H35COONa which is chemical combination of caustic soda and saturated fatty acid glycerol C3H5 (C17H35COO), is water-soluble soap and easy to remove, applying to not too high speed and temperature of dry wire drawing. 
It can also be used to wet wire drawing of filament, or for drawing of steel wire with subsequent plated operations. 
Calcium soaps are Calcium stearate which are chemical combination of calcium hydroxide or calcium oxide and glyceryl stearate. 
Others include barium stearate, zinc stearate, aluminum stearate and other metal soaps. 
Calcium soap can form thick lubricating film with good elongation and lubrication, and therefore often it is the main component of the solid lubricant. 
Calcium soap is insoluble in water, easily washed clear, not applying to drawing of pre-coated steel wire. 
Additives are to improve lubricity or to obtain special properties which are small amounts of other substances added in the lubricant, including extreme pressure additives, oiliness improving agents, thickeners and preservatives, etc. 
Extreme pressure additives serve as the main additives. 
It can react with the metal friction surface to generate high melting point and low shear strength of metallic compound thin film, thereby improving the lubrication performance of the lubricant at high temperature and pressure. 
Such additives mainly include molybdenum disulfide, graphite and poly tetra fluoro ethylene, etc. Oily improving agent, also known as active additive, its role is to improve the capability of lubricants to absorb and form lubricating film. 
Such additives include various higher fatty acids, tallow amine, etc. 
Thickener is an added additive to increase the consistency of lubricant, whose materials include soda ash, lime, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, etc. Preservatives, also known as corrosion inhibitor ,its role is to prevent corrosion of steel wire substrate from lubricant,whose material include sodium nitrite, sodium phosphate, etc.

Identification test
Taking 1 g sample, mixed with 25ml and 5ml hydrochloric acid water, heating, fatty acids are released, so that oily layer floats in the surface of the liquid. 
Water layer is used for calcium test (IT-10), and it should be positive.
Taking 25 g sample, mixed with 200 ml hot water, added sulfuric acid test solution (TS-241) 60ml, heating and vigorous stirring to precipitate fatty acid, there is clear liquid. 
Fatty washed with boiling water, until the sulfates is divisible, collected in a small beaker, warmed on a steam bath to completely separate the fatty acid from the aqueous layer, and kept clear. 
Cooled and discarded the aqueous layer, the fatty acid melted and filtered-dried beaker, dried at 105 ℃ for 20min. 
The freezing point of purified fatty acid should not be less than 54 ℃. Freezing point is determined by conventional methods.
Content analysis
About 1.2 g sample is accurately weighed, added 0.1 mol/L hydrochloric acid, boiled 10min, or until the fatty layer is clear, if necessary, adding water to maintain the original volume. 
Cooled and filtered, the filtrate and flask was washed thoroughly with water until last washing liquor is no longer acidic to litmus. 
Filtrate is treated with sodium hydroxide solution (TS-224.) and it is neutral to litmus. 
Under sufficiently stirred with a magnetic stirrer, about 30ml 0.05mol/L disodium EDTA is added via a 50ml burette, adding 15ml sodium hydroxide solution and 300 mg hydroxy naphthol blue indicator, and continuing the titration to a blue endpoint. 
Per milliliter 0.05mol/L disodium EDTA is equivalent 2.804 mg CaO.


Toxicity
ADI unrestrictive provision (FAO/WHO,2001).
GRAS(FDA,§184.1229, 2000).
Limitation of utilization
FAO/WHO (1984): coated with glucose powder, sucrose powder and stock cube, etc. 15g/kg.
GB 2760-1996: chewing gum base, GMP limit.
In USA, it is used for beet sugar, pressed candies, garlic salt, meat tenderizer, dry molasses, salad prefabricated powder, spice powder, yeast.

Chemical property
White fine powder. Insoluble in water, slightly soluble in hot ethanol.

Uses
As non-toxic stabilizers and lubricants, mold release agents of polyvinyl chloride and water repellent of textiles.
As lubricant of coating paper and paint.
As internal lubricant and non-toxic stabilizers of polyvinyl chloride, and as mold release agents of the foundry industry.
Anti-caking agent; adhesive; emulsifier; lubricants; mold release agents; stabilizers; thickeners; flavoring agents.
As stabilizers and lubricants of polyvinyl chloride, and as non-toxic food packaging, medical devices and other soft film containers. 
As halogen absorbent of polyethylene and polypropylene, it can eliminate residual catalyst in resin. 
As lubricant of resin colors and molding products, but also as release agents of phenolic, amino thermosetting plastic and plastics and lubricant of polyester reinforced plastic, as thickening agent of grease, waterproofing agents of textile and flatting agent of paint. 
Food grade Calcium stearate can serve as an anti-caking agent to prevent powdered or crystalline food from aggregation and agglomeration, keeping free-flowing. 
But China's GB2760-86 allowing the use of anti-caking agent is currently only potassium ferrocyanide which is used for salt. 
According to the FAO/WHO regulations, Calcium stearate can be used for coating glucose powder, sucrose powder and stock cube, etc. , the maximum allowable amount is 15 g/kg.
As a waterproofing agent, lubricant and plastic additives. 
It is widely used in food, medicine, cosmetics, plastics and rubber industries, mainly used for lubricants, emulsifiers, stabilizers, release agents, accelerators, cosmetic base materials. In the rigid plastics, it can increase the speed of the condensate. 
It can also be used for food packaging, medical devices and other non-toxic flexible film, but also has the effect of stabilizing agent and good long-term stability. As stabilizers and lubricants of polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride. 
As halogen absorbent of polyethylene and polypropylene, it can eliminate the adverse effects of residual resin on catalyst resin color and stability. 
It widely used to improve the heat resistance of plastic in foreign countries, improving weather resistance initial color and breathability. 
It will replace the toxic stabilizers with same performance.

Production methods
Firstly melted stearic acid reacts with sodium hydroxide solution to form a dilute soap, then reacted with calcium chloride, Calcium stearate crude is obtained, followed by washed, swirling water, drying, finished product is obtained. Kg/ton stearate, 920 sodium hydroxide (100% discount) 140 Calcium chloride (100% discount) 400.
After food grade sodium stearate interacts with calcium chloride solution, follow by filtered and refined.

Category
Toxic substance
Toxicity grading
Low toxicity
Acute toxicity
Oral-rat LD50:> 10000 mg/kg; Oral-mouse LD50:> 10000 mg/kg.

Flammability hazard characteristics
A public dust hazard; acrid smoke is generated by thermal decomposition.
Storage Characteristics
Storehouse keeps low temperature, dry and ventilated.
Extinguishing agent
Water
Occupational standards
TWA 10 mg/m3

Description
Calcium stearate is carboxylate of calcium that is found in some lubricants and surfactants. It is a white waxy powder.

Chemical Properties
white, granular, fatty powder(s); used as a water repellent; flattening agent in paints [HAW93] [MER06]

Chemical Properties
Calcium stearate occurs as a fine, white to yellowish-white, bulky powder having a slight, characteristic odor. It is unctuous and free from grittiness.

Uses
For waterproofing fabrics, cement, stucco, explosives; as a releasing agent for plastic molding powders; as a stabilizer for polyvinyl chloride resins; lubricant; in pencils and wax crayons. Food grade calcium stearate, derived from edible tallow, is used as a conditioning agent in certain food and pharmaceutical products.

Uses
Calcium Stearate is the calcium salt of stearic acid which functions as an anticaking agent, binder, and emulsifier. it is used in garlic salt, dry molasses, vanilla and vanilla-vanillin powder, salad dressing mix, and meat tenderizer. it can be used for mold release in the tableting of pressed candies.

Production Methods
Calcium stearate is prepared by the reaction of calcium chloride with a mixture of the sodium salts of stearic and palmitic acids. The calcium stearate formed is collected and washed with water to remove any sodium chloride.

Application
Calcium stearate is used as a flow agent in powders including some foods (such as Smarties), a surface conditioner in hard candies such as Sprees, a waterproofing agent for fabrics, a lubricant in pencils and crayons.
The concrete industry uses calcium stearate for efflorescence control of cementitious products used in the production of concrete masonry units i.e. paver and block, as well as waterproofing.
In paper production, calcium stearate is used as a lubricant to provide good gloss, preventing dusting and fold cracking in paper and paperboard making.
In plastics, it can act as an acid scavenger or neutralizer at concentrations up to 1000ppm, a lubricant and a release agent. It may be used in plastic colorant concentrates to improve pigment wetting. In rigid PVC, it can accelerate fusion, improve flow, and reduce die swell.
Applications in the personal care and pharmaceutical industry include tablet mold release, anti-tack agent, and gelling agent.
Calcium stearate is a component in some types of defoamers.

Preparation
Calcium stearate is produced by heating stearic acid, a fatty acid, and calcium oxide:
2C17H35COOH + CaO→(C17H35COO)2Ca + H2O

It is also the main component of soap scum, a white solid that forms when soap is mixed with hard water. Unlike soaps containing sodium and potassium, calcium stearate is insoluble in water and does not lather well . Commercially it is sold as a 50 % dispersion in water or as a spray dried powder. As a food additive it is known by the generic E number E470. .

Definition
Variable proportions of calcium stearate and calcium palmitate.

Definition
An insoluble salt of octadecanoic acid. It is formed as ‘scum’ when SOAP, containing the soluble salt sodium octadecanoate, is mixed with hard water containing calcium ions.
Hazard
A nuisance dust.

Pharmaceutical Applications
Calcium stearate is primarily used in pharmaceutical formulations as a lubricant in tablet and capsule manufacture at concentrations up to 1.0% w/w. Although it has good antiadherent and lubricant properties, calcium stearate has poor glidant properties.
Calcium stearate is also employed as an emulsifier, stabilizing agent, and suspending agent, and is also used in cosmetics and food products.

Safety Profile
A nuisance dust. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

Safety
Calcium stearate is used in oral pharmaceutical formulations and is generally regarded as a relatively nontoxic and nonirritant material.

storage
Calcium stearate is stable and should be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry place.

Regulatory Status
GRAS listed. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (oral capsules and tablets). Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.
Calcium stearate Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials
Glycerol tristearate Calcium chloride solution 36-40%, (1box=27kgs) Calcium oxide Calcium chloride Stearic acid Sodium stearate EMULSIFIER Sodium hydroxide Fatty acids, C8-10, triesters with trimethylolpropane PALM OIL Calcium hydroxide

Calcium Stearate (Ca-30) is a neutral calcium soap manufactured from a high-quality vegetable source of stearic acid. Calcium stearate is commonly used as an internal lubricant and release agent in polyolefin processing applications. It is hygroscopic and can also be used as an adhesion protector in rubber applications.


1592-23-0 [RN]
216-472-8 [EINECS]
3919698
66071-81-6 [RN]
Calcium bis(stearate)
Calcium dioctadecanoate [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Calcium distearate
Calcium octadecanoate
Calcium stearate [JAN] [JP15] [NF] [Wiki]
Calciumdioctadecanoat [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Calstar [Trade name]
Dioctadécanoate de calcium [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
MFCD00036390 [MDL number]
MFCD03940293
Octadecanoic acid calcium salt
OCTADECANOIC ACID, CALCIUM SALT
Octadecanoic acid, calcium salt (2:1) [ACD/Index Name]
stearic acid calcium salt
Stearic acid, calcium salt
WI3000000
(OCTADECANOYLOXY)CALCIO OCTADECANOATE
[1592-23-0]
169526-51-6 [RN]
37325-26-1 [RN]
7490-87-1 [RN]
8000-75-7 [RN]
Aquacal
CALCIUM BIS(N-OCTADECANOATE)
calcium bis(octadecanoate)
Calcium Stearate (technical grade)
Calcium stearate [JAN]
Calcium Stearate FCC Kosher
Calcium Stearate NF/FCC
Calcium stearate, non-animal origin
CALCIUM STEARATE|CALCIUM DIOCTADECANOATE
calciumstearate
Flexichem
Flexichem CS
G 339 S
G 339S
Nopcote C 104
Parteck LUB CST
ST5410998
Stavinor 30
Stearic acid 1-monoglyceride
Witco G 339S
硬脂酸钙 [Chinese]


What are the Uses of Calcium stearate?
Calcium stearate is mainly used as an anti-caking agent in food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals for its lubricating and water-repelling properties.

Food
It can be used as a solid-phase lubricant to prevent ingredients and finished products from sticking caused by absorbing moisture.

In bread, it is a dough conditioner that functions as a free-flowing agent, and is commonly used together with other dough softeners such as mono- and diglycerides. (4)

The following food list may contain it:  

Bakery
Calcium supplements
Mints
Soft & hard candies
Fats and oils
Meat products 
Fish products 
Snack foods
Cosmetics
It is generally used for its lubricating properties. It maintains emulsions from separating into oil and water phases in cosmetics and personal care products.

Pharmaceuticals
It is an excipient that can be used as a mold-release agent (to help machines run fast) in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical tablets and capsules. 

Plastics
Calcium stearate is used as a lubricant, release agent and an acid scavenger (to neutralize hydrochloric acid) in the manufacturing of plastics, e.g. vinyl polychloride (PVC) and polyethylene (PE).

Other uses
It can also be used in coating, paper, rubber, concrete, textile, an antifoaming agent and so on.

Is Calcium Stearate Safe to Eat?
Calcium stearate almost has no side effects when used as a food additive. 
It is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) in food with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice by the FDA. 
It can be used as a flavoring agent & adjuvant, a lubricant & release agent, and a stabilizer and thickener.


Calcium stearate also known as calcium octadecanoic acid. Light white crystalline powder. 
Chemical formula (C17H35COO) 2Ca. The molecular weight is 607.00. Melting point 179~180 ℃, decomposed by heat. 
Insoluble in water, cold ethanol and diethyl ether, soluble in hot benzene, toluene, and turpentine, slightly soluble in hot ethanol and diethyl ether. 
It reacts with strong acid to be decomposed into stearic acid and corresponding calcium salt. Water absorption in the air. 
Intolerance lipolytic microorganisms. 
Pyrolysis to generate stearin ketones and hydrocarbons. Non-toxic. 
Industrial often mixed with the corresponding oleate.
As stabilizers and lubricants of polyvinyl chloride; as halogen absorbent of polyethylene and polypropylene; as lubricants of polyolefin fibers and molded products; as lubricant and release agent of phenolic, amino and other thermosetting plastics; as intensifier of lubricating grease; as waterproofing agent of waterproof fabric; etc. 
Food grade Calcium stearate serves as an anti-caking agent. 
Dilute soap is made by the reaction of melt stearic acid and sodium hydroxide, reacting with calcium chloride, and Calcium stearate is obtained .
It can be used as heat stabilizer of polyvinyl chloride, it has excellent lubricity. 
Thermal stability performance is general, and is less than barium stearate, lead stearate, tin stearate and cadmium stearate. 
But it is cheap, low toxicity, good processability. 
Combined with Zinc soap and an epoxy compound, it shows a synergistic effect, improving the thermal stability, and it is commonly used for requirements nontoxic soft products, such as food packaging films, medical instruments, etc. 
It combines with the base lead salts and lead soaps used for hard products, increasing the gelation speed. 
Calcium stearate is used for polyethylene and polypropylene, and it can eliminate the adverse effects of residual catalyst on the resin color and stability. 
This product is also widely used as lubricant and release agent of thermosetting plastics, such as polyolefin, polyester reinforced plastics, phenolic resin, amino resin, etc.
The disadvantage of Calcium stearate is initial color. 
When heating at above 100 ℃ with longer time, Calcium stearate will make the white PVC become a reddish color. 
Particularly when titanium dioxide exists in formula, coloring is particularly serious. 
At this point, if 0.06~0.12% Na2CO3 or 0.09~0.19 NaHCO3 are added, it can overcome this shortcoming. 
But because these substances are too alkaline, they are not used in practice. 
In addition, when the amount of this product is large, there is segregation scaling phenomenon.

Calcium Stearate is an Anti-caking agent, also known as caking inhibitor, is used to prevent the particles and powdered food from aggregation and agglomeration, maintaining its loose or free flowing substances. 

ROLE OF CALCIUM STEARATE IN METAL WIRE DRAWING 
During the process of the metal wire drawing, it sever as technological lubrication material. 
Its role is to form a lubricant film between the drawing metal and wire drawing die wall, reducing friction of interface, and preventing metal from bonding with wall because of heat, so as to reduce energy consumption and temperature when wire drawing, extend the service life of the die, ensure the surface quality of the product and make deformation uniform.
Steel wire drawing lubricants are classified into solid and liquid lubricants.
Solid lubricant is powder lubricant, used for dry wire drawing. 
Its constitution is a variety of single metal soap or metal soap which is added certain additives. Metal soap is a metal salt of fatty acids. 
Metallic soap as a lubricant is required to have a higher softening point and transition temperature (coefficient of friction is a sudden rise in temperature), good wear resistance and pressure resistance. 
Metal soap used as drawing lubricants commonly are sodium soaps and calcium soap. 

Calcium soaps are Calcium stearate which are chemical combination of calcium hydroxide or calcium oxide and glyceryl stearate. 
Calcium stearate can form thick lubricating film with good elongation and lubrication, and therefore often it is the main component of the solid lubricant. 
Calcium stearate is insoluble in water, easily washed clear, not applying to drawing of pre-coated steel wire. 
Additives are to improve lubricity or to obtain special properties which are small amounts of other substances added in the lubricant, including extreme pressure additives, oiliness improving agents, thickeners and preservatives, etc. 
Extreme pressure additives serve as the main additives. 
It can react with the metal friction surface to generate high melting point and low shear strength of metallic compound thin film, thereby improving the lubrication performance of the lubricant at high temperature and pressure. 
Such additives mainly include molybdenum disulfide, graphite and poly tetra fluoro ethylene, etc. 
Oily improving agent, also known as active additive, its role is to improve the capability of lubricants to absorb and form lubricating film. 
Such additives include various higher fatty acids, tallow amine, etc. 
Thickener is an added additive to increase the consistency of lubricant, whose materials include soda ash, lime, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, etc. 
Preservatives, also known as corrosion inhibitor ,its role is to prevent corrosion of steel wire substrate from lubricant,whose material include sodium nitrite, sodium phosphate, etc.
Calcium Stearate is also be used as a processing aid in wire drawing operations, and as an anti-caking additive in dry blending operations. 


Calcium stearate, barium stearate, and the laurates of these metals, which are used as internal lubricants in PVC formulations, also act as co-stabilizers that increase the heat stability, revealing their effects through the formation of the CaCl2 salt, which is produced as a result of their reaction with HCl that is released from the thermal degradation of PVC structure. 


The global calcium stearate market exhibited moderate growth during 2015-2020. 
Calcium stearate (C36H70O4.Ca) is a carboxylate of calcium that is produced by the reaction of stearic acid and calcium oxide. 
Also known as calcium octadecanoic acid, it has a high melting point of around 356°F and is accessible in both solid and liquid forms. 
As calcium stearate is relatively easy and affordable to manufacture with low toxicity, it is used in a number of industries across the globe.

Calcium stearate is employed in the rubber processing industry as an anti-caking and scavenging agent to prevent coagulation of uncured rubber and release the final product from molds. 
In line with this, the rising demand for rubber in the automobile industry is impelling the growth of the market. 
It is also used for improving the sheen and extending the life of paper products in the pulp and paper industry. 
Moreover, as calcium stearate is considered fit for human consumption, it is used in the food industry for producing spices, candies and other confectionary items. 
Similarly, in the pharmaceutical industry, it is incorporated into various supplements and oral drug formulations. 
Additionally, liquid calcium stearate is utilized in the cement industry to prevent secondary efflorescence and minimize the loss of solvated salts, owing to the continuous exposure of adhesive to the air. 
Furthermore, the thriving construction industry, driven by the increasing infrastructural activities and rising residential and commercial construction, is anticipated to increase the demand for calcium stearate in the upcoming years. 
Looking forward, the global calcium stearate market is expected to grow at a CAGR of around 5% during the forecast period (2021-2026).


Market Breakup by End Use Industry:
Plastic and Rubber Industry
Construction Industry
Personal Care Industry
Pharmaceutical Industry
Pulp and Paper Industry
Food and Beverage Industry
Others
 
Market Breakup by Grade:
Technical Grade
Pharma Grade
Food Grade


FEED GRADE CALCIUM STEARATE:

21 CFR § 573.280 - Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate.
CFR
§ 573.280 Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate.
Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate may be safely used in an animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions:

(a) Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate are the calcium or sodium salts of a fatty acid mixture that is predominately stearic acid. Associated fatty acids, including palmitic acid and minor amounts of lauric, myristic, pentadecanoic, margaric, arachidic, and other fatty acids may be contained in the mixture, but such associated fatty acids in aggregate do not exceed 35 percent by weight of the mixture. The fatty acids may be derived from feed-grade fats or oils.

(b) The additives meet the following specifications:

(1) Unsaponifiable matter does not exceed 2 percent.

(2) They are free of chick-edema factor.

(c) The additives are manufactured so that in aqueous solution they are exposed for 1 hour or longer to temperature in excess of 180 °F.

(d) They are used as anticaking agents in animal feeds in accordance with current good manufacturing practices.

[63 FR 8573, Feb. 20, 1998]


FORMS OF CALCIUM STEARATE WE CAN OFFER:

In granular form have the following advantages.-

Reduce material waste and makes it easier to handle .
Contributes to the low variability of the process , ensuring that products meet the required specifications.
Enables compliance with environmental standards set by some companies and countries, due to the elimination of dust contamination .
Allows work in a cleaner environment and reduces the risk of explosion caused by dust.
Minimize changes in dosage and drag losses .
In its Fine Pellet have the following advantages . –

uniform particle size .
Excellent dispersibility in mixing with other ingredients.
Low content in soluble salts.
bigger contact Area.
Aqueous Dispersion has the following advantages . –

Prevents pellet particles sticking together.
Enables operation of liquid-based stearate .
Elimination of dust pollution.

Calcium stearate, which is recognized as a physiological safety, acute toxicity: oral LD50:> 10000 mg / kg of rats; oral mice LD50:> 10000 mg / kg. No vulcanization pollution, long-term thermal stability.
Calcium stearate will show some interesting effects on heating. Calcium stearate starts to soften between the temperature of 120⁰C and 130⁰C, and the viscosity does not change until 160⁰C . 
In the DSC test, there is a crystallization peak indicating the separation of crystalline water. 

Effect and Function
As a lubricant for PVC, it is generally considered as an internal lubricant. 
Calcium stearate is a stearate with strong alkali calcium and has strong polarity. 
The chemical active point of PVC resin particles can form a stable complex system with calcium stearate. 
The two long chain alkyl calcium stearate and its compatibility with PVC and other polar resins are relatively small, which form a partial micro two phase interface inside the PVC resin, that is, the lubricant film.
The microscopic nature of its lubrication is that the local lubrication interface between the non polar long chain alkyl group and the polar resin chain segment is less than the force between the resin chain segments, and because there are many small pores in the resin chain segments, when the resin chain segments shift, the arbitrarily deformed alkyl is squeezed into adjacent areas. 
In the pores, it reduces the resistance of resin segment displacement and plays an internal lubrication role.
The use of calcium stearate alone in the formula can accelerate plasticization, improve melt viscosity, increase torque, and have a certain effect of demoulding, and the use of paraffin alone shows delayed plasticization, torque reduction, and no release effect.
When the calcium stearate and paraffin wax (polyethylene wax) are used in a certain proportion, the effect is good and the torque of the material can be reduced a lot. 
This is due to the infiltration of paraffin into the calcium stearate molecules, the strengthening of the lubrication, the strong synergistic effect and the improvement of the dispersing condition of the lubricating agent.
In practical application, the calcium stearate, as a PVC lubricant, does not only play the internal lubrication, and its lubrication is more complex. 
In the case of high lubricating ratio in other interior, it will reflect the effect of external lubrication. Moreover, it has synergistic effect with many lubricants.


Calcium Stearate plays a vital role across a wide range of industries’ applications.
Its uses extend across a vast array of industries and applications. These include:

Paper and Board – as a lubricant in coating colours
Candy Production – as a flow and surface conditioner and as a waterproofing agent
Pencils and Crayon Manufacture – as a lubricant
Concrete Production – for efflorescence and waterproofing
Pharmaceutical Industry – for tablet mould release, as an anti-tack agent, and as a gelling agent
Plastics Industry – for acid scavenging or neutralisation, for pigment wetting, accelerating fusion and reducing die swell
Defoamer Production
The influence of Calcium Stearate is opposite to the normal characteristics you would typically expect from a lubricant. Increasing the amount of Calcium Stearate leads to an increased melt viscosity and a decreased shear rate and volumetric flow rate.

Metal soaps are derived from long-chain fatty acids and a metal oxide compound. 
The fatty acids, in turn, are derived from a triglyceride (natural fats and vegetable oils, i.e. renewable feedstocks). 
Metal soaps – commonly known as metallic stearates – can be produced using various synthesis methods, e.g. precipitation and melting processes.

ATAMAN KIMYA offers an extensive portfolio of metal soaps with diverse properties. 
The portfolio includes calcium stearate, zinc stearate, magnesium stearate, sodium stearate and aluminum stearate. 
These products can be employed as acid scavengers, stabilizers, lubricants and release agents, among other applications, and some are ideally suited for use as gelling or hydrophobic agents. Metal soaps can enhance production processes, and, in many cases, they enable manufacturers to develop products with smooth surfaces and low friction.

Applications in diverse industries
In the plastics industry, metal soaps are used in the manufacture of PVC products, and during the processing of numerous plastics, including polyamide, polyethylene, polypropylene, ABS and fiber-reinforced plastics (SMC, BMC).

Metal soaps are also used in many other fields, and for a wide range of purposes:


Building industry: Hydrophobic agent

Paint / finish industry: Matting agent and abrasive

Grease industry: Thickener for the production of lubricants and lubricating greases

Rubber industry: Vulcanization aid, release agent and lubricant

Paper industry: Lubricant and release agent for sandpaper, chelating agent for pigments

Metal industry: Lubricant and release agent for powder metallurgy, wire drawing and tube drawing

Stationery and modeling clay: Lubricant for pencil leads and modeling clay 

Metal soaps are available in a variety of physical forms, such as powder, flakes, and sprayed granules that are easy to disperse and free-flowing. 
Other forms include pastilles and granules.

PRODUCTS OF ATAMAN KIMYA THAT MIGHT BE OF INTEREST: 

Lubricants 
ATAMAN KIMYA offers a wide range of internal and external lubricants for various applications.

Calcium Stearate
Calcium stearate is a very effective processing aid and release agent for plastics and rubber.

GMS Glycerol Monostearate >90%
In PVC, it increases the surface area of the granules improving plasticizer absorption and it is an effective internal lubricant offering synergistic co stabilizing properties.
It acts as internal mold release for PET, TPU and SAN and as a good slip agent in ABS.

Hydrogenated Castor Oil (HCO)
Slip additive in plastics and excellent internal lubricant for PVC.
Slip additive in paints and inks.
Flow control and dispersing additive in powder coatings, hot-melt adhesives and sealants.

PE Wax
Excellent external lubricant for plasticized and rigid PVC. It prevents the PVC melt from sticking and burning on the hot metal surfaces of the machine and improves the surface properties of the PVC products, such as gloss, smoothness and water repellency.
In impact-modified polystyrene, PE wax improves scratch resistance without impairing the mechanical and thermal properties.

Calcium-Zinc (Ca/Zn) PVC Stabilizers
ATAMAN KIMYA offers Ca/Zn stabilizers for the extrusion of PVC articles, like cables, pipes, compounds etc.


Applications of our products:
Fusion Promoter and stabilizer for PVC.
Lubricant for ABS and PS .
Neutralizer catalyst residues in PE and PP .
Anti-caking agent for » rubber pellets » .
Antistatic for polymer.
Waterproofing for concrete.
Ingredient for paper coatings .
Anti-caking agent for powder fire extinguisher .
Anti-caking agent for various powders .
Additive against secondary efflorescence on concrete.
 

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