COPPER SULFATE

CAS NUMBER: 7758-98-7
EC NUMBER: 631-506-5
MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 159,609 g/mol
MOLECULAR FORMULA: CuSO4

Copper sulfate, also known as bluestone, is a blue and odorless substance. 
Copper sulfate is produced industrially by treating copper metal with Copper sulfates oxides with hot concentrated sulfuric acid or dilute sulfuric acid. 
Copper sulfate is often purchased for laboratory use. 
Copper sulfate can also be produced by slow leaching of low-grade copper ore in air; Bacteria can be used to speed up the process.

Before melting, copper sulfate pentahydrate decomposes at 180 degrees, loses these two water formulas at 63 degrees, then two formulas at 109 degrees, and finally these two water formulas at 200 degrees. 
Copper sulfate is an essential trace element that is included in some over-the-counter multivitamin and mineral supplements, even though copper deficiency is quite rare and supplementation is rarely needed. 
The amounts of copper found in typical supplements has not been associated with serum enzyme elevations or with clinically apparent liver injury. 
However, accidental or intentional copper overdose can cause an acute liver injury and chronic ingestion of excessive amounts of copper can result in copper overload and chronic liver injury.

Copper sulfate is an inorganic compound that combines sulfur with copper. 
Copper sulfate can kill bacteria, algae, roots, plants, snails, and fungi. 
The toxicity of copper sulfate depends on the copper content. 

Copper sulfate is azurite blue crystal, produced by refining copper electrolyte generated during the electrolytic copper manufacturing process. 
Copper sulfate is widely used for copper plating, catalysts, and pigments. 
Due to Copper sulfates high and stable quality, Copper sulfate is highly evaluated, especially for plating use. 
In recent times, copper sulfate containing a low amount of impurities is required with the increase in density and the miniaturization of printed circuit boards. 
In response to this, we have developed a high-purity product with an extremely low amount of Fe, Ni, Pb, etc., to be added to our product lineup, in order to satisfy various needs.

Copper sulfate is a term that can refer to either of the following chemical compounds – cuprous sulfate (Cu2SO4), or cupric sulfate (CuSO4). 
However, the latter is the preferred compound described by the term ‘copper sulfate’. 
The systematic name for CuSO4 is copper(II) sulfate, but Copper sulfate is also referred to as blue vitriol, Roman vitriol, the vitriol of copper, and bluestone.
Copper sulfate is also known as cupric sulfate. 

Copper sulfate is a compound whose chemical formula is expressed as cuso4. 
Depending on the degree of hydration of the salt, there are a number of compounds. 
Although Copper sulfate is a light green or gray-like powder in anhydrous form, the most common form of Pentahydrate is bright blue. 

Copper is an essential mineral. 
Copper sulfate can be found in the environment, foods, and water. 
Copper sulfate has been registered for use in pesticide products in the United States since 1956.
Products containing copper sulfate can be liquids, dusts, or crystals. 
There are several dozen active products containing copper sulfate on the market in the United States. 
Some of these have been approved for use in organic agriculture.

Copper sulfate, also known as copper sulphate, are the inorganic compounds with the chemical formula CuSO4(H2O)x, where x can range from 0 to 5. 
The pentahydrate (x = 5) is the most common form. 
Older names for this compound include blue vitriol, bluestone, vitriol of copper, and Roman vitriol.
Copper sulfate is a blue, odorless substance. 
Copper sulfate's intensity is 1,02 g/cm³. 
Dissolves fully in water. 

Copper sulfate is an inorganic compound that combines copper and sulfate. 
In Copper sulfates liquid or powdered form Copper sulfate’s most commonly called basic copper sulfate, BSC copper fungicide, CP basic sulfate, or tri-basic copper sulfate. 
In Copper sulfates solid, crystal-shaped stone form (known as a pentahydrate) Copper sulfate’s known as blue stone or blue vitriol for Copper sulfates blue color. 
In this form, Copper sulfate’s a popular raw material for producing other types of copper salts.

A very small amount of Pentahydrate can be very harmful to the environment. 
May irritate skin and eyes. 
If swallowed, Copper sulfate causes throat irritation. 

Copper sulfate has octahedral molecular, geometry and paramagnetic properties. 
Their exothermic dissolution in water forms the (cu(h2o)6) complex. 
Copper sulfate is also known chemically as eye stone or blue vitreous pathway.
Copper sulfate is formed as a result of chemically diluting copper oxide with sulfuric acid or by treating copper metal with concentrated sulfuric acid and temperature. 
In order to get away from the oxidizing effect of concentrated sulfuric acid and to increase Copper sulfates efficiency, the reaction conditions are changed and the production takes place by reacting the diluted hot sulfuric acid with plenty of air as an oxidant. 
The anhydrous form of copper sulfate is known as chalcocyanite and is rarely found in nature. 
Also known as hydrated copper sulfate, heptahydrate.

The most common form of copper sulfate is Copper sulfates pentahydrate, given by the chemical formula CuSO4.5H2O. 
This form is characterized by its bright blue colour. 
However, Copper sulfate can be noted that the anhydrous form of this salt is a powder that is white.
The CuSO4 molecule consists of an ionic bond between the copper cation (Cu2+) and the sulfate anion (SO42-). 
An illustration describing the structure of a copper sulfate molecule is provided below.

Copper sulfate pentahydrate decomposes before melting. 
Upon heating at 63°C (145°F), Copper sulfate loses two water molecules, followed by two more at 109°C (228°F) and the last water molecule at 200°C (392°F). 
Dehydration continues with the breakdown of tetraacuopperin (2+), two opposing aqua groups disappear to give a diacoper (2+) fragment. 
The second dehydration stage occurs when the last two battery packs are lost. 
Complete dehydration occurs when the unbound water molecule is lost. 
At 650 °C (1,202 °F), copper(II) sulfate decomposes into copper(II) oxide (CuO) and sulfur trioxide (SO3).

Copper sulfate decomposes into sulfur dioxide and copper oxide at 650 degrees. 
Copper sulfate reacts with different concentrated hydroxide acid. 
As a result of the reaction, the blue color of the solution becomes green due to the formation of tetrachloroethylene.

Copper in copper sulfate binds to proteins in fungi and algae. 
This damages the cells causing them to leak and die. 
In snails, copper disrupts the normal function of the skin cells and enzymes.
Commercial copper sulfate is usually about 98% pure copper sulfate and may contain small amounts of water. 
Anhydrous Copper sulfate is 39.81 mass percent copper and 60.19 percent sulfate, and in its blue, aqueous form Copper sulfate is 25.47% copper, 38.47% sulfate (12.82% sulfur) and 36.06% water, by mass. 
Four kinds of crystal sizes are provided, according to the use of large crystals (10-40 mm), small crystals (2-10 mm), snow crystals (less than 2 mm) and wind-scavenging dust (less than 0.15 mm).

The largest health benefit of copper sulfate is that Copper sulfate is used to control bacteria and fungus growth on fruits, vegetables, and other crops, as Copper sulfate’s been registered for pesticide use in the United States since 1956. 
Copper sulfate includes mildew, which can cause leaf spots and plant spoilage, as copper sulfate binds to the proteins in fungus, damaging the cells and causing them to die.
Copper sulfate is made before melting copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate. 
Two lose their water upon heating at 63°C (145°F), followed by two more at 109°C (228°F) and son at 200°C (392°F).
Dehydration continues with the breakdown of tetraacuopperin (2+), with two opposing aqua groups presenting as a diacoper (2+). 
Second dehydration, son can be from two battery groups. 
Complete dehydration, bound water integration may be possible. 650 °C (1,202 °F), copper (II) oxide (CuO) and sulfur trioxide (SO3).

Copper Sulfate Monohydrate is a water soluble Copper source for uses compatible with sulfates. 
Copper Sulfate is generally immediately available in most volumes. 
High purity, submicron and nanopowder forms may be considered. 
American Elements copper sulfate facilities manufacture using a process that was developed to provide a non-caking high purity copper sulfate suitable for both industrial and agricultural applications. 

Copper Sulfate is particularly useful in demanding applications, such as copper plating and electroless copper plating. 
The product contains no non-caking agents. 
We also produce Copper Sulfate Solution. 
American Elements produces to many standard grades when applicable, including Mil Spec (military grade); ACS, Reagent and Technical Grade; Food, Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Grade; Optical Grade, USP and EP/BP (European Pharmacopoeia/British Pharmacopoeia) and follows applicable ASTM testing standards. 
Typical and custom packaging is available. 

Copper sulfate, also called bluestone, is a "blue and odorless substance. 
Copper sulfate is produced so that Copper sulfate can be treated or applied to copper metal with its oxides of hot concentrated sulfuric acid with dilute sulfuric acid. 
Bought sent off for the lab. 
Copper can also be produced by graded copper quality at drop in rate." ; can be used to speed up the process.
Copper sulfate can be produced starting from the pure copper room, such as copper air conditioner pipes, telephone cables, which are collected for recycling. 
250 grams of electronically pure copper sulfuric acid is melted to make 1 kilogram of copper sulfate. 
A blue solution is formed. 

Normal weather conditions are not sufficient for the copper in the solution to reach 33 percent. 
By heating the sulfuric acid and the metallic copper material in it, Copper sulfate allows the copper to melt more effectively in the sulfuric acid. 
By giving plenty of oxygen during melting, oxidation of the surface of the metallic copper in the boiler and the sulfuric acid solution of the oxidized surface will melt faster. 
Sulfuric acid can dissolve copper more effectively. 
The purpose of doing this is to allow the copper to dissolve in the sulfuric acid solution. 
Copper sulfate takes quite a long time to do this. 
Nitric acid can be added to shorten the time.

Copper sulfate's about 98% pure sulfate on the trade going and little water training. 
Anhydrous Copper sulfate is 39.81 mass percent and 60.19 percent sulfate, and is blue, aqueous, 25.47% by mass, 38.47% sulfate (12.82% sulfur), and 36.06% water. 
Small size of four kinds, according to large crystals (10-40mm), crystals (2-10mm), snow crystals (less than 2mm) and accelerator powder (less than 0.15mm).
Copper sulfate can be prepared by treating metallic copper with heated and concentrated sulphuric acid, or by treating the oxides of copper with dilute sulphuric acid. 

Copper sulfate can be noted that the oxidation state exhibited by the copper atom in a CuSO4 molecule is +2.
Copper sulfate is also known as blue vitriol, this substance was made by the action of sulfuric acid on elemental copper. 
The bright-blue crystals are soluble in water and alcohol. 
Mixed with ammonia, copper sulfate was used in liquid filters. 
The most common application for copper sulfate was combining Copper sulfate with potassium bromide for making copper bromide bleach for intensification and toning. 
Some photographers used copper sulfate as a restrainer in ferrous sulfate developers that were used in the collodion process.
When combined with lime and water (called a Bordeaux mixture) copper sulfate works as a protective fungicide and is used to protect plants during seed treatment before they grow.

In tropical climates, Copper sulfate’s used as a molluscicide, which is a snail bait that controls pests like snails and slugs from damaging plants and crops.
Copper sulfate is also used in order to help with public health and safety. 
Copper sulfate destroys algae and bacteria caused by growing algae in swimming pools in addition to preventing athlete’s foot, a fungal infection that grows in between the toes in warm climates (such as an indoor swimming pool). 
This is done by mixing Copper sulfate into the flooring mixtures of showers, locker rooms, and swimming pools to prevent the bacteria from being able to live on the flooring indefinitely.

Copper sulfate is a salt created by treating cupric oxide with sulfuric acid. 
This forms as large, bright blue crystals containing five molecules of water (CuSO4∙5H2O) and is also known as blue vitriol. 
The anhydrous salt is created by heating the hydrate to 150 °C (300 °F). 
Copper sulfate is used primarily for agricultural purposes, as a pesticide, germicide, feed additive, and soil additive. 
Some of Copper sulfates secondary uses are as a raw material in the preparation of other copper compounds, as a reagent in analytic chemistry, as an electrolyte for batteries and electroplating baths, and in medical practice as a locally applied fungicide, bactericide, and astringent.

Copper Sulfate is a nutrient supplement and processing aid most often used in the pentahydrate form. 
This form occurs as large, deep blue or ultramarine, triclinic crystals, as blue granules, or as a light blue powder. 
The ingredient is prepared by the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal.
Copper sulfate can be used in infant formula. 
Copper sulfate is also termed cupric sulfate.

Copper is an essential trace element and an important catalyst for heme synthesis and iron absorption. 
After zinc and iron, copper is the third most abundant trace element found in the human body. 
Copper is a noble metal and Copper sulfates properties include high thermal and electrical conductivity, low corrosion, alloying ability, and malleability. 

Copper is a component of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUD) and the release of copper is necessary for their important contraceptive effects. 
The average daily intake of copper in the USA is approximately 1 mg Cu with the diet being a primary.
Interestingly, the dysregulation of copper has been studied with a focus on neurodegenerative diseases, such as Wilson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. 
Data from clinical observations of the neurotoxic effects of copper may provide the basis for future treatments affecting copper and its homeostasis.

Copper sulphate, blue stone, blue vitriol are all common names for pentahydrated cupric sulphate, Cu S04 5 H20, which is the best known and the most widely used of the copper salts. 
Indeed Copper sulfate is often the starting raw material for the production of many of the other copper salts. 
Today in the world there are more than 100 manufacturers and the world's consumption is around 200,000 tons per annum of which Copper sulfate is estimated that approximately three-quarters is used in agriculture, principally as a fungicide.
Manufacture In the production of copper sulphate virgin copper is seldom, if ever, used as the starting raw material. 

Copper ores are used in countries where these are mined. 
For the bulk of the world's production nonferrous scrap is the general source. 
The scrap is refined and the molten metal poured into water to produce roughly spherical porous pieces about the size of marbles which are termed "shot". 
This shot is dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid in the presence of air to produce a hot saturated liquor which, if the traditional large crystals of copper sulphate are required, is allowed to cool slowly in large cooling vats into which strips of lead are hung to provide a surface for the crystals to grow on. 
If the granulated (snow) crystal grades are desired, the cooling process is accelerated by agitating the liquor in water cooled vessels.

Other methods of production are:
-By heating copper scrap with sulphur to produce copper sulphide which is then oxidised to form copper sulphate.
-By heating copper sulphide ores to produce copper oxide which is then treated with sulphuric acid to form copper sulphate.
-By slow leaching in air of piles of low grade ore. Bacterial action is sometimes employed to hasten the process. 
-A solution of copper sulphate drains away from such heaps.
-Commercially copper sulphate contains 25 % metallic copper and is sold with a guaranteed minimum purity of 98 % copper sulphate. 
-Copper sulfate is produced in a number of grades varying from large crystal lumps, of 25 mm or more in diameter from which Copper sulfate appropriately derives the name bluestone, to very fine powders of almost the fineness of talcum powder. 
-The four commonest grades, based on crystal diameter sizes, are:
-Large crystals (from 10 mm to 40 mm)
-Small crystals (from 2 mm to 10 mm)
-Granulated or snow crystals (less than 2 mm)
-Windswept powder (less than 0.15 mm)

USES:
Copper sulphate is a very versatile chemical with as extensive a range of uses in industry as Copper sulfate has in agriculture. 
Copper sulfates principal employment is in agriculture, and, up to a generation or so ago, about its only uses in industry were as a mordant for dyeing and for electroplating. 
Today Copper sulfate is being employed in many industrial processes:

-The synthetic fibre industry has found an application for Copper sulfate in the production of their raw material
-The metal industry uses large quantities of copper sulphate as an electrolyte in copper refining, for copper coating steel wire prior to wire drawing and in various copper plating processes
-The mining industry employs Copper sulfate as an activator in the concentration by froth flotation of lead, zinc, cobalt and gold ores
-The printing trade takes Copper sulfate as an electrolyte in the production of electrotype and as an etching agent for process engraving
-The paint industry uses Copper sulfate in anti-fouling paints and it plays a part in the colouring of glass.
-Indeed, today there is hardly an industry which does not have some small use for copper sulphate. 
-In the table below, some of the many uses of copper sulphate are listed.

MAJOR USES:    
-Preparation of Bordeaux and Burgundy mixtures for use as fungicides
-Manufacture of other copper fungicides such as copper-lime dust, tribasic copper sulphate, copper carbonae and cuprous oxide
-Manufacture of insecticides such as copper arsenite and Paris green
-Control of fungus diseases
-Correction of copper deficiency in soils
-Correction of copper deficiency in animals
-Growth stimulant for fattening pigs and broiler chickens
-Molluscicide for the destruction of slugs and snails, particularly the snail host of the liver fluke

OTHER USES:    
-Seed dressing
-Soil steriliser, e.g Cheshunt compound (a mixture of copper sulphate and ammonium carbonate) to prevent ‘damping-off’ disease of tomato etc.
-Control and prevention of foot rot in sheep and cattle
-Bacteriastat for addition to sheep dips
-Disinfectant in prevention of the spread of swine erysepelas and white scours in calves
-Control of scum in farm ponds
-Plant nutrient in rice fields
-Preservative for wooden posts, wooden buildings, etc
-Ingredient of vermin repellents, e.g for application to  bark of trees against rabbits
-Stimulant of latex yield on rubber plantations
-Protection against algal growths on flower pots

PUBLIC HEALTH AND MEDICINE
-Destruction of algal blooms in reservoirs and swimming pools
-Prevention of the spread of athletes foot in warm climates, by incorporation in the flooring mixture of swimming baths
-Control of bilharzia in tropical countries, as a molluscicide
-Prevention of malaria, in the preparation of Paris green for use against mosquito larvae
-Antiseptic and germicide against fungus infections
-Catalyst or raw material for the preparation of copper catalysts used in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products

INDUSTRY
-Adhesives    
-Preservative in casein and other glues
-Additive to book binding pastes and glues, for insecticidal purposes
-Additive to animal and silicate glues to give water resistance

BUILDING:    
-Timber preservtive and in the preparawtion of other wood preservatives, e.g oil-based copper naphthenates and water-based copper/chrome/arsenic for the prevention of woodworms and wood rots
-Ingredient of plaster to prevent fungus infection, e.g to prevent the spread of dry rot
-Ingredient of concrete, both as a colouring matter and as an antiseptic, e.g for use in and around swimming pools
-Modification of the setting of concrete
-Protection against lichens, moulds and similar growths on asbestos cement roofing and other building materials
-Control of the growth of tree roots in sewers

The pentahydrate (CuSO4·5H2O), the most commonly encountered salt, is bright blue. 
Copper sulfate exothermically dissolves in water to give the aquo complex [Cu(H2O)6]2+, which has octahedral molecular geometry. 
The structure of the solid pentahydrate reveals a polymeric structure wherein copper is again octahedral but bound to four water ligands. 
The Cu(II)(H2O)4 centers are interconnected by sulfate anions to form chains. 
Anhydrous copper sulfate is a light grey powder.
Copper sulfate is commonly included in teenager chemistry sets. 

Copper sulfate is often used to grow crystals in schools and in copper plating experiments, despite its toxicity. 
Copper sulfate is often used to demonstrate an exothermic reaction, in which steel wool or magnesium ribbon is placed in an aqueous solution of CuSO4. 
Copper sulfate is used to demonstrate the principle of mineral hydration. 
The pentahydrate form, which is blue, is heated, turning the copper sulfate into the anhydrous form which is white, while the water that was present in the pentahydrate form evaporates. 
When water is then added to the anhydrous compound, Copper sulfate turns back into the pentahydrate form, regaining its blue color, and is known as blue vitriol. 
Copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate can easily be produced by crystallization from solution as copper(II) sulfate, which is hygroscopic.

Copper sulphate, blue stone, blue vitriol are all common names for pentahydrated cupric sulphate, CuSO45H2O, which is the best known and the most widely used of the copper salts. 
Indeed Copper sulfate is often the starting raw material for the production of many of the other copper salts.
Copper sulfate is employed at a limited level in organic synthesis. 
The anhydrous salt is used as a dehydrating agent for forming and manipulating acetal groups. 
The hydrated salt can be intimately mingled with potassium permanganate to give an oxidant for the conversion of primary alcohols.

Copper sulfate is produced industrially by treating copper metal with hot concentrated sulfuric acid or its oxides with dilute sulfuric acid. 
For laboratory use, copper sulfate is usually purchased. 
Copper sulfate can also be produced by slowly leaching low grade copper ore in air; bacteria may be used to hasten the process.
Commercial copper sulfate is usually about 98% pure copper sulfate, and may contain traces of water. 
Anhydrous Copper sulfate is 39.81 percent copper and 60.19 percent sulfate by mass, and in its blue, hydrous form, Copper sulfate is 25.47% copper, 38.47% sulfate (12.82% sulfur) and 36.06% water by mass. 
Four types of crystal size are provided based on its usage: large crystals (10–40 mm), small crystals (2–10 mm), snow crystals (less than 2 mm), and windswept powder (less than 0.15 mm).

Copper sulfate appears as a white or off-white solid. 
Melting point 200°C with decomposition. 
Non-combustible.
Copper(II) sulfate is a metal sulfate compound having copper(2+) as the metal ion. Copper sulfate has a role as a sensitiser, a fertilizer and an emetic. 
Copper sulfate contains a copper(2+).

USAGE AREAS:
-An additive for bookbinding pastes and glues to protect paper from insect bites in printing,
-As a water-resistant and disinfectant concrete admixture in the building.
-As a coloring component in works of art, especially glasses and pottery
-Copper sulfate is used as a blue colored substance in the manufacture of fireworks.
-In decoration, copper sulfate adds color to cement, metals and ceramics.
-Copper sulfate corrects copper deficiencies in soil and animals and promotes the growth of livestock.
-In decoration, copper sulfate adds color to cement, metals and ceramics. 
-Some batteries, electrodes and wire contain copper sulfate. 
-Copper sulfate is used in printing ink and hair dye and creates a green color in fireworks.

USES:

Copper sulfate pentahydrate is used as a fungicide. However, some fungi are capable of adapting to elevated levels of copper ions.
Bordeaux mixture, a suspension of copper(II) sulfate (CuSO4) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), is used to control fungus on grapes, melons, and other berries. 
Copper sulfate is produced by mixing a water solution of copper sulfate and a suspension of slaked lime.
Cheshunt compound, a commercial mixture of copper sulfate and ammonium carbonate (discontinued), is used in horticulture to prevent damping off in seedlings. 
As a non-agricultural herbicide, is Copper sulfate used to control invasive aquatic plants and the roots of plants situated near water pipes. 
Copper sulfate is used in swimming pools as an algicide. 
A dilute solution of copper sulfate is used to treat aquarium fishes for parasitic infections, and is also used to remove snails from aquariums and zebra mussels from water pipes. 

Copper ions are highly toxic to fish, however. 
Most species of algae can be controlled with very low concentrations of copper sulfate.
Copper(II) sulfate has attracted many niche applications over the centuries. 
In industry copper sulfate has multiple applications. 
In printing Copper sulfate is an additive to book binding pastes and glues to protect paper from insect bites; in building Copper sulfate is used as an additive to concrete to provide water resistance and disinfectant qualities. 
Copper sulfate can be used as a coloring ingredient in artworks, especially glasses and potteries. 
Copper sulfate is also used in firework manufacture as a blue coloring agent, but Copper sulfate is not safe to mix copper sulfate with chlorates when mixing firework powders.

Copper sulphate is a very versatile chemical with as extensive a range of uses in industry as Copper sulfate has in agriculture. 
Copper sulfate's principal employment is in agriculture, and this role is described in some detail in the next section.
Copper sulfate can be used as fungicide, herbicide, pesticide. 
Maroon slurry when Copper sulfate meets lime; When mixed with sodium carbonate, Copper sulfate is an active ingredient in the use of pesticides, which is called burgundy slurry and generally in order to combat fungal diseases in vineyards and orchards. 
Preparation of cheshunt composition, which is a mixture of copper sulfate and ammonium carbonate, which precipitates fungal disease in seedlings in horticultural cultivation, falls into a separate field of combination. 
Copper sulfate is used as a herbicide against the roots of aquatic plants invading water pipes. 

Copper sulfate is used as a cleaner in swimming pools in the form of algae remover. 
Usually with very low concentrations of copper, algae species can be controlled. 
A dilute sulfate solution is used to treat aquarium fish parasitic infections. 
Copper sulfate solution can also be used to kill snails in aquariums. 
Since copper sulfate has a very poisonous content for fish, Copper sulfate is necessary to pay attention to its dosage. 

Copper sulfate is also very effective in inhibiting the growth of bacteria such as Escherichia coli.
Up to a generation or so ago about Copper sulfates only uses in industry were as a mordant for dyeing and for electroplating, but today Copper sulfate is being employed in many industrial processes. 
The synthetic fibre industry has found an application for Copper sulfate in the production of their raw material. 
The metal industry uses large quantities of copper sulphate as an electrolyte in copper refining, for copper coating steel wire prior to wire drawing and in various copper plating processes. 
The mining industry employs Copper sulfate as an activator in the concentration by froth flotation of lead, zinc, cobalt and gold ores. 

The printing trade takes Copper sulfate as an electrolyte in the production of electrotype and as an etching agent for process engraving. 
The paint industry uses Copper sulfate in anti-fouling paints and Copper sulfate plays a part in the colouring of glass. 
Indeed, today there is hardly an industry which does not have some small use for copper sulphate. 
In Table A some of the many uses of copper sulphate are listed.
In agriculture, Copper sulfate forms the basis for manufacturing the agricultural fungicide Bordeaux Mixture and is also used as an algaecide and molluscicide, as well as to correct copper deficient soil.

Copper sulphate is used as an additive in animal feed to promote growth and correct copper deficiencies in the animals.
Copper sulfate's many industrial uses include applications as a preservative or additive in glues, paints, leather, synthetic fibres, textiles, hair dye products, fireworks, chlorophyll and wrapping paper for fruit, among others.
The Copper Sulfate feed grade, is used in the elaboration of mineral premixes, that complement the proper feeding of livestock and poultry. 
The fine crystals and free flow characteristics of our Copper Sulfate, make Copper sulfate ideal to combine with other nutrients,allowing the animal to achieve a balanced diet.
Copper sulfate include purity and copper content, as well as its physical ones, in which the crystal size is very important, we can safely say, that the best animal feed products are formulated with Nordfeed´s Copper Sulfate.
Basic chemistry sets that are used as educational tools generally include copper sulfate. 
The chemical compound CuSO4 has a wide range of applications. 

Some of these uses are listed below.
-The pentahydrate of this compound, CuSO4.5H2O is used as a fungicide due to its ability to kill several fungi.
-Copper sulfate is used in Benedict’s solution and in Fehling’s solution, which is used in testing for reducing sugars.
-Copper sulfate is also used to test blood samples for diseases like anaemia.
-CuSO4 is mixed with KMnO4 (potassium permanganate) to form an oxidant which can be used in the conversion of 1o
-Copper sulfate is also used as a dye fixative in the process of vegetable dyeing.
-Solutions of copper sulfate in water can be used as a resistive element liquid resistors.
-Copper sulfate can also be used as a decorative since it can add colour to cement, ceramics, and other metals as well.
-Copper sulfate is also added to bookbinding glues in order to protect the printed paper from insects.
-Lowering a copper etching plate into the copper sulfate solution.
-Copper sulfate was once used to kill bromeliads, which serve as mosquito breeding sites. 
-Copper sulfate is used as a molluscicide to treat bilharzia in tropical countries.

CHEMICAL:    
-Preparation of catalysts for use in many industries
-Purification of gases, e.g removal of hydrogen chloride and hydrogen sulphide
-Precipitation promoter in purifying zinc sulphate solutions
-Precipitation of alkaloids as double salts from crude extracts
-Source of other copper compounds such as copper carbonate silicate/arsenite/aceto-arsenite/resinate/stearate/tartrate/oleate naphthenate/chromate/chlorate/alginate/fluoride/hydroxide/cuprous oxide/chloride/cyanide and cuprammonium compounds

DECORATE TRADES:   
-Colouring glass
-Colouring cement and plaster
-Colouring ceramic wares
-Alteration of metal colours, e.g darkening of zinc, colouring aluminium

DYESTUFFS    
-Reagent in the preparation of dyestuffs intermediates
-Catalyst or raw material for the preparation of copper catalysts, e.g preparation of phenols from diago compounds, preparation of phthalocyanine dyes

Copper is an essential element and Copper sulfate is required to support proper health. 
The human body adjusts its internal environment to maintain copper equilibrium. 
Copper sulfate is absorbed into the body if eaten or inhaled. 
Copper sulfate then rapidly enters the bloodstream. 
Once inside, copper moves throughout the body. 
Copper sulfate then binds to proteins and enters different organs.

Copper naturally occurs in the environment. 
Copper in soil may originate from natural sources, pesticides, or other sources. 
These may include mining, industry, architectural material, and motor vehicles. 
Copper accumulates mainly at the surface of soils, where Copper sulfate binds tightly and persists.

Copper sulfate is highly soluble in water and Copper sulfate can bind to sediments. 
Copper is regulated by plants because Copper sulfate is an essential mineral. 
Too much copper can be toxic to plants as Copper sulfate inhibits photosynthesis.
Excess copper is excreted and not often stored in the body. 
Copper can be collected in the liver but Copper sulfate can also be found in stomach secretions, bone, brain, hair, heart, intestine, kidneys, muscle, nails, skin, and spleen. 
Copper is mainly excreted in the feces. 
Small amounts can also be eliminated in hair and nails. 
In one study, researchers found Copper sulfate takes 13 to 33 days for half of a large copper dose to be eliminated from the body.

LEATHER:    
-Mordant in dyeing
-Reagent in tanning processes

METAL AND ELECTRICAL 
-Electrolyte in copper refining
-Electrolyte in copper plating and electro forming
-Electrolyte manufacture of cuprous compounds, e.g cuprous oxide
-Constituent of the electrodes and electrolytes in batteries
-Electrolyte in the manufacture of copper powder
-Electrolyte in aluminium plating and anodising
-Pickling copper wire, etc, prior to enamelling
-Providing a suitable surface for marking out iron and steel

MINING    
-Flotation reagent in the concentration of ores, e.g zinc blende
-Raw material for the manufacture of copper naphthenate and other copper compounds for use in anti-fouling paints

PAINT    
-Preparation of certain varnish or paint dryers, e.g copper oleate, copper stearate
-Preparation of certain pigments, e.g copper chromate, copper ferrocyanide, copper phthalocyanine

PRINTING:
-Etching agent for process engraving
-Electrolyte in the preparation of electrotype
-Ingredient of printing inks

SYNTHETIC RUBBER AND PETROLEUM
-Preparation of catalysts used in cracking certain gaseous and liquid petroleum
-Fractions
-Preparation of cuprous chloride, used in the purification of butadiene and in the separation of acetylene derivatives
-Preparation of catalysts used in chlorinating rubber latexPurification of petroleum oils

TEXTILES    
-Preparation of copper compounds for rot-proofing canvas and other fabrics
-Rot-proofing sandbags
-Mordant, especially in calico printing
-Cuprammonium process for the production of rayon
-Production of aniline black and diazo colours for dyeing
-‘After coppering’ to increase the fastness of dyes
-Catalyst in the manufacture of cellulose ethers and in cellulose acetylation

MISCELLANEOUS    
-Improving the burning qualities of coke
-Laboratory analytical work
-Ingredient of laundry marking ink
-Dyeing of hair and horn
-Ingredient of hair dyes of the phenylene diamine or pyrogallol type
-Preparation of chlorophyll as a colouring material for foodstuffs
-Imparting a green colour in fireworks
-Activator in the preparation of active carbons
-Preservative for wood pulp
-Preservation of fishing nets and hides on trawls
-Obtaining a blue-back finish on steel
-Treatment of carbon brushes
-Ingredient of the solution used for preserving plant specimens in their natural colours
-Impregnation in fruit wrapping papers to prevent storage rots

Agricultural Uses:    
Fungicide, Algaecide, Bactericide, Herbicide, Molluscicide: Copper sulfate is a fungicide used to control bacterial and fungal diseases of fruit, vegetable, nut, and field crops. 
These diseases include mildew, leaf spots, blights, and apple scab. 
Copper sulfate is used as a protective fungicide (Bordeaux mixture) for leaf application and seed treatment.
Copper sulfate is also used as an algaecide and herbicide, and to kill slugs and snails in irrigation and municipal water treatment systems. 
Copper sulfate has been used to control Dutch elm disease. It is available as a dust, wettable powder, or liquid concentrate. 
Copper sulfate is used as a fungicide and algaecide, in veterinary medicine and others. 
Copper sulfate is also used todetect and to remove trace amounts of water from alcohols and organic compounds.

APPLICATION AREAS:
-Metal revetment 
-wood industry
-mining sector
-bait industry 
-agriculture industry 
-breeding 
-in the pools 
-fabric dying and pharmacy

Properties:
The physical and chemical properties of copper sulfate are discussed in this subsection. 
Copper sulfate can be noted that the properties of anhydrous CuSO4 and CuSO4.5H2O vary considerably, and have been highlighted separately.

Physical Properties of Copper sulfate:
-The molar mass of the anhydrous and the pentahydrate forms of copper sulfate are 159.609 grams/mole and 249.685 grams per mole respectively.
-Anhydrous Copper sulfate has a grey-white, powdery appearance whereas the pentahydrate has a bright blue colour.
-The densities of the anhydrous and pentahydrate forms are 3.6 grams per cubic centimetre and 2.286 g.cm-3
-Both hydrated and anhydrous copper sulfates tend to decompose on heating and hence do not have exact boiling points.
-Anhydrous Copper sulfate has an orthorhombic crystal structure whereas CuSO4.5H2O crystals have triclinic structures.

Chemical Properties of Copper sulfate:
-The copper ions present in copper sulfate react with the chloride ions belonging to concentrated hydrochloric acid, leading to the formation of tetrachlorocuprate(II).
-The chemical equation for this reaction is given by Cu2+ + 4Cl– → CuCl42-
-When heated to 650oC, CuSO4 undergoes a decomposition reaction to yield cupric oxide (CuO) and SO3 (sulfur trioxide).
-Copper sulfate is highly soluble in water, with solubility values of 1.055 molal and 1.502 molal ate 10oC and 30oC respectively.
-A typical example of a single displacement reaction where one metal displaces another is the reaction between iron and copper sulfate, given by the reaction Fe + CuSO4 → FeSO4 + Cu

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES of Copper sulfate:
Copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate decomposes before melting. 
Copper sulfate loses two water molecules upon heating at 63 °C (145 °F), followed by two more at 109 °C (228 °F) and the final water molecule at 200 °C (392 °F).
Dehydration proceeds by decomposition of the tetraaquacopper(2+) moiety, two opposing aqua groups are lost to give a diaquacopper(2+) moiety. 
The second dehydration step occurs when the final two aqua groups are lost. 
Complete dehydration occurs when the final unbound water molecule is lost. 
At 650 °C (1,202 °F), copper(II) sulfate decomposes into copper(II) oxide (CuO) and sulfur trioxide (SO3).
Cupric sulfate, a bluish crystalline powder, also known as hydrocyanite and copper sulfate, vitriol, chalcanthite, and bluestone, is an azure blue material used in the It is used in the leather industry. 

Copper sulfate is prepared by the reaction of sulfuric acid and copper. 
Copper sulfate is also obtained as a by-product from copper refineries.
Copper sulfate (anhydrous form) is green or gray-white powder, whereas pentahydrate, the most commonly encountered salt, is bright blue. 
The anhydrous form occurs as a rare mineral known as chalcocyanite. 
Hydrated copper sulfate occurs in nature as chalcanthite. 

Copper sulfate is made by the action of sulfuric acid with a variety of copper compounds. 
Copper sulfate is used in hair dyes, coloring glass, processing of leather, textiles, and in pyrotechnics as a green colorant. 
Copper sulfate pentahydrate is used as a fungicide and a mixture with lime is called Bordeux mixture and is used to control fungus on grapes, melons, and other berries, as a molluscicide for the destruction of slugs and snails, particularly the snail host of the liver fl uke. 
Copper sulfate is used in Fehling and Benedict’s solution to test reducing sugars

Physical State: Powder Solid
Appearance: Grey
Odor: Odorless
Ph: 3.5-4.5
Melting Point/Range: 200 °C / 392 °F
Specific Gravity: 3.6
Solubility: 203 g/L (20°C)
Molecular Formula: Cu O4 S
Molecular Weight: 159.6
POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS:

While copper is a trace element that occurs naturally in plants and animals, copper sulfate is not and can act as an irritant when someone is exposed to it. 
Crops and agriculture are cleaned after being treated with copper sulfate and there’s minimal risk to ingesting Copper sulfate from a treated crop as Copper sulfate primarily binds itself to soil sediments.
Copper sulfate is possible to be exposed to copper sulfate if you use Copper sulfate for farming or gardening purposes. 
If absorbed through the skin or eyes copper sulfate may cause a burning, stinging sensation. 
This could result in itching, eczema, conjunctivitis, inflammation, fluid buildup or cornea irritation if exposed to the eyes.
Should copper sulfate be ingested, Copper sulfate’s only mildly toxic as Copper sulfate’s most often vomited up relatively quickly due to the extreme irritation Copper sulfate causes on the gastrointestinal tract. 
If someone consumes copper sulfate and does not vomit, they could be at risk of copper sulfate poisoning.

Signs of copper sulfate poisoning include:
-Burning sensations in the chest or abdomen
-A metallic taste in the mouth
-Nausea
-Headaches
-Diarrhea (which may have a blue or green color to Copper sulfate from the compound’s hue)
-Excessive sweating
-Regardless of whether vomiting has occurred or not, anyone who consumes copper sulfate should go to the ER to rule poisoning out as well as make sure there’s been no damage to the brain, liver, kidneys, or intestinal lining of the stomach. 
-Though extremely rare, if left untreated, high-dose exposure to copper sulfate in some situations can cause death.

Copper sulfate can cause severe eye irritation. 
Eating large amounts of copper sulfate can lead to nausea, vomiting, and damage to body tissues, blood cells, the liver, and kidneys. 
With extreme exposures, shock and death can occur.
Copper sulfate affects animals in a similar way. 
Signs of poisoning in animals include lack of appetite, vomiting, dehydration, shock, and death. 
Diarrhea and vomit may have a green to blue color.

SYNONYM:
7758-98-7
CUPRIC SULFATE
Copper(II) sulfate
Cupric sulfate anhydrous
Copper sulphate
Copper(2+) sulfate
Copper(ii) sulfate, anhydrous
Blue stone
Copper monosulfate
Copper II sulfate
Cupricsulfate
Sulfuric acid copper(2+) salt (1:1)
Copper sulfate (1:1)
CuSO4
copper;sulfate
UNII-KUW2Q3U1VV
Registration dossier
Copper sulfate
copper sulfate
Copper Sulphate
Copper sulphate
copper sulphate
Copper Sulphate
Copper sulphate
copper sulphateblue stone
Blue Vitriol
copper (II) Sulfate
Copper (II) Sulphate pentahydrated
Copper Sulfate
Copper Sulphate
Copper sulphate
MFCD00010981copper (2+) sulphate
Copper (II) sulfate
copper (II) sulfate
copper (II) sulfate, pentahydrate
Copper (II) Sulphate
Copper (II) sulphate
Copper (ii) sulphate
copper (II) sulphate
Copper (II) Sulphate Pentahydrate
 

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