ELTESOL SX 93

ELTESOL SX 93 = Sodium xylene sulfonate Powder or Granule = SOLUBILIZER = HYDROTOPE

ELTESOL SX 93 is a sodium xylene sulphonate powder. 
ELTESOL SX 93 acts as a hydrotrope and may be used to increase the solubility of other compounds. 
In conjunction with non-ionic surfactants ELTESOL SX 93 will raise the cloud point of the solution allowing clear liquids to be obtained at higher temperatures, enabling additional control of the foaming characteristics and performance. 
ELTESOL SX 93 may also be used to reduce the viscosity of concentrated surfactants and formulations.

ELTESOL SX 93 is an anionic surfactant used in liquid detergent, heavy duty cleaning, wax stripping and dishwashing detergent formulations. 
ELTESOL SX 93 functions as a solubilizer, coupling agent and cloud point depressant.

ELTESOL SX 93 is a compound that solubilizes hydrophobic compounds in aqueous solutions by means other than micellar solubilization. 
Typically, ELTESOL SX 93 consists of a hydrophilic part and a hydrophobic part (similar to surfactants), but the hydrophobic part is generally too small to cause spontaneous self-aggregation
ELTESOL SX 93 is in use industrially and commercially in cleaning and personal care product formulations to allow more concentrated formulations of surfactants


Common products containing ELTESOL SX 93 include laundry detergents, surface cleaners, dishwashing detergents, liquid soaps, shampoos and conditioners.
Sodium xylene sulfonates are coupling agents, used at concentrations from 0.1-15% to stabilize the formula, modify viscosity and cloud-point, reduce phase separation in low temperatures, and limit foaming.


ELTESOL SX 93 (CAS No. 1300-72-7) is an anionic surfactant, dissolved in water can increase the solubility for low-soluble organic matter, reduce the cloud point of the aqueous formulated products, and reduce the viscousity of the aqueous products.

ELTESOL SX 93 (CAS No. 1300-72-7) is a hydrotropic substance used as a coupling agent,viscosity modifier, solubilizer and cloud point and crystallization temperature depressant in liquid cleaning, washing and laundry detergents.
  
Solubilizing properties of the product can substitute function of a solvent in  final formulations.

Used in personal care products, liquid detergent, heavy duty cleaners, wax strippers, dishwashing liquids, hard surface cleaners, metalworking cleaners and textile, it functions as a solubilizer, coupling agent and cloud point depressant. 

ELTESOL SX 93 is a wetting agent that can also be found in hair care products and cleansers. 
Our customers use it in their products to help a formula spread across a surface, making cleaning more efficient. 
ELTESOL SX 93 can also be used as a solubilizer that ensures even distribution of the ingredients throughout the product, to help it work better.

ELTESOL SX 93
ELTESOL SX 93 is a hydrotrope, an organic compound that increases the ability of water to dissolve other molecules. 
ELTESOL SX 93 is a low hazard material and risk of adverse health effects associated with both occupational and consumer use of this chemical is anticipated to be low.

EC / List no.: 215-090-9
CAS no.: 1300-72-7
Mol. formula: C24H27Na3O9S3


ELTESOL SX 93 is a surfactant found in personal care products, primarily in shampoos, because of its ability to serve as a claritant or wetting agent that helps a formula spread more easily and ensure efficient cleansing. 
ELTESOL SX 93 is classified as a hydrotrope, or an organic compound that increases the ability of water to dissolve other molecules. 
Because of ELTESOL SX 93's dissolving abilities, it is often added to shampoos as a thickening agent that helps suspend other ingredients, clearing out the cloudy look of a formula (Sci-Toys.com).

ELTESOL SX 93 is used in liquid household detergents and shampoos. Therefore, consumer oral and dermal exposures could occur when using products that contain ELTESOL SX 93 in the product formulations.

ELTESOL SX 93 is used as a solubilizer, coupling agent and a cloud point depressant. 
ELTESOL SX 93 allows formulating cleaning compounds containing high percentages of inorganic builders without the use of organic solvents.
As a formulation additive, sodium xylene sulfonate reduces viscosity and cloud point.  
This product is readily biodegradable.

Chemical Identity
ELTESOL SX 93
Name: Sodium xylene sulfonate
Brand Names: Not applicable
Chemical name (IUPAC): Sodium dimethylbenzenesulfonate
CAS number(s): 1300-72-7
EC number: 215-090-9
Molecular formula: C8H9NaO3S

Uses and Applications
ELTESOL SX 93 is used in liquid household detergents and shampoos, in degreasing compounds and printing pastes used in the textile industry. 
ELTESOL SX 93 is also a surfactant found in personal care products, primarily in shampoos, because of its ability to serve as a claritant or wetting agent that helps a formula spread more easily. Sodium xylene sulfonate is also used to extract pentosans and lignin in the paper industry, and as a glue additive in the leather industry

ELTESOL SX 93 is a hydrotrope is a compound that solubilizes hydrophobic compounds in aqueous solutions by means other than micellar solubilization.
Typically, hydrotropes consist of a hydrophilic part and a hydrophobic part but the hydrophobic part is generally too small to cause spontaneous self-aggregation. 

Hydrotropes do not have a critical concentration above which self-aggregation spontaneously starts to occur (as found for micelle- and vesicle-forming surfactants, which have a critical micelle concentration (cmc) and a critical vesicle concentration (cvc)). 

Instead, some hydrotropes aggregate in a step-wise self-aggregation process, gradually increasing aggregation size. 
However, many hydrotropes do not seem to self-aggregate at all, unless a solubilizate has been added. 

Applications of ELTESOL SX 93
All purpose cleaning
Heavy duty cleaning & industrial cleaning
Wax strippers
Complex dishwashing detergents
Hard surface care
Hydrotrope
Soluble concentrates
Suspension concentrates

Examples of hydrotropes include urea, tosylate, cumenesulfonate and xylenesulfonate.
The term hydrotropy was originally put forward by Carl Neuberg to describe the increase in the solubility of a solute by the addition of fairly high concentrations of alkali metal salts of various organic acids. 

However, the term has been used in the literature to designate non-micelle-forming substances, either liquids or solids, organic or inorganic, capable  of solubilizing insoluble compounds. 
The chemical structure of the conventional Neuberg's hydrotropic salts consists generally of two essential parts, an anionic group and a hydrophobic aromatic  ring or ring system. 

The anionic group is involved in bringing about high aqueous solubility, which is a prerequisite for a hydrotropic substance. 
The type of anion or metal ion appeared to have a minor effect on the phenomenon. 
On the other hand, planarity of the hydrophobic part has been emphasized as an important factor in the mechanism of hydrotropic solubilization
To form a hydrotrope, an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent is sulfonated, creating an aromatic sulfonic acid. 

It is then neutralized with a base.
Additives may either increase or decrease the solubility of a solute in a given solvent. 
These salts that increase solubility are said to ‘salt in’ the solute and those salts that decreasethe solubility ‘salt out’ the solute. 

The effect of an additive depends very much on the influence it has on the structure of water or its ability to compete with the solvent water  molecules.
A convenient quantitation of the effect of a solute additive on the solubility of another solute may be obtained by the Setschetow equation

Applications: Hydrotropes are in use industrially and commercially in cleaning and personal care product formulations to allow more concentrated formulations of surfactants. 
About 29,000 metric tons are produced (i.e., manufactured and imported) annually in the US. 

Annual production in Europe and Australia is approximately 17,000 and 1,100 metric tons

Common products containing a hydrotropes include laundry detergents, surface cleaners, dishwashing detergents, liquid soaps, shampoos and conditioners.
They are coupling agents, used at concentrations from 0.1-15% to stabilize the formula, modify viscosity and cloud-point, reduce phase separation in low temperatures, and limit foaming

Examples of Hydrotropes used for industrial and commercial purposes.
Toluene sulfonic acid, Na salt    CAS# 12068-03-0
Toluene sulfonic acid, K salt    CAS# 16106-44-8
30526-22-8
Xylene sulfonic acid, Na salt    1300-72-7
827-21-4
Xylene sulfonic acid, ammonium salt: CAS# 26447-10-9
Xylene sulfonic acid, K salt: CAS# 30346-73-7
Xylene sulfonic acid, Ca salt: CAS# 28088-63-3
Cumene sulfonic acid, Na salt: CAS# 28348-53-0
32073-22-6
Cumene sulfonic acid, ammonium salt: CAS# 37475-88-0

ELTESOL SX 93 is a sodium xylene sulphonate powder. 
This product acts as a hydrotrope and may be used to increase the solubility of other compounds. 
In conjunction with non-ionic surfactants it will raise the cloud point of the solution allowing clear liquids to be obtained at higher temperatures, enabling additional control of the foaming characteristics and performance. 

It may also be used to reduce the viscosity of concentrated surfactants and formulations.
Sodium Xylene Sulfonate is a surfactant often added to shampoos as a thickening agent; 
it is often found in personal care products, primarily in shampoos. 
It is has ability to serve as a claritant or wetting agent that helps a formula spread more easily and ensure efficient cleansing, according to Johnson & Johnson. 

Synonyms: Xylenesulfonic acids, sodium salts; 
SXS ; Sodium dimethylbenzenesulfonate. CAS No: 1300-72-7. Molecular Formula: C8H9Na S O3 Molar Mass: 208.21 g/mol.

Sodium Xylene Sulfonate is a surfactant found in personal care products, primarily in shampoos, because of its ability to serve as a claritant or wetting agent that helps a formula spread more easily and ensure efficient cleansing, according to Johnson& Johnson. 

It is classified as a hydrotrope, or an organic compound that increases the ability of water to dissolve other molecules. 
Because of Sodium Xylene Sulfonate's dissolving abilities, it is often added to shampoos as a thickening agent that helps suspend other ingredients, clearing out the cloudy  look of a formula* A surfactant. 


Sodium xylene sulfonate 40% is used as a solubilizer, coupling agent and a cloud point depressant. It allows formulating cleaning compounds containing high percentages of inorganic builders without the use of organic solvents. As a formulation additive, sodium xylene sulfonate reduces viscosity and cloud point.  This product is readily biodegradable.
Ataman is here to serve your sodium xylene sulfonate 40% needs.  

Characteristics: Clear Light-Yellow Liquid
Applications  
All purpose cleaning
Heavy duty cleaning & industrial cleaning
Wax strippers
Complex dishwashing detergents
Hard surface care
Hydrotrope
Soluble concentrates
Suspension concentrates
SODIUM XYLENESULFONATE    ICSC: 1514
Benzenesulfonic acid, dimethyl-, sodium salt
Dimethylbenzenesulfonic acid, sodium salt

Sodium xylenesulfonate
sodium xylenesulphonate

IUPAC names
Benzenesulfonic acid, dimethyl-

Benzenesulfonic acid, dimethyl-, sodium salt

sodium (xylenes and 4-ethylbenzene)sulfonate

sodium 3,4-dimethylbenzene-1-sulfonate

sodium 3,4-dimethylbenzenesulfonate

sodium xylene sulfaonate

SODIUM XYLENE SULFONATE

Sodium xylene sulfonate

SODIUM XYLENE SULPHONATE

Sodium xylene sulphonate

Sodium Xylenesulphonate

Sodium xylenesulphonate

sodium xylenesulphonate

Sodium xylensulfonate

xylene sulphonic acid, sodium salt

ELTESOL SX 93 is used in liquid household detergents and shampoos, in degreasing compounds and printing pastes used in the textile industry in agents used to extract pentosans and lignin in the paper industry, and as a glue additive in the leather industry. 
When handled responsibly, the potential for eye irritation can be minimized, allowing consumers and workers to use materials containing sodium xylene sulfonate safely.


Ammonium Cumenesulfonate, Ammonium Xylenesulfonate, Calcium Xylenesulfonate, Potassium Cumenesulfonate, Potassium Toluenesulfonate, Potassium Xylenesulfonate, Sodium Cumenesulfonate, Sodium Toluenesulfonate, and Sodium Xylenesulfonate are cleansing agents. The Xylenesulfonates and Toluenesulfonates are made from Xylenesulfonic Acid and Toluenesulfonic Acid.

Among these ingredients, Ammonium Xylenesulfonate and Sodium Xylenesulfonate are most likely to be found cosmetics and personal care products including shampoos, hair conditioners, soaps and detergents, and bath products.


These ingredients all function as surfactants - hydrotropes.


Xylene sulfonic acid, toluene sulfonic acid, and alkyl aryl sulfonate hydrotropes used in cosmetics as surfactants, hydrotropes

This safety assessment includes a group of alkyl aryl sulfonate hydrotropes that are cosmetic ingredients and the corresponding sulfonic acids from which they are made, including xylene sulfonic acid, ammonium cumenesulfonate, ammonium xylenesulfonate, calcium xylenesulfonate, potassium cumenesulfonate, potassium toluenesulfonate, potassium xylenesulfonate, sodium toluenesulfonate, sodium cumenesulfonate, sodium xylenesulfonate, and toluene sulfonic acid. 
Cumenesulfonic acid is not included because it is not listed as a cosmetic ingredient. 
Hydrotropes are amphiphilic substances composed of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups. 
They can increase the solubility of less soluble substances. 
Similar chemical structures, physicochemical properties, and functions and concentrations in cosmetics enable in grouping these ingredients and reading across the
available toxicological data to support the safety assessment of the entire group.

All of these ingredients have the same functions (surfactant—hydrotropes) in cosmetics, but only ammonium xylenesulfonate, sodium xylenesulfonate, and sodium cumenesulfonate have currently reported uses in cosmetic products. 
Xylene sulfonic acid and toluene sulfonic acid are included in this report as they are the immediate precursors to the pH-adjusted materials that are used in cosmetic formulations


Xylene sulfonic acid 25321-41-9 
A mixture of substituted aromatic acids of xylene 
Benzenesulfonic acid; Dimethyldimethylbenzenesulfonic acid


Sodium xylenesulfonate 1300-72-7 
The sodium salt of ring sulfonated mixed xylene isomers 

Benzenesulfonic acid, dimethyl-, sodium salt; dimethylbenzenesulfonic acid, sodium salt; sodium dimethylbenzenesulfonate; xylenesulfonic acid, sodium salt
Trade names include: Eltesol SX30, Eltesol SX40, Eltesol SX93, Eltesol SX Pellets, Norfix SXS-40, Pilot SXS-40, and Stepanate SXS


Hydrotropes. 
Compounds known as hydrotropes are described as amphiphilic substances composed of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups.
The hydrophobic part of the molecule is a benzene substituted apolar segment (ie, methyl [common name: toluene], dimethyl [common name: Xylene], or isopropyl [common name: cumene] apolar segment). 

The hydrophilic, polar segment is an anionic sulfonate group accompanied by a counter ion (eg, sodium and ammonium). 
This segment is a comparatively short side chain. 
Commercial toluene(and cumene) sulfonates consist of mixtures of 3 isomers (ortho-,meta-, and para-). 
Commercial xylene sulfonic acid consistsof mixtures of 6 isomers (ortho,ortho; meta,meta; para,para; ortho,meta; ortho,para; and meta,para).

Hydrotropes are compounds that are used to increase the solubility of less soluble substances (ie, surfactants) in aqueous solution. 
Hydrotropes have structures somewhat similar to surfactants, but they are not themselves surfactants. 
The main property of the hydrotropes is related to the minimum hydrotropic concentration, which is defined as the concentration at which hydrotropes begin to aggregate.
Hydrotropes inhibit the formation of surfactant liquid crystalline phases by forming mixed micellar structures with surfactants. 
Since the hydrotrope hydrophilic heads are large and their hydrophobic groups are small, they tend to form spherical rather than lamellar or liquid crystalline structures, therefore inhibiting the formation of the latter. 
This destruction or inhibition of the liquid crystalline phase increases the solubility of the surfactant in the aqueous phase and the capacity of its micellar solution to solubilize material

Method of Manufacture
Hydrotropes are produced by sulfonation of an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent (ie, toluene, xylene, or cumene).
The resulting aromatic sulfonic acid is neutralized using an appropriate base (eg, sodium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, or calcium hydroxide) to produce the sulfonate or hydrotrope. 
The liquid product is produced in a closed system.

Sodium xylenesulfonate is a component in a variety of liquid household detergents, where it can constitute up to 10% of the total solution.
A major use of xylene sulfonic acid is in household/professional cleaning products including liquid and powder laundry detergents, hand dishwashing liquid detergents, machine dishwashing rinse aids, hard surface cleaners, toilet treatments, solvent hand cleaners, carpet cleaners, and optical brightener products.
It is estimated that 60% to 70% of the total tonnage is used in dishwashing liquids. There are also some relatively small volume, commercial/professional uses in liquid sulfur textile dyes, acidic recirculation cleaners, wetting agent for tanning, enzymatic recirculation cleaner for dairy and food processing, coolant system conditioner, car wash detergents, cleaners and degreasers, vinyl plastic rubber restorer, and floor strippers.


While not used in cosmetics, xylene sulfonic acid is listed as a cosmetic ingredient and is used in the synthesis of a series of hydrotropes that are used in cosmetics, including ammonium xylenesulfonate, calcium xylenesulfonate, potassium xylenesulfonate, and sodium xylenesulfonate. 
Other sulfonic acids and their corresponding hydrotropes are also cosmetic ingredients, including ammonium cumenesulfonate, potassium cumenesulfonate, potassium toluenesulfonate, sodium toluenesulfonate, sodium cumenesulfonate, and toluene sulfonic acid. 
Hydrotropes are amphiphilic substances composed of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups. 
They can increase the solubility of less soluble substances.

Hydrotropes are produced by sulfonation of an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent (ie, toluene, xylene, or cumene).
The resulting aromatic sulfonic acid is neutralized using an appropriate base (eg, sodium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, or calcium hydroxide) to produce the sulfonate or hydrotrope.
Information supplied to the FDA by industry as part of the VCRP states that there were 76 and 75 reported uses for ammonium xylenesulfonate and sodium xylenesulfonate, respectively. 
No FDA uses were reported for the remaining hydrotropes. 
In an industry survey, ammonium xylenesulfonate, sodium xylenesulfonate, and sodium cumenesulfonate were reportedly used in cosmetics up to concentrations of 3%, 15%, and 3%, respectively.

Xylene sulfonic acid, ammonium cumenesulfonate, ammonium xylenesulfonate, calcium xylenesulfonate, potassium cumenesulfonate, potassium toluenesulfonate, potassium xylenesulfonate, sodium toluenesulfonate, sodium cumenesulfonate, sodium xylenesulfonate, and toluene sulfonic acid are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of use and concentrations as described in this safety assessment, when formulated to be nonirritating.


Sodium xylenesulphonate
EC Inventory
sodium xylenesulphonate
Pre-Registration process
IUPAC names
Benzenesulfonic acid, dimethyl-

Benzenesulfonic acid, dimethyl-, sodium salt

sodium (xylenes and 4-ethylbenzene)sulfonate

sodium 3,4-dimethylbenzene-1-sulfonate

sodium 3,4-dimethylbenzenesulfonate

sodium xylene sulfaonate

SODIUM XYLENE SULFONATE

Sodium xylene sulfonate

SODIUM XYLENE SULPHONATE

Sodium xylene sulphonate

Sodium Xylenesulphonate

Sodium xylenesulphonate

sodium xylenesulphonate

Sodium xylensulfonate

xylene sulphonic acid, sodium salt

Synonyms:
     benzenesulfonic acid, 3,4-dimethyl-, sodium salt
     benzenesulfonic acid, 3,4-dimethyl-, sodium salt (1:1)
     benzenesulfonic acid, dimethyl-, sodium salt
     conco SXS
     cyclophil SXS30
     dimethylbenzenesulfonic acid, sodium salt
3,4-    dimethylbenzenesulfonic acid, sodium salt
     eltesol SX 30
     naxonate G
     richonate SXS
     sodium 3,4-dimethylbenzenesulfonate
     sodium xylenesulfonate
     sodium xylenesulphonate
     sodium;3,4-dimethylbenzenesulfonate
     stepanate X
     surco SXS
     ultrawet 40SX
     xylenesulfonic acid, sodium salt


NAXOLATE 4LS
NAXONATE 4L
NAXONATE 5L
NAXONATE SX
SODIUM XYLENESULFONATE
sodium dimethylbenzenesulfonate
SXS
benzenesulfonicacid,dimethyl,sodiumsalt
Benzenesulfonicacid,dimethyl-,sodiumsalt
concosxs
cyclophilsxs30
dimethyl-benzenesulfonicacisodiumsalt
XYLENESULFONIC ACID, SODIUM SALT
DIMETHYLBENZENESULFONIC ACID SODIUM SALT
sodium xylenesulphonate
SODIUM XYLENESULFONATE, 40 WT. % SOLUTIO N IN WATER
sodium xylenesulfonate solution
XYLENESULPHONICACID,SODIUMSALT
XYLENESULPHONICACID,NASALT
Natriumxylolsulfonat
Xylenesulfonic acid sodium salt, isomer mixture
Dimethylbenzenesulfonic acid sodium salt, Xylenesulfonic acid sodium salt
Ncgc00090714-01
Sodium xylenesulfona
SodiuM xylenesulfonate solution Mixture of isoMers, 40 wt. % in H2O
Eltesol SX 93
Eltesol SX 93
Stepanate SXS
Sodium xylenesulfonate technical, mixture of isomers, >=90% (T)
Sodium xylenesulfonate,mixture of isomers
eltesolsx30
hydrotrope
naxonate
naxonateg
nci-c55403
richonatesxs
stepanatex
surcosxs
ultrawet40sx
xylenesulfonicacidsodiumsalt,mixtureofisomers
Sodium xylenesulfonate 1300-72-7
1300-72-7 Sodium dimethylbenzenesulfonate
sodium 3,4-dimethylbenzenesulfonate
Benzenesulfonic acid, dimethyl-, sodium salt (1:1)
3,5-dimethylbenzenesulfonate
1300-72-7
CH32C6H3SO3Na
Building Blocks
Organic Building Blocks
Sulfonic/Sulfinic Acid Salts
Sulfur Compounds
Organic Building Blocks
Sulfonic/Sulfinic Acid Salts
Sulfur Compounds

SODIUM XYLENE SULFONATE: VERY EFFICIENT HYDROTOPE.
Hydrotropes are water-soluble, surface-active compounds which can significantly affect the solubility of poorly soluble drugs, most likely due to the formation of organized assemblies within solution.

An understanding of hydrotropes is crucial to the formulation of carpet cleaning products. 
Hydrotropes are compounds that improve the solubility of surfactants in water, particularly those structured to contain high levels of builders or alkalinity. 
They are usually incorporated into a formulation at levels of up to 5%. 
Without hydrotropes, often it would be impossible to incorporate sufficient quantities of surfactants, builders, and other ingredients into formulations. 
Without hydrotropes some formulations would not be shelf stable and would separate out. 
The most common type is sodium xylene sulfonate (SXS). 
It, however, adds little cleaning efficiency and is best substituted with hydrotropes that will contribute to the cleaning efficacy of the formulation.

Hydrotropes are a special class of material to be used at relatively low levels for solubilization of surfactants. 
Builders and other electrolytes will depress cloud point temperature or solubility of surfactants in aqueous systems. 
Hydrotropes are used to adjust the cloud point of the formulation. A higher concentration of hydrotrope generally leads to higher cloud points. 
Solvents and more-soluble surfactant classes can also be used to increase solubility.

The choice of hydrotrope is based on the builder levels and requirements for each specific application. 
When formulating with a hydrotrope it is best to use a hydrotrope that will contribute to the overall desired effectiveness of the formulation.

Hydrotropes are water-soluble, surface-active compounds which can significantly affect the solubility of poorly soluble drugs, most likely due to the formation of organized assemblies within solution. 
The issues encountered with traditional surfactant solubilization, such as emulsification, are not observed for hydrotropes due to the small hydrophobic part of the molecule. 
Some hydrotropes may aggregate in a stepwise manner, although many show no signs of self-aggregation even at high concentrations


For liquid detergents, organic solvents are most often needed to complement water as the formula backbone, and to ensure that the formula is fluid, homogeneous and stable across a range of storage conditions. 
The most commonly used solvents are ethanol, propylene glycol and glycerol. 
Hydrotropes (such as xylene sulphonate) are also used to enhance the solubility of organic materials in the water base. 
Liquitabs, being nearly non-aqueous, rely on organic solvents alone to ensure that the formula is fluid and stable.

Hydrotropes are used as coupling agents to solubilize the water insoluble and often incompatible functional ingredients of household and institutional cleaning products and personal care products.
These hydrotropes are not surfactants but are used to solubilize complex formulations in water.
They function to stabilize solutions, modify viscosity and cloud-point, limit low temperature phase separation and reduce foam. 

This assessment considers salts of toluene, xylene and cumene sulfonates. 
Hydrotropes are amphiphilic substances composed of both a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic functional group. 
The hydrophobic part of the molecule is a benzene substituted apolar segment. 
The hydrophilic, polar segment is an anionic sulfonate group accompanied by a counter ion (i.e., ammonium, calcium, potassium or sodium).

Hydrotropes are produced by sulfonation of an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent (i.e., toluene, xylene or cumene). 
The resulting aromatic sulfonic acid is neutralized using an appropriate base (e.g., sodium hydroxide) to produce the sulfonate or hydrotrope. 

The hydrotropes are ‘pure’ substances but are produced and transported in either aqueous solutions, typically at a 30-60% level of activity, or in granular solids typically at 90-95% level of activity. 
The other components of granular solids include sodium sulphate and water.

The consumption of hydrotropes in laundry detergent and household cleaning product applications is 17,000 tonnes in 2002 according to a survey of hydrotrope producers and formulators that are HERA members in Europe. 
This HERA-reported consumption is believed to account for at least 80% of total hydrotrope tonnages used in HERA applications in Europe (the basis of the 80% default can be obtained from HERA). 
Important HERA application products are household laundry and cleaning products, such as laundry powders and liquids, liquid fabric conditioners, liquid and powder laundry bleach additives, hand dishwashing liquid, machine dishwashing liquid, liquid and gel toilet cleaners, and liquid, powder, gel and spray surface cleaners. 
This HERA assessment is based on the 17,000 tonnes consumption figure.

For the purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that the entire 17,000 tonnes/year volume is in products that are ultimately released down-the-drain, and following wastewater treatment, the ingredient may be released into the environment. 


Manufacturing route and production/volume statistics
Hydrotropes are produced by sulfonation of an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent (i.e., toluene, xylene or cumene). 
The resulting aromatic sulfonic acid is neutralized using an appropriate base (e.g.,sodium hydroxide) to produce the sulfonate or hydrotrope. 
The hydrotropes are ‘pure’ substances but are produced and transported in either aqueous solutions, typically at a 30-60% level of activity, or in granular solids typically at 90-95% level of activity. 
The other components of granular solids include sodium sulphate and water. 
Liquid product is produced in a closed system. Granular product is produced by spray drying that includes source control and dust collection. 
Hydrotropes are manufactured for industrial/professional and consumer use and are not used as intermediates/derivatives for further chemical manufacturing processes or uses.


Hydrotropes are used in many household detergents including powder laundry detergents (maximum concentration 0.66%), liquid laundry detergents (maximum concentration in regular and compact formulations 2%), fabric conditioners (maximum concentration 0.66%), laundry bleach liquids (maximum concentration 1%), hand dishwashing liquids (maximum concentration 3%), machine dishwashing rinse aids (maximum concentration 11.9%) and hard surface and bathroom cleaners (maximum concentration: 6%), hard surface trigger sprays (maximum concentration 2%), and toilet cleaners (maximum concentration 1.9%). 
The personal care product uses (e.g., face and hand soaps and shampoos) are outside the scope of HERA. They are not evaluated in this assessment. 


 

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