GELATIN

CAS Number: 9000-70-8
EC Number: 232-554-6

Gelatin or gelatine is a translucent, colorless, flavorless food ingredient, commonly derived from collagen taken from animal body parts. 
Gelatin is brittle when dry and gummy when moist. 
Gelatin may also be referred to as hydrolyzed collagen, collagen hydrolysate, gelatine hydrolysate, hydrolyzed gelatine, and collagen peptides after it has undergone hydrolysis. 
Gelatin is commonly used as a gelling agent in food, beverages, medications, drug and vitamin capsules, photographic films and papers, and cosmetics.
Substances containing gelatin or functioning in a similar way are called gelatinous substances. 
Gelatin is made by cooking collagen. 
Gelatin is almost entirely protein and has many health benefits. 

Gelatin is a protein made from animal products.
Gelatin is used for aging skin, osteoarthritis, weak and brittle bones (osteoporosis), brittle nails, obesity, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.
In manufacturing, gelatin is used for preparation of foods, cosmetics, and medicines.
Gelatin can be used in food production, eaten as bone broth or taken as a supplement.
Gelatin is an irreversibly hydrolyzed form of collagen, wherein the hydrolysis reduces protein fibrils into smaller peptides; depending on the physical and chemical methods of denaturation, the molecular weight of the peptides falls within a broad range. 
Gelatin is in gelatin desserts, most gummy candy and marshmallows, ice creams, dips, and yogurts.
Gelatin for cooking comes as powder, granules, and sheets. 
Instant types can be added to the food as they are; others must soak in water beforehand.

Uses
Probably best known as a gelling agent in cooking, different types and grades of gelatin are used in a wide range of food and nonfood products. 
Common examples of foods that contain gelatin are gelatin desserts, trifles, aspic, marshmallows, candy corn, and confections such as Peeps, gummy bears, fruit snacks, and jelly babies.
Gelatin may be used as a stabilizer, thickener, or texturizer in foods such as yogurt, cream cheese, and margarine; it is used, as well, in fat-reduced foods to simulate the mouthfeel of fat and to create volume. 
Gelatin also is used in the production of several types of Chinese soup dumplings, specifically Shanghainese soup dumplings, or xiaolongbao, as well as Shengjian mantou, a type of fried and steamed dumpling. 
The fillings of both are made by combining ground pork with gelatin cubes, and in the process of cooking, the gelatin melts, creating a soupy interior with a characteristic gelatinous stickiness.
Gelatin is used for the clarification of juices, such as apple juice, and of vinegar.
Isinglass is obtained from the swim bladders of fish. 
Gelatin is used as a fining agent for wine and beer.
Besides hartshorn jelly, from deer antlers (hence the name "hartshorn"), isinglass was one of the oldest sources of gelatin.
Gelatin is a flavorless, colorless, stabilizer and thickener that is used to make desserts such as pudding, mousse, marshmallows, candy, cakes, ice cream, some yogurts, and of course fruit gelatin, such as Jell-O. 
Gelatin is also used to make some non-food items such as shampoos or skincare products.

Cosmetics
In cosmetics, hydrolyzed collagen may be found in topical creams, acting as a product texture conditioner, and moisturizer. 
Collagen implants or dermal fillers are also used to address the appearance of wrinkles, contour deficiencies, and acne scars, among others. 
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved its use, and identifies cow (bovine) and human cells as the sources of these fillers. 
According to the FDA, the desired effects can last for 3–4 months, which is relatively the most short-lived compared to other materials used for the same purpose.

Other technical uses
-Certain professional and theatrical lighting equipment use color gels to change the beam color. 
Historically, these were made with gelatin, hence the term, color gel.
-Originally, gelatin constituted the shells of all drug and vitamin capsules to make them easier to swallow. 
While it typically still does hypromellose, a vegetarian-acceptable alternative to gelatin which is more expensive to produce, is also used.
-Some animal glues such as hide glue may be unrefined gelatin.
-Gelatin is used to hold silver halide crystals in an emulsion in virtually all photographic films and photographic papers. 
Despite significant effort, no suitable substitutes with the stability and low cost of gelatin have been found.
-Gelatin is used as a carrier, coating, or separating agent for other substances, for example, Gelatin makes β-carotene water-soluble, thus imparting a yellow color to any soft drinks containing β-carotene.
-Ballistic gelatin is used to test and measure the performance of bullets shot from firearms.
-Gelatin is used as a binder in match heads and sandpaper.
-Cosmetics may contain a non-gelling variant of gelatin under the name hydrolyzed collagen (hydrolysate).
-Gelatin was first used as an external surface sizing for paper in 1337 and continued as a dominant sizing agent of all European papers through the mid-nineteenth century.
In modern times, Gelatin is mostly found in watercolor paper, and occasionally in glossy printing papers, artistic papers, and playing cards. 
Gelatin maintains the wrinkles in crêpe paper.
-Biotechnology: Gelatin is also used in synthesizing hydrogels for tissue engineering applications.
Gelatin is also used as a saturating agent in immunoassays, and as a coat.
Gelatin degradation assay allows visualizing and quantifying invasion at the subcellular level instead of analyzing the invasive behavior of whole cells, for the study of cellular protrusions called invadopodia and podosomes, which are protrusive structures in cancer cells and play an important role in cell attachment and remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM).

What is gelatin used for?
-binders for paper money
-cosmetics
-bonding for the tip of matches
-bakery products
-photographic film
-whipping agent in dairy products
-medicine emulsions
-hardening of jams and jellies
-treatment of wounds as a sponge
-marshmallows

What is gelatin made from?
Gelatin is usually made from pig skins, bovine hides and beef and porcine bones.
This is because Gelatin have a high concentration of raw collagen. 
These raw materials are by-products of the meat industry. 
If there was no use for these materials, they would be thrown away. 
So gelatin production helps to prevent wastage and is therefore considered sustainable and a part of the circular economy.

Healthy body tissues
A 240-gram (g)Trusted Source cup of a gelatin dessert provides 0.82 g of protein.
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020 recommend that adults consume 46–56 gTrusted Source of protein or 10–35% of their daily calorie intake each day, depending on their age and sex.
Protein is a macronutrient, which means the body needs significant amounts of Gelatin to function.

Gelatin: safe, natural and well-regulated
The manufacturing of gelatin is governed by strict rules that ensure a careful selection of raw materials and their suppliers. 
All raw materials used in the production of gelatin undergo strict testing and control to guarantee maximum quality, safety and traceability.

Gelatin comes from a natural source, gelatin is considered a common foodstuff and not an additive, meaning it doesn’t require an E-number.
Gelatin is also non-GMO, cholesterol-free and non-allergenic, meaning Gelatin complies with clean-label standards.

What are the key characteristics of gelatin?
Gelatin is valued for Gelatins unique properties and functionalities.

Proteins are essential for:
building and maintaining body tissues
the proper functioning of various organs
Gelatin is a soluble protein which functions as a clear gelling agent and thickener in food products. 
Gelatin is extracted from animal collagen, bones or connective tissues or fish.
Gelatin is a polymer of amino acids joined by peptide bonds
Faintly yellow, tasteless and odorless granular powder
A half a percent of gelatin dissolves in hot water and forms a thermoreversible gel when cooled1
Due to some social and religious concerns, several plant-based gelatin replacers have been suggested such as agar from seaweed extracts.

1. Energy
Proteins are made up of various amino acids. 
The human body makes some amino acids, but most people need to take in extra through their diet.
Meat is a source of protein, but Gelatin can be high in unhealthful fat. 
Gelatin is a protein source that does not contain fat.
A 2017 studyTrusted Source suggested that a supplement combining vitamin C and gelatin may help prevent or repair body tissues in athletes. 
However, the study looked at supplementation rather than dietary intake.

2. Skin care
Collagen gives skin Gelatins healthy and youthful appearance. 
As people age, they lose collagen. 
Their skin becomes less firm, and wrinkles and lines develop.
Gelatin may be a natural way to boost collagen and improve the skin’s appearance. 
A 2016 studyTrusted Source found that consuming collagen improved facial moisture and reduced wrinkles in humans.
However, experts are not sure that consuming gelatin would have the same effect.

3. Digestion
Gelatin contains glutamic acid, a substance that may help promoteTrusted Source a healthy mucosal lining in the stomach. 
This could help with digestion.
Gelatin may also help digestion by stimulating the production of gastric juices. 
Gelatin also binds to water, which might help food move through the digestive system.

4. Easing joint pain
The collagen in gelatin may decrease joint pain associated with inflammation.
According to the National Library of Medicine, some clinical studies indicate gelatin may reduce pain and improve joint function in people with osteoarthritis. 
However, further research is needed.

5. Managing blood sugar
One study has indicated that glycine, which is an amino acid in gelatin, may help people with type 2 diabetes manage their condition.
People who took glycine as a treatment saw a fall in their A1C levels and inflammation, suggesting that glycine may help prevent complications, such as tissue damage.
However, some gelatin based products, such as gummy candies, have a high sugar content. 
These are not a suitable source of gelatin for people with type 2 diabetes.

6. Bone strength
Gelatin contains lysine, which helps strengthen the bones. 
Gelatin also helps the body absorb calcium, which helps keep the bones strong and prevents bone loss.
Some people consume gelatin to reduce their risk of osteoporosis, which causes bones to become weak or brittle.
A 2001 studyTrusted Source found no significant difference in bone density between mice who consumed gelatin and those who consumed another protein source.
However, other researchTrusted Source, published in 2017, found that when rats with a magnesium deficiency consumed gelatin, this had a positive impact on one aspect of bone density.
However, more research is necessary to confirm whether eating gelatin can improve bone health.

7. Sleep quality
The glycine in gelatin may improve sleep quality in some people.
In a studyTrusted Source published in 2006, people who took 3 grams (g) of glycine around bedtime reported sleeping better and feeling more lively and clear headed in the morning.
The following year, a more detailed studyTrusted Source confirmed the findings and suggested that glycine could play a role as a sleep enhancer.
However, the studies did not recommend consuming gelatin to improve sleep.

8. Weight loss
Some scientists have suggested that gelatin may help promote weight loss due to Gelatins high protein levels and low calorie content. 
Protein helps people feel full, making them less likely to overeat.
However, a 2011 study that compared the effects of consuming a gelatin-milk protein diet with another milk protein diet did not find that people lost more weight with the gelatin option.
In addition, some sources of gelatin, such as chewy candies and marshmallows, have a high sugar content. 
People should opt for healthful, low-sugar sources of gelatin where possible.

9. Hair
Some people take gelatin capsules in the hope that the lysine Gelatin contains will improve hair growth.
In 2004, scientists observed a significant increase in hair shaft length after mice took a gelatin derivative for 10 days.
However, this does not guarantee that taking gelatin capsules will improve a person’s hair growth.

10. Nails
In the 1950s, various studies suggested that consuming gelatin may help prevent brittle nails. 
However, no current evidence appears to support this use.
Get some tips here on how to strengthen your nails.

What Is Gelatin?
Gelatin comes from the collagen found in the bones, connective tissue, and skin of pigs, cattle, and other animals. 
Collagen may also be derived from fish bones. 
Boiling the bones extracts the protein, which "sets up," or partially solidifies, as Gelatin cools. 
This is what produces the gelatinous, fatty layer on top of a pot of homemade stock. 
Gelatin sold commercially for culinary purposes is purified before Gelatin's dried and packaged.

Varieties
Gelatin comes in sheets or powder. 
Professional chefs tend to prefer the thin, flat sheets, also called leaf gelatin, because Gelatin dissolves slowly and results in a clearer final product, with a more pure taste. 
The individual grains in gelatin powder disperse more easily throughout a dish and dissolve faster.
Sheet gelatin can be found in four distinct strengths: bronze, silver, gold, and platinum. 
The "bloom strength" distinguishes each level. 
The higher the bloom strength, the higher the melting points of the gel and the shorter the gelling set time.

Gelatin Uses
Gelatin thickens puddings, yogurt, gummy candies, fruit gelatin desserts, ice cream, panna cotta, marshmallows, and more. 
Gelatin can be mixed into any number of liquids or semi-solid substances to create structure and form.
Packets of gelatin sold in most grocery stores typically contain 1/4 ounce, or one tablespoon, of gelatin powder. 
This amount is enough to thicken approximately two cups of liquid, although you can use more to produce a firmer end product. 
You need four gelatin sheets for the same amount of liquid. 
Some cooks find Gelatin easier to count sheets than to measure or weigh out the powder.
Gelatin solidifies as Gelatin cools and generally requires refrigeration. 
The concentration and grade of gelatin determine the exact temperatures at which Gelatin solidifies and melts. 
Most gelatin has a melting point near body temperature, which gives foods made with gelatin a smooth, creamy mouthfeel similar to chocolate.

Gelatin, animal protein substance having gel-forming properties, used primarily in food products and home cookery, also having various industrial uses. 
Derived from collagen, a protein found in animal skin and bone, Gelatin is extracted by boiling animal hides, skins, bones, and tissue after alkali or acid pretreatment. 
An easily digested, pure protein food, Gelatin is nutritionally an incomplete protein, deficient in certain amino acids. 
Unflavoured, granulated gelatin, almost tasteless and odourless, ranges from faint yellow to amber in colour. 
Gelatin is also available as a finely ground mix with added sugar, flavouring, acids, and colouring. 
When stored in dry form, at room temperature, and in an airtight container, Gelatin remains stable for long periods.

How to Cook With Gelatin
Gelatin must be dissolved into another substance to be activated. 
This means any recipe that contains gelatin must have a liquid component that's heated in order for the gelatin to dissolve. 
The food must then subsequently be chilled to allow the gelatin to set.
Mix powdered gelatin with warm water before adding it to a recipe. 
Use about three tablespoons of water per tablespoon of gelatin, stir the granules in and let Gelatin sit for a few minutes. 
As the gelatin absorbs the water, Gelatin will thicken to the consistency of applesauce. 
Soak leaf gelatin sheets in cold water for five minutes to soften, then gently wring out the leaves to remove excess moisture before using.
Gelatin should not be boiled as the high heat can break down Gelatins structure and destroy its ability to solidify. 
Certain fruits, such as pineapple, guava, and papaya, contain enzymes that can also inhibit gelatin's ability to solidify. 
The canning and pasteurization process typically destroys these enzymes, which means canned versions of these fruits can be successfully used with gelatin.

Gelatin is pure protein and a natural foodstuff. 
Gelatin’s made from the skins of pigs and cows or from demineralized animal bones - all of which are approved for human consumption by the veterinary authorities. 
They contain the collagen protein that we use to manufacture gelatin.
Collagen is the most important scleroprotein in the bodies of humans and animals. 
The basic unit comprises a protein chain of about 1050 amino acids. 
These intertwine in groups of three to form triple helix structures. 
Cross-linking between many of these triple helices produces collagen fibrils that have a three-dimensional network structure. 
And Gelatin’s these structures that form the connective tissue in skin and bone.
The amino acid composition of collagen is atypical for proteins, particularly with respect to its high hydroxyproline content. 
The most common motifs in the amino acid sequence of collagen are glycine-proline-X and glycine-X-hydroxyproline, where X is any amino acid other than glycine, proline or hydroxyproline.

Early history of food applications
The first use of gelatin in foods is documented in the 15th century in medieval Britain, where cattle hooves were boiled for extended periods of time to produce a gel. 
This process was laborious and time-consuming, confined mainly to wealthier households.
The first recorded English patent for gelatin production was granted in 1754.
By the late 17th century, French inventor Denis Papin had discovered another method of gelatin extraction via boiling of bones.
In 1812, the chemist Jean-Pierre-Joseph d'Arcet (fr) further experimented with the use of hydrochloric acid to extract gelatin from bones, and later with steam extraction, which was much more efficient. 
The French government viewed gelatin as a potential source of cheap, accessible protein for the poor, particularly in Paris.
Food applications in France and the United States during 19th century appear to have established the versatility of gelatin, including the origin of Gelatins popularity in the US as Jell-O.
From the mid 1800s, Charles and Rose Knox of New York manufactured and marketed gelatin powder, diversifying the appeal and applications of gelatin.

Characteristics
Properties
Gelatin is a collection of peptides and proteins produced by partial hydrolysis of collagen extracted from the skin, bones, and connective tissues of animals such as domesticated cattle, chicken, pigs, and fish. 
During hydrolysis, some of the bonds between and within component proteins are broken. 
Gelatins chemical composition is, in many aspects, closely similar to that of its parent collagen.
Photographic and pharmaceutical grades of gelatin generally are sourced from cattle bones and pig skin. 
Gelatin is classified as a hydrogel.

CAS Number: 9000-70-8
MDL number: MFCD00081638
NACRES: NA.24

Gelatin and hydrolyzed collagen (also called collagen hydrolysate or collagen peptides) are nutritionally similar. 
Both are made by cooking and breaking down collagen-rich foods, like bone, cartilage and hooves. 
This process breaks down the amino acids in collagen, making Gelatin easier to digest and absorb in your intestinal tract.
Because they come from the same sources, gelatin and hydrolyzed collagen provide the same valuable amino acids and nutrition profiles, with slightly different properties:
The extra processing used to make hydrolyzed collagen breaks the amino acids into smaller pieces, which some people find easier to absorb
Hydrolyzed collagen (like Bulletproof Collagen Protein) can dissolve in hot or cold water, while gelatin requires hot water
Gelatin causes liquid to gel when Gelatin cools.
That’s how gelatin adds thickness to sauces, jellies or even ice cream
Bulletproof Collagelatin is a blend of beef gelatin and hydrolyzed collagen from pasture-raised cows. 
That means you get both proteins in one versatile powder that gels when Gelatin cools.
Use Collagelatin anytime you’d reach for standard gelatin—Gelatin’s unflavored, so Gelatin’s great in anything from soups to desserts.

GELATIN is flavorless, translucent substance derived from the processing of animal connective tissue and bones to extract collagen, an insoluble fibrous protein.  
Gelatin is derived by the selective hydrolysis of collagen from the skin, the connective tissue and/or bones of animals.  
Once extracted and powdered, gelatin dissolves in hot liquids and becomes more solid as Gelatin cools.  
Gelatin contains half of the 18 essential amino acids, needed for survival.
I know this may sound totally GROSS to some folks, but just think about Gelatin for a minute. 
In times past,  when an animal was used for the purpose of food, people used as much of the animal as possible.  
The organ meats were consumed.  
The bones were cooked down into broth.  
Not only was this essential for survival for folks but also showed reverence and respect for the gift of food given to them.  
Gelatin is only recently that we have moved to just eating the muscle meats, missing out on all the nourishment that the rest of the animal can provide.

Gelatin is nearly tasteless and odorless with a colorless or slightly yellow appearance.
Gelatin is transparent and brittle, and Gelatin can come as sheets, flakes, or as a powder.
Polar solvents like hot water, glycerol, and acetic acid can dissolve gelatin, but Gelatin is insoluble in organic solvents like alcohol.
Gelatin absorbs 5–10 times Gelatins weight in water to form a gel.

The gel formed by gelatin can be melted by reheating, and it has an increasing viscosity under stress (thixotropic).
The upper melting point of gelatin is below human body temperature, a factor that is important for mouthfeel of foods produced with gelatin.
The viscosity of the gelatin-water mixture is greatest when the gelatin concentration is high and the mixture is kept cool at about 4 °C (39 °F). 
Commercial gelatin will have a gel strength of around 90 to 300 grams Bloom using the Bloom test of gel strength.
Gelatin's strength (but not viscosity) declines if Gelatin is subjected to temperatures above 100 °C (212 °F), or if Gelatin is held at temperatures near 100 °C for an extended period of time.

Gelatins have diverse melting points and gelation temperatures, depending on the source. 
For example, gelatin derived from fish has a lower melting and gelation point than gelatin derived from beef or pork.

Originally, gelatin was a luxury food item, finding use in jelly dishes for aristocrats and royalty such as Henry VIII of England (1491-1547). 
Then, during the Napoleonic era with the invention of the pressure cooker, Gelatin served as a source of protein when meat was scarce. 
The pressure cooker could soften bones and produce a stock for soup as well as gelatin for protein.

How does Gelatin work ?
Gelatin is made from collagen. 
Collagen is one of the materials that make up cartilage, bone, and skin. 
Taking gelatin can increase the production of collagen in the body. 
Some people think gelatin might help for arthritis and other joint conditions. 
The chemicals in gelatin, called amino acids, can be absorbed in the body.

Gelatin is a protein substance derived from collagen, a natural protein present in the tendons, ligaments, and tissues of mammals. 
Gelatin is produced by boiling the connective tissues, bones and skins of animals, usually cows and pigs. 
Gelatin's ability to form strong, transparent gels and flexible films that are easily digested, soluble in hot water, and capable of forming a positive binding action have made it a valuable commodity in food processing, pharmaceuticals, photography, and paper production.
As a foodstuff, gelatin is the basis for jellied desserts; used in the preservation of fruit and meat, and to make powdered milk, merinque, taffy, marshmallow, and fondant. 
Gelatin is also used to clarify beer and wine. 
Gelatin's industrial applications include medicine capsules, photographic plate coatings, and dying and tanning supplies.

Composition
When dry, gelatin consists of 98–99% protein, but Gelatin is not a nutritionally complete protein since Gelatin is missing tryptophan and is deficient in isoleucine, threonine, and methionine.
The amino acid content of hydrolyzed collagen is the same as collagen. 
Hydrolyzed collagen contains 19 amino acids, predominantly glycine (Gly) 26–34%, proline (Pro) 10–18%, and hydroxyproline (Hyp) 7–15%, which together represent around 50% of the total amino acid content.
Glycine is responsible for close packing of the chains. 
Presence of proline restricts the conformation. 
This is important for gelation properties of gelatin.
Other amino acids that contribute highly include: alanine (Ala) 8–11%; arginine (Arg) 8–9%; aspartic acid (Asp) 6–7%; and glutamic acid (Glu) 10–12%.

Production
The worldwide demand of gelatin was about 620,000 tonnes (1.4×109 lb) in 2019.
On a commercial scale, gelatin is made from by-products of the meat and leather industries. 
Most gelatin is derived from pork skins, pork and cattle bones, or split cattle hides.
Gelatin made from fish by-products avoids some of the religious objections to gelatin consumption.
The raw materials are prepared by different curing, acid, and alkali processes that are employed to extract the dried collagen hydrolysate. 
These processes may take several weeks, and differences in such processes have great effects on the properties of the final gelatin products.
Gelatin also can be prepared at home. 

Gelatine has demonstrated Gelatins versatility in applications for the pharmaceutical industry and medicine. 
Gelatin can be used in the production of capsules or tablets or as a constituent of wound dressings, hemostatic sponges, or blood volume substitutes.
Industrial gelatin can not be eaten by humans. 
The raw material is different from the edible or pharmaceutical gelatin. 
Although Gelatin is not edible, Gelatin can play an important role in the technical area. 
Generally speaking, industrial gelatin does not have too many requirements as edible gelatin except photographic film. 
The main function is the stickiness and filming. 
The glue and photographed film is the main application.

USES & EFFECTIVENESS
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for:
-A kind of arthritis called osteoarthritis. 
There is some clinical evidence that gelatin might relieve pain and improve joint function in patients with osteoarthritis.
-Brittle bones (osteoporosis).
-Strengthening bones and joints.
-Strengthening fingernails.
-Improving hair quality.
-Weight loss.
-Shortening recovery after exercise and sports-related injury.
-Other conditions.

Boiling certain cartilaginous cuts of meat or bones results in gelatin being dissolved into the water. 
Depending on the concentration, the resulting stock (when cooled) will form a jelly or gel naturally, this process is used for aspic.
While many processes exist whereby collagen may be converted to gelatin, they all have several factors in common. 
The intermolecular and intramolecular bonds that stabilize insoluble collagen must be broken, and also, the hydrogen bonds that stabilize the collagen helix must be broken.

The manufacturing processes of gelatin consists of several main stages:
Pretreatments to make the raw materials ready for the main extraction step and to remove impurities that may have negative effects on physicochemical properties of the final gelatin product.
Hydrolysis of collagen into gelatin.
Extraction of gelatin from the hydrolysis mixture, which usually is done with hot water or dilute acid solutions as a multistage process.
The refining and recovering treatments including filtration, clarification, evaporation, sterilization, drying, rutting, grinding, and sifting to remove the water from the gelatin solution, to blend the gelatin extracted, and to obtain dried, blended, ground final product.

GELATIN. Gelatin (also gelatine, jelly in Britain, jelly powder in Canada, and gelée in France) is a flavorless, transparent thickener derived from animal collagen that dissolves when heated and congeals when cooled, allowing foods to set. 
This versatile ingredient provides unique textural and sensory properties to both savory and sweet foodstuffs such as mousses, gummy bears, Turkish Delight, nougat, jellied soups, Bavarian cream, aspic, and Jell-O.
Gelatin is composed of protein molecules, made up of chains of amino acids. 
When placed in liquid, the molecules swell and then dissolve, and the chains separate. 
After cooling, they re-form as tightly as before. 
In the warmth of the mouth, they melt, providing excellent flavor release. 
This property and gelatin's easy digestability and absorption by the body makes gelled desserts appropriate for children, invalids, and the elderly.

Gelatin is a protein obtained by boiling skin, tendons, ligaments, and/or bones with water. 
Gelatin is usually obtained from cows or pigs. 
Gelatin is used in shampoos, face masks, and other cosmetics; as a thickener for fruit gelatins and puddings (such as Jell-O); in candies, marshmallows, cakes, ice cream, and yogurts; on photographic film; and in vitamins as a coating and as capsules, and it is sometimes used to assist in “clearing” wines. 
Gelatin is not vegan. 
However, there is a product called “agar agar” that is sometimes marketed as “gelatin,” but Gelatin is vegan. 
Gelatin is derived from a type of seaweed.

Collagen and gelatin have been widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries due to their excellent biocompatibility, easy biodegradability, and weak antigenicity. 
Fish collagen and gelatin are of renewed interest, owing to the safety and religious concerns of their mammalian counterparts. 
The structure of collagen has been studied using various modern technologies, and interpretation of the raw data should be done with caution. 
The structure of collagen may vary with sources and seasons, which may affect Gelatins applications and optimal extraction conditions. 

Numerous studies have investigated the bioactivities and biological effects of collagen, gelatin, and their hydrolysis peptides, using both in vitro and in vivo assay models. 
In addition to their established nutritional value as a protein source, collagen and collagen-derived products may exert various potential biological activities on cells in the extracellular matrix through the corresponding food-derived peptides after ingestion, and this might justify their applications in dietary supplements and pharmaceutical preparations. 
Moreover, an increasing number of novel applications have been found for collagen and gelatin. 
Therefore, this review covers the current understanding of the structure, bioactivities, and biological effects of collagen, gelatin, and gelatin hydrolysates as well as their most recent applications.

Pretreatments
If the raw material used in the production of the gelatin is derived from bones, dilute acid solutions are used to remove calcium and other salts. 
Hot water or several solvents may be used to reduce the fat content, which should not exceed 1% before the main extraction step. 
If the raw material consists of hides and skin; size reduction, washing, removal of hair from hides, and degreasing are necessary to prepare the hides and skins for the hydrolysis step.

Gelatin is a clear, tasteless protein that thickens and solidifies liquid and semi-liquid foods, such as soups, marshmallows, and old-fashioned aspic molds. 
Commonly associated with Jell-O brand products, gelatin comes from animal collagen. 
Gelatin's also used in personal care products, cosmetics, drug capsules, and photography.

Where does gelatin come from?
Gelatin is a mild-tasting protein derived from the collagen in animal tissue, and Gelatin’s the only protein with the power to thicken liquids. 
You can see Gelatins effect every time you roast meat. 
The drippings in the bottom of the roasting pan owe their slightly sticky consistency to gelatin. 
That viscosity allows you to boil those juices into a luscious sauce without the addition of any other thickener. 
Gelatin’s also why the juices set into a solid gel as they cool. 
Unlike starch- and flour-thickened sauces that are opaque and creamy, sauces thickened with gelatin are crystal clear and syrupy.
Most gelatin is produced from pig skin, which contains about 30% collagen by weight. 

Collagen is the connective tissue protein that gives strength to muscles and tendons and resiliency to an animal’s skin and bones. 
To make gelatin, pig skin is soaked in dilute acid for about 24 hours, which unravels the crosslinking protein bonds in the collagen. 
The resulting free protein chains are extracted, filtered, purified, and dried into sheets or granules (powder) that are around 90% gelatin, 8% water, and 2% salts and glucose.

How does gelatin work?
Gelatin is unlike any other protein used in the kitchen. 
Typically, food proteins respond to heat by unraveling, then bonding to one another and coagulating into a firm, solid mass, For example, think of a frying egg. 
The liquid protein of the white, called albumin, firms up into a solid mass of egg white as it heats. 
But gelatin proteins don’t readily form bonds with one another. 
Heat causes them to initially unravel and disperse just like any protein. 
They never form new bonds, though, so the liquid in which they’re dispersed stays fluid. 
Because gelatin proteins are long and stringy, they tend to become interwoven, causing the hot liquid in which they are suspended to thicken, but not completely solidify when warm. 
As gelatin cools (as in a pan of cooled meat drippings), the protein strands line up next to each other and twist into long ropes, transforming the liquid into a firm gel.

How should gelatin be handled in the kitchen?
First, soak gelatin in cold water or another cool liquid to hydrate its dried protein network so that Gelatin dissolves easily. 
(If you add gelatin directly to hot liquid, Gelatin will stick together and form lumps.) 
After soaking, simply heat the water/gelatin mixture (or add hot liquid) and stir to dissolve the gelatin. 
Gelatin is hygroscopic (Gelatin absorbs and retains water easily), so Gelatin’s best to store Gelatin in an airtight container in a dry, well-ventilated area. 
When stored this way, Gelatin has an indefinite shelf life.

What’s the difference between sheet and powdered gelatin?
Chefs generally prefer sheet gelatin to powdered gelatin because sheet gelatin has less surface area, so when the hydrated sheets are stirred into the hot liquid, less air becomes incorporated, creating better clarity in the finished gel. 
Sheet gelatin isn’t as readily available as powdered, but you can easily substitute powdered for sheets using this equation: 4 gelatin sheets = 1-1/4 oz. envelope (2-1/2 tsp.) powdered gelatin. 
That’s enough to lightly gel about 2 cups of liquid, creating a 1-1/2% gelatin solution, which is perfect for savory sauces and glazes. 
For a firmer effect, such as that in a typical gelatin dessert, use the same amount of gelatin to gel 1 cup of liquid, creating a 3% gelatin solution.

Are there vegetarian alternatives to gelatin?
Yes. Vegetarian substitutes for gelatin are made from carbohydrates rather than proteins. 
The most common vegetarian gelling agents are agar (aka kanten) and carrageenan (aka Irish moss), both extracted from red algae, a type of seaweed.

Popular in Asian cooking and widely available in health food stores and Asian markets, agar works much like gelatin in that Gelatin’s soaked in cold water and dissolved in hot liquid, which then firms up into a gelled solid upon cooling. 
The main difference for the cook is that gels made with agar must be boiled to completely dissolve the carbohydrates, whereas gels made with gelatin actually weaken if the mixture is boiled. 
The other difference is that while gelatin melts near body temperature (95°F to 100°F), agar melts at about 185°F, so agar gels will not melt into a tongue-coating liquid in your mouth. 
Agar gels also tend to have a more fragile and crumbly texture than gelatin gels. 

However, agar has an even greater gelling capacity than gelatin-you need only about 1/2 teaspoon of agar powder to firmly gel 1 cup of liquid as opposed to 2-1/2 teaspoons for powdered gelatin.
Carrageenan (Irish moss) has a unique property: Gelatin can thin under pressure, yet return to its original viscosity once the pressure is released. 
For this reason, Gelatin’s often used in industrial food production, where Gelatin can be pumped through factory pipelines without losing its thickening ability. 
Gelatin’s a preferred thickener for ice creams and bottled sauces.
There are three classes of carrageenans: kappa, iota, and lambda. 
Kappa carrageenans produce firm gels; iota carrageenans produce softer, more elastic gels; and lambda carrageenans gel only when mixed with proteins, such as those in dairy products.
Some studies suggest that carrageenans may result in the development of gastrointestinal inflammation; however, the Federal Drug Administration and the National Organic Program currently consider carrageenans safe for human consumption.

Tips for Working with Gelatin
Avoid heating gelatin over high heat or for long periods of time, both of which weaken its gelling ability. 
Gelatin’s best to add dissolved gelatin to liquids that have already been boiled or simmered. 
The same goes for reheating sauces thickened with gelatin-heat gently to avoid weakening the gel.
Salty or acidic ingredients tend to soften gels, so you may need to use more gelatin when working with them.
Sugar or cream helps firm up gels. 

Gelatin (sometimes gelatine) is a common gelling agent and thickener that most people are familiar with. 
Gelatin is flavorless, colorless and brittle when dry. 
In Gelatins pure form, gelatin comes either as gelatin sheets, or as powder. 
Gelatin is made from animal bones and collagen, the most common source being pigskin.

Sugar is hygroscopic and pulls water from the gelatin molecules, strengthening their gelling effect, while cream makes the mixture more viscous, which thickens the mixture overall.
Avoid freezing gelatinthickened liquids, which causes liquid to seep from the gel when Gelatin is thawed.
Certain fresh ingredients- peaches, pineapple, papaya, mangos, melons, kiwi, figs, prickly pears, and ginger- contain enzymes known as proteases, which will digest the proteins in gelatin.
As a result, gels made with these fresh ingredients may not thicken properly. 
To neutralize the enzymes, boil the cut up ingredients for 5 minutes before using in a gelatin dessert, or use canned fruit (which has been heated during the canning process).
To suspend solids in a gel, let the gel cool until semifirm before stirring in the solids.
To release a chilled gel from a cup or decorative mold, dip the cup or mold in warm water for 5 to 10 seconds to reliquefy the outer edges of the gel, then loosen the edges by shaking or using a thin knife and invert.

Hydrolysis
After preparation of the raw material, i.e., removing some of the impurities such as fat and salts, partially purified collagen is converted into gelatin through hydrolysis. 
Collagen hydrolysis is performed by one of three different methods: acid-, alkali-, and enzymatic hydrolysis. 
Acid treatment is especially suitable for less fully cross-linked materials such as pig skin collagen and normally requires 10 to 48 hours. 
Alkali treatment is suitable for more complex collagen such as that found in bovine hides and requires more time, normally several weeks. 
The purpose of the alkali treatment is to destroy certain chemical crosslinks still present in collagen. 
Within the gelatin industry, the gelatin obtained from acid-treated raw material has been called type-A gelatin and the gelatin obtained from alkali-treated raw material is referred to as type-B gelatin.

Advances are occurring to optimize the yield of gelatin using enzymatic hydrolysis of collagen. 
The treatment time is shorter than that required for alkali treatment, and results in almost complete conversion to the pure product. 
The physical properties of the final gelatin product are considered better.

Culinary Uses
Gelation, binding of water, formation of texture, thickening agent, formation of emulsion, formation of foam, formation of a film. 
Note - gelatin has nothing directly to do with the process “gelatinization,” a technical term for what happens to starch molecules in the presence of heat and water.

Gelatin is made by cooking down collagen protein found in the skin, hooves, connective tissues and bones of animals. 
The cooking process breaks down the bonds between proteins to make smaller, more bioavailable building blocks that your body can easily absorb.
Like collagen, gelatin is packed with beneficial amino acids—especially the anti-aging superstars glycine and proline, which are lacking in the standard Western diet.
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. 

Essential amino acids must come from food; your body naturally produces other amino acids, which are considered conditionally essential. 
These amino acids make gelatin especially powerful for supporting plump and hydrated skin, joint mobility and bone repair.
The same elastic properties that make collagen so beneficial to our skin and connective tissue also make Gelatin handy as a gelling agent in food. 
Gelatin has the unique ability to cause liquids to gel, giving foods like jellies, gravy and jam their unique texture. 
This feature opens up a whole new world of culinary possibilities, from rich sauces to fluffy pies.

What Is Gelatin Good For? Benefits, Uses and More
Gelatin is a protein product derived from collagen.

What Does Gelatin Taste Like?
Unflavored gelatin should have no taste or odor. 
Gelatin takes on the taste of whatever you make with Gelatin. 
The reason for using Gelatin is to create a gel-like consistency. 
Make sure you don't confuse gelatin with Jell-O, the flavored gelatin snack food.

Gelatin is an animal protein made by boiling the collagenous material from animal bones, hides, and skins. 
Pig and cattle bones are typically used to make gelatin. 
Gelatin has many uses, including use in cooking, industrial uses, cosmetics and photography.
In the pharmaceutical industry, gelatin is used primarily to make hard and soft gelatin capsules. 
Other uses include tablets, emulsions, suppositories and syrups. 
Gelatin has been used for over 125 years in the food industry.
Gelatin is generally recognized as safe by the FDA.

Gelatin Substitute
Because gelatin is made from animal collagen, Gelatin is not suitable for vegetarian or vegan diets. 
There are alternatives to gelatin that provide a similar gelling action. 
For instance, agar and carrageenan come from seaweed, and pectin is derived from fruit. 
Other possible substitutes include arrowroot, guar gum, xanthan gum, and kudzu, but they all thicken liquids differently, so research the best option for your intended application.
Gelatin marked with a "K" has been certified kosher and comes from sources other than pigs. 
For those who avoid cattle products, gelatin made from only pork or fish can be used. 

Gelatin has important health benefits due to its unique combination of amino acids.
Gelatin has been shown to play a role in joint health and brain function, and may improve the appearance of skin and hair.

What Is Gelatin?
Gelatin is a product made by cooking collagen. 
Gelatin is made almost entirely of protein, and Gelatins unique amino acid profile gives Gelatin many health benefits.
Collagen is the most plentiful protein found in humans and animals. 
Gelatin is found almost everywhere in the body, but is most abundant in the skin, bones, tendons and ligaments.
Gelatin provides strength and structure for tissues. 
For example, collagen increases the flexibility of the skin and the strength of the tendons. 
However, Gelatin is difficult to eat collagen because Gelatin is generally found in unpalatable parts of animals.
Luckily, collagen can be extracted from these parts by boiling them in water. 
People often do this when they’re making soup stock to add flavor and nutrients.

Thickening agents like gelatin can be made from different ingredients. 
Gelatin is made by boiling the skin, tendons, ligaments, or bones of animals (usually cows or pigs) in water. 
This process releases collagen, a protein that provides structure and also happens to be the most abundant protein in the human body. 
After the collagen is extracted Gelatin is concentrated and filtered, then cooled, extruded, and dried to make gelatin.

Because animal products are used to make gelatin, Gelatin is not a vegan-friendly food and even some non-vegans choose not to consume Gelatin to support animal rights. 
But there are also gelatin alternatives that are made from non-animal sources.

Gelatin Nutrition Facts
The following nutrition information is provided by the USDA for a single envelope or about one-tablespoon (7 grams) of gelatin.
However, a full envelope may not always represent a single serving.

According to Knox, a company that makes gelatin, a single serving is more likely to be 1.75 grams. 
The company states on their website that a single serving provides 6 calories, 0 grams fat, 0 grams carbohydrate, and 1.6 grams of protein. 
This serving size equals about a 1/2 cup serving when mixed with water.2

Calories: 23.4
Fat: 0g
Sodium: 13.7mg
Carbs: 0g
Fiber: 0g
Sugars: 0g
Protein: 6g

Transforming collagen into gelatin industrially
When you want to make large quantities of gelatin, you won’t use those high quality pieces of meat such as a shoulder to make the gelatin. 
Instead, you use the hides, skins, etc. to make the gelatin. 
In Gelatins essence the process is the same as you do when you make gelatin from your pulled pork, but Gelatin involves several additional steps to get all that collagen converted into gelatin efficiently.
The gelatin can’t be extracted from the animals that easily. 
The raw materials need to be pre-treated first to get a hold of pure collagen that can then be transformed into gelatin. 
During this pre-treatment fats, minerals and other undesired components are removed. 
The manufacturers also treat the raw materials with acids or alkali and enyzmes to help ‘loosen up’ the collagen. 
The collagen starts breaking down somewhat already and becomes easier to extract.
Once the materials have been pre-treated they are heated. 
During this well controlled process the collagen proteins break down further into smaller components. 
A manufacturer has to control all these processes well to ensure they make a gelatin with the desired properties. 
If the collagen breaks down too much Gelatin will form glue and if Gelatin doesn’t break down enough Gelatin will not form these flexible gels.

To Use Powdered Gelatin
-Sprinkle the granules of gelatin over the surface cold water or liquid. 
Use 1/4 cup, 60ml, or whatever quantity is called for in the recipe, per envelope. 
Do not dump the granules in as a pile as the granules in the middle won’t dissolve of “bloom” properly.
-Let stand for 5 to 10 minutes.
-Add warm liquid or heat gently, stirring until dissolved. 
To verify the granules are melted, lift the stirring utensil and make certain that there are no undissolved granules clinging to it.

To Use Sheet Gelatin
-Soak sheet(s) of gelatin in a bowl cold water for 5 to 10 minutes. 
-Once soft, lift sheets from the cold water.

-Wring gently to remove excess water, than add to warm liquid, stirring until dissolved. 
If adding to a cold mixture, melt the softened sheets in a saucepan or microwave over very low heat, stirring just until melted completely. 
Then stir in the cold mixture gradually.

The gelatin extracted during this process is flavorless and colorless. 
Gelatin dissolves in warm water, and takes on a jelly-like texture when Gelatin cools.
This has made Gelatin useful as a gelling agent in food production, in products such as Jell-O and gummy candy. 
Gelatin can also be consumed as bone broth or as a supplement.
Sometimes, gelatin is processed further to produce a substance called collagen hydrolysate, which contains the same amino acids as gelatin and has the same health benefits.
However, Gelatin dissolves in cool water and doesn’t form a jelly. 
This means Gelatin may be more palatable as a supplement to some people.
Both gelatin and collagen hydrolysate are available as supplements in powder or granule form. 
Gelatin can also be purchased in sheet form.
Nevertheless, Gelatin is not suitable for vegans because Gelatin is made from animal parts.

Extraction
Extraction is performed with either water or acid solutions at appropriate temperatures. 
All industrial processes are based on neutral or acid pH values because although alkali treatments speed up conversion, they also promote degradation processes. 
Acidic extraction conditions are extensively used in the industry, but the degree of acid varies with different processes. 
This extraction step is a multistage process, and the extraction temperature usually is increased in later extraction steps, which ensures minimum thermal degradation of the extracted gelatin.

Gelatin is one type of protein produced by the partial hydrolysis of native collagen. 
Depending on the process used, two types of gelatin, namely type A (acid hydrolysis) and type B (alkaline hydrolysis) are generally obtained. 
Gelatin has been exploited as a drug carrier agent, owing to its unique chemical and physical nature. 
In addition, gelatin is a biocompatible and non-immunogenic substrate of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). 
Chitosan conjugated gelatin, poly(DL-lactide)-grafted gelatin, PEG-modified gelatin, and thiolated derivatives of gelatin were some of the reported gelatin derivatives with wide pharmaceutical applications. 
Gelatin–DNA nanospheres have also been reported as a potent gene delivery vehicle. 
Desolvation, coacervation, and water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion are a few commonly employed techniques for preparation of gelatin nanoparticles. 

Tips and Facts About Gelatin
– One envelope of powdered gelatin (about 1/4 ounce) is about 2 1/4 to 2 1/2 teaspoons.
-If the recipe calls for packets (ie; 2 packets), use packets of gelatin for measuring.
-If the recipe calls for a specific amount (ie: 2 teaspoons gelatin), open the packets and measure the gelatin granules with a measuring spoon.
-1 envelope of gelatin will firmly set 2 cups of liquid, enough to unmold a dessert.
-1 envelope of gelatin will softly set 3 cups of liquid. You will not be able to unmold this type of dessert.
-Both sheet and powdered gelatin should be dissolved in cold water. 

If hot water is used, granules of gelatin will swell on the outside too quickly, preventing the water from getting into the center.
-Don’t boil things made with gelatin. High heat can make the gelatin lose its efficacy.
-Desserts made with gelatin should chill for at least eight hours, but twenty-four hours is best. 
After twenty-four hours, gelatin will not set any further.
-Substituting sheet gelatin for powdered gelatin is perhaps the most controversial ratio known to the baking world. 
I’ve seen everything from 1 envelope equals 3, up to 5 sheets. 
Three-and-a-half sheets seem to work best for me. 
I use sheets that are 3-inches by 5-inches.

What is gelatin?
Gelatin is a protein that’s full of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. 
Gelatin comes from collagen-rich animal parts like skin, connective tissue, and bones.
Collagen is the most abundant protein in your body, and Gelatin’s an important component of your skin, cartilage, tendons, and bones.
Gelatin has a ton of uses in the pharmaceutical and food industries. 
For example, Gelatin’s used to give gummy candies their characteristic texture, and Gelatin helps add volume to reduced-fat products like cheeses.
You can also buy gelatin supplements in powder or capsule form.

-Some people prefer to use sheet gelatin, claiming Gelatin has no odor and the gel sets finer. 
Another advantage is there’s also no chance of undissolved granules when using sheet gelatin.
-Gelatin is graded by “bloom’, which is a measure of the stiffness and strength of the gelatin. 
Knox gelatin is 225 bloom, sheet gelatin (gold) is 200 bloom. 
Here’s a guide to the various types of gelatin in this post by Modernist Pantry.
-If you want something made with gelatin to set faster, chill the mold or container first. 
Also you can stir the mixture constantly in a metal bowl placed in an ice bath until Gelatin begins to set, then pour Gelatin into the mold or container.
-Gelatin lasts forever according to the Gelatin Manufacturer’s of America. 
If the packet gives an expiration date, Gelatin has to do with a “degradation of the packaging.” 
So if the packaging is damaged or old, you may want to toss Gelatin and use a new batch.

-Certain tropical fruits, such as pineapple, kiwifruit, and ginger, have an enzyme (bromelin) that can prevent gelatin from setting. 
Heating the fruit completely through before using will destroy the enzyme.
-Adding gelatin to food can make Gelatin non-Kosher, Halal, or inappropriate for those on vegetarian diets. 
Most gelatin is derived from beef or pork, which isn’t always mentioned on the packet. (In France, Gelatin’s noted when Gelatin’s derived from pork.)
-Some folks add gelatin to sorbets to keep them softer when frozen. 
If so, for 1 quart (1l) of mixture, dissolve 1 teaspoon of gelatin in 2 tablespoons or so of the cold sorbet mixture and let soften for 5 minutes. 

Warm a small amount of the sorbet mixture and pour Gelatin into the gelatin, stirring until dissolved, then mix the gelatin back into the sorbet mixture before churning.
*Because there are many different producers of sheet gelatin, various brands will vary in strength and size. 
Use what’s recommended by the company where you buy your gelatin sheets, or on the package, as the manufacturer best to advise on the correct usage of their particular gelatin. 
For those concerned about the detailed math of the conversion, there’s an interesting discussion thread on eGullet.
For those of you who don’t want to get out your calculator, if you’re making a gelatin dessert that needs to be unmolded, err on the side of more gelatin. 
If making a gelée or spoonable custard, you can err on the side of less.

Do we actually need to supplement with gelatin?
For most people, the answer is yes. 
Traditional diets of our ancestors typically included higher amounts of gelatin, since a “nose-to-tail” eating approach of animals was popular.
Today, the average person runs low on gelatin (and other animal-derived compounds like collagen) since many edible animal parts are often discarded. 
Gelatin’s not chicken breast or filet mignon that supplies gelatin naturally — Gelatin’s the “gelatinous” parts of the animals that aren’t usually consumed nowadays, including the animal’s skin, bone marrow and tendons.
While we can make some of the amino acids on our own, we might require more as we age and if we have high levels of inflammation, compromised digestion or weak joints.
Another group likely running very low in gelatin is vegetarians. 
Considering vegetarians and vegans don’t eat most or all animal products, they have no exposure to Gelatin on a normal basis, instead opting for gelatin substitutes like agar agar.
A mostly vegetarian diet might be healthy if done carefully, but Gelatin raises your risk for being low in all essential amino acids the human body requires since it eliminates “complete proteins” like meat, fish, and sometimes eggs and dairy.

Gelatin is largely made up of the amino acids glycine and proline. 
Gelatin is derived from the bones, fibrous tissues, and organs of animals. 
These amino acids are needed not only for proper skin, hair and nail growth, but for optimal immune function and weight regulation.

What Is Gelatin?
Gelatin is a protein derived from the collagen in animal parts; Gelatin acts as a kind of natural adhesive in foods like jams, jellies, and gummy candy like gummy bears. 
Gelatin’s also the gelling agent behind Jell-O’s signature wobble. 
Flavorless and colorless, gelatin products are found in powder or single-sheet form.

Recovery
This process includes several steps such as filtration, evaporation, drying, grinding, and sifting. 
These operations are concentration-dependent and also dependent on the particular gelatin used. 
Gelatin degradation should be avoided and minimized, so the lowest temperature possible is used for the recovery process. 
Most recoveries are rapid, with all of the processes being done in several stages to avoid extensive deterioration of the peptide structure.
A deteriorated peptide structure would result in a low gel strength, which is not generally desired.
 

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