GLYOXYLIC ACID    

Glyoxylic acid (oxo-acetic acid) is an organic compound used as a chemical intermediate across the industries. 
Personal care & cosmetics ingredients, aromas, pharmaceutical, and agrochemicals, are the major applications of glyoxylic acid.
Glyoxylic acid can be applied successfully in the agro, pharma and fine chemical industries. 
Glyoxylic acid is the material for water purificants, pesticides. 
Glyoxylic acid is used as an intermediate of varnish material and dyes. 
It can be used in the preservation of food, as a crosslinking agent of polymerization and as a plating additive.

Glyoxylic acid, also known as a-ketoacetate or glyoxalate, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as carboxylic acids. 
Carboxylic acids are compounds containing a carboxylic acid group with the formula -C(=O)OH. 
Glyoxylic acid is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). 
Glyoxylic acid exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. 
Glyoxylic acid is a potentially toxic compound.

The term “glyoxylic acid” designates the carboxylic acid with chemical formula HCOCOOH, and CAS Number: 298-12-4.


Application: 
Used as raw material for producing methyl vanillin and ethyl vanillin in spice industry.
Used in the pharmaceutical industry as a synthetic intermediate of the antihypertensive drug atenolol, d-p-hydroxybenzoidine, broad-spectrum antibiotic ampicillin (oral), acetophenone, amino acid and other compounds.
Used as intermediates for varnishes, dyes, plastics and agricultural chemicals.
It is also used in the production of allantoin, an intermediate of anti-ulcer drugs, pharmaceutical products and household


Glyoxylic acid (GA) is a colourless solid that occurs naturally and is useful industrially. 
Aqueous solution of Glyoxylic acid is transparent colorless or light yellow liquid. 
Soluble in water and ethanol, slightly soluble in organic solvents like ether or benzene, insoluble in esters aromatic solvents. 
This solution is not stable but will not decay in the air.

Glyoxylic acid is a strong organic acid and a highly reactive chemical intermediate having two functional groups: the aldehyde group and the carboxylic acid group. 
Because of its bi-functionality is a versatile reagent in organic and fine chemicals syntheses.

Glyoxylic acid or Oxo-acetic acid is transparent organic solid compound. It occurs naturally or produced synthetically using glyoxal as a primary raw materials. 
Glyoxylic acid or its downstream products are used in variety of end-use industries. 
The prominent downstream products of glyoxylic acid include vanillin, p-hydroxyphenylglycine, 2- hydroxyl- phosphine acetic acid, among others.

En use industries of the global glyoxylic acid market comprises personal care and cosmetics ingredient, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, aromas, polymers, and others. 
The global market is driven by increasing demand in these end use industries. 
Among all such end use industries, personal care and food and beverage industries are prominently driving the demand of global market. 
Allantoin, a glyoxylic acid derivative, is used hair care and skin care products owing to its moisturizing and emulsifying properties. 
Increasing demand of hair care products such as straightening products, shampoos, conditioners, lotions, and hair creams is expected to drive the demand in personal care industry. 
On similar lines, increasing application of vanillin in aromas and flavors in food and beverage industry is another driving factor for the global market

APPLICATIONS


ELECTROLESS COPPER PLATING

REDUCTOR
Glyoxylic acid as an alternative reducing agent for electroless copper plating was investigated. 
Plating rates and bath stability were superior to that of the formaldehyde bath under standard conditions. 
Glyoxylate ions in the plating bath have no vapor pressure and showed good reducing power in the electroless copper plating. 
Therefore, glyoxylic acid can replace formaldehyde, and eliminate health and environmental problems resulting from generation of the fumes (research overview).

Glyoxylic acid or oxoacetic acid is an organic compound. 
Together with acetic acid, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid, glyoxylic acid is one of the C2 carboxylic acids. 
Glyoxylic acid is a colourless solid that occurs naturally and is useful industrially.


HISTOLOGY

BIOGENIC AMINES VIZUALIZER

The glyoxylic acid condensation reaction is commonly used for visual detection of biogenic amines in histological sections. 
This is the sucrose-phosphate-glyoxylic acid (SPG) histofluorescence method for the visualization of monoamines in tissues where the fluorescence is analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. 
It is used for counterstaining tissues.

 


ENVIRONMENT
There is possible to synthetize amino acids from Glyoxylic by oil – bearing plants.

FUNGICIDES

The glyoxilic acid derivatives were discoverd as a new class of Oomycete fungicides.
The Glyoxalic derivatives exhibit specific activity against oomycetes, including dwony mildew on grapes (Plasmopara viticola) and late blight on potatoes an tomatoes (Phytophthora infestans). 
They are active against Oomycetes in soil such as Phytophthora in tabacoo and citrus. 
They exhibit protective, curative, eradicative and antisporulant activity. 
This class of compounds can be synthesized wih a simple synthetic approach where in the second step the glycolic acid ester is needed.

 

WOOD

CATALYST
There is formaldehyde-free aminoresin wood adhesives based on dimethoxyethanal (DME).
Its precursors prepared by the addition of DME to melamine or urea gave resins for boards that were able to harden. 
Melamine and urea reacts with one and two (melamine up to three) molecules of DME to form M-DME and U-DME (called DU), and the subsequent cross-linking reaction to form bridges occurs when the reaction is catalyzed during resin preparation by the addition of glyoxylic acid. 
That has allowed the formation of different oligomers formed by both aldol condensation and condensation of melamine and glyoxylic acid with two molecules of melamine to form dimers.

 

INCI Name
Glyoxylic Acid, Water

Description
Hair styling ingredient with semi-permanent hair straightening & hair conditioning effect. 
The carboxylic and aldehyde groups of glyoxylic acid react with the amine groups present in hair keratin resulting in the formation of stable bonds.

In particular, glyoxylic acid produces semi-permanent hair straightening without breaking the cystine disulfide bridge. 
It provides long lasting relaxing effect of hair fibres, without causing damage to the hair and scalp irritations typical of alkaline chemical and other straightening agents.

Glyoxylic acid 50H is high purity cosmetic grade with only trace content of the CMR impurity glyoxal and without formaldehyde. 
This allows formulators to use levels up to 25% in hair straightening cosmetics without exceeding the maximum permitted level of 100 ppm glyoxal established by EU & other cosmetic regulations. 

Glyoxylic acid 50H finds use in hair straightening formulations to smooth wavy & tightly curly hair. When applied with flat iron it softens natural curls providing shiny silk appearance and improving hair maneageability.

More examples of applications for glyoxylic acid derivatives:

PHARMACEUTICALS

Acryloamidoglycolic acid in polymer chemicals and D,L-p-hydroxyphenylglycine, D,L-p-hydroxyphenylhydantoin, orotic aid, sulindac, mandelic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, diphenylacetic acid.

AGROCHEMICALS
Ethylene bis(hydroxyphenyl)glycine, PYRIDATE, glyphosate, 2-hydroxy quinoxaline.

FLAVOR AND FRAGRANCE PRODUCTS
Aroma chemicals such as vanillin, ethyl vanillin, heliotropin.

PERSONAL CARE INGREDIENTS
Allantoin. 
The diureide of glyoxylic acid which is active in skin-softening (keratolytic effect) and rapid cell regeneration by precipitating proteins on skin.

 

Other uses:

Material for water purificant, used in the preservation of food.

Crosslinking agent of polymerization and plating additive.

Starting material for the synthesis of iron chelates.

Intermediate of varnish material, dyes.


GLYOXYLIC ACID
CAS number: 298-12-4
 "Satisfactory" in all categories.
INCI name: GLYOXYLIC ACID
EINECS/ELINCS number: 206-058-5
Its functions (INCI)
Antistatic : Reduces static electricity by neutralizing electrical charge on a surface
Buffering : Stabilises the pH of cosmetics
Hair waving or straightening : Modifies the chemical structure of the hair, to style it in the required style

Glyoxylic acid or oxoacetic acid is an organic compound. 
Together with acetic acid, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid, glyoxylic acid is one of the C2 carboxylic acids. 
It is a colourless solid that occurs naturally and is useful industrially.

EC / List no.: 206-058-5
CAS no.: 298-12-4
Mol. formula: C2H2O3


Acetic acid, 2-oxo-
Glyoxylic acid


a-Ketoacetate
a-Ketoacetic acid
acetic acid
Acetic acid, oxo-
alpha-Ketoacetate
alpha-Ketoacetic acid
Formic acid, formyl-
Formylformate
Formylformic acid
Glyoxalate
Glyoxalic acid
Glyoxalsaeure
Glyoxylat
Glyoxylate
Glyoxylic acid
Glyoxylic acid, 14c2-labeled
Glyoxylic acid, 2-(14)C-labeled
Glyoxylic acid, calcium salt
Glyoxylic acid, sodium salt
Glyoxylic acid, sodium salt, 14C-labeled
Glyoxylic acid, sodium salt, 2-(14)C-labeled
Glyoxylsaeure
Kyselina glyoxylova
OCHCOOH
Oxalaldehydate
Oxalaldehydic acid
Oxoacetate
Oxoacetic acid
Oxoethanoate
Oxoethanoic acid
α-ketoacetate
α-ketoacetic acid


Glyoxylic acid is a highly reactive chemical intermediate having two functional groups: the aldehyde group and the carboxylic acid group. 
Strong organic acid (Ka=4.7x10-4), miscible in water & alcohol, insoluble in organic solvents. 
It is supplied as a 50% water solution.
Glyoxylic acid is an important C2 building block for many organic molecules of industrial importance, used in the production of agrochemicals, aromas, cosmetic ingredients, pharmaceutical intermediates and polymers.

Glyoxylic acid finds application in personal care as neutralizing agent, it is widely used in hair straightening products in particular (shampoos, conditioners, lotions, creams) at levels of 0.5-10%.

Glyoxylic acid is a 2-oxo monocarboxylic acid that is acetic acid bearing an oxo group at the alpha carbon atom. It has a role as a human metabolite, an Escherichia coli metabolite, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite and a mouse metabolite. It is a 2-oxo monocarboxylic acid and an aldehydic acid. It is a conjugate acid of a glyoxylate.


Although the structure of glyoxylic acid is described as having an aldehyde functional group, the aldehyde is only a minor component of the form most prevalent in some situations


Glyoxylic acid or oxoacetic acid is an organic compound. Together with acetic acid, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid, glyoxylic acid is one of the C2 carboxylic acids. 
It is a colourless solid that occurs naturally and is useful industrially.

Preferred IUPAC name: Oxoacetic acid
Systematic IUPAC name: Oxoethanoic acid
Glyoxylic acid; 2-Oxoacetic acid; Formylformic acid
CAS Number: 298-12-4 

Glyoxylic acid is a 2-oxo monocarboxylic acid that is acetic acid bearing an oxo group at the alpha carbon atom. 
It has a role as a human metabolite, an Escherichia coli metabolite, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite and a mouse metabolite. 
It is a 2-oxo monocarboxylic acid and an aldehydic acid. It is a conjugate acid of a glyoxylate.

INCI Name
Glyoxylic Acid, Water

Description
Hair styling ingredient with semi-permanent hair straightening & hair conditioning effect. The carboxylic and aldehyde groups of glyoxylic acid react with the amine groups present in hair keratin resulting in the formation of stable bonds.

In particular, glyoxylic acid produces semi-permanent hair straightening without breaking the cystine disulfide bridge. 
It provides long lasting relaxing effect of hair fibres, without causing damage to the hair and scalp irritations typical of alkaline chemical and other straightening agents.

Glyoxylic acid 50H is high purity cosmetic grade with only trace content of the CMR impurity glyoxal and without formaldehyde. 
This allows formulators to use levels up to 25% in hair straightening cosmetics without exceeding the maximum permitted level of 100 ppm glyoxal established by EU & other cosmetic regulations. 

Glyoxylic acid 50H finds use in hair straightening formulations to smooth wavy & tightly curly hair. 
When applied with flat iron it softens natural curls providing shiny silk appearance and improving hair maneageability.

Reactivity Profile
GLYOXYLIC ACID is a carboxylic acid. Preparative hazard, nitric acid and glyoxal to produce glyoxylic acid has had explosive consequences. 
Carboxylic acids donate hydrogen ions if a base is present to accept them. 
They react in this way with all bases, both organic (for example, the amines) and inorganic. 
Their reactions with bases, called "neutralizations", are accompanied by the evolution of substantial amounts of heat. 
Neutralization between an acid and a base produces water plus a salt. 
Carboxylic acids with six or fewer carbon atoms are freely or moderately soluble in water; those with more than six carbons are slightly soluble in water. 
Soluble carboxylic acid dissociate to an extent in water to yield hydrogen ions. 
The pH of solutions of carboxylic acids is therefore less than 7.0. 
Many insoluble carboxylic acids react rapidly with aqueous solutions containing a chemical base and dissolve as the neutralization generates a soluble salt. 
Carboxylic acids in aqueous solution and liquid or molten carboxylic acids can react with active metals to form gaseous hydrogen and a metal salt. 
Such reactions occur in principle for solid carboxylic acids as well, but are slow if the solid acid remains dry. 
Even "insoluble" carboxylic acids may absorb enough water from the air and dissolve sufficiently in Glyoxylic acid to corrode or dissolve iron, steel, and aluminum parts and containers. 
Carboxylic acids, like other acids, react with cyanide salts to generate gaseous hydrogen cyanide. 
The reaction is slower for dry, solid carboxylic acids. 
Insoluble carboxylic acids react with solutions of cyanides to cause the release of gaseous hydrogen cyanide. 
Flammable and/or toxic gases and heat are generated by the reaction of carboxylic acids with diazo compounds, dithiocarbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides, and sulfides. 
Carboxylic acids, especially in aqueous solution, also react with sulfites, nitrites, thiosulfates (to give H2S and SO3), dithionites (SO2), to generate flammable and/or toxic gases and heat. 
Their reaction with carbonates and bicarbonates generates a harmless gas (carbon dioxide) but still heat. 
Like other organic compounds, carboxylic acids can be oxidized by strong oxidizing agents and reduced by strong reducing agents. 
These reactions generate heat. 
A wide variety of products is possible. 
Like other acids, carboxylic acids may initiate polymerization reactions; like other acids, they often catalyze (increase the rate of) chemical reactions.

Glyoxylic acid is a nonvolatile chemical that showed good reducing power in electroless copper plating, and can therefore replace formaldehyde, alleviating the environmental problems associated with the latter.


Electroless copper plating solutions
In this book, in electroless copper plating solutions, either formaldehyde or glyoxylic acid is used as reducing agent

Acetic acid, 2-oxo-
Glyoxylic acid
glyoxylic acid
glyoxylic acid ...%
glyoxylic acid...%

Translated names
acid glioxilic … % (ro)
acide glyoxylique ... % (fr)
acido gliossilico … % (it)
aċidu gliossiliku ...% (mt)
glioksilna kiselina ...% (hr)
glioksilna kislina ... % (sl)
glioksilo rūgštis …% (lt)
glioksālskābe, … % (lv)
glyoksyylihappo, …% (fi)
glyoxylová kyselina …% (cs)
glyoxylsyra …% (sv)
glyoxylsyre …% (da)
Glyoxylsäure … % (de)
glyoxylzuur … % (nl)
Glüoksüülhape kontsentratsiooniga ... % (et)
kwas glioksalowy ...% (pl)
kyselina 2-oxoetánová ...% (sk)
Ácido glioxílico ...% (es)
ácido glioxílico a ... % (pt)
γλυοξαλικό οξύ …% (el)
глиоксилова киселина ...% (bg)
… %-os glioxilsav (hu)

CAS names
Acetic acid, 2-oxo-

IUPAC names
2-oxo acetic acid
2-oxoacetic acid
Acetic acid, 2-oxo-
glyocylic acid
glyoxyl acid
GLYOXYLIC ACID
Glyoxylic acid
glyoxylic acid
glyoxylic acid
Glyoxylic Acid (ca. 50% in Water, ca. 9mol/L)
Glyoxylic Acid 50% (aqueous solution)
oxaldehydic acid
oxoacetic acid
oxoethanoic acid

Trade names
glyoxylic acid
Glyoxylic acid 50 % (aqueous solution)
glyoxylic acid 50% (aqueous solution)
Glyoxylic acid liq 50

206-058-5 [EINECS]
298-12-4 [RN]
741891 [Beilstein]
Acetic acid, 2-oxo- [ACD/Index Name]
Acide glyoxyl [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Acide glyoxylique [French]
a-Ketoacetic acid
formylformic acid
Glyoxyl acid [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Glyoxylic acid [Wiki]
Glyoxylsäure [German]
Oxoacetic acid
Oxoessigsäure [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
OXOETHANOIC ACID
206-058-5MFCD00006958
2-Oxo acid
2-Oxoacetic Acid
2-Oxoacetic acid(in water)
Acetic acid, oxo-
Formic acid, formyl
Formic acid, formyl-
Formylformic acid monohydrate
GLV
Glycoxylic acid
glyox
Glyoxalic acid
glyoxalic acid hydrate
Glyoxalsaeure
Glyoxylic Acid (50per cent aqueous solution)
Glyoxylic acid, 50% w/w aq. soln
Glyoxylsaeure
http:////www.amadischem.com/proen/537594/
http://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB0000119
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:16891
InChI=1S/C2H2O3/c3-1-2(4)5/h1H,(H,4,5)
Kyselina glyoxylova [Czech]
Methyl 4-iodo-1H-indazole-6-carboxylate [ACD/IUPAC Name]
oxalaldehydic acid
oxaldehydic acid
oxaldehydic acid hydrate
OXD
Oxo-acetic acid
Oxoethanoic acid monohydrate
STR06186
WLN: VHVQ
α-ketoacetic acid
α-ketoacetic acid
α-Ketoacetic acid
乙醛酸 [Chinese]


Synonyms:
a-keto    acetic acid
oxo    acetic acid
oxo-    acetic acid
     acetic acid, 2-oxo-
     acetic acid, oxo- (9CI)
oxo-    aceticacid
oxo    ethanoic acid
     formic acid, formyl
     formylformic acid
     glyoxalic acid
     glyoxyl acid
     glyoxylic acid (8CI)
     glyoxylicacid
     oxalaldehydic acid
     oxaldehydic acid

alpha-Ketoacetic acid    
Formylformic acid    
Glyoxalate    
Glyoxalsaeure    
Glyoxylate    
Glyoxylsaeure


2-aminophenylglyoxylic acid  has functional parent glyoxylic acid 
3,5-dihydroxyphenylglyoxylic acid has functional parent glyoxylic acid 
4-hydroxyphenylglyoxylic acid has functional parent glyoxylic acid 
glyoxylate ester has functional parent glyoxylic acid 
phenylglyoxylic acid has functional parent glyoxylic acid 
glyoxylate is conjugate base of glyoxylic acid 


Glyoxylic acid or oxoacetic acid is an organic compound that is both an aldehyde and a carboxylic acid. 
Glyoxylic acid is a liquid with a melting point of -93°C and a boiling point of 111°C. 
It is an intermediate of the glyoxylate cycle, which enables certain organisms to convert fatty acids into carbohydrates. 
The conjugate base of glyoxylic acid is known as glyoxylate (PMID: 16396466 ). 

In humans, glyoxylate is produced via two pathways: 
(1) through the oxidation of glycolate in peroxisomes and 
(2) through the catabolism of hydroxyproline in mitochondria. 
In the peroxisomes, glyoxylate is converted into glycine by glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT1) or into oxalate by glycolate oxidase. 
In the mitochondria, glyoxylate is converted into glycine by mitochondrial glyoxylate aminotransferase AGT2 or into glycolate by glycolate reductase. 
A small amount of glyoxylate is converted into oxalate by cytoplasmic lactate dehydrogenase. 
Glyoxylic acid is found to be associated with primary hyperoxaluria I, which is an inborn error of metabolism. 
Under certain circumstances, glyoxylate can be a nephrotoxin and a metabotoxin. 
A nephrotoxin is a compound that causes damage to the kidney and kidney tissues. 
A metabotoxin is an endogenously produced metabolite that causes adverse health effects at chronically high levels. High levels of glyoxylate are involved in the development of hyperoxaluria, a key cause of nephrolithiasis (commonly known as kidney stones). 
Glyoxylate is both a substrate and inductor of sulfate anion transporter-1 (SAT-1), a gene responsible for oxalate transportation, allowing it to increase SAT-1 mRNA expression, and as a result oxalate efflux from the cell. 
The increased oxalate release allows the buildup of calcium oxalate in the urine, and thus the eventual formation of kidney stones. 
As an aldehyde, glyoxylate is also highly reactive and will modify proteins to form advanced glycation products (AGEs).

glyoxylic acid has role Escherichia coli metabolite 
glyoxylic acid has role Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite 
glyoxylic acid has role human metabolite 
glyoxylic acid has role mouse metabolite 
glyoxylic acid is a 2-oxo monocarboxylic acid 
glyoxylic acid is a aldehydic acid
glyoxylic acid is conjugate acid of glyoxylate 


α-ketoacetic acid    
formylformic acid    
Glyoxalate    
Glyoxalsäure Deutsch    
Glyoxylate    
Glyoxylic acid    
GLYOXYLIC ACID    
Glyoxylsäure Deutsch    
oxalaldehydic acid    
oxoethanoic acid


Glyoxylic acid (GA) is an important organic acid in the chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries. 
It is found in plants and involved in the metabolic cycle of animals. 
Glyoxylic acid is produced in several ways: by nitric acid oxidation of glyoxal, by catalytic oxidation of ethylene or acetaldehyde, and by electrochemical reduction of oxalic acid.

The determination of glyoxylic acid in its electrochemical synthesis reaction mixture is a difficult process because this mixture contains carboxylic acids with convergent acidic dissociation constants and other compounds carrying organic groups that can undergo oxidation or reduction such as ethylene glycol, glyoxal, and glycolic acid. 
Thus, it is expected that glyoxylic acid will be very difficult to determine quantitatively using traditional analytical methods such as acid-base or redox titrations, separation, or precipitation 


Glyoxylic acid is a reagent for sulfinylmaleate synthesis. 
Glyoxylic acid is one of the chemicals used in the Hopkins Cole reaction. 
Glyoxylic acid is involved to check the presence of tryptophan in proteins. 
Glyoxylic acid is condensed with urea and 1,2-diaminobenzene to form heterocycles. 
Glyoxylic acid also undergoes Friedel-Crafts and cyclocondensation reactions to form bis(pentamethylphenyl) acetic acid and a beta-carboline respectively. 
Glyoxylic acid is employed in the synthesis of a sulfinylmaleate, which serves as an efficient dienophile for enantioselective Diels-Alder cycloadditions.


Glyoxylic acid as a hair straightener

Glyoxylic acid is for various applications such as straightening, undulating, smoothing, loosening curls, doing the so-called Afro perm, defining, relaxing, and the very famous progressive brush treatment, among others, depending on the desired result for each type of hair.

Demand for glyoxylic acid is expected to increase, due to its application as a substitute for lignin in the manufacture of vanillin. 
Dr Nigel Freestone reviews some of the most eco-friendly production routes.

Glyoxylic acid is currently manufactured either by the nitric acid oxidation of glyoxal or via a three-step reaction which involves ozonolysis of dimethyl maleate, hydrogenation of the resulting hydroperoxide intermediate, and hydrolysis of the resulting methylglyoxylate. 
The major use of glyoxylic acid is in the manufacture of vanillin, and the demand for vanillin produced from glyoxylic acid is expected to increase as the availability of vanillin from lignin (a byproduct of paper production) decreases due to environmental concerns. 
Vanillin in turn is used as a flavour and fragrance ingredient, as well as in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals.

DiCosimo and co-workers have developed an alternative biocatalytic process for the production of glyoxylic acid. 
The enzymes, glycolate oxidase and catalase in the presence of ethylenediamine (0.78M; pH8.9) oxidise aqueous solutions of glycolic acid (0.75M; 5.7% w/v) to glyoxylic acid with greater than 99% selectivity at greater than 99% conversion at 150¡C. 
The almost quantitative conversion of glycolate to glyoxylate is primarily due to the use of the catalase in combination with ethylenediamine, where catalase destroys the byproduct hydrogen peroxide and ethylenediamine protects both the glyoxylate from further oxidation by hydrogen peroxide and limits product inhibition of glycolate oxidase. 
The final product, a 50 wt% solution of glyoxylic acid in water, is chemically equivalent to existing commercially available material. Additionally, this biocatalytic process produces a yield of glyoxylic acid and fewer undesirable waste streams (NaCl being the only byproduct generated in the final ion-exchange separation of the desired product) than current methods of production.

GLYOXYLIC ACID is a carboxylic acid. Preparative hazard, nitric acid and glyoxal to produce glyoxylic acid has had explosive consequences. 
Carboxylic acids donate hydrogen ions if a base is present to accept them. 
They react in this way with all bases, both organic (for example, the amines) and inorganic. 
Their reactions with bases, called "neutralizations", are accompanied by the evolution of substantial amounts of heat. 
Neutralization between an acid and a base produces water plus a salt. Carboxylic acids with six or fewer carbon atoms are freely or moderately soluble in water; those with more than six carbons are slightly soluble in water. 
Soluble carboxylic acid dissociate to an extent in water to yield hydrogen ions. 
The pH of solutions of carboxylic acids is therefore less than 7.0. 
Many insoluble carboxylic acids react rapidly with aqueous solutions containing a chemical base and dissolve as the neutralization generates a soluble salt. 
Carboxylic acids in aqueous solution and liquid or molten carboxylic acids can react with active metals to form gaseous hydrogen and a metal salt. 
Such reactions occur in principle for solid carboxylic acids as well, but are slow if the solid acid remains dry. 
Even "insoluble" carboxylic acids may absorb enough water from the air and dissolve sufficiently in it to corrode or dissolve iron, steel, and aluminum parts and containers. 
Carboxylic acids, like other acids, react with cyanide salts to generate gaseous hydrogen cyanide. 
The reaction is slower for dry, solid carboxylic acids. 
Insoluble carboxylic acids react with solutions of cyanides to cause the release of gaseous hydrogen cyanide. 
Flammable and/or toxic gases and heat are generated by the reaction of carboxylic acids with diazo compounds, dithiocarbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides, and sulfides. 
Carboxylic acids, especially in aqueous solution, also react with sulfites, nitrites, thiosulfates (to give H2S and SO3), dithionites (SO2), to generate flammable and/or toxic gases and heat. 
Their reaction with carbonates and bicarbonates generates a harmless gas (carbon dioxide) but still heat. 
Like other organic compounds, carboxylic acids can be oxidized by strong oxidizing agents and reduced by strong reducing agents. 
These reactions generate heat. 
A wide variety of products is possible. 
Like other acids, carboxylic acids may initiate polymerization reactions; like other acids, they often catalyze (increase the rate of) chemical reactions.


FORMYL FORMIC ACID
GLYOXYLIC ACID (50% OR LESS)
OXACETIC ACID
OXOETHANOIC ACID

IUPAC Name    
oxaldehydic acid

Alternative Names    
glyoxylic acid
Oxoacetic acid
Oxoethanoic acid
2-Oxoacetic Acid

Glyoxylic acid or oxo-acetic acid is an organic compound used as a chemical intermediate in various industries. 
It is one of the prominent C2-carboxylic acid compound after acetic acid, and oxalic acid. 
It is produced from catalytic oxidation of glyoxal. 
It is used in to produce various downstream products which are used in range of end use industries. 
The prominent derivatives of glyoxylic acid are allantoin, vanillin, P-hydroxyphenylglycine, DL-p-hydroxy phenylhydantoin, 2-hydroxyl-phosphine acetic acid and others. 
Among all these derivatives, allantoin and vanillin are the most prominently used in several end use industries. 
Allantoin is used as a keratolitic ingredient in skin care products and is estimated to account highest market share in the global market by 2017 end. 
Allantoin segment is followed by vanillin market segment owing to its high use in food & beverage industry in aroma application. 
Furthermore, prominent glyoxylic acid applications are personal care & cosmetics, aromas, pharmaceutical, agrochemicals and others. 
Personal care & cosmetics and pharmaceutical are estimated to be the leading glyoxylic acid application accounting for more than 30% of the overall glyoxylic acid consumption in 2017. 
Agrochemicals is relatively smaller market segment accounting for niche share in the overall market. 
The segment is witnessing slower growth owing to presence of suitable alternatives in the market.


The global glyoxylic acid market is segmented on the basis of derivatives, application and region. 
On the basis of derivatives, global glyoxylic acid market is segmented into allantoin, vanillin, P-hydroxyphenylglycine, DL-p-hydroxy phenylhydantoin, and 2-hydroxyl-phosphine acetic acid among others. 
Based on application, the global glyoxylic acid is segmented into— Personal Care & Cosmetic Ingredient, Pharmaceuticals, Aroma, and Agrochemicals among others.

The global glyoxylic acid market is majorly segmented on the basis of derivatives, application and region. 
Based on derivatives of glyoxylic acid the market is segmented into p-hydroxyphenylglycine, DL-p—hydroxy phenylhydantoin, vanillin, 2- hydroxyl- phosphine acetic acid, and others (diphenylacetic acid etc.). 
Based on application the market segmented into personal care and cosmetics ingredient, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, aromas, and others.

The global Glyoxylic Acid market Growth is anticipated to rise at a considerable rate during the forecast period, between 2021 and 2023. 
In 2021, the market was growing at a steady rate and with the rising adoption of strategies by key players, the market is expected to rise over the projected horizon.
Glyoxylic Acid Market provides sizing and growth opportunities for the period 2021-2023. 
Provides comprehensive insights on the latest industry trends, forecast, and growth drivers in the market. 
Report Includes a detailed analysis of growth drivers, challenges, and investment opportunities. 
Delivers a complete overview of segments and the regional outlook of the market.
Glyoxylic Acid Market Offers an exhaustive summary of the vendor landscape, competitive analysis, and key strategies to gain competitive advantage.

Glyoxylic Acid Market Trend for Development and marketing channels are analysed. 
Finally, the feasibility of new investment projects is assessed and overall research conclusions offered.
Glyoxylic Acid Market Forecast by regions, type and application, with sales and revenue, from 2021 to 2023.

Glyoxylic acid or Oxo-acetic acid is transparent organic solid compound. 
It occurs naturally or produced synthetically using glyoxal as a primary raw materials. 
Glyoxylic acid or its downstream products are used in variety of end-use industries. 
The prominent downstream products of glyoxylic acid include vanillin, p-hydroxyphenylglycine, 2- hydroxyl- phosphine acetic acid, among others.

En use industries of the global glyoxylic acid market comprises personal care and cosmetics ingredient, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, aromas, polymers, and others. 
The global market is driven by increasing demand in these end use industries. 
Among all such end use industries, personal care and food and beverage industries are prominently driving the demand of global market. 
Allantoin, a glyoxylic acid derivative, is used hair care and skin care products owing to its moisturizing and emulsifying properties. 
Increasing demand of hair care products such as straightening products, shampoos, conditioners, lotions, and hair creams is expected to drive the demand in personal care industry. 
On similar lines, increasing application of vanillin in aromas and flavors in food and beverage industry is another driving factor for the global market. 
Consequently, the global market is estimated to exhibit CAGR of 5.27% in order to reach USD 849.1 Mn by 2023 end.

Among all the derivatives, allantoin and vanillin segments accounted more than half of the overall glyoxylic acid consumption. 
This is attributed to their prominent use in personal care and food and beverage industries, respectively. 
In 2016, allantoin segment accounted for approximate value share of 28.9% in the overall market.

The global glyoxylic acid market is majorly segmented on the basis of derivatives, application and region. 
Based on derivatives of glyoxylic acid the market is segmented into p-hydroxyphenylglycine, DL-p—hydroxy phenylhydantoin, vanillin, 2- hydroxyl- phosphine acetic acid, and others (diphenylacetic acid etc.). 
Based on application the market segmented into personal care and cosmetics ingredient, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, aromas, and others. 
The others segment include electroless copper plating, water purificant, etc. 

Formaldehyde replacement with glyoxylic acid in semipermanent hair straightening: a new and multidisciplinary investigation
Formaldehyde is an effective and popular semipermanent hair straightener, but the severe consequences for human health due to its toxicity have prompted the search for safer alternatives. 
Different carbonyl compounds, including glyoxylic acid, have recently been proposed as promising candidates. 
Despite the interest in this topic, there is a lack of information about the interactions between hair keratin and straightener agents. 
This study addresses this issue to gain new insights useful in the development of new products for safe, semipermanent hair deformation.

Glyoxylic acid can be used to synthesize cosmetics and spices, such as allantoin and vanillic aldehyde; in the pharmaceuticals industry, glyoxylic acid is applied in the production of antihypertension, antiulcer, and tumor inhibition medicines; and in agriculture, glyoxylic acid is mainly used for the synthesis of insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and plant growth regulators.

Glyoxylic acid or oxoacetic acid (HCOCOOH, CAS Number: 298-12-4) or glyoxylate for its conjugate base is a C2 carboxylic acid. 
Glyoxylic acid is an intermediate of the glyoxylate cycle, which enables organisms, such as bacteria, fungi and plants to convert fatty acids into carbohydrates. 
Glyoxylate is the byproduct of the amidation process in biosynthesis of several amidated peptides. 
It is a colourless solid that occurs naturally and is useful industrially. 
It is used as a cleaning agent for a variety of industrial applications, as a specialty chemical and biodegradable copolymer feedstock and as an ingredient in cosmetics. 
It is a useful compound for agricultural and pharmaceutical chemicals. 
Indeed, glyoxylic acid can be used in pharmaceutical industry since its condensation with phenols gives 4-hydroxymandelic acid which reacts with ammonia to give hydroxyphenylglycine, a precursor to the drug amoxicillin or which can be reduced to give 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, a precursor to the drug atenolol. 
Moreover acid-catalysed reaction of glyoxylic acid with urea leads to the production of allantoin used in cosmetics, ointments and in the treatment of some cancers (Cativiela et al., 2003). 
Finally, condensation with guaiacol in place of phenol provides a route to vanillin, used as a flavoring agent in foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals.

Although glyoxylic acid occurs naturally as a trace component in unripe fruit and young green leaves, it is mainly synthetically produced. Other technologies to produce glyoxylic acid are described in the literature or in patent applications. 
For instance, glyoxylic acid may be chemically produced by heating dibromoacetic acid with some water or by electrolytic reduction of oxalic acid or by nitric oxidation of glyoxal. 
Some patent applications describe processes of production of glyoxylic acid by bioconversion, such as patent applications WO 1993/14214, U.S. Pat. No. 5,439,813, and WO 1994/28155 disclosing the bioconversion from glycolic acid using glycolate oxidase produced by a microorganism, as well as Isobe & Nishise (1999). 
Patent application US 2007/0026510 discloses the bioconversion from glyoxal using an aldehyde oxidase.

The industrial interest of glycolic acid and glyoxylic acid coupled with environmental concerns due to chemical by-products formed during chemical productions render microbial production of such carboxylic acids an attractive prospect.

The inventors have identified new methods for the production of glycolic acid and/or glyoxylic acid from carbohydrates as sole carbon source involving at least one fermentative step and a modified microorganism in which activity of phosphoketolase is enhanced.


Glyoxylic acid or oxoacetic acid is an organic compound. Together with acetic acid, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid, glyoxylic acid is one of the C2 carboxylic acids. 
It is a colourless solid that occurs naturally and is useful industrially.

Preferred IUPAC name: Oxoacetic acid
Systematic IUPAC name: Oxoethanoic acid
Glyoxylic acid; 2-Oxoacetic acid; Formylformic acid
CAS Number: 298-12-4 

Glyoxylic acid is a 2-oxo monocarboxylic acid that is acetic acid bearing an oxo group at the alpha carbon atom. 
It has a role as a human metabolite, an Escherichia coli metabolite, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite and a mouse metabolite. 
It is a 2-oxo monocarboxylic acid and an aldehydic acid. It is a conjugate acid of a glyoxylate.

INCI Name
Glyoxylic Acid, Water

Description
Hair styling ingredient with semi-permanent hair straightening & hair conditioning effect. The carboxylic and aldehyde groups of glyoxylic acid react with the amine groups present in hair keratin resulting in the formation of stable bonds.

In particular, glyoxylic acid produces semi-permanent hair straightening without breaking the cystine disulfide bridge. It provides long lasting relaxing effect of hair fibres, without causing damage to the hair and scalp irritations typical of alkaline chemical and other straightening agents.

Glyoxylic acid 50H is high purity cosmetic grade with only trace content of the CMR impurity glyoxal and without formaldehyde. This allows formulators to use levels up to 25% in hair straightening cosmetics without exceeding the maximum permitted level of 100 ppm glyoxal established by EU & other cosmetic regulations. 

Glyoxylic acid 50H finds use in hair straightening formulations to smooth wavy & tightly curly hair. When applied with flat iron it softens natural curls providing shiny silk appearance and improving hair maneageability.

Reactivity Profile
GLYOXYLIC ACID is a carboxylic acid. Preparative hazard, nitric acid and glyoxal to produce glyoxylic acid has had explosive consequences. 
Carboxylic acids donate hydrogen ions if a base is present to accept them. 
They react in this way with all bases, both organic (for example, the amines) and inorganic. 
Their reactions with bases, called "neutralizations", are accompanied by the evolution of substantial amounts of heat. 
Neutralization between an acid and a base produces water plus a salt. 
Carboxylic acids with six or fewer carbon atoms are freely or moderately soluble in water; those with more than six carbons are slightly soluble in water. 
Soluble carboxylic acid dissociate to an extent in water to yield hydrogen ions. The pH of solutions of carboxylic acids is therefore less than 7.0. 
Many insoluble carboxylic acids react rapidly with aqueous solutions containing a chemical base and dissolve as the neutralization generates a soluble salt. 
Carboxylic acids in aqueous solution and liquid or molten carboxylic acids can react with active metals to form gaseous hydrogen and a metal salt. 
Such reactions occur in principle for solid carboxylic acids as well, but are slow if the solid acid remains dry. 
Even "insoluble" carboxylic acids may absorb enough water from the air and dissolve sufficiently in Glyoxylic acid to corrode or dissolve iron, steel, and aluminum parts and containers. 
Carboxylic acids, like other acids, react with cyanide salts to generate gaseous hydrogen cyanide. 
The reaction is slower for dry, solid carboxylic acids. Insoluble carboxylic acids react with solutions of cyanides to cause the release of gaseous hydrogen cyanide. 
Flammable and/or toxic gases and heat are generated by the reaction of carboxylic acids with diazo compounds, dithiocarbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides, and sulfides. 
Carboxylic acids, especially in aqueous solution, also react with sulfites, nitrites, thiosulfates (to give H2S and SO3), dithionites (SO2), to generate flammable and/or toxic gases and heat. 
Their reaction with carbonates and bicarbonates generates a harmless gas (carbon dioxide) but still heat. 
Like other organic compounds, carboxylic acids can be oxidized by strong oxidizing agents and reduced by strong reducing agents. These reactions generate heat. 
A wide variety of products is possible. 
Like other acids, carboxylic acids may initiate polymerization reactions; like other acids, they often catalyze (increase the rate of) chemical reactions.

Acetic acid, 2-oxo-
Glyoxylic acid
glyoxylic acid
glyoxylic acid ...%
glyoxylic acid...%

Translated names
acid glioxilic … % (ro)
acide glyoxylique ... % (fr)
acido gliossilico … % (it)
aċidu gliossiliku ...% (mt)
glioksilna kiselina ...% (hr)
glioksilna kislina ... % (sl)
glioksilo rūgštis …% (lt)
glioksālskābe, … % (lv)
glyoksyylihappo, …% (fi)
glyoxylová kyselina …% (cs)
glyoxylsyra …% (sv)
glyoxylsyre …% (da)
Glyoxylsäure … % (de)
glyoxylzuur … % (nl)
Glüoksüülhape kontsentratsiooniga ... % (et)
kwas glioksalowy ...% (pl)
kyselina 2-oxoetánová ...% (sk)
Ácido glioxílico ...% (es)
ácido glioxílico a ... % (pt)
γλυοξαλικό οξύ …% (el)
глиоксилова киселина ...% (bg)
… %-os glioxilsav (hu)

CAS names
Acetic acid, 2-oxo-

IUPAC names
2-oxo acetic acid
2-oxoacetic acid
Acetic acid, 2-oxo-
glyocylic acid
glyoxyl acid
GLYOXYLIC ACID
Glyoxylic acid
glyoxylic acid
glyoxylic acid
Glyoxylic Acid (ca. 50% in Water, ca. 9mol/L)
Glyoxylic Acid 50% (aqueous solution)
oxaldehydic acid
oxoacetic acid
oxoethanoic acid

Trade names
glyoxylic acid
Glyoxylic acid 50 % (aqueous solution)
glyoxylic acid 50% (aqueous solution)
Glyoxylic acid liq 50

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