KATHON 886 MW


KATHON 886 MW Microbicide Metalworking Fluid Fungicide 
Microbicide for Water-Based Cutting Fluids


5-Chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one 26172-55-4 >= 10.0 - 12.0 %
2-Methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one 2682-20-4 >= 3.0 - 5.0 %
Magnesium dinitrate 10377-60-3 >= 16.0 - 21.0 %
Magnesium Chloride 7786-30-3 <= 10.0 %
Water 7732-18-5 >= 60.0 - 64.0 %

 

Description 
Soluble, synthetic, and semi-synthetic metalworking fluids or coolants provide an excellent environment for the growth of various microorganisms, including bacteria, mold, and yeast. 
If allowed to grow, these organisms can have detrimental effects on the fluids. 
For example, bacteria, which can grow very quickly, can destroy the integrity of the fluid by discoloration destroying lubricity characteristics, and causing emulsions to split. 
Bacteria can also reduce the pH of the fluid, which can promote corrosion. 
Some forms of bacteria have objectionable odors. 
Fungi typically grow more slowly than bacteria, but can form large masses which clog filters and lines and in some cases lead to system shutdown; fungi also generate foul odors and can cause corrosion. 
KATHON 886 MW microbicide is very effective against bacteria and fungi. 
It is recommended for use in soluble, semi-synthetic, and synthetic metalworking fluids. 
Due to the wide variations in coolant formulations, laboratory or pilot tests are recommended to evaluate KATHON 886 MW microbicide in specific metalworking fluids prior to commercial use. 
KATHON 886 MW microbicide is supplied as a 14% active liquid in water. 
It is registered with the U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), number 707-129. 

Tankside Biocide 
KATHON biocides have been used safely and effectively in a variety of industries around the world for more than 20 years. In 1977 Rohm and Haas Company was granted EPA registration for KATHON 886 MW microbicide for use in metalworking fluids, in 2 piece can manufacture, hot aluminum rolling, and general machinery of ferrous and aluminum materials. In 1986, this registration was expanded to include the use of KATHON 886 MW microbicide in metal cleaners and water-based hydraulic fluids.  
The information in this brochure has been compiled to familiarize users of KATHON 886 MW microbicide with its chemistry, to communicate the tremendous benefits of this product as well as the potential hazards, to provide directions for safe and efficient use of the product, and to aid the user in the event of misuse. Particular attention should be paid to the Compatibility section of this brochure which provides insight on the stability of KATHON 886 MW microbicide with individual components and additives frequently used in metalworking fluid operations.  
KATHON 886 MW microbicide can be used safely and effectively by following the instructions and precautions outlined in this brochure, on the product label, and on the Rohm and Haas Material Safety Data Sheet. Key Features and Benefits of KATHON 886 MW 

Table 1 
Details the features and benefits of Kathon 886 MW
Features     Benefits
Highly effective microbicide    Extends metalworking fluid life, resulting in reduced makeup fluid use and costs and lower waste fluid disposal costs
Broad spectrum activity    Provides long lasting and effective contamination prevention versus bacteria and fungi (no performance gaps)
Efficacious versus specific problem-causing microorganisms    Effective against Mycobacterium and endotoxin-producing bacteria (based on controlled laboratory studies)
Good temperature and pH stability    Works well in a variety of metalworking conditions up to 60°C (140°F) and pH 9.2
Highly soluble in water and  does not foam    Easy to dose
Provides long lasting microbial control    Cost effective versus competitive tankside treatments
Fast acting    Quickly controls microbial activity (oxygen consumption) and odor-causing bacteria and fungi
Effective at low use rates  
(10 to 17 ppm ai) and biodegradable    Better for the environment
Does not contain or release formaldehyde Not subject to formaldehyde concerns
 
Directions For Use 

Metalworking Fluid Preservation 
For maintenance of a non-fouled system, use KATHON 886 MW microbicide at 2.7 fluid ounces (0.23 pounds) per 1,000 gallons of emulsion every 4 weeks or 2.7-12.8 fluid ounces (0.23-1.1 pounds) per 1,000 gallons of emulsion every 8-12 weeks. For a noticeable fouled system use an initial dose of 5.4-12.8 fl oz (0.46-1.1 pounds) per 1,000 gallons of emulsion followed by subsequent maintenance dosages depending upon the treatment interval noted above. 
A higher dosage range and/or increased frequency of treatment may be required depending upon rate of dilution of the preservative with makeup fluid, the nature and severity of contamination, level of control required, filtration effectiveness, and system design, etc. The preservative should be dispensed into the use dilution of the metalworking fluid using a metering pump and uniformly dispersed throughout the system. 

Metal Cleaning Fluid Preservation 
KATHON 886 MW microbicide is recommended as a preservative for the manufacture and use of alkaline, acid, and emulsion based metal cleaning fluids typically used in electroplating, phosphatizing, galvanizing, and general metal cleaning operations.  
For addition to a metal cleaning concentrate add KATHON 886 MW at a level to ensure that the final use-dilution fluid contains 44 to 147 ppm as supplied (6.25 - 25 ppm active isothiazolones).  
When direct addition to a fouled system, add 5.6-22.6 fl oz (0.48-1.9 lbs) of microbicide to each 1,000 gallons of use-diluted metal cleaning fluid every 3 to 4 weeks to provide 44 to 177 ppm as supplied (6.25 to 25 ppm active isothiazolones). A higher dosage range and/or increased frequency may be required depending upon dilution rate of the preservative with makeup fluid, the nature and severity of contamination, level of control required, filtration effectiveness, and system design, etc.  
The preservative should be dispensed into the use-dilution metal cleaning fluid using a metering pump and uniformly dispersed throughout the system. 

Water Based Hydraulic Fluid Preservation 
KATHON 886 MW microbicide is recommended as a preservative for use in the manufacture and use of high waterbased hydraulic fluids and invert emulsion hydraulic fluids.  
For the maintenance of a nonfouled system, use KATHON 886 MW microbicide at 9-13 fluid oz (0.76-1.1 lbs) per 
1,000 gallons of fluid every 8 weeks. For a noticeably fouled system use an initial dose of 13 to 20 fluid ounces (1.1-1.7 lbs) per 1,000 gallons fluid followed by subsequent maintenance doses. A higher dosage range and/or increased frequency of treatment may be required depending upon rate of dilution of the preservative with makeup fluid, the nature and severity of contamination, level of control required, filtration effectiveness, system design, etc.  
The preservative should be dispensed into the use-dilution of the hydraulic fluid using a metering pump and uniformly dispersed throughout the system.  
Table 2 provides minimum and maximum dosage levels of KATHON 886 MW for systems ranging from 500100,000 gallons. 
Table 2 Kathon 886 MW Use Rate
System Size Gallons      Minimum 
fl. oz (lbs.)     Maximum 
fl. oz (lbs.) 
    500          1.4     (0.12)    6.2     (0.52)
    1000          2.7     (0.24)    12     (1.1)
    2000          5.4      (0.47)    25     (2.1)
    5000          14      (1.2)    62     (5.2)
    10000          28     (2.4)    123     (10)
    25000          70      (5.9)    308     (26)
    50000          140      (12)    616     (52)
    100000          280      (24)    1,232     (104)
Minimum dose = 4 ppm active ingredient 
Maximum dose = 17.5 ppm active ingredient 
Physical and Chemical Properties 


Table 3  Chemical Composition
Ingredients     KATHON 886 MW     
Active  
Ingredients  
  
      5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one    10.4%
    2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one    3.7%
    Total Active Ingredients (typical)    14.1%
Inert Ingredients  
(Approximate 
Values)     Magnesium ion     4.2 to 5.5 %
    Water     to 100% 
Table 4 

Typical Physical Properties 
These properties are typical but do not constitute specifications. 
Appearance : Amber to gold, slightly viscous liquid
Odor       Mild, aromatic
Specific Gravity, @ 25°C     1.29
Density, lb./gal.    10.8
pH    1 to 3
Viscosity, cps, @ 25°C     16
Melting Point, °C     –33
Boiling Point, °C     100
Vapor Pressure,  (mm Hg), @ 23°C    0.1
The typical physical properties of KATHON 886 MW microbicide are presented in Table 2. 


Solubility 
KATHON 886 MW microbicide is soluble in water, methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, acetic acid, and 3.5 parts nbutanol. KATHON 886 MW microbicide is insoluble in acetone. Stability 
pH - KATHON 886 MW microbicide is stable over a wide pH range (3.0-9.2) in water and metalworking fluid systems. Its stability and performance are improved at lower pH. Whenever possible the pH of a system should be maintained below pH 9.2. 
Storage - KATHON 886 MW microbicide is stable as supplied for at least one year at ambient temperatures and at least six months at 50°C. 


Recommended Use Practices 
General Practices When Using KATHON Biocides 
Know the size of your system and dose at the recommended use levels.  
To improve performance and longevity add KATHON 886 MW microbicide on the clean side of the filters. It may be necessary to occasionally add KATHON 886 MW microbicide to the dirty side of the filters if large populations of microorganisms are detected there.  
Minimize contamination:  
-    Eliminate or minimize dead spots  
-    Disconnect unused portions of the system  
-    Do not throw trash in sumps  


Always remember to triple rinse (or equivalent) empty KATHON 886 MW containers to avoid incidental contact.  
Post placard with safety information and deactivation protocol near biocide handling area.  
Maximizing the Performance of KATHON 886 MW Fungicide 
Additional guidelines for maximizing the performance of KATHON 886 MW microbicide are as follows: 

KATHON 886 MW microbicide stability and performance is improved with lower pH. Whenever possible maintain the pH of system below pH 9.2. Lower pH also makes amines and amine-containing compounds less aggressive.  
For systems with pH greater than 9.5, we strongly recommend determination of biological efficacy and chemical stability prior to use.  
Avoid adding highly basic additives (alkaline materials with pH of 10-12) immediately prior to or after adding KATHON 886 MW microbicide to your system. If a highly basic additive must be added, allow sufficient time (at least 30 minutes) between additions.  
Minimize levels of diethanolamine (DEA) in your system. If possible use 99% triethanolamine (TEA) or monoethanolamine (MEA) instead of DEA, and use these at as low a level as possible.  
Avoid use of mercaptans such as mercaptobenzothiazole.  

Some biocides are incompatible with KATHON 886 MW and can degrade it. To maintain performance avoid using Sodium Omadine and Triadine 10 with KATHON 886 MW microbicide. If a fungicide is needed, use KATHON 893 MW fungicide; it is completely compatible with KATHON 886 MW microbicide.  
Always add KATHON 886 MW microbicide directly to the metalworking fluid sump. Never use KATHON 886 MW microbicide in a spray bottle.  
Avoid charging KATHON 886 MW microbicide in high temperature zones, since increasing temperatures accelerate other degradation effects. Ideally, add KATHON 886 MW microbicide to the fluid below 60°C (140°F).  
Avoid adding KATHON 886 MW microbicide and incompatible corrosion inhibitors directly to the tank at the same time.  

Performance Information 
How Does KATHON 886 MW Work? 
KATHON 886 MW biocide utilizes a two-step mechanism involving rapid growth inhibition leading to a loss of cell viability. Growth inhibition is the result of rapid disruption of the central metabolic pathways of the cell by inhibition of several specific enzymes, including dehydrogenases. The critical enzymes which are affected are associated with the Krebs cycle (alpha- ketoglutarate, pyruvate, and succinate dehydrogenase), nutrient metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase) and energy generation (NADH dehydrogenase). 
The key physiological activities that are rapidly inhibited in microbial cells are respiration (oxygen consumption), energy generation (ATP synthesis), and growth (assimilation). Many of these key enzymes are present in both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, which explains why KATHON 886 MW is such a broad spectrum biocide. 
Inhibition of cellular activity and growth is rapid (within minutes), whereas cell death (cidal activity) is observed after several hours contact. In general, the higher the concentration of biocide, the shorter the contact time required for more complete kill. Cell death results from the progressive loss of protein thiols in the cell from one of multiple pathways. As cell metabolism is disrupted, free radicals are produced which also results in cell death. This unique mechanism results in the broad spectrum of activity of KATHON 886 MW biocide, low use levels for microbial control, and difficulty in attaining resistance by mutation. 
  
  
How Rapidly Does KATHON 886 MW Microbicide Work? 
Within minutes after addition of KATHON 886 MW microbicide to a metalworking fluid sump, the metabolic activity of the microorganisms in the system shuts down. This includes cellular respiration (oxygen uptake), growth, energy generation, and nutrient uptake. The microorganisms, although still alive, are no longer able to reproduce or metabolize metalworking fluid components. After 24 to 48 hours of contact with a lethal dose of the microbicide, most of the microorganisms have been killed. 
How Long Does KATHON 886 MW Microbicide Last? 

KATHON 886 MW microbicide generally retains its antimicrobial efficacy in metalworking fluid systems for 1 to 4 weeks. Variables such as degree of fluid contamination, effectiveness of the filtration system, system turnover time, compatibility between the microbicide and the metalworking fluid components, and other system additives involved, can affect the life of the microbicide in a system. 

Is KATHON 886 MW Microbicide Effective in Reducing Biofilm Growth? 
YES. The active ingredients in KATHON 886 MW microbicide have been shown to reduce microbial fouling and prevent biofilm development. A number of application studies have been conducted demonstrating reduction of both viable microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) as well as total biomass (total protein and dry solids) on industrial surfaces. The benefits of reduced microbial fouling include improved system performance, reduced filter plugging, reduced biocorrosion, and improved microbial control. Additional information on biofouling studies is presented in technical bulletin CS-673R. 

Is KATHON 886 MW Microbicide Effective Versus Mycobacteria? 
YES. The performance of KATHON 886 MW microbicide was tested in controlled laboratory studies versus a pure culture of Mycobacterium chelonae (ATCC 14472). Results showed 7-20 ppm active ingredient prevented the growth of the Mycobacterium isolate (106 cfu/ml) in dilute and full strength nutrient broth. An eradication study in a soluble oil fluid showed KATHON 886 MW microbicide at 9 ppm active ingredient was sufficient to provide complete kill of 103 bacteria/ml. 

Is KATHON 886 MW Microbicide Effective Versus Endotoxin-Producing Bacteria? 
YES. The term "bacterial endotoxin" is synonymous with the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) component of the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria. 
It is generally regarded that the Lipid A component of the LPS is directly responsible for the endotoxic activity of certain Gram negative bacteria. 
The "endotoxin" terminology refers to the fact that the "toxin" is located on the exterior of the bacterial cell and is "released" from the cell into the surrounding liquid after cell death and lysis. It is important to note that not all LPS from Gram negative bacteria are endotoxins. The most heavily studied LPS are from Escherichia, Shigella and Salmonella, all of which are enteric or intestinal bacteria. KATHON 886 MW microbicide has been shown to be efficacious versus many Gram negative bacteria, known to produce endotoxins, under controlled laboratory studies. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for KATHON 886 MW microbicide are within the recommended use range for general bacterial control. In addition, KATHON 886 MW microbicide does not function by cell lysis or membrane disruption, so killed cells would be less likely to release endotoxins. 
  
 
How Can I Improve the Stability and Performance of KATHON 886 MW Microbicide in Aggressive Systems? 
KATHON 886 MW microbicide may encounter conditions in certain metalworking fluids where stability is reduced. Several options exist to improve it’s performance and stability. Addition of inorganic or organic forms of copper to the fluid may improve the stability of the active ingredients and reduce degradation. Alternatively, KATHON MWC microbicide contains copper salts and is designed for aggressive conditions. Addition of biosurfactants or biodispersants may improve it’s efficacy, especially against biofilms or heavily contaminated systems. Addition of a chelant, such as EDTA, may also boost efficacy in challenging systems. 
Is KATHON 886 MW Microbicide Effective Against Thermophiles? 
YES. KATHON 886 MW microbicide was evaluated for efficacy against thermophilic bacteria in 4 hot aluminum rolling oils. KATHON 886 MW microbicide at 20 ppm a.i. (143 ppm as supplied) controlled microbial growth at 54°C in all 4 of the fluids (at recommended dilutions) at least 4 weeks and in 1 fluid for 3 weeks. Results are presented in Table 5. 


Table 5 
Efficacy KATHON 886 MW Against Thermophiles at 54ºC 
       
Fluid     KATHON 886 MW PPM Active            No. of CFU/ml         
        5 Days     2 Weeks     3 Weeks     4 Weeks     5 Weeks     6 Weeks 

      0    106    105    107    108    106    108
    20    <103    <103    <103    <103    <104    <107

      0    104    105    104    106    106    106
    20    <103    <103    <103    <107    —    <108

      0    <103    105    104    103    —     107
    20    <103    <103    <103    <103    <103    104

      0    <103    105     104    105     104    105
    20    <103    <103    <103    <103    <103    <103
Inoculum Count          104    104    109    106    106    105
Is KATHON 886 MW Microbicide Corrosive at Recommended Use Rates or with Repeated Dosing? 
NO. 
A study to determine if repeated doses of KATHON 886 MW microbicide or magnesium chloride in use-dilution metalworking fluids cause corrosion was conducted. This study showed no detrimental effects from either the KATHON biocide or the magnesium chloride. In this study, mild steel coupons were placed in glass bottles containing a 4% solution of a commercial metalworking fluid in demineralized water. Levels of KATHON 886 MW ranging from 200-1600 ppm, product as supplied, (2-16 times the recommended use rate) or levels of magnesium chloride ranging from 110-550 ppm were added to the bottles and stored at 35°C for 6 months. The pH of all samples was @ 9.4. All tests were performed in triplicate; no observable corrosion occurred on any of the metal coupons. Results are presented in Table 6. 

Table 6
Sample  No.      KATHON 886 MW PPM     MgCl•6H2O PPM     Cl–    Average 
Weight Loss of Coupons
  1*     0    0    0    -0.016%
2     200    –    14    -0.016%
3     400    –    28    -0.017%
4     800    –    56    -0.020%
5     1600    –    112    -0.012%
6     –    110    38    -0.016%
7     –    275    96    -0.015%
8     –    550    192    -0.018%
*control                     
  
Efficacy 
Microbistatic Properties 
Table 7 lists the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) in parts per million of KATHON 886 MW microbicide (active ingredients) for microorganisms frequently found in metalworking fluid systems. The data are intended only to indicate the activity of KATHON 886 MW microbicide in aqueous solutions and do not represent a claim for recommended use concentrations. 
Table 7 

Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Values for 
KATHON 886 MW Microbicide versus Bacteria and Fungi*
Microorganism**      ATCC Number or Rohm and Haas Code     PPM Active 
Ingredient 
KATHON 886 MW
Gram-Negative Bacteria          
Achromobacter parvulus      4334    2
Alcaligenes faecalis      8750    2
Azotobacter vinelandii      12837    5
Burkholderia cepacia      Gibraltar 165    0.75
Enterobacter aerogenes      3906    5
Escherichia coli      11229    8
Flavobacterium suavcolens      958    9
Mycobacterium chelonae      14472    7
Nitrobacter agilis      14123    0.1
Proteus vulgaris      8427    5
Pseudomonas aeruginosa      15442    5
Pseudomonas fluorescens      13525    2
Pseudomonas oleovorans      8062    5
Salmonella typhosa     6539    5
Shigella sonnei     9292    2
           
Gram Positive Bacteria           
Bacillus cereus var mycoides     R&H L5    2
Bacillus subtilis     R&H B2    2
Brevibacterium ammoniagenes     6871    2
Cellulomonas sp     21399    6
Sarcina lutea     9341    5
Staphylococcus aureus     6538    2
Staphylococcus epidermidis     155    2
Streptococcus pyogenes     624    9
Streptomyces albus     3004    1
           
 
Fungi 
Aspergillus foetidus     16878    8
Aspergillus niger     9642    9
Aspergillus oryzae     10196    5
Candida albicans (yeast)     11651    5
Cephalosporium sp.     R&H Isolate    2
Chaetomium globosum     6205    9
Cladosporium resinae     11274    5
Fusarium sp.      R&H Isolate    2
Mucor rouxii     R&H L5-83    5
Penicillium funiculosum     9644    5
Penicillium variabile     USDA Isolate    2
Rhizopus stolonifer     10404    5
Rhodotorula rubra (yeast)     9449    2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast)     2601    2
Trichophyton mentagrophytes     9533    5
Trichosporon sp. (yeast)     R&H Isolate    2
*The data in Table 7 were obtained with KATHON 886 MW microbicide as supplied or with a technical grade of the active ingredients used as an intermediate in its manufacture. 
***Tests were performed by serially diluting test compounds in trypticase soy broth and 1:100 inoculation with 24-hour broth cultures of test bacterium or fungal spore suspension prepared from 7-14 day culture slants washed with 7 ml deionized water. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined visually after 2 days incubation at 37°C for bacteria and 7 days incubation at 28-30°C for fungi. Mycobacterium chelonae was tested in 1/4 X TSB media at 37°C and the MIC value recorded after 5 days. 

Table 8 
KATHON 886 MW Efficacy
      
 
Fluid Type     KATHON 886 MW  ppm a.i.            No. of CFU/ml         
        Zero Time    3 Days     1 
Week    2 Weeks     3 
Weeks    4 
Weeks
Soluble  
  
      0    107    107    107    107    107    107
    10    107    105    103    106    107    —
    17.5     106    106    103    <103    <103    <103
Semi-Synthetic 
  
      0    —    107    107    107    107    108
    10    —    105    <103    <103    105    108
    20    —    104    <103    <103    <103    <103
Synthetic 
  
      0    106    106    106    107    107    107
    10    106    105    <103    <103    <103    <103
    17.5    106    105    <103    <103    <103    <103
Metalworking Fluids 
Ferrous Systems - The efficacy of KATHON 886 MW microbicide was evaluated in three use-dilution metalworking fluids designed for use in ferrous operations. Results from these tests, provided in Table 8, show that KATHON 886 MW effectively controlled microorganisms at <103 CFU/ml for greater than 4 weeks at 17.5 – 20 ppm a.i., and for 1 to 2 weeks at 10 ppm a.i. 
Hot Aluminum Rolling Oils - The stability of KATHON 886 MW microbicide was determined at ambient temperature and at 54°C, in 5 hot aluminum rolling oils. KATHON 886 MW was found to be stable in all 5 fluids at both temperatures for 2 weeks. The efficacy of KATHON 886 MW microbicide in the same fluids was determined at 37°C and 54°C. KATHON 886 MW was found to be efficacious at both temperatures for 4 weeks at a level of 14 ppm active ingredient. Test results are provided in Tables 9 and 10. 
  
 
  
Table 9 
KATHON 886 MW Stability 
Ambient Temperature
Fluid   
NO.          KATHON 886 MW ppm a.i. added      
RH-651*           
1 Week  
RH-573**    Total a.i.     
RH-651     
2 Weeks 
RH-573     
Total a.i.
1      20     14.6      5.0    19.6      14.3    5.1     19.4
2      20     14.4    4.9    19.3     14.5      4.9    19.4
3      20     15.6    5.1    20.7    15.3    5.0    20.3
4      20     14.8    4.9     19.7    15.0    5.4     20.4
5      20     15.2     5.0    20.2    15.7    5.1    20.8
54°C 
Fluid    No.      
KATHON 886 MW ppm a.i. added     
RH-651     
1 Week 
RH-573     
Total a.i.     
RH-651      
2 Weeks 
RH-573      
Total a.i.
1      20         7.5    5.0    12.5    4.2    4.9     9.1
2      20         9.6    5.0    14.6     7.1      4.9    12.0
3      20         14.2    5.0    19.2    13.0    4.9    17.9
4      20         13.1    5.1    18.2     11.8      5.4    17.2
5      20         13.8    5.0     18.8     11.6     4.9     16.5
*RH- 651 = Chlorinated component of KATHON 886 MW 
**RH- 573 = Unchlorinated component of KATHON 886 MW 
Table 10 
KATHON 886 MW Efficacy 
       
Fluid 
No.         
KATHON 886 MW PPM Active    Temp  C°        No. of Bacterial CFU/ml     
            1 
Week    2 
Weeks    3 
Weeks    4 
Weeks

  
  
      0    37    1.8 x 106    <106    7.7 x 106    1.9 x 105
    21     37    <103    <103    <103     <103
    0    54    9.6 x 105    8 x 105    2.1 x 104    2.3 x 104
    14     54    <103    <103    <103    <103

  
  
      0    37    9.5 x 105    <106    <106    1.6 x 105
    14     37    <103    <103    <103    <103
    0    54    <106    <106    2.7 x 104    <106
    14    54    <103    <103    <103    <103

  
  
      0    37    1.7 x 106    1.2 x 106    2.3 x 105    3.0 x 105
    14    37    <103    <103    <103    <103
    0    54    8.2 x 104    2.1 x 105    1.1 x 105     7.8 x 104
    14    54    <103    <103    <103    <103

  
  
      0    37    1.1 x 104    2.5 x 105    1.4 x 106     9.6 x 105
    14    37    <103    <103    <103    <103
    0    54    <103    6.6 x 105    1.4 x 105    7 x 103
    14    54    <103    <103    <103    <103

  
  
     0    37     2.4 x 106    107    <106    9.3 x 105
    14    37    <103    <103    <103    <103
    0    54    3 x 105    2.1 x 105    9.0 x1 04    3.8 x 105
    14    54    <103    <103    <103    <103
  
Aluminum Can Forming Fluids 
The stability and efficacy of KATHON 886 MW microbicide in 3 use-dilution aluminum can forming fluids were determined at 25°C and 38°C. The pH of the fluids was 7.4-7.6. The chemical stability after 4 weeks indicated good stability at 25°C and fair stability at 38°C. KATHON 886 MW microbicide was efficacious at both temperatures at 17.5 ppm active ingredient for 4 weeks. Test results are provided in Tables 11 and 12. 
Table 11 
KATHON 886 MW Stability 
      
    Fluid     KATHON 886 MW 
    No.        PPM Active             1 Week    2 Weeks    3 Weeks
    Temp C°    RH-651*             RH-651    RH-573    RH-651    RH-573
    1     17.5        25    14.7        12.6    4.9    10.3    4.5
          17.5        38    10.3    5.0    6.0    4.8    1.7    4.8
    2     17.5        25    14.2    4.9    13.3    4.8    11.7    4.8
          17.5        38    11.8    4.8    7.7    4.7    2.9    5.0
    3     17.5        25    13.8    4.8    12.5    4.7    9.4    4.8
          17.5        38    10.0    4.8     4.8    4.7    0.8    5.9
Table 12 
KATHON 886 MW Efficacy                                 
       
Fluid 
No.        KATHON 886 MW PPM Active         Temp  C°        No. of Bacterial CFU/ml     
                1 
Week     2 
Weeks    3 
Weeks    W    4 eeks

  
  
      0        25    3.9 x105    5.5 x106    >107    >105
    17.5        25    <103    2.4 x105    3.5 x103     1.5 x104
    0        38    2400 (F)*    5.5 x 106    >107    >107
    17.5        38    <103    <103    <103    <103

  
  
      0        25    2.8 x 105    9.6 x 106    >107    >107
    17.5        25    <103    3 x 105    3 x 103    1.5 x 104
    0        38    3.3 x 105    1.2 x 106    >107    <107
    17.5        38    <103    <103    <103    <103

  
  
      0        25    2.8 x 105    3.3 x 106    >107    >107
    17.5        25    <103    <103    <103    1.3 x 103
    0        38    103    1.6 x 106    >107    >107
    17.5        38    <103    <103    <103    <103
Metal Cleaners 
Four metal cleaning wash water samples taken from 2 different washer lines from a can plant were used to determine the efficacy of KATHON 886 MW microbiocide. KATHON 886 MW microbicide at 140 ppm as supplied (~20 ppm a.i.) successfully inhibited growth of microorganisms in all 4 samples for 2 weeks. Results are provided in Table 13. 
    
Table 13                
 
          cru/ml Incubation at 37°C 
Sample No.  and Location      KATHON MW 886 PPM Product      1 Week    2 Weeks
Line 1, Drag Out     0    1.7 x 107    1.7 x 107
      140    20     20
Line 1, Washer     0    2.3 x 106    1.5 x 106
      140    <10    <10
Line 2, Drag Out      0    5.4 x 105    8.3 x 106
      140    <10    <10
Line 2, Washer     0    2.3 x 105    2.5 x 106
      140    <10    <10

Compatibility With Metalworking Additives 
More than 200 metalworking fluid additives, including emulsifiers, corrosion inhibitors, EP additives, etc., have been tested for their effect on the stability of KATHON 886 MW microbicide. Table 14 lists these compounds and their primary function by degree of compatibility with KATHON 886 MW microbicide ranging from EXCELLENT COMPATIBILITY to NOT COMPATIBLE. Table 15 cross-references Table 14 and lists these additives by type. The data in Tables 14 and 15 should be used in conjunction with the guidelines below: 
1.    Assume KATHON 886 MW microbicide will work. It can be used with all metalworking fluid additives except those listed as NOT COMPATIBLE.  
2.    Use the data in Tables 14 and 15 to assess the relative effect of your formulation additives.  
3.    If possible, select alternative additives in higher compatibility categories to improve the stability of KATHON 886 MW microbicide. 
4.    Lower the pH or the levels of aggressive additives to improve compatibility.  
5.    Contact Rohm and Haas Company for information on KATHON MWC microbicide which has enhanced stability and efficacy in certain metalworking fluids which are antagonistic toward KATHON 886 MW microbicide. 
  

  
Table 14           
     Common Name      Function*
Excellent 
Compatibility
 
     Amphoteric Surfactants      Corrosion Inhibitor
    Benzotriazole      Corrosion Inhibitor
    Biocides**     Biocide
    Borax      Corrosion Inhibitor
    Chlorinated Fatty Esters      EP Additive
    Chlorinated Paraffins      EP Additive
    Dinonylnaphthalene Sulfonates      Corrosion Inhibitor
    Dioctyl Sulfosuccinates      Emulsifier
    EO-PO Polymers      Wetting Agent
    Fatty Acids      Emulsifier
    Fatty Acid - TEA Salts      Emulsifier
    Fatty Esters      Lubricant
    Glycols      Coupler
    KATHON1 893 MW      Fungicide
    Morpholine      Corrosion Inhibitor
    Non-silicone Defoamers      Defoamer
    Oxazoline Surfactants      Emulsifier
    PEG Esters      Emulsifier
    Petroleum Sulfonates      Emulsifier
    Phosphate Esters      EP Additive
    Polyglycols      Coupler
    Sarcosinate Surfactants      Emulsifier
    Silicone Defoamers      Defoamer
    Triton2 N-Series Surfactants      Emulsifier
    Triton RW-Series Surfactants      Emulsifier
    Triton X-Series Surfactants      Emulsifier
Good Compatibility

 
     Fatty Acid - DEA Salts      Corrosion Inhibitor
    Fatty Acid - Diesters      Lubricant
    Fatty Alkanolamides - DEA      Emulsifier
    MEA - Borate Esters      Corrosion Inhibitor
    Monoethanolamine      Corrosion Inhibitor
    Sulfurized Compounds      EP Additive
    Triethanolamine (99%)      Corrosion Inhibitor
    Triisopropanolamine      Corrosion Inhibitor
Fair Compatibility
 
     Aminomethylpropanol      Corrosion Inhibitor
    Boramides - DEA      Corrosion Inhibitor
    Diethanolamine      Corrosion Inhibitor
    Diisopropanolamine      Corrosion Inhibitor
    Monoisopropanolamine      Corrosion Inhibitor
    TEA - borate esters      Corrosion Inhibitor
    Triethanolamine (technical grade)      Corrosion Inhibitor
Not Compatible
 
     Mercaptobenzothiazole      Corrosion Inhibitor
    Sodium Omadine3      Biocide
    Triadine 103      Biocide
* Many compounds may serve more than one function.
** All biocides tested showed excellent compatibility except Sodium Omadine2  and Triadine 102.
1    KATHON is a trademark of Rohm and Haas Company.
2    Triton is a registered trademark of Dow Chemical.
3    Omadine and Triadine are trademarks of Arch Chemical.
 
Table 15           
Function     Biocides    Compatibility
Biocides 
    
      Biocides*    Excellent
    KATHON 893 MW Fungicide    Excellent
    Sodium Omadine    Not Compatible
    Triadine 10    Not Compatible
Corrosion 
Inhibitors 
  
         Aminomethylpropanol    Fair
    Amphoteric surfactants    Excellent
    Benzotriazole    Excellent
    Boramides - DEA     Fair
    Borax    Excellent
    Diethanolamines     Fair
    Diisopropanolamine     Fair
    Dinonylnaphthalene Sulfonates    Excellent
    Fatty Acid - DEA Salts    Good
    Mercaptobenzothiazole     Not Compatible
    MEA - Borate Esters     Good
    Monoethanolamine     Good
    Monoisopropanolamine     Fair
    Morpholine     Excellent
    TEA - Borate Esters    Fair
    Triethanolamine (technical grade)     Fair
    Triethanolamine (99%)     Good
    Triisopropanolamines     Good
Couplers 
      Glycols     Excellent
    Polygolycols     Excellent
Defoamers 
      Non-Silicone Defoamers     Excellent
    Silicone Defoamer     Excellent
Emulsifiers 
   
        Dioctyl Sulfosuccinates    Excellent
    Fatty Acids    Excellent
    Fatty Acids - TEA Salts    Excellent
    Fatty Alkanolamides - DEA    Good
    Oxazoline Surfactants    Excellent
    PEG Esters     Excellent
    Petroleum Sulfonates     Excellent
    Sarcosinate Surfactants     Excellent
    Triton N-Series Surfactants     Excellent
    Triton RW-Series Surfactants     Excellent
    Triton X-Series Surfactants     Excellent
EP Additives 
  
  
      Chlorinated Fatty Esters     Excellent
    Chlorinated Paraffins     Excellent
    Phosphate Esters     Excellent
    Sulfurized Compounds     Good
Lubricants 
      Fatty Acid - Diesters    Good
    Fatty Esters     Excellent

Wetting Agents     EO-PO Polymers     Excellent

Safe Handling and Storage 
Product in Use Dilution Metalworking Fluids 
At recommended levels of 4 to 17.5 ppm active ingredient (2.7-12.8 fl oz per 1,000 gallons of use-dilution metalworking fluid), KATHON 886 MW microbicide is judged to be safe at recommended concentrations when used as directed. 
Product As Supplied 
Results of extensive animal toxicity and human sensitization/irritation studies are provided in Table 14. 
These data indicate that KATHON 886 MW microbicide as supplied is a severe skin irritant, may cause burns to the skin, is corrosive to the eyes and may cause skin sensitization (allergic contact dermititis). 
Therefore, contact with skin and eyes should be avoided. 
It is important that individuals who handle KATHON 886 MW microbicide in its concentrated form review the safety and handling procedures outlined in the next section of this brochure, as well as the product label and the Rohm and Haas Material Safety Data Sheet. 

KATHON 886 MW Toxicity Profile 
KATHON 886 MW microbicide is considered safe at recommended use levels. 
Based on assessment of extensive toxicological data, experts conclude that the active ingredient in KATHON 886 MW microbicide is: 
non-genotoxic  non-carcinogenic  non-teratogenic.  

Air Monitoring Study 
A study was conducted to monitor the air in the worker breathing zone and work area when a worker was dosing metalworking fluid sumps with KATHON 886 MW microbicide. Workroom air was also sampled and analyzed for KATHON 886 MW active ingredients in a work area with a relatively large area of flowing, splashing, and misting coolant. Monitoring locations and times were chosen to measure worst-case situations. No airborne active ingredients were found at an analytical detection limit of approximately 0.05 part per million (w/w) in the absorbing solution in any samples taken. (Depending on the volume of absorbing-trapping solution and the amount of air sampled, the detection limit of active ingredient in air in this study ranged from 0.006 to 0.06 milligrams per cubic meter of air (mg/m3).) Assuming the plant in which this study was conducted is representative of other plants doing general cast iron machining, overexposure to KATHON 886 MW microbicide via inhalation is highly unlikely in any reasonable anticipated situation involving normal use. This study was published in Lubrication Engineering, Volume 44,3 (262-264). Reprints are available on request. 
Effects of Exposure to the Concentrated Product 
CORROSIVE, CAUSES IRREVERSIBLE EYE DAMAGE AND SKIN BURNS. THESE EFFECTS MAY BE DELAYED FOR HOURS. MAY CAUSE ALLERGIC SKIN REACTIONS. MAY BE HARMFUL IF INHALED. MAY BE FATAL IF SWALLOWED OR ABSORBED THROUGH THE SKIN IN LARGE AMOUNTS. 

Handling Procedures 
Do not get in eyes, on skin, on clothing. Wear goggles or face shield and rubber gloves when handling. 
Avoid breathing vapor or mist. Avoid contamination of food. Do not take internally. Wash thoroughly after handling. 
First Aid Procedures Following Contact with the Concentrate 
Eye Contact: FLUSH IMMEDIATELY with copious amounts of water for at least 15 minutes. Hold eye open during the washing process so that the water may clear the chemical from the eye. Seek prompt medical attention, but FLUSH EYES FIRST.  
Skin Contact: IMMEDIATELY WASH the contacted area with plenty of soap and water and continue washing for at least 15 minutes AND obtain immediate medical attention.  
Contact with Clothing: Remove contaminated clothing immediately. Wash separately with detergent before wearing. Treat skin under splashed clothing as if it were contacted directly. 
Inhalation: Remove subject immediately to fresh air. If not breathing, apply artificial respiration; if breathing is difficult use oxygen. Call a physician immediately.  
Swallowing: Promptly drink a large quantity of egg whites, gelatin solution, or if these are not available, water. Avoid alcohol. Seek medical attention immediately.  
Note to Physician: KATHON 886 MW microbicide is a corrosive material. It may not be advisable to induce vomiting after swallowing. 
Possible mucosal damage may contraindicate the use of gastric lavage. 
  
End Use-Dilution 
Good industrial hygiene practices should be recommended to downstream users of biocide containing fluids to reduce exposure to the extent feasible. 
Repeated or continual dermal contact with fluids containing >15 ppm active isothiazolones could result in allergic skin reactions in susceptible individuals. 
The Facts About Safe Handling 
Fact: KATHON 886 MW microbicide is a corrosive material (can cause skin burns or eye damage) as supplied and may cause an allergic skin reaction with repeated skin contact. Therefore, when dosing a system with KATHON 886 MW microbicide protect skin and eyes with the following protective equipment: neoprene or nitrile gloves, impervious apron, overshoes, and splash goggles or face shield.  
Note: Rohm and Haas Company offers an in-depth safety video on KATHON 886 MW microbicide.  
The procedures used for handling concentrated biocide solutions are similar to those used for handling concentrated acids and alkalis. 
The purpose is to prevent all eye and skin contact, including inhalation of mists, and thereby prevent possibly injury and sensitization.  
Personnel handling KATHON 886 MW microbicide as supplied should always wear protective clothing which includes chemical splash goggles, an impervious apron or rain suit, overshoes, and chemical resistant gloves (nitrile, butyl rubber, polyvinyl chloride or neoprene coated). Employees working with concentrated KATHON 886 MW microbicide, should thoroughly wash with soap and water after handling and prior to eating, drinking or smoking, or applying cosmetics. Special care should be taken to avoid contamination of surfaces or materials that may later be handled by unprotected personnel, for example door, tap handles, rags, gloves and tools.  
Work areas used for dispensing KATHON 886 MW microbicide into metalworking fluid systems should be well ventilated. 
Enclosed areas should be equipped with mechanical ventilation capable of removing contaminated air. In laboratories, solutions of KATHON 886 MW microbicide should always be handled with the proper protective equipment as discussed above. 
  
Vented Containers and Their Storage 
KATHON 886 MW microbicide as supplied evolves gas slowly. The liberated gas consist largely of carbon dioxide. 
To prevent the buildup of pressure, the material is packaged and shipped in 30-gallon and 5-gallon double containers of the design shown in Figure 1 and a 1 gallon container (nominal).  
The 30-gallon and 5-gallon containers consist of a polyethylene liner fitted with 2-inch bungs and enclosed within an open-head steel drum sealed by a bolted-ring closure having no gasket. 
One plug on the liner is a vented fitting that allows gas to bleed slowly at atmospheric pressure through the space where the gasket would normally be. The one gallon plastic container is also fitted with a vented opening.  
All containers must be stored and transported in an upright position to prevent spilling the contents through the vent. 
NOTE: The plug fitting on the cover should be cracked with caution because it may be under pressure. 
Spills 
The list below describes the proper deactivation and cleanup steps to take when handling spills of Kathon biocides. 
1.    Protective clothing, including chemical splash goggles, butyl rubber gloves, rubber overshoes, chemical resistant apron and a NIOSH approved (or equivalent) respirator (with organic vapor/acid gas cartridge and a prefilter) must be worn during any clean-up of spilled Kathon biocide.  
2.    Dike and adsorb as much of the spill as possible with spill control pillows or inert solids such as clay or vermiculite. Scoop the adsorbed material into a waste pail (preferably five gallon or 20 liters plastic) and cover the pail immediately. Do NOT add deactivation solution to the waste pail to deactivate the adsorbed Kathon product.  
3.    Estimate the volume of remaining spilled material on the floor and prepare 10 times as much deactivation solution as in the next step.  
4.    An aqueous solution consisting of 3 to 5% sodium bicarbonate (or potassium bicarbonate) and 5% sodium hypochlorite (household bleach) is prepared away from the immediate area of the spill in a screwcap polyethylene gallon (or 5 liters) container. Depending on the estimate of deactivation solution required as in step 3 above, add to this container the sodium bicarbonate (or potassium bicarbonate) followed by the household bleach. Close the container securely and shake well for one minute.  
5.    Apply the deactivation solution to the residual spill on the floor. Wait approximately 30 minutes and flush the solution on the floor into a chemical sewer (if in accordance with local, state and national procedures, permits and regulations).    
6.    Rinse the one gallon (or 5 liters) container used to make up the deactivation solution with water and dispose of the empty container in the trash or store the empty container for future use.  
7.    Before removing gloves, rinse them with water. Carefully peel the contaminated gloves off by pulling on the outside of the glove sleeve, turning the gloves inside out as they are removed, and place the used gloves into the waste pail. Close and seal the waste pail again. Again, do NOT add deactivation solution to the waste pail.  
8.    Dispose of the sealed waste pail as hazardous waste in compliance with local, state, and federal laws; our recommended method of disposal is incineration.  


Modes and rates of dissipation of KATHON 886 MW microbicide active ingredients were determined over a range of conditions likely to occur in the environment. Degradation of both active ingredients at levels near 1 ppm was observed to occur by hydrolytic, photochemical, and biological action in the aquatic and terrestrial environments. The decomposition of the active ingredients by several chemical and biological mechanisms ensures that the active ingredients of KATHON 886 MW microbicide will not linger in the environment. Details of this study are provided in Bulletin CS-494, which is available upon request from Rohm and Haas Company. 
Additional published studies on the fate and ecotoxicity of KATHON 886 MW active ingredient are available in Bulletin CS-693R. 
These studies showed that in aquatic environments, the isothiazolones rapidly biodegrade with half-lives significantly less than 24 hours. Microbial metabolism involves cleavage of the isothiazolone ring and oxidation of the organic carbon to CO2. Model systems studies have shown that typical use rates of the active ingredients in KATHON 886 MW microbiocide have no significant impact on biological waste treatment and do not generate halogenated by-products. 
  

Shipping Information 
KATHON 886 MW microbicide is available in the following containers. 
Container Size      Net Weight
30 gallon drums      275 lbs
5 gallon pails      44 lbs

Kathon 886

55965-84-9

Kathon biocide

Kathon CG

Kathon LX

Zonen F

ProClin 300

2-Methylisothiazol-3(2H)-one compound with 5-chloro-2-methylisothiazol-3(2H)-one(14%in H2O)

UNII-15O9QS218W

15O9QS218W

5-chloro-2-methyl-1,2-thiazol-3-one;2-methyl-1,2-thiazol-3-one

Bio-Perge

Kathon WT

3(2H)-Isothiazolone, 5-chloro-2-methyl-, mixt. with 2-methyl-3(2H)-isothiazolone

Microcide III

Somacide RS

5-Chloro-2-methyl-3(2H)-isothiazolone mixt. with 2-methyl-3(2H)-isothiazolone

Legend MK

Kathon 886MW

Kathon CG/ICP II

Slaoff 360

Kathon 886 W

Kathon RH 886

MBC 215

Tret-O-Lite XC 215

3(2H)-Isothiazolone, 5-chloro-2-methyl-, mixt. with2-methyl-3(2H)-isothiazoloneOTHER CA INDEX NAMES:3(2H)-Isothiazolone, 2-methyl-, mixt. contg.

CCRIS 4652

KKM 43

EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 107103

2-Methylisothiazol-3(2H)-one 5-chloro-2-methylisothiazol-3(2H)-one (1:1)

C8H9ClN2O2S2

SCHEMBL348332

CHEMBL108095

KS-00000R9C

8175AB

MFCD01716911

AKOS016842708

CS-W018768

2-Methylisothiazol-3(2H)-one compound with 5-chloro-2-methylisothiazol-3(2H)-one (1:1)

AK128362

CS-17384

965K849

Q26841195

2-Methylisothiazol-3(2H)-one 5-chloro-2-Methylisothiazol-3(2H)-one

2-Methylisothiazol-3(2H)-one 5-chloro-2-methylisothiazol-3(2H)-one (1:1) 14% in water

2-Methylisothiazol-3(2H)-one compound with 5-chloro-2-methylisothiazol-3(2H)-one (14% in H2O)


 KATHON 886 MW metalworking fluid provides superior protection against bacteria and fungi in soluble, semi-synthetic, and synthetic metalworking fluids.
• Appearance: Amber to gold, slightly viscous liquid
• Odor: Mild, aromatic
• Specific Gravity @ 25°C: 1.29
• Density lb./gal.: 10.8
• pH: 1 to 3
• Use rate of 16 oz. per 1000 gallons sump capacity

Kathon 886MW is a registered tank side additive used to control bacteriological growth in metalworking fluids.

KATHON 886 MW microbicide is very effective against bacteria and fungi. It is recommended for use in soluble, semi-synthetic, and synthetic metalworking fluids.

KATHON 886 MW is a formaldehyde-free, 14% active CMIT/MIT metalworking fluid microbicide for water-based cutting fluids.  
KATHON 886 MW is used tankside and is recommended for use in soluble, semi-synthetic and synthetic metalworking fluids.


Product Type:

Biocide


Functions:

Biocide

Markets:

Lubricants


Market Segments:

Metalworking Fluids

Applications:

Emulsifiable Oils
Semisynthetic Oils
Synthetic Oils


All metalworking fluid formulations share the common problem of susceptibility to microbial attack by various bacteria, mold and yeast. 
This may result in degradation of fluid components, loss of emulsion stability, pH drop, odor, slime, filter clogging and heightened corrosion.

Especially when using water based metalworking fluids, the challenge for both formulators and metalworking facility operators is to minimize the adverse economic impact of uncontrolled microbial contamination.


A comprehensive approach to microbial control in metalworking systems must account for all facets of the biocide program – from design, to implementation and trouble shooting. 
Best practices for selecting a biocide treatment program must consider cost, efficacy, compatibility, stability, waste discharge, etc.

Biocides may be added to MWF concentrates, which provides a convenient method for treatment of the in-use recirculating system. 
As makeup fluid is added, more biocide is also added via the concentrate. However, the biocide level in the concentrate is fixed, so the amount added to the fluid cannot be significantly modified during use.

Thus, the only way to shock a metalworking system for microbial control is by tankside addition. 
Biocides may be dosed tankside for individual treatment of a system within the manufacturers recommended use range to control the microbial problems. 
The flexibility of adjusting the dose as needed is one advantage of tankside treatment.

Concentrate Options

Stability and compatibility of biocides in concentrates is critical to their effective use. Based on past studies, isothiazolone biocides generally have insufficient stability if added indiscriminately to concentrates. 
However, novel stabilization technology, along with definition of a preferred set of amines, has been developed to enable these effective biocides to be used in various concentrate formulations. 
Benefits to formulators and end-users include enhanced stability and efficacy during extended storage and elevated temperature conditions.

Figure 1 compares the efficacy of seven types of biocides when dosed in MWFconcentrates and heat-aged. 
Samples of the treated concentrates were diluted over time and inoculated with microorganisms. 
As shown, a stabilized isothiazolone provided excellent long-term efficacy versus bacteria, even when aged for six months at two temperatures. 
Others, including oxazolidine, triazine, dimorpholine and benzisothiazolone (BIT), lost efficacy over time, especially with heat aging, and one product (polyquaternium) was ineffective.

In addition to being free of VOCs and formaldehyde, Kordek LX 5000 has broadspectrum efficacy. 
It is based on the 2- methylisothiazolone (MIT) chemistry and is efficacious against bacteria, mold and yeast. 
MIT functions by rapidly inhibiting critical enzymes of microorganisms. This causes a massive disruption of key metabolic processes, including growth, respiration, and energy generation.

Another non-formaldehyde biocide choice for MWF concentrates is Rocima BT 2S, a trademarked Rohm and Haas product. 
This is based on the BIT active and is especially good for bacterial control. 
BIT has excellent stability at high pH with amines and is thus very stable in MWF concentrates.

Efficacy versus key problem-causing microorganisms in MWF is also a critical feature for selecting a biocide. 
Studies using field samples, conducted at Biosan Laboratories Inc., ranked Kordek LX 5000 as most effective against mycobacteria (followed by Kathon 886 MW, another trademarked Rohm and Haas product) in the highest percentage of fluids tested (see Figure 2). 
Both provided at least a 90 to 99 percent kill in the majority of fluids tested. 
Triazine and oxazolidine biocides were significantly less effective in the range of fluids tested, and BIT showed no kill against mycobacteria in any fluid.

MWF concentrates also require addition of high-performing fungicides, to provide rapid kill of yeasts and mold and to prevent fungal slimes on surfaces, which otherwise may block filters and cause musty odors. 
One example is Kathon 893 MW, a broadspectrum fungicide based on octylisothiazolone, in a propylene glycol base. 
When stabilized in concentrates, it provides extremely long-lasting fungal control at very low dosage in the use-diluted fluids.

Like the other isothiazolones, Kathon 893 MW also inhibits key enzymes involved in microbial metabolism, resulting in rapid inhibition of growth followed by cell death. 
Additionally, due to its stability in diluted fluids, it provides weeks of fungal control from a single addition. 
It is most effective in synthetic and semi-synthetic fluids. 
Efficacy studies in six MWF dilutions showed this formulation to have equal or better control of fungi – at lower product use rates – versus commercial fungicides in most of the fluid types (Table 1).

Tankside Tactics

Keeping the metalworking fluid in the best possible condition will ensure that the fluid does its job well and will help keep the workplace operating smoothly. 
A fluid in good condition can also reduce potential worker health risks.

One preventive measure is to establish a fluid management program to continuously maintain high fluid quality. 
The program should continuously remove metal chips and tramp oil, use good quality water, and – very importantly – keep microbial growth under control by making timely concentrate or biocide additions before problems develop. 
Periodic tankside treatment with biocides is typically required to provide an additional level of control over microbial growth in the end-use fluid.

Among the questions to ask when selecting a tankside additive is whether the biocide is fast acting against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. 
Does it contain or release formaldehyde? Is it capable of controlling mycobacteria? 
Is it effective for control of biofilm (slime) formation on metal surfaces within industrial processes? 
And if a system develops serious microbiological problems, what can be done to bring it back under control?

All of the biocide products mentioned previously for use in concentrates may also be added tankside, as a part of a total systems management for bacterial and fungal control. 
Some other biocides are used exclusively as tankside additives, due to their poor compatibility in concentrates.

The most widely used tankside biocide is Kathon 886 MW, due to its high efficacy – remember Figure 2 – and lowcost performance. 
This water-based formulation of chloro-methylisothiazolone (CMIT) and methylisothiazolone (MIT) is used across all fluid types for broadspectrum microbial control. 
It is compatible with most MWF additives, with the exception of sodium pyrithione and thiocyano-methyl-thiobenzothiazole biocides, mercaptobenzothiazole, and zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP). 
It is most effective in end-use fluids with pH below 9.5.

Other tankside biocide products, such as Kathon MWC and Kathon CC, are used mostly for troubleshooting purposes when serious microbiological problems arise in the system. 
These are based on CMIT/MIT biocide, but also contain copper salts to provide added stability to the active ingredients and odor control in more aggressive fluids and adverse conditions.

Disposal Questions

Metalworking fluids are designed to last for a long period of time if proper maintenance procedures are carried out. 
The industry has been well educated on how to properly take care of metalworking fluid systems, so they can conceivably last for years. 
However, at some point in time, depending upon the fluid, the system and the application, no further measures can be carried out to keep the metalworking fluid in operation. 
The fluid manager is then faced with determining the best approach for ultimate disposal.

There are a number of options for treatment of the MWF wastewater. 
Regulatory issues come into play as components in the spent fluid may be considered hazardous. 
Fluid managers may seek to discharge the wastewater (effluent) into a waterway, such as a river or stream, or through a sanitary sewer to a publicly owned treatment works. 
But this can only be done if the treated MWF wastewater meets certain guidelines covering organic and inorganic pollutants. 
Biocide-treated metalworking fluids may also require additional measures prior to discharge.

The selection of MWF biocides must take into account the ultimate environmental fate and ecotoxicity of the active ingredient. 
Some biocides (such as phenolics) are recognized as difficult to waste treat. 
The isothiazolone biocides mentioned in this article have been rigorously evaluated for their environmental impact.

Key environmental toxicity values for isothiazolone biocides have been determined (Table 2). 
These biocides are stable to hydrolysis and photolysis, but are rapidly biodegraded to carbon dioxide in natural waters containing microorganisms (that is, they have short half-life values). 
There is no effect of these biocides on sewage treatment (activated sludge respiration) when diluted below 1 ppm on an active ingredient basis.

Since biocides are toxic materials, their safe use and handling is critical to protect workers from exposure. 
In concentrated form, isothiazolone biocides are corrosive to the skin and eyes and may cause sensitization upon repeated contact. 
However, they are safe and non-irritating at use levels in the recirculating MWF. 
Other biocides used in MWF systems are also corrosive, sensitizers, and/or may release formaldehyde vapors. 
It is always important to consult with the biocide manufacturer and materials safety data sheets to obtain the correct equipment and procedures for their safe use.

Selection of the most effective biocide for a particular operation is a key decision factor for a successful microbiological control strategy for MWF management. 
Formulators and end users need to have not only highly effective, formaldehydefree biocide solutions, but also comprehensive knowledge about the specific problem- causing microorganisms, to help find synergistic combinations and best practices for their biocide treatment needs in different MWF systems.

Detailed Product Description
Soluble, synthetic, and semi-synthetic metalworking fluids or coolants provide an excellent environment for the growth of various microorganisms, including bacteria, mold, and yeast. 
If allowed to grow, these organisms can have detrimental effects on the fluids. 
For example, bacteria, which can grow very quickly, can destroy the integrity of the fluid by discoloration destroying lubricity characteristics, and causing emulsions to split. 
Bacteria can also reduce the pH of the fluid, which can promote corrosion. 
Some forms of bacteria have objectionable odors. Fungi typically grow more slowly than bacteria, but can form large masses which clog filters and lines and in some cases lead to system shutdown; fungi also generate foul odors and can cause corrosion.

KATHON biocides have been used safely and effectively in a variety of industries around the world for more than 20 years. 
In 1977 Rohm and Haas Company was granted EPA registration for KATHON 886 MW microbicide for use in metalworking fluids, in 2 piece can manufacture, hot aluminum rolling, and general machinery of ferrous and aluminum materials. 
In 1986, this registration was expanded to include the use of KATHON 886 MW microbicide in metal cleaners and water-based hydraulic fluids.

The information in this brochure has been compiled to familiarize users of KATHON 886 MW microbicide with its chemistry, to communicate the tremendous benefits of this product as well as the potential hazards, to provide directions for safe and efficient use of the product, and to aid the user in the event of misuse. 
Particular attention should be paid to the Compatibility section of this brochure which provides insight on the stability of KATHON 886 MW microbicide with individual components and additives frequently used in metalworking fluid operations.

KATHON 886 MW microbicide can be used safely and effectively by following the instructions and precautions outlined in this brochure, on the product label, and on the Rohm and Haas Material Safety Data Sheet.

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