Glyceryl Monolaurate = Glycerol monolaurate = GML = Monolaurin
CAS number: 27215-38-9
Chemical formula: C15H30O4
Molar mass: 274.401 g·mol−1
Monolaurin, also known as Glyceryl Monolaurate (GML), glyceryl laurate or 1-lauroyl-Glyceryl , is a monoglyceride.
Glyceryl Monolaurate is the mono-ester formed from Glyceryl and lauric acid.
Glyceryl Monolaurates chemical formula is C15H30O4.
Monolaurin, also known as Glyceryl Monolaurate, glyceryl laurate or 1-Lauroyl-Glyceryl , is a monoglyceride.
Glyceryl Monolaurate is the mono-ester formed from Glyceryl
Glyceryl Monolaurate is a surfactant used as a food additive, and in other products.
Glyceryl Monolaurate also occurs naturally in breast milk.
Glyceryl Monolaurate is used in ice cream and cosmetics as an emulsifier and preservative.
Glyceryl Monolaurate is also used in soaps.
Glyceryl Monolaurate uses:
Monolaurin is most commonly used as a surfactant in cosmetics, such as deodorants.
As a food additive Glyceryl Monolaurate is also used as an emulsifier or preservative.
Monolaurin is also taken as a dietary supplement.
Glyceryl Monolaurate chemical Properties
Cream-colored paste; faint odor.
Dispersible in water; soluble in methanol and ethanol, toluene, naphtha, mineral oil, cottonseed oil, ethyl acetate. Combustible.
Glyceryl Monolaurate uses
Glyceryl Monolaurate is a monoglyceride emulsifier produced by the esterification of glycerin and lauric acid.
Glyceryl Monolaurate has a melting point of 56°c, a maximum iodine value of 0.5, and a saponification value of 200–206.
In a highly purified form, Glyceryl Monolaurate shows antimicrobial properties against microorganisms with the exception of gram-negative organisms.
Glyceryl Monolaurate is effective against gram-negative organisms when formulated with bha or edta.
Glyceryl Monolaurate is used in baked goods, whipped toppings, frosting, glazes, and cheese products.
Emulsifying and dispersing agent for food products, oils, waxes, and solvents; antifoaming agent; dry-cleaning soap base.
Glyceryl laurate is a unique, multifunctional compound made from lauric acid obtained from sustainable plant sources.
When compared with standard “monoglycerides,” glyceryl laurate has multiple positive characteristics not typically found in a single product and offers elegance and utility to personal care and pharmaceutical products.
In formulating, effective use levels can range between 0.1% and 5.0%, depending upon the application.
Glyceryl Monolaurate should be added to a formulation so that Glyceryl Monolaurate does not receive severe heating for prolonged periods.
Glyceryl Monolaurate can be dispersed in water and dissolved in oil.
Melting point: Approx. 59°C - 60°C
Glyceryl Monolaurate occurrence
Monolaurin is found in coconut oil and may be similar to other monoglycerides found in human breast milk.
Lauric acid can be ingested in coconut oil and the human body converts Glyceryl Monolaurate into monolaurin, furthermore, coconut oil, coconut cream, grated coconut and others products are excellent sources of lauric acid and, consequently, monolaurin.
Researchers are unsure of conversion rates of lauric acid obtained through foods like coconut oil or coconut to monolaurin in the body.
Because of this fact, Glyceryl Monolaurate is unknown how much coconut oil or coconut one would need to ingest to receive a therapeutic dose of monolaurin.
Some articles suggest Glyceryl Monolaurate may be upwards of 100-300mL of coconut oil per day, making ingesting coconut oil unrealistic compared to monolaurin capsules.
Glyceryl Monolaurate pharmacology
Monolaurin in capsule form as a dietary supplement
Monolaurin has antibacterial, antiviral, and other antimicrobial effects in vitro, but its clinical usefulness has not been established.
Monolaurin is currently sold as a dietary supplement and is categorized in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
Monolaurin is known to inactivate lipid-coated viruses by binding to the lipid-protein envelope of the virus, thereby preventing it from attaching and entering host cells, making infection and replication impossible.
Other studies show that Monolaurin disintegrates the protective viral envelope, killing the virus.
Monolaurin has been studied to inactivate many pathogens including Herpes simplex virus and Chlamydia trachomatis.
Monolaurin also shows promising effects against bacteria (both gram-positive and gram-negative), yeast, fungi, and protozoa.
Bacteria including E. Coli, yeast including Candida albicans, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), Giardia lamblia, Staphylococcus aureus (Staph), and other microbials have all been neutralized by monolaurin in scientific studies.
Monolaurin also presented antibacterial and anti-biofilm properties against Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia garinii, the bacterium which cause Lyme Disease in humans.
Furthermore, monolaurin does not seem to contribute to drug resistance.
Chemical formula: C15H30O4
Molar mass: 274.401 g·mol−1
Melting point: 63 °C
Boiling point: 186 °C / 1mmHg
What is Glyceryl Monolaurate?
Glyceryl laurate, also known as monolaurin, is a monoester produced from vegetable-derived glycerin and lauric acid.
What does Glyceryl Monolaurate do?
Glyceryl laurate is a multifunctional ingredient that can be used in skin conditioning and deodorant applications.
How is Glyceryl Monolaurate made?
Our Stewardship Model guides us to select ingredients which have been processed in a manner that supports our philosophy of human and environmental health.
To create the glyceryl laurate ingredient, vegetable oils are split into the glycerin and fatty acids fractions.
The glycerin is recovered and recombined with just the isolated lauric acid in a process known as esterification to for the glyceryl laurate monoester.
What Is Glyceryl laurate?
Glyceryl laurate is a white or cream-colored powder with a faint odor.
Monolaurin is a fat found in coconut oil and breast milk.
Glyceryl Monolaurate uses
Food production: used as a food additive, emulsifier, and as a preservative in ice cream, margarine, spaghetti, and other processed foods.
Manufacturing: commonly used in deodorants, cosmetics, detergents, and insecticides and as an equipment sanitizer in manufacturing.
Dietary supplement: some people take monolaurin as a dietary supplement.
Monolaurin supplements have not been approved by the FDA for medical use.
Supplements generally lack solid clinical research.
Regulations set manufacturing standards for them but don’t guarantee that they’re safe or effective.
Speak with your doctor before supplementing.
Despite a lack of evidence, people use monolaurin to prevent bacterial, fungal, and viral infections.
Allegedly, Glyceryl Monolaurate also helps with skin conditions, strengthens the immune system, and balances bacteria in the gut.
However, clinical studies are lacking.
Appearance: Solid to yellow liquid
CAS Number: 27215-38-9
Density: 0.997 g/cm3
EINECS Number: 205-526-6
Molar Mass: 274.40 g/mol
Molecular Formula: C15H30O4
Synonyms: Tegin L 90;Glyceryl Monolaurate;Lauric Acid Monoglyceride;Sunsoft 757;Sunsoft 750;GML
Glyceryl Monolaurate functional uses:
-Because the GML exists in crude latex, having the ability of resist pathogenic microbe inflection, extensively be applied in the infant milk powder, rice flour etc
-Glyceryl Monolaurate is used in baked product extensively, having the function for increase the quality of rice and flour production
-Glyceryl Monolaurate is a kind of broad spectrum antibiotic, which is safe, efficient and extensive.
-Glyceryl Monolaurate can inhibit some kinds of virus and a lot of bacteria and bioplasm. And the PH value won? affect the efficiency of antisepsis.
-GML is better than pentadiene carboxylic acid, benzene carboxylic acid and P-hydroxy benzoic acid ester
-Glyceryl Monolaurate is used as an emulsifier in sanitarian foods and other foods such as bread, cake, streamed bread and moon-cake
-Glyceryl Monolaurate is used in meat product, dairy product and fruit and vegetable for make the time of preservation longer.
Monolaurin, derived naturally from coconut, is a source of the medium chain fatty acid lauric acid.
Monolaurin has been widely researched for its antiviral, antibacterial, and antimicrobial properties, as it can break down and destroy the lipid layer of enveloped viruses where many pharmaceuticals fail.
Fatty acids and monoglycerides produce their killing/inactivating effects by several mechanisms.
An early postulated mechanism was the perturbing of the plasma membrane lipid bilayer.
The antiviral action attributed to monolaurin is that of fluidizing the structure in the envelope of the virus, causing the disintegration of the microbial membrane.
More recent studies, indicate that one antimicrobial effect in bacteria is related to monolaurin's interference with signal transduction/toxin formation.
Another antimicrobial effect in viruses is due to lauric acid's interference with virus assembly and viral maturation.
The third mode of action may be on the immune system itself.
Monolaurin does not appear to have an adverse effect on desirable gut bacteria, but rather on only potentially pathogenic microorganisms.
Glyceryl Monolaurate is classified by the FDA as "generally regarded as safe" (GRAS).
What Does Glyceryl laurate Do in Our products?
Glyceryl laurate is a plant-based viscosity stabilizer.
Glyceryl Monolaurate is also a skin-conditioning agent.
We use Glyceryl Monolaurate to hold our solid stick deodorant formula together.
Glyceryl Monolaurate is present in many personal care products, including deodorant, shampoo, moisturizer, cleansers, exfoliants and other items.
Why Puracy Uses Glyceryl laurate
We use glyceryl laurate as a viscosity stabilizer.
The Cosmetics Ingredient Review has deemed the ingredient safe for use in cosmetics.
Whole Foods has deemed the ingredient acceptable in Glyceryl Monolaurates body care quality standards.
Glyceryl Monolaurate (GML) is an antimicrobial agent that has potent activity against gram-positive bacteria.
This study examines GML antibacterial activity in comparison to lauric acid, in broth cultures compared to biofilm cultures, and against a wide range of gram-positive, gram-negative, and non-gram staining bacteria.
GML may be useful as a broad-spectrum human or animal topical microbicide and may be useful as an environmental surface microbicide for management of bacterial infections and contamination.
How Glyceryl laurate Is Made
Glyceryl laurate is glyceryl monoester.
Glyceryl Monolaurate is made via the direct esterification of Glyceryl with a fatty acid that often comes from plant oils.
What are the alternatives?
There are several alternative antimicrobial agents to glyceryl laurate used in deodorant products, most of which are synthetic and therefore do not meet our Stewardship Model standards for natural, responsible and sustainable.
Glyceryl Monolaurate (GML) is a naturally occurring fatty acid widely utilized in food, cosmetics, and homeopathic supplements.
GML is a potent antimicrobial agent that targets a range of bacteria, fungi, and enveloped viruses but select findings suggest that GML also has immunomodulatory functions.
In this study, we have mechanistically examined if GML affects the signaling and functional output of human primary T cells.
We found that GML potently altered order and disorder dynamics in the plasma membrane that resulted in reduced formation of LAT, PLC-γ, and AKT microclusters.
Altered membrane events induced selective inhibition of TCR-induced phosphorylation of regulatory P85 subunit of PI3K and AKT as well as abrogated calcium influx.
Ultimately, GML treatment potently reduced TCR-induced production of IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10.
Our data reveal that the widely used anti-microbial agent GML also alters the lipid dynamics of human T cells, leading to their defective signaling and function.
Glyceryl laurate; Monolauroylglycerin; Glyceryl Monolaurate
Use: for any product
Mixing method: Glyceryl Monolaurate can use heat to melt and blend to match the recipe.
Usage rate: 0.5-5%
Product characteristics: White or light colored flake powder
Solubility: Glyceryl Monolaurate can disperse in water
Storage: Glyceryl Monolaurate can be stored at room temperature But close the lid of the bottle tightly and protected from sunlight or heat, the product has a shelf life of at least 2 years.
Possible uses of Glyceryl Monolaurate:
Based on the qualities mentioned above, monolaurin has several suggested uses.
Glyceryl laurate is a monoester of glycerin and lauric acid, used for its skin conditioning and emollient, skin softening and soothing properties.
Glyceryl Monolaurate is also used in personal care products as a surfactant in order to create natural lather and an emulsifier.
Glyceryl Monolaurate is also referred to as Glyceryl sulfate, Glyceryl or 1-hydroxy acid, Glyceryl Monolaurate, or Glyceryl sulfate and monols.
Glyceryl Monolaurate is the main ingredient of humectants, an important component in some toothpaste.
In cosmetics and skincare products, it is used as an additive for cosmetic manufacturing purposes.
There are some reasons why Glyceryl Monolaurate is considered effective as an antiseptic and antimicrobial.
Aside from being a food ingredient, Glyceryl Monolaurate has also been used for medicinal purposes.
Among the benefits of this ingredient are Glyceryl Monolaurates antimicrobial activity, antiseptic effect, and antifungal properties.
Research done on animals reveal that Glyceryl Monolaurate can kill certain types of cancer cells without causing any harm to other healthy cells.
Glyceryl Monolaurate (GML) is a naturally occurring fatty acid molecule and antimicrobial agent.
GML suppresses the growth and virulence of numerous gram positive and gram negative bacteria, fungi, and enveloped viruses.
GML is on the FDA’s Generally Recognized as Safe list (GRAS) and is incorporated in various products such as deodorants, lotions, and cosmetics.
Glyceryl Monolaurate is also widely available as a homeopathic supplement, and is extensively used as a food preservative and emulsifier.
Topical GML is being tested as a treatment and/or preventative measure for Toxic Shock Syndrome, HIV transmission, and surgical site infections.
Thus, GML is an effective antimicrobial that comes in regular contact with the general public through its extensive commercial and therapeutic uses.
Glyceryl Monolaurate performance and Features
Glyceryl Monolaurate is insoluble in water and has emulsifying and lubricating properties.
Glyceryl Monolaurate is widely used in food, cosmetics, textile, leather and other industries.
Glyceryl Monolaurate application
Glyceryl Monolaurate - GML is used in food, cosmetics, textile, leather and other industries.
While the research into the effects of monolaurin in people is limited, it may be useful for the following:
-preventing and treating bacterial, fungal, or viral infections
-treating some skin conditions
-treating some antibiotic-resistant infections, such as Staphylococcus aureus)
-boosting the immune system
Monolaurin also has uses in food production and manufacturing.
At present, people use monolaurin in the production of:
Glyceryl Monolaurate (GML), a 12 carbon fatty acid monoester, inhibits Staphylococcus aureus growth and exotoxin production, but is degraded by S. aureus lipase.
Therefore, dodecylGlyceryl (DDG), a 12 carbon fatty acid monoether, was compared in vitro and in vivo to GML for its effects on S. aureus growth, exotoxin production, and stability.
Glyceryl Monolaurate (GML) is a naturally occurring fatty acid with potent antimicrobial properties.
Interestingly, GML suppresses lymphocyte proliferation and inositol triphosphate production, suggesting that GML has immunomodulatory functions.
In this study, we have mechanistically examined if GML affects the signaling, metabolism, and functional output of human primary T cells.
DL-α-Laurin, 1-Monolaurin, 1-Monododecanoyl-rac-Glyceryl , 1-Monolauroyl-rac-Glyceryl , rac-Glyceryl 1-laurate
Primary human peripheral blood T cells were isolated and expanded from blood cones and treated with GML dissolved in ethanol or ethanol vehicle control.
Cytokine production was measured by ELISA. Protein phosphorylation was detected using immunoblotting.
Membrane clustering of signaling proteins was imaged using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy.
Flow cytometry assays measuring calcium influx and ordered lipid domains were done by detecting cells stained with the calcium chelator dye, Fluo-4M, and the membrane intercalating dye, Di-4-ANEPPDHQ, respectively.
T cell metabolism was assessed using Seahorse XF-96 Extracellular Flux Analyzer.
Glyceryl Monolaurate is a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent.
Glyceryl Monolaurate may be used to control fungi or bacteria that cause decay of postharvest fruits and vegetables.
Glyceryl Monolaurate is intended for formulation into end use products for postharvest treatment of crops and foods.
Formulators must obtain EPA registration for their end-use products.
Synthesis of Glyceryl mono-laurate (GML) has been performed using esterification reaction of Glyceryl and lauric acid.
The reaction was performed at the condition of temperature of 120–140 °C within 7 hour, variation of molar ratio of Glyceryl - lauric acid, and was using heterogeneous catalyst of zeolist Y.
Without catalyst dealumination the maximum acid conversion was 78%, with GML contained in the sample was 38.6%, and Glyceryl Monolaurate was obtained at the reaction condition of 140 oC, 15wt% catalyst, and 8:1 molar ratio of Glyceryl - lauric acid.
At the same condition, using dealuminated catalyst, the maximum acid conversion was increased up to 98%, with GML contained in the sample was 50.4%.
Human milk has antimicrobial compounds and immunomodulatory activities.
We investigated Glyceryl Monolaurate (GML) in human milk versus bovine milk and infant formula for antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities.
Human milk contained approximately 3000 µg/ml of GML, compared to 150 μg/ml in bovine milk and none in infant formula.
For bacteria tested (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli), except Enterococcus faecalis, human milk was more antimicrobial than bovine milk and formula.
The Enterococcus faecalis strain, which was not inhibited, produced reutericyclin, which is an analogue of GML and functions as a growth stimulant in bacteria that produce it.
Removal of GML and other lipophilic molecules from human milk by ethanol extraction resulted in a loss of antibacterial activity, which was restored by re-addition of GML. GML addition caused bovine milk to become antimicrobial.
Human milk but not bovine milk or formula inhibited superantigen and bacterial-induced IL-8 production by model human epithelial cells.
GML may contribute beneficially to human milk compared to bovine milk or infant formula.
CAS Number: 27215-38-9
ChEMBL: ChEMBL510533 check
ECHA InfoCard: 100.005.024
PubChem CID: 14871
UNII: Y98611C087 check
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID5041275
The glyceryl monoesters, or monoglycerides, are all prepared from glycerin.
Most are also prepared from fatty acids or fatty acid derivatives.
Some of these fatty acids may come from refined vegetable oils For example, Glyceryl Linolenate is produced from glycerin and linoleic acid, which can be made from sunflower oil.
Glyceryl Polyacrylate is the ester of glycerin and polyacrylic acid.
What Is Glyceryl Monolaurate?
Ingredient names containing a "/", such as Glyceryl Caprylate/Caprate, are mixtures of monoesters, Glyceryl Caprylate and Glyceryl Caprate.
SE in the name means that it is a self-emulsifying grade that contains some sodium and/or potassium salts of the acid.
Glyceryl monoesters are primarily used in the formulation of creams and lotions, moisturizers, and other skin care products, but glyceryl monoesters can also be found in permanent waves, deodorants, bath soaps, eye makeup and foundations.
Shelf Life: 12 months in unopened original packaging under the storage conditions (from date of production).
Monolaurin is a chemical derived from lauric acid, a component of both coconut fat and breast milk.
Also known as Glyceryl Monolaurate or glyceryl laurate, monolaurin is used in cosmetics and as a food additive.
People can also take Glyceryl Monolaurate as a dietary supplement.
Monolaurin has shown antibacterial and antiviral effects when examined in test tubes and culture dishes, which is referred to as in vitro testing.
Researchers are currently investigating its usefulness in clinical settings.
This article looks at the potential benefits and side effects of monolaurin.
Glyceryl Monolaurate suggested Uses:
Acts as a skin conditioning agent & refatting agent in hand washes, shampoos and other body cleansing formulations.
Glyceryl Monolaurate can be effectively used in toothpastes, mouth rinses to reduce tooth decay and plaque.
Glyceryl Monolaurate gives good skin penetration properties by increasing the absorption in skin care products.
Storage: To be stored in original packing in a shaded warehouse away from heat & direct sunlight.
Shelf Life: One year from the date of production if stored under above mentioned storage conditions in unopened packaging.
Glyceryl Monolaurate benefits:
-Available in dry powder form
-Thermal stability up to 160°C due to stable molecular structure
-Provides excellent natural flavor and taste
-No sign of corrosiveness of the raw material
-stable under changes in pH level(pH 2~8) and shows non-volatile properties
-Antibacterial effects in the entire digestive system (Stomach → Small intestine)
-Increase livestock productivity by improving feed conversion rate
Glyceryl Monolaurate benefits:
The research on monolaurin is limited.
So far, Glyceryl Monolaurates effects have only been seen when tested in laboratories or on animals.
Monolaurin is a naturally-occurring fat present in both coconut oil and breast milk.
Monolaurin, also known as glyceryl monolaurate, glyceryl laurate, or 1-Lauroyl-Glyceryl , is a monoglyceride (a single molecule of Glyceryl attached to a fatty acid).
Coconut oil is 48% lauric acid, which is valued for its use in the food and health supplement industries.
Lauric acid converts to monolaurin in the body.
Some scientists believe monolaurin might be a promising antimicrobial.
Ongoing research is exploring its antibacterial and antiviral effects and safety.
Dodecanoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester
Lauric acid 1-monoglyceride
Glyceryl Monolaurate (GML), also known as monolaurin, glyceryl laurate or 1-lauroyl-Glyceryl , is a monoglyceride.
Glyceryl Monolaurate is the mono-ester formed from Glyceryl and lauric acid.
Glyceryl Monolaurates chemical formula is C15H30O4.Glyceryl Monolaurate is a kind of lipophilicity nonionic surfactant, naturally existing in breast milk and palmetto, internationally recognized as a good food emulsifier, but also a safe, effective and broad-spectrum antibacterial agent.
Glyceryl Monolaurate storage:
Avoid sunlight, rain.
Store in unbroken packaging at the cool, dry and well-ventilated place.
The storage temperature should below 28 ℃ to minimise the agglomeration (the natural tendency).
Keep safety of the packaging in the transportation.
The Glyceryl Monolaurate (GML) is a surfactant used in the food industry and has potent antimicrobial activity against many microorganisms; however, the use of GML is not expanded due its high melting point and poor solubility in water.
The aim of the study was to produce, characterize, and evaluate in vitro the cytotoxicity of GML and GML nanocapsules.
The GML nanocapsules were produced and characterized by a mean diameter, zeta potential, and polydispersity index.
The cytotoxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and hemolytic activity.
The genotoxicity was verified by comet assay.
The physicochemical parameters showed a mean diameter of 192.5 ± 2.8 nm, a polydispersity index of 0.061 ± 0.018, and a zeta potential about − 21.9 ± 1 mV.
The viability test demonstrated the protector effect of GML nanocapsule compared with the GML on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and VERO cells (isolated from kidney epithelial cells extracted from an African green monkey).
A reduction in lipid peroxidation and lactate dehydrogenase release in GML nanocapsule–exposed cells compared with GML treated cells was observed.
The damage on erythrocytes was addressed in treatment with GML, while the treatment with GML nanocapsules did not cause an effect.
Moreover, the comet assay showed that the GML-caused genotoxicity and GML nanocapsules do not demonstrate damage.
The study showed the reduction of toxicity of GML nanocapsules by many methods used in antimicrobial therapy.
dimodan ML 90
dodecanoic acid 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester
dodecanoic acid a-monoglyceride
dodecanoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester
Studies have shown that glyceryl monolaurate not only effectively kills HIV, but also a large number of other lipid envelope viruses which cause many diseases, such as herpes simplex virus, stomatitis virus, cytomegalovirus, most influenza and cold.
Glyceryl Monolaurate can also kill lipid-coated bacteria, fungi and parasites including Staphylococcus aureus, Chlamydia trachomatis Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Thrombotropis, Candida albicans, Gitzer's flagelliasis, etc.
Product Name Glyceryl monostearate
Molecular Weight 359
Boiling Point >260°C
Melting Point 58°C
Flash Point >500°F
Density 0.910 (25°C)
Alpha Sort Glyceryl monostearate
GML also prevents harmful pro-inflammatory processes in vivo at mucosal surfaces although in vitro studies with purified GML show toxicity to tissue culture cells in vitro at concentrations ≥100 μg/ml.
The differences between in vivo versus in vitro activities has not been investigated, but may in part be related to the modulation of GML toxicity by human serum albumin.
Our studies have shown, for example, that inflammation at the human and non-human primate vaginal mucosa facilitates simian immunodeficiency virus infection in rhesus macaque monkeys and production of menstrual toxic shock syndrome.
The production of local inflammation initially depends on microbial stimulation of epithelial cells, among other cells, to produce pro-inflammatory chemokines, such as IL-8 and MIP-3α, which attract innate and adaptive immune cells into the submucosal areas and facilitating barrier disruption.
Our studies also show that vaginal pathogens, but not lactobacilli and latex beads, activate epithelial cells to produce many expected pro-inflammatory chemokines.
GML interferes with normal signal transduction in epithelial cells and locally-recruited immune cells through membrane effects, but does not kill the host cells in vivo.
Glyceryl Monolaurate is noteworthy that a small percentage of women (1%) have reutericyclin-producing lactobacilli and enterococci vaginally, and in such cases, there are minimal to no other vaginal microbes present; one of these enterococci is used in our current studies.
This raises the possibility that reutericyclin and its possible analogue GML have similar effects, both in killing other bacteria and preventing harmful inflammation, in the gastrointestinal tract.
Reutericyclin is expensive to purchase and evaluate, whereas GML is inexpensive and readily available for use in tests.
The goals of this study were to determine: the amount of GML present in whole human versus whole bovine milk and commercial formula, and the possible contribution of GML to the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of human milk compared to bovine milk and commercial formula.
Our hypothesis was that GML may be present in human milk samples but not bovine milk and commercial formula.
Furthermore, GML presence, along with other factors, may inhibit the growth of pathogens and at the same time exhibit anti-inflammatory activity.
Overall, these studies provide important data on the advantages of use of human milk for infants.
GML quantified in human and bovine milk samples and commercial formula
Four human milk, 6 bovine whole milk from cows, and 2 store-purchased whole bovine milk samples were quantified for GML.
All milk samples had been pasteurized.
Whether compared to whole bovine milk obtained from individual cows or to whole bovine milk purchased from a local grocery store, the four tested human milk samples had approximately 20 times more GML than the 8 bovine samples.
There was minimal variation in GML concentrations in the human milk samples.
Commercial infant formula contained no detectable GML.
grindtek ML 90
lauric acid 1-monoglyceride
lauric acid a-monoglyceride
lauric acid monoester with Glyceryl
lauric acid monoglyceride
lauric acid, monoester with Glyceryl
monomuls L 90
poem M 300
GML is a monoGlyceryl ester made of lauric acid (C12:0), a medium-chained fatty acid that is naturally present in coconut milk and breast milk, characterized by strong antibacterial forces.
Glyceryl Monolaurate has strong effects on common bacteria, fungi, and yeast that can occur in feed, and Glyceryl Monolaurate not only shows antibacterial effects when ingested by animals, but also maximizes the productivity of livestock through improvements in feed requirements (FCR) and feed Conversion Ratio
Glyceryl Monolaurate (GML)
Product Name: ZTCC® GML
Full Name: Glyceryl Monolaurate
Product Type: Emulsifier, food grade
Color: Off white to white
CAS No.: 67701-32-0 67701-33-1 68990-53-4