L-ARGININE

CAS number: 74-79-3
EC number: 230-571-3
Chemical formula: C6H14N4O2
Molar mass: 174.204 g·mol−1

L-arginine is an amino acid naturally found in red meat, poultry, fish, and dairy. 
L-arginine is necessary for making proteins and is commonly used for circulation.
L-arginine is converted in the body into a chemical called nitric oxide. 

Nitric oxide causes blood vessels to open wider for improved blood flow. 
L-arginine also stimulates the release of growth hormone, insulin, and other substances in the body. 
L-arginine can be made in a lab and used in supplements.
People use L-arginine for chest pain and various blow flow issues, erectile dysfunction, high blood pressure during pregnancy, and a serious disease in premature infants called necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). 

L-arginine's also used for many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these other uses.
L-arginine is an amino acid that helps the body make proteins. 
L-arginine can be obtained naturally in the diet and is also found in dietary supplement form. 
Foods rich in L-arginine include plant and animal proteins, such as dairy products, meat, poultry, fish, and nuts.

In addition to building protein, L-arginine releases nitric oxide in the blood.
Nitric oxide acts to widen blood vessels in the blood stream, which may help aid certain circulatory conditions.
A person’s body naturally produces L-arginine under normal circumstances. 
People also get additional L-arginine as part of their regular diet.
Red meats, fish, dairy, and eggs all contain low amounts of L-arginine that help the body to replenish L-arginines necessary resources.

Arginine, also known as l-arginine (symbol Arg or R), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
L-arginine contains an α-amino group, an α-carboxylic acid group, and a side chain consisting of a 3-carbon aliphatic straight chain ending in a guanidino group. 
At physiological pH, the carboxylic acid is deprotonated (−COO−), the amino group is protonated (−NH3+), and the guanidino group is also protonated to give the guanidinium form (-C-(NH2)2+), making arginine a charged, aliphatic amino acid.
L-arginine is the precursor for the biosynthesis of nitric oxide.

L-arginine is encoded by the codons CGU, CGC, CGA, CGG, AGA, and AGG.
Arginine is classified as a semiessential or conditionally essential amino acid, depending on the developmental stage and health status of the individual.
Preterm infants are unable to synthesize or create arginine internally, making the amino acid nutritionally essential for them.
Most healthy people do not need to supplement with arginine because L-arginine is a component of all protein-containing foods and can be synthesized in the body from glutamine via citrulline.

Occasionally, a person’s need for L-arginine may exceed the body’s ability to produce or consume L-arginine naturally. 
This is often true for older adults or people with certain medical conditions.
In these cases, people may be prescribed artificial L-arginine in the form of oral medication, injections, or creams. 
Several potential health conditions may benefit from an increased intake of L-arginine.

What is L-arginine?
L-arginine is an amino acid. 
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and divided into essential and nonessential categories. 
Nonessential amino acids are made in the body, but essential amino acids are not. 
As such, they must be provided through dietary intake.
L-arginine is considered semi-essential or conditionally essential, meaning that L-arginine becomes essential under certain circumstances and conditions, including pregnancy, infancy, critical illness, and trauma.
L-arginine’s necessary for the production of nitric oxide, a signaling molecule that’s needed for a variety of bodily processes and functions, including blood flow regulation, mitochondrial function, and cellular communication.

Additionally, L-arginine acts as a precursor to other amino acids, including glutamate, proline, and creatine, and is essential for the health and functioning of your immune system.
Arginine is necessary for the development of T-cells, which are white blood cells that play central roles in immune response.
Because L-arginine has so many critical roles in your body, a deficiency in this amino acid can disrupt cellular and organ function and lead to serious adverse health outcomes.
L-arginine is produced in several ways. 
L-arginine can be synthesized from the amino acid citrulline through the breakdown of body proteins, or L-arginine can be obtained through dietary protein intake.

L-arginine’s concentrated in certain protein-rich foods, including meat, poultry, dairy, nuts, soy products, and fish. 
The average daily intake of L-arginine from foods is reported to be 4–6 grams.
For reference, research shows that a typical Western diet provides between 25–30% of total arginine present in the body.
Additionally, L-arginine can be obtained by taking supplements. 
L-arginine supplements are widely available and can be found in powder, liquid, capsule, and tablet form at grocery stores, supplement stores, and online.
This article mainly focuses on the benefits and uses of L-arginine supplements.

Benefits and uses
L-arginine supplements are taken by many populations, including athletes and those who have certain medical conditions like high blood pressure, for a variety of reasons. 
They’re also used in the clinical setting to treat critically ill people or those with wounds.
Research has shown that L-arginine may offer a variety of potential benefits when used as a supplement. 
However, results are mixed, and L-arginine may not be as effective for some conditions as many supplement companies claim.

Athletic performance enhancement
Limited evidence suggests that L-arginine supplements may enhance exercise performance by increasing nitric oxide in the body, which improves blood flow and oxygenation to muscles.
For example, a 2017 randomized study in 56 male soccer players found that treatment with 2 grams of L-arginine daily for 45 days significantly increased sport performance, compared with a placebo group.
Another small study in 9 men demonstrated that those who drank a beverage containing 6 grams of L-arginine 1 hour before intense exercise had significantly increased blood levels of nitric oxide and were able to exercise longer, compared with a placebo group.
However, most studies investigating this relationship have found that L-arginine is not beneficial for improving athletic performance.
L-citrulline, a precursor to L-arginine that’s discussed later in this article, may be a better choice for boosting athletic performance.

Blood pressure regulation
L-arginine supplements may benefit those with high blood pressure.
Studies have shown that taking L-arginine supplements may help lower both your systolic (the top number) and diastolic (the bottom number) blood pressure readings.
L-arginine is needed for the production of nitric oxide, which is necessary for the relaxation of the cells that make up blood vessels, as well as blood pressure regulation.
A 2016 review of 7 studies found that supplementing with L-arginine by both oral and intravenous (IV) administration significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults with high blood pressure by up to 5.4 mm/Hg and 3.1 mm/Hg, respectively.

Management of critical illness
Arginine becomes essential when your body is compromised due to conditions like infection and trauma, and your arginine needs significantly increase due to physiologic demands.
Under these circumstances, your body can no longer fulfill your arginine needs, which must be met through external sources.
Arginine depletion during critical illness or after surgery leads to serious adverse effects, including impaired immune function and blood flow. 
To avoid these potential complications, arginine supplements are used frequently in the clinical setting to treat a variety of conditions.
For example, oral or IV arginine is commonly used to treat serious infections like necrotizing enterocolitis in infants, cases of sepsis, burns, chronic disease, and wounds, as well as in pre- and post-surgical and trauma patients.

Blood sugar regulation
Research shows that L-arginine may benefit those with diabetes by improving glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity.
L-arginine is needed for the production of nitric oxide. 
Nitric oxide plays important roles in cellular function and how your body responds to insulin, a hormone that shuttles blood sugar from your blood into cells, where L-arginine’s used for energy.
Therefore, increasing nitric oxide availability may help enhance the function of cells that secrete insulin and help your body use blood sugar more efficiently.
Some research has shown that long-term treatment with L-arginine supplements may prevent diabetes in at-risk populations.
A study in 144 people with impaired blood sugar regulation found that treatment with 6.4 grams of L-arginine per day for 18 months reduced the chances of diabetes development over a 90-month period, compared with a placebo group.

Other potential benefits
In addition to the potential benefits listed above, some research suggests that L-arginine supplements may be helpful when used in the following ways:
Treatment of erectile dysfunction. 
A 2019 review of 10 studies found that taking arginine supplements in doses ranging from 1.5–5 grams daily significantly improved erectile dysfunction, compared with a placebo or no treatment.
Improving blood flow. 

Some evidence suggests L-arginine supplements may improve blood vessel function and blood flow in specific populations. 
However, study results are conflicting, and many have found that L-arginine has no benefit.
Treating and preventing preeclampsia. 
Studies have demonstrated that treatment with L-arginine during pregnancy may help prevent and treat preeclampsia, a dangerous condition characterized by high blood pressure and protein in the urine.
This list is not exhaustive, and L-arginine has been studied for L-arginines potential beneficial effects on various conditions, including obesity, heart disease, cancer, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), infertility, and anxiety, either used on L-arginines own or in combination with other supplements.

However, research on the effects of L-arginine in people with these and many other conditions is limited and inconclusive, highlighting the need for future studies.
In addition to the potential benefits and uses above, many people take L-arginine supplements for a variety of other reasons, including reducing the risk of the common cold and boosting weight loss. 
Yet, many of these purported benefits aren’t backed by scientific research.

Some people take L-arginine as a supplement. 
As with any supplement, a person should use L-arginine with caution.
Although L-arginine is considered safe in moderate doses, too much L-arginine can have severe side effects, including death. 
L-arginine is important to understand how the supplement may interact with the body and with additional medications before taking L-arginine.

Benefits of L-arginine
L-arginine has two effects: L-arginine turns into nitric oxide and helps the body build protein.
These effects give L-arginine an array of potential benefits that range from heart health and chest pain to helping to build muscles, repair wounds, and improve male fertility.
Although there are many claims about the benefits of L-Arginine, not all of them are supported by scientific research studies.

The following are some examples of researched benefits and uses of L-arginine:
-growth hormone reserve test
-reducing high blood pressure
-correcting inborn errors of urea synthesis
-treating heart disease
-treating erectile dysfunction (ED)
-easing inflammation of the digestive tract in premature infants
-controlling blood sugar in people with diabetes

Additionally, L-arginine may have the potential to help with many other issues. 
However, more research needs to be done to evaluate further L-arginine’s potential to do the following:
-improve blood flow
-heal wounds faster
-alleviate anxiety
-treat burns
-improve kidney function for people with congestive heart failure
-enhance exercise performance

L-arginine also helps rid the body of ammonia (a waste product) and stimulates the release of insulin. 
In addition, your body uses arginine to make nitric oxide (a compound that relaxes the blood vessels). 
Although some studies suggest that L-arginine may benefit certain health conditions, other research shows that L-arginine may have harmful effects on some individuals.

Health Benefits
By improving blood flow in the body, some proponents claim that L-arginine may help heart conditions, such as chest pain (angina), high blood pressure, leg cramping and weakness due to obstructed arteries (a condition known as intermittent claudication), and erectile dysfunction (ED).
Some people use L-arginine to boost the immune system, improve athletic performance, shorten recovery time after surgery, and promote weight loss. 
L-arginine is also used for bodybuilding.

There are several additional areas that researchers are interested in exploring regarding L-arginine and L-arginines effects on the human body.
L-arginine is essential for anyone interested in taking L-arginine as a supplement to talk to their doctor about the potential benefits and risks before starting to use L-arginine.
Also, people should fully understand and examine the claims a manufacturer is making about their product before using L-arginine.

NCGC00024715-02
NCGC00024715-03
NCGC00024715-04
NCGC00024715-05
NCGC00024715-10
NCGC00260762-01
25212-18-4
4455-52-1
AK-81231
AS-14190
K277
L-Arginine, BioUltra, >=99.5% (NT)
SBI-0207062.P001
AB0014136
A0526
A7079
EU-0100077
L-Arginine, SAJ special grade, >=98.0%
A 5006
C00062
D02982
L-Arginine, Vetec(TM) reagent grade, >=98%
M02981
Y-8965
14932-EP2316830A2
AB00374192_03
Norvaline, 5-[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]-, (L)-

Natural ways to get enough L-arginine
A major benefit of obtaining L-arginine through diet is that L-arginine is difficult to get too much. 
Therefore, some of the side effects of consuming too much L-arginine can be avoided.
On the other hand, food consumption alone may not provide enough L-arginine to meet a person’s needs. 
A person should discuss their options with their doctor prior to changing their diet.

The best natural source for L-arginine is food high in protein. 
For some people, animal proteins, such as red meat (beef), chicken and turkey breast, pork loin, and dairy products, may be the primary source of L-arginine.
For people who do not eat meat, plant-based proteins that contain L-arginine include lentils, chickpeas, peanuts, pumpkin seeds, and soybeans.
People who find they have a deficient amount of L-arginine to meet their needs may want to modify their diet to include foods rich in protein.
A dietician or doctor may be able to make meal plan suggestions to boost natural intake of L-arginine prior to taking supplements.

What is L-arginine?
L-arginine is an amino acid that helps make proteins. 
L-arginine also becomes the gas nitric oxide (NO) in the body. 
NO is important for erectile function because L-arginine helps blood vessels relax, so more oxygen-rich blood can circulate through your arteries. 
Healthy blood flow to the arteries of the penis is essential for normal erectile function.

L-Arginine is an amino acid critical to the production of nitric oxide (NO) in the body. 
NO helps regulate and improve blood circulation. 
L-Arginine cannot be made in the body, but must obtained through food or supplementation.  
Kyowa Quality L-Arginine is an pure, allergen-free ingredient that has been manufactured to the highest quality standards.

Chemical formula: C6H14N4O2
Molar mass: 174.204 g·mol−1
Appearance: White crystals
Odor: Odourless
Melting point: 260 °C; 500 °F; 533 K
Boiling point: 368 °C (694 °F; 641 K)
Solubility in water: 14.87 g/100 mL (20 °C)
Solubility: slightly soluble in ethanol
insoluble in ethyl ether
log P: −1.652
Acidity (pKa): 2.18 (carboxyl), 9.09 (amino), 13.2 (guanidino)

What is L-arginine?
Eggs, meats, milk, soy proteins, peanuts, and walnuts are all sources of arginine. 
The physiologically active form, L-arginine, is obtained by breaking down proteins. 
Arginine also may be synthesized in the laboratory. 
Because L-arginine may be synthesized in the body, L-arginine is classified as a nonessential amino acid in adults. 
However, in children and in people with certain conditions (eg, infection, trauma), L-arginine synthesis may become compromised and then may be considered semi-essential.

Effectiveness of L-arginine
L-arginine has been studied extensively as a possible treatment for ED and many other conditions. 
The resultsTrusted Source suggest that the supplement, though generally safe and well-tolerated by most men, won’t help restore healthy erectile function. 
The Mayo Clinic gives L-arginine a C grade when L-arginine comes to scientific evidence of successful ED treatment.

L-Arginine is an essential amino acid for birds and young mammals, and L-arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid for adult mammals, as L-arginine is important in situations in which requirements exceed production, such as pregnancy. 
Recent findings indicate that increased metabolism of L-arginine by myeloid cells can result in the impairment of lymphocyte responses to antigen during immune responses and tumour growth. 
Two enzymes that compete for L-arginine as a substrate — arginase and nitric-oxide synthase — are crucial components of this lymphocyte-suppression pathway, and the metabolic products of these enzymes are important moderators of T-cell function. 
This Review article focuses on the relevance of L-arginine metabolism by myeloid cells for immunity under physiological and pathological conditions.

To treat angina, hardening of blood vessels, or high blood pressure
Some studies support the benefits of arginine for angina, atherosclerosis, and hypertension, but there are some conditions where supplementation may increase the risk for harm. 
Patients should therefore be managed by their treating physician.
To speed wound healing
Data on whether arginine can improve wound healing are mixed.
To improve immune function
Data on whether arginine can improve immune function are mixed.
To treat erectile dysfunction
Preliminary data suggest arginine may help improve sexual function in men, but more studies are needed.
To treat migraine headaches
Preliminary data suggest that arginine taken with ibuprofen may increase pain relief in patients with migraines, but more studies are needed.

Product name
L-Arginine, substrate for nitric oxide synthase
Description
Precursor to nitric oxide synthesis
Biological description
Precursor to nitric oxide synthesis. 
Amino acid implicated in neurotransmission, immune defences and cardiovascular endothelial protection. 
Bioavailability following oral administration is 68%.

Purity: > 99%
CAS Number: 74-79-3

L-arginine (or arginine) is a type of amino acid, and as we know, amino acids are the “building blocks” of proteins. 
We obtain arginine from our diets, especially animal sources of protein foods, including beef and other types of red meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products.
In addition to occurring naturally in “complete proteins” that supply all the essential amino acids we need, L-arginine’s also created in laboratory settings so L-arginine can be used to make supplements that benefit heart health, exercise performance, mental capabilities and much more.

What Is L-Arginine?
While not exactly an essential amino acid — meaning one that the body cannot make on its own and, therefore, must get from outside sources — L-arginine is considered somewhat essential because L-arginine’s highly important for many functions yet usually present in low quantities, especially as someone gets older.

What is arginine used for? One of the reasons people take supplemental arginine is because of its ability to improve blood flow and circulation.
In the body, L-arginine is converted into nitric oxide, which causes blood vessels to open wider. 
This has multiple benefits, such as improving heart and brain health.
Another important aspect of L-arginine is that L-arginine stimulates the production of certain hormones, especially beneficial human growth hormones and insulin that help usher glucose into cells to be used for growth and energy output.
This is one of the reasons L-arginine’s believed to enhance physical performance, stamina and strength.
L-arginine is different than arginine vasopressin (AVP), which is an antidiuretic hormone in humans and most mammals that promotes the reabsorption of water and increases blood pressure.

Research suggests that L-arginine benefits include: 
-fighting inflammation
-lowering risk for arteriosclerosis and heart attack
-repairing blood vessels
-fighting congestive heart failure and coronary artery disease
-helping lower high blood pressure
-improving athletic performance and high intensity exercise tolerance
-increasing immune function
-reducing muscle pains (especially in the legs caused by blocked arteries)
-improving kidney function
-improving mental capacity
-fighting dementia
-correcting impotence, erectile dysfunction and male infertility
-preventing the common cold
-To dive a little further into the capabilities of L-arginine, L-arginine helps to understand how nitric oxide (NO) works in the body.

Nitric oxide is a type of natural reactive gas that both plants and animals produce. 
L-arginine’s created using the L-arginine and nitric oxide synthase (making L-arginine L-arginines precursor) and is actually a type of byproduct that forms from many different chemical reactions.
L-arginine is needed by the endothelial cells (the ones lining the inside of all blood vessels) in order to form enough nitric oxide to keep blood flowing freely.

Nitric oxide improves circulation by dilating blood vessels, so when people don’t have enough in their arteries their risk for heart disease is higher.
NO keeps your blood pressure level within a normal range by signaling blood vessel muscles to relax, expand and let blood through, while also preventing clots and plaque from forming.
Research suggests that as someone ages, his or her ability to produce enough NO in the artery linings decreases. 
Fortunately, obtaining more L-arginine — either through supplemental arginine or dietary arginine — can help to enhance nitric oxide capabilities and correct impaired endothelial function.
The benefits of L-arginine go beyond producing NO to help with circulation, however. 
As you’ll see, it has important roles in nerve signaling, cell replication and fighting oxidative stress that results in disease and signs of aging.

L-arginine Benefits
1. Improves Heart Health
Research shows that L-arginine is beneficial for lowering inflammation and improving the health of the cardiovascular system, which is why oral L-arginine supplements are some of the most popular types recommended by cardiologists.
For people with high risk factors for coronary heart disease, these supplements can be an effective measure for preventing a heart attack or stroke.

Some of the ways that L-arginine improves cardiovascular health include:
-potentially helping to prevent high blood pressure (although findings have been mixed overall)
-improving blood flow in people with clogged arteries (coronary artery disease)
-lowering cholesterol and triglyceride levels
-helping relieve congestive heart failure
-improving stamina
-reducing symptoms associated with cut-off blood flow from the heart to the limbs (called claudication)
-reducing fasting blood sugar

L-arginine’s also also commonly used for treating chest pains (angina pectoris) because of the effects of nitric oxide preventing blood clots (thrombosis) that cut off blood supply. 
Two to three grams a day of  L-arginine supplementation has been shown to resolve nitrate intolerance in most people with angina, according to some studies.
And finally, arginine is capable of safely improving exercise performance in people with low stamina, circulation problems and a history of heart disease.

2. Lowers Inflammation and Fights the Effects of Aging
Beyond heart health, one of the primary benefits of L-arginine is fighting disease-causing inflammation and raising immune function.
L-arginine’s been found to have substantial free radical-scavenging abilities due to L-arginines effects on the enzyme called superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as other antioxidant mechanisms. 
L-arginine’s commonly used in combination with antioxidants like vitamin C and omega-3 fish oil supplements, helping slow the aging process and preventing many chronic diseases.
L-arginine also positively affects both central nervous system and immune system functions since in the brain NO acts as a neurotransmitter and protective agent against outside threats.
Helpful for detoxifying the body, L-arginine can even lower the presence of ammonia within the blood, which is why L-arginine’s sometimes used to treat people with metabolic problems and damage to the urethra where ammonia is excreted from the body.  
Ammonia (ammonium hydroxide) is a product of the body breaking down proteins, and one cause of necrosis of tissues that can lead to cellular destruction and inflammation.

3. Boosts Exercise Performance, Intensity and Recovery
L-arginine is known to effectively improve blood flow, which means L-arginine helps bring nutrients and oxygen to muscle and joint tissues. 
This means with L-arginine’s help, you can enjoy more of the many benefits of exercise, possibly at a higher intensity and with less pain.

L-arginine can increase heat and circulation to damaged joints or cold hands and feet, especially in people with complications from other health conditions like poor blood flow, arthritis or diabetes.
L-arginine’s been shown in some studies to improve walking distance and lower muscle aches and pains, including in people suffering from painful intermittent claudication (narrowing of blood vessels in the legs and feet caused by fatty deposits).
L-arginine’s used by the body to increase production of human growth hormone, prolactin and several amino acids — including creatine, L-proline and L-glutamate.
Studies suggest L-arginine arginine improves glucose tolerance and sensitivity to insulin, similarly to how exercise does, by allowing more glucose to enter cells.
L-arginine’s roles in metabolic health are important for building strong muscle tissue, fighting inflammation causing bone and joint pain, repairing injuries, and for general nervous system functions.

L-arginine’s also been shown to help increase time to exhaustion among athletes and to increase tolerance to high intensity exercise.
There’s also evidence that L-arginine may help with bodybuilding, exercise performance and putting on muscle mass. 
Supplementation has been shown in some studies to increase plasma insulin and help builds stronger muscles even when you’re resting due to L-arginines effects on the body’s capillaries. 
These hormonal changes affect your metabolism in a positive way by helping repair, build and maintain the youthful foundation of the skeletal-muscle system.
Some studies have found that growth hormone levels can significantly increase with L-arginine supplementation in doses between five to nine grams a day.

In most cases, arginine increases resting growth hormone levels at least 100 percent (in comparison, regular exercise can increase growth hormone levels by 300 percent to 500 percent). 
Even more powerful is the combination of L-arginine plus exercise.

4. Improves Immunity, Helps Prevent Infections and Speeds Up Healing
Low-circulating L-arginine has been found in some patients suffering from illnesses, trauma and cancer. 
L-arginine’s believed that certain immune system suppressor cells (called MSCs) might cause arginine deficiency or low levels circulating within the blood.
This is problematic because the immune system’s protective lymphocytes and T-cells depend on arginine for defending the body.
L-arginine is used with omega-3 fish oils and other supplements for reducing risk for infections (especially respiratory infections or problems with the lungs), improving wound healing, and shortening recovery time following cancer, illness or surgery.
L-arginine’s sometimes added to topical ointments used to treat wounds for several reasons: L-arginine helps keep blood flowing more freely, can fight pain and swelling, forms L-proline, which is important for collagen synthesis within the skin, and increases antioxidant activity.
L-arginine’s also used to improve protein function in helping to heal burns and might even help fight cavities and tooth decay. 
Although more research is still needed, because L-arginine has immune-enhancing effects, L-arginine’s commonly given to people undergoing chemotherapy or healing from surgeries, viruses and infections (including HIV).

5. Helps Treat Erectile Dysfunction and Infertility
What does L-arginine do sexually? 
A number of studies have shown that L-arginine is involved in the process of proper cell replication in addition to enhancing blood circulation.
This means that arginine benefits for men include improving both sperm production and motility.
Men who deal with cardiovascular problems tied to low levels of NO in the blood are more likely to suffer from erectile dysfunction and fertility issues, since an erection requires the relaxation of smooth muscles triggered by nitric oxide. 
While not effective for every man, research suggests that a significant percentage of male infertility cases (up to 92 percent, according to some studies) can be treated with L-arginine supplements combined with other dilators, antioxidants or anti-inflammatories.
Some research suggests that high stress levels can lower the presence of L-arginine in the sperm production pathway, so overly stressed men can especially benefit from supplementing.

A combination of L-arginine, L-glutamate and yohimbine hydrochloride is commonly used to treat ED and seems to work better than L-arginine alone. 
In fact, many of the most commonly prescribed medications for ED work similarly to L-arginine by increasing nitric oxide production.
A standard dosage of arginine for ED is about three to six grams daily (divided into two doses).
Even women can experience better reproductive help from L-arginine — doctors sometimes prescribe topical creams that contain this amino acid for helping heal sexual problems and naturally treat infertility in both sexes since L-arginine improves circulation to genital tissue.
Additionally, there’s some research that suggests treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and L-arginine together can help balance hormones naturally and restore normal sexual function in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and estrogen imbalances.
Other studies suggest that L-arginine used with herbs like chasteberry, green tea extract and antioxidant supplements improve pregnancy rates in women struggling to conceive.

L-arginine
arginine
74-79-3
L-(+)-Arginine
L(+)-Arginine
L-Arg
H-Arg-OH
(S)-2-Amino-5-guanidinopentanoic acid
(L)-Arginine
Arginina
ARGININE, L-
Arginine (VAN)
L-Arginin
Argininum [INN-Latin]
Arginina [INN-Spanish]
L-Ornithine, N5-(aminoiminomethyl)-
Argamine
Argivene
Detoxargin
Levargin
L-alpha-Amino-delta-guanidinovaleric acid
Minophagen A
1-Amino-4-guanidovaleric acid
CCRIS 3609
NSC 206269
arg
HSDB 1429

However, L-arginine is often combined with other supplements, which have different results. 
Here’s what the research has to say:

L-arginine and yohimbine hydrochloride
Yohimbine hydrochloride, also known as yohimbine, is an approved treatment for ED. 
A 2010 studyTrusted Source of the combination of L-arginine and yohimbine hydrochloride found the treatment shows some promise. 
However, the study showed that the treatment is meant only for mild to moderate ED.

L-arginine and Pycnogenol
While L-arginine alone may not treat your ED, the combination of L-arginine and an herbal supplement called Pycnogenol may help. 
A study in the Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy found that L-arginine and Pycnogenol supplements helped a significant number of men ages 25 to 45 with ED achieve normal erections. 
The treatment also didn’t cause side effects that occur with ED medication.

Pycnogenol is a trademark name for a supplement taken from the pine bark of a tree called the Pinus pinaster. 
Other ingredients may include extracts from peanut skin, grape seed, and witch hazel bark.

Other names
2-Amino-5-guanidinopentanoic acid

Identifiers
CAS Number    
D/L: 7200-25-1 
D: 157-06-2 
L: 74-79-3 
HCl: 1119-34-2 

Dosage and how to take 
Doses of L-arginine vary widely depending on what L-arginine’s being used to treat.
For example, studies investigating the effects of L-arginine on blood pressure have used doses of 6–30 grams per day for 2–24 weeks.
In those with erectile dysfunction, research has suggested that supplementing daily with 1.5–5 grams of L-arginine may significantly improve symptoms.
When used to treat preeclampsia, the dose typically ranges from 3–4 grams daily for up to 12 weeks, or until delivery under a doctor’s supervision. 

L-arginine may also be given intravenously to pregnant women with high blood pressure in the clinical setting.
Although higher doses are often used in research and clinical settings, L-arginine’s recommended that daily dosing of L-arginine be kept under 9 grams per day to avoid potential gastrointestinal side effects, including nausea, diarrhea, and bloating.
Like other single amino acids, L-arginine’s recommended to take L-arginine between meals for maximum absorption.

L-Arginine is an essential amino acid for birds and young mammals, and L-arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid for adult mammals, as L-arginine is important in situations in which requirements exceed production, such as pregnancy. 
Recent findings indicate that increased metabolism of L-arginine by myeloid cells can result in the impairment of lymphocyte responses to antigen during immune responses and tumour growth. 
Two enzymes that compete for L-arginine as a substrate — arginase and nitric-oxide synthase — are crucial components of this lymphocyte-suppression pathway, and the metabolic products of these enzymes are important moderators of T-cell function. 
This Review article focuses on the relevance of L-arginine metabolism by myeloid cells for immunity under physiological and pathological conditions.

Benefits of L-Arginine
-Supports cardiovascular health
-Enhances blood flow to vital organs
-Combats the negative effects of premature cardiovascular aging
-Sweetened with Xylitol to enhance oral health
-May aid in decreasing body fat
-Anti-aging benefits
-Supports healthy sexual performance
-Maintains healthy blood sugar levels already in normal range
-May boost energy levels

L-Glutamine and L-arginine are classified as semi-essential or conditionally essential amino acids, which means that the human body can synthesize them under some health conditions but not others, both are abundant in many foods.
Neither D-glutamine nor D-arginine is common in nature, so the L-amino acids are usually referred to without prefixes. 
In 1883, German chemists Ernst. Schulze and E. Bosshard isolated L-glutamine from the juice of sugarbeets. 
L-arginine is the most common amino acid in human blood and a key component of proteins.
In 1886, Schulze was also the first to isolate L-arginine, in this case from lupin seedlings. 
L-arginine is also an important amino acid in protein biosynthesis.
L-arginine turns out that a difference in occurrence between these two amino acids makes a huge difference in huge animals. 
This year, while examining the melanocortin system* of cetaceans, Roger D. Cone at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor) and colleagues discovered that the two suborders of the sea mammals have different components at position 156 in the melanocortin-4 receptor. 
Glutamine is at this position in baleen whales, whereas toothed whales and dolphins contain arginine instead.

Beilstein Reference:
1725411, 1725412 D, 1725413 L
ChEBI    
D/L: CHEBI:29016 
ChEMBL    
D/L: ChEMBL212301 
D: ChEMBL1485 
ChemSpider    
D/L: 227 
D: 64224 
L: 6082 
DrugBank    
D/L: DB00125 
ECHA InfoCard: 100.000.738 
EC Number    
D/L: 230-571-3
Gmelin Reference: 364938 D
IUPHAR/BPS    
D/L: 721
KEGG    
D/L: C02385 

l-Arginine is one of the most metabolically versatile amino acids. 
In addition to L-arginines role in the synthesis of nitric oxide, l-arginine serves as a precursor for the synthesis of polyamines, proline, glutamate, creatine, agmatine and urea. 
Several human and experimental animal studies have indicated that exogenous l-arginine intake has multiple beneficial pharmacological effects when taken in doses larger than normal dietary consumption. 
Such effects include reduction in the risk of vascular and heart diseases, reduction in erectile dysfunction, improvement in immune response and inhibition of gastric hyperacidity. 
This review summarises several positive studies and personal experiences of l-arginine. 
The demonstrated anti-aging benefits of l-arginine show greater potential than any pharmaceutical or nutraceutical agent ever previously discovered.

MeSH: Arginine
PubChem CID    
D/L: 232
D: 71070
L: 6322
RTECS number    
D/L: CF1934200 L
UNII    
D/L: FL26NTK3EP 
D: R54Z304Z7C 
L: 94ZLA3W45F 
HCl: F7LTH1E20Y 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)    
D/L: DTXSID6041056

What is L-arginine used for?
Traditional/Ethnobotanical uses
L-arginine is a nonessential amino acid that may play an important role in the treatment of heart disease due to L-arginines block arterial plaque buildup, blood clots, platelet clumping, and to increase blood flow through the coronary artery. 
L-arginine is commonly sold as a health supplement claiming to improve vascular health and treat erectile dysfunction in men. 
L-arginine, which is promoted as a human growth stimulant, has also been used in bodybuilding. 
In the 1800s, L-arginine was first isolated from animal horn.

Overdose
As mentioned above, arginine is generally considered safe, even when used in high doses.
However, L-arginine’s possible to take too much arginine, which is especially dangerous for children. .

Interactions
L-arginine may interact with certain medications, including:
Blood-pressure-lowering medications: enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), amlodipine (Norvasc), furosemide (Lasix), etc.
Erectile dysfunction medications: sildenafil citrate (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), etc.
Blood-thinning medications: clopidogrel (Plavix), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), etc.
Antidiabetic medications: insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), glipizide (Glucotrol), etc.
Medications that increase blood flow: nitroglycerin (Nitro-Dur, Nitro-Bid, Nitrostat), isosorbide ( Sorbitrate, Imdur, Isordil), etc.
Diuretic medications: amiloride (Midamor), and triamterene (Dyrenium), spironolactone (Aldactone), etc.

Pregnancy and breastfeeding
L-arginine is used in pregnancy under certain circumstances, including preeclampsia.
L-arginine supplementation during pregnancy is typically prescribed and monitored by a healthcare provider for a specific reason, such as preeclampsia or the risk of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).
There’s some evidence that L-arginine supplements may improve pregnancy outcomes, as well as fetal and maternal health in women from both high- and low-resource areas.
This is because during pregnancy, the body’s need for L-arginine grows due to fetal development and placental growth. 
This increased need may not be met through diet, especially in women living in low-resource settings without access to protein-rich foods.
Additionally, although the increased demand for arginine during pregnancy can be provided through diet, protein or individual amino acid supplements may be necessary under certain circumstances.
This may include women who follow restrictive diets or are experiencing severe nausea and vomiting during pregnancy, rendering them unable to meet demands through dietary intake.
However, supplements during pregnancy should always be approved and monitored by a healthcare provider. 
If you are pregnant and interested in taking supplemental L-arginine, consult your healthcare provider for advice.
L-arginine supplements have not been researched in breastfeeding women. 
For this reason, L-arginine’s important to ask your healthcare provider whether taking L-arginine supplements is safe and necessary for your individual needs during breastfeeding.

AI3-24165
UNII-94ZLA3W45F
MFCD00002635
(S)-2-Amino-5-guanidinovaleric acid
BRN 1725413
CHEBI:16467
(S)-2-Amino-5-((aminoiminomethyl)amino)pentanoic acid
L-Norvaline, 5-((aminoiminomethyl)amino)-
(S)-(+)-arginine
L-Arginine, monohydrochloride
2-amino-5-guanidinovaleric acid
CHEMBL1485
(2S)-2-amino-5-guanidinopentanoic acid
(S)-2-Amino-5-[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]pentanoic acid
94ZLA3W45F
Pentanoic acid, 2-amino-5-((aminoiminomethyl)amino)-, (S)-
(2S)-2-amino-5-(carbamimidamido)pentanoic acid
L-2-Amino-5-guanidinopentanoic acid
Arginine (L-Arginine)
R-Gene
L-Norvaline, 5-[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]-
(2S)-2-amino-5-carbamimidamidopentanoic acid
DSSTox_CID_21056
DSSTox_RID_79618
Poly(L-arginine)
DSSTox_GSID_41056
L(+)-Arginine, 98+%

Use in specific populations
The safety of L-arginine has been demonstrated in many populations, including pregnant women and older adults. 
However, some people, including those with conditions that affect the liver or kidneys, should avoid L-arginine.
L-arginine supplements are sometimes used in children in the clinical setting and deemed safe when prescribed in appropriate doses. 
Yet, arginine supplementation in children should always be monitored by a healthcare provider.
L-arginine’s not recommended to give your child L-arginine unless L-arginine’s medically necessary and was suggested by a healthcare provider.
This advice is extremely important to follow, as giving a child too high a dose of L-arginine may result in serious side effects and can even be fata.

Alternatives
After consumption, your gut and liver rapidly metabolize L-arginine before L-arginine has the chance to reach systemic circulation. 
For this reason, some argue that L-citrulline, a precursor to L-arginine, may be a better choice for increasing arginine levels.
L-citrulline is an amino acid that may be used as an alternative to L-arginine when taken as a supplement.
L-citrulline is a nonessential amino acid that’s a precursor to L-arginine. 

L-citrulline is converted into L-arginine through a series of enzymatic reactions that take place primarily in your kidneys.
Research shows that L-citrulline supplements can raise body levels of L-arginine. 
In fact, some studies show that L-citrulline is more effective at increasing arginine levels than L-arginine supplements.
Research has likewise shown that L-citrulline supplements may offer benefits similar to those of L-arginine supplements.

For example, similarly to L-arginine, L-citrulline has been shown to help reduce blood pressure and improve erectile dysfunction in some studies.
Additionally, studies show that when L-citrulline used on L-arginines own or in combination with L-arginine, L-arginine may improve athletic performance and enhance muscle recovery in athletes.
Furthermore, some of these studies found that citrulline supplements may be more effective than L-arginine supplements at enhancing athletic performance.
Therefore, athletes may benefit more from L-citrulline or a combination of L-arginine and L-citrulline over L-arginine alone.

History
Arginine was first isolated in 1886 from yellow lupin seedlings by the German chemist Ernst Schulze and his assistant Ernst Steiger.
He named L-arginine from the Greek árgyros (ἄργυρος) meaning "silver" due to the silver-white appearance of arginine nitrate crystals.
In 1897, Schulze and Ernst Winterstein (1865–1949) determined the structure of arginine.
Schulze and Winterstein synthesized arginine from ornithine and cyanamide in 1899, but some doubts about arginine's structure lingered until Sørensen's synthesis of 1910.

BDBM181132
HMS3260O15
N5-(aminoiminomethyl)-L-Ornithine
HY-N0455
ZINC1532525
L-Arginine, Vetec(TM), 98.5%
Tox21_113046
Tox21_500077
AC-083
ANW-36527
L-alpha-Amino-delta-guanidinovalerate
L-Arginine, reagent grade, >=98%
s5634
AKOS006239069
AKOS015854096
Tox21_113046_1
AM81500
CCG-204172
DB00125
LP00077
MCULE-5108123240
SDCCGSBI-0050065.P002
L-Arginine, 99%, natural, FCC, FG
(s)-2-amino-5-guanidino-pentanoic acid
5-[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]-L-Norvaline
NCGC00015064-01
NCGC00024715-01

Sources
Production
L-arginine is traditionally obtained by hydrolysis of various cheap sources of protein, such as gelatin.
L-arginine is obtained commercially by fermentation. 
In this way, 25-35 g/liter can be produced, using glucose as a carbon source.

L-Arginine is a precursor for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. 
NO is a ubiquitous mediator that is formed by a family of enzymes named NO synthases. 
In the brain, NO acts as a neurotransmitter; in the immune system, NO acts as a mediator of host defense; and in the cardiovascular system, NO mediates the protective effects of the intact endothelium, acting as a vasodilator and endogenous antiatherogenic molecule. 
About 5 g of L-arginine is ingested each day in a normal Western diet. 
L-Arginine plasma levels are not significantly reduced in most disease conditions, except end-stage renal failure during hemodialysis treatment. 
Nonetheless, intravenous or dietary (oral) administration of relatively large doses of L-arginine has been shown to result in enhanced NO formation in subjects with impaired endothelial function at baseline. 
In several controlled clinical trials, long-term administration of L-arginine has been shown to improve the symptoms of cardiovascular disease. 

However, in other trials L-arginine was not beneficial, and in a recent study, the authors reported higher mortality of subjects receiving L-arginine than those receiving placebo. 
Recently L-arginine became clear that endogenous levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a competitive inhibitor of L-arginine metabolism by NO synthase, may determine a subject's response to L-arginine supplementation. 
L-Arginine appears to exert no effect in subjects with low ADMA levels, whereas in subjects with high ADMA levels, L-arginine restores the L-arginine/ADMA ratio to normal levels and thereby normalizes endothelial function. 
In conclusion, the effects of L-arginine supplementation on human physiology appear to be multicausal and dose-related. 
Doses of 3–8 g/d appear to be safe and not to cause acute pharmacologic effects in humans.

Dietary sources
Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid in humans and rodents, as L-arginine may be required depending on the health status or lifecycle of the individual. 
Healthy adults usually produce enough arginine for their own body requirements, but immature and rapidly growing individuals require additional arginine in their diet.
Additional dietary arginine is necessary for healthy individuals under physiological stress, for example during recovery from burns, injury and sepsis, or if the major sites of arginine biosynthesis, the small intestine and kidneys, have reduced function.

Arginine is an essential amino acid for birds, as they do not have a urea cycle.
For some carnivores, for example cats, dogs and ferrets, arginine is essential, because after a meal, their highly efficient protein catabolism produces large quantities of ammonia which need to be processed through the urea cycle, and if not enough arginine is present, the resulting ammonia toxicity can be lethal.
This is not a problem in practice, because meat contains sufficient arginine to avoid this situation.
Animal sources of arginine include meat, dairy products, and eggs, and plant sources include seeds of all types, for example grains, beans, and nuts.

L-Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid found in the diet. 
L-arginine is a dietary supplement used mostly by athletic people because L-arginine is the amino acid that directly produces nitric oxide via the nitric oxide synthase enzymes.
L-arginine's particularly important during periods of illness and chronic conditions like hypertension and type II diabetes, as these states tend to be characterized by an increase in the enzyme that degrades L-arginine (known as arginase) resulting in a transient deficiency; this precedes an increase in blood pressure in these states, and can be partially remedied by an increase in L-arginine intake or resolution of the illness/disease state.
L-arginine is a popular supplement for athletes as L-arginine is touted to increase nitric oxide activity in the body. 
Unfortunately, this effect appears to be unreliable in otherwise healthy adults. 
While there have been studies that have measured increased effects of nitric oxide (blood flow) they are paired with studies showing no net effects. 

C6H14N4O2
Argininum
Pentanoic acid, 2-amino-5-[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]-, (S)-
L-Arginine, homopolymer
Arginine [USAN:INN]
(2S)-2-amino-5-(diaminomethylideneamino)pentanoic acid
CAS-74-79-3
Arginine [USP:INN]
EINECS 200-811-1
2-AMINO-5-GUANIDINO-PENTANOIC ACID
(2S)-2-azanyl-5-[bis(azanyl)methylideneamino]pentanoic acid
NSC2034503
h-l-arginine
L-Arginine, labeled with tritium
1laf
NSC-206269
L-a-Amino-d-guanidinovaleric acid
NCGC00015064-02
(S)-Arginine
L(+) arginine
L-Aryginine,(S)
cyclohexyl-l-alanine
H-Arg
L-(+) arginine
L(+)-Arginine;
PubChem7933
L-Arginine (9CI)

As for the mechanism, there is reason to believe that this difference is in part due to poor absorption of L-arginine from the intestines before it can reach appreciable activity in the body.
L-Citrulline is another supplementation option because L-arginine is converted into arginine in the kidneys. 
L-arginine also has a better absorption rate. 
Citrulline is able to increase levels of plasma arginine more effective than arginine itself. 
For long-term health-related supplementation, L-citrulline may be a better supplementation option than L-arginine.

Biosynthesis
Arginine is synthesized from citrulline in arginine and proline metabolism by the sequential action of the cytosolic enzymes argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase. 
This is an energetically costly process, because for each molecule of argininosuccinate that is synthesized, one molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is hydrolyzed to adenosine monophosphate (AMP), consuming two ATP equivalents.

Citrulline can be derived from multiple sources:
-from arginine itself via nitric oxide synthase, as a byproduct of the production of nitric oxide for signaling purposes
-from ornithine through the breakdown of proline or glutamine/glutamate
-from asymmetric dimethylarginine via DDAH
-The pathways linking arginine, glutamine, and proline are bidirectional. 
Thus, the net use or production of these amino acids is highly dependent on cell type and developmental stage.

Why Take L-Arginine Supplements?
L-arginine supplements are inexpensive for the most part and are worth the money for the benefits they provide. 
Some come in pill form while others come as a powder, so there are choices for whichever you prefer.
L-arginine is an amino acid that leads directly to nitric oxide production, which increases blood flow and feeds your muscles and tissues more oxygen and nutrients. 
Nitric oxide has also been shown to increase maximum muscle output, meaning you get better gains at the gym.

People can also use L-arginine to lower their blood pressure. 
High blood pressure occurs when the blood can’t flow that well. 
Because NO opens up blood vessels, blood can flow more freely and decrease blood pressure levels.
L-arginine also helps to decrease the risk of heart disease, heart attack, and stroke. 
Many people who have started taking l-arginine no longer need to take blood pressure medication.

Arginine (USP/INN)
Tocris-0663
(2S)-2-amino-5-guanidino-pentanoic acid
L-Arginine (JP17)
GND
Lopac-A-5006
Arginine, L- (8CI)
bmse000029
bmse000899
bmse000919
Epitope ID:140084
L-Arginine (H-Arg-OH)
EC 200-811-1
SCHEMBL1791
2-amino-5-guanidinovalerate
Lopac0_000077
Arginine hydrochloride(USAN)
GTPL721
4-04-00-02648 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
L-a-Amino-d-guanidinovalerate
L-Amino-4-guanidovaleric acid
US9138393, L-Arginine
US9144538, L-Arginine
1-Amino-4-guanidovalerlic acid
DTXSID6041056
BDBM21959
L-Arginine, 99%, FCC, FG

Arginine is made in the body and also found in many protein-rich foods. 
Although L-arginine is used in clinical applications, evidence on L-arginines use for other conditions is lacking and in some instances may increase the risk for harm.
Arginine is an amino acid that is produced by the body. 
Clinical applications include L-arginines use during recovery from surgery, for heart and blood vessel conditions like angina or high blood pressure, and for some pregnancy complications. 
Arginine has also been used to enhance immune function and athletic performance or to improve conditions such as migraines and erectile dysfunction, but more studies are needed.

A few trials of arginine supplementation have been conducted in cancer patients. 
Some show that arginine-enriched nutritional formulas taken around the time of surgery may improve wound healing, enhance immune status, and reduce length of hospital stay. 
However, an analysis suggests that arginine supplementation may increase inflammatory biomarkers in certain subgroups, including cancer or older patients. 
Other studies suggest potential harm with long-term supplementation or in those who have had a heart attack. 
Therefore, additional studies are needed to determine the circumstances under which arginine supplementation could be safe and effective.

Arginine, one of the amino acids that comprise all proteins, can be made by our bodies but not in sufficient quantities for all situations. 
In addition, arginine has important functions in cell division, growth, wound healing, ammonia excretion, immune function, and hormone release. 
Arginine deficiency is rare outside of specific situations such as in preterm infants, bowel or kidney disease, and specific genetic disorders. 
The role of arginine in the treatment of ASD has not been studied. 

Arginine is required for the synthesis of nitric oxide, which helps blood vessels relax, and therefore dilate, allowing for increased blood flow. 
Thus, arginine is often given as a supplement in order to improve circulation in certain health conditions related to restricted circulation, such as high blood pressure, angina, and peripheral arterial disease. 
Studies have shown that arginine can help prevent and treat stroke, stroke-like episodes, and migraine in MELAS, an inherited mitochondrial disorder, however, there is little data regarding the effects of arginine on migraine in general. 
Arginine is generally recognized as safe at intakes of up to 20 grams per day.

Arginine in Spectrum Needs
Arginine is added in order to provide a wide basis of nutrition, especially given the important role of arginine in the vasculature. 
The inclusion of arginine in Spectrum Needs is based on the clinical practice of Dr. Boles, in which arginine supplementation has been found to reduce episodes of pain, dizziness, and/or irritability in individuals with or without ASD, and that arginine dosages at least up to 10 grams a day are well tolerated in individuals with ASD. 
Side effects are unexpected with the dose of arginine (1.5 grams in adults) used in Spectrum Needs.

The Details
What Is L-arginine? 
Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid in that L-arginine can be made by our bodies but not in sufficient quantities for all situations.

What Does L-arginine Do? 
Arginine is one of the 20 plus amino acids that comprise all proteins. 
In addition, arginine has important functions in cell division, growth, wound healing, ammonia excretion, immune function, and hormone release. 
Arginine is also required for the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and creatine.

What Does Deficiency Appear as? 
Since our bodies can synthesize arginine and L-arginine is present in almost all dietary proteins, arginine deficiency is rare outside of specific situations such as in preterm infants, bowel or kidney disease, and specific genetic disorders.

What About Its Use in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? 
The role of arginine in the treatment of ASD has not been studied.

What About L-arginines Use in Other Conditions? 
Nitric oxide is a neurotransmitter that helps blood vessels relax, and therefore dilate, allowing for increased blood flow. 
As arginine increases nitric oxide production, L-arginine is thus often given as a supplement in order to improve circulation in certain health conditions related to restricted circulation, such as high blood pressure, angina, and peripheral arterial disease. 
Several studies have shown that arginine can help prevent and treat stroke, stroke-like episodes, and migraine in MELAS, an inherited mitochondrial disorder. 
However, there is little data regarding the effects of arginine on migraine in general. 
Arginine is also frequently used to boost athletic performance, especially with alpha-ketoglutarate.

What Are the Common and/or Important Side Effects? 
Arginine is generally recognized as safe (GRAS-status) at intakes of up to 20 grams per day. 
In Dr. Boles’ experience, arginine in dosages at least up to 10 grams a day is well tolerated in individuals with ASD.
Is There Any Laboratory Testing? Laboratory testing can reveal the presence of a deficiency of this nutrient, but is generally not likely to have clinically utility.

How and Why is this Nutrient Used in Spectrum Needs
Arginine is added to Spectrum Needs in order to provide a wide basis of nutrition, especially given the important role of arginine in the vasculature. 
The inclusion of arginine in Spectrum Needs is based on the clinical practice of Dr. Boles, in which arginine supplementation has been found to reduce episodes of pain, dizziness, and/or irritability in individuals with and without ASD. 
As alpha-ketoglutarate is also present in Spectrum Needs, arginine may also assist in boosting qualities such as strength and endurance. 
Side effects are unexpected with the dose of arginine (1.5 grams in adults) used in Spectrum Needs.

002A635
A837397
Q173670
SR-01000075479
SR-01000597671
(S)-2-amino-5-[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]-Pentanoate
(S)-2-Amino-5-[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]pentanoate
SR-01000075479-1
SR-01000597671-1
W-104410
(S)-2-amino-5-[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]-Pentanoic acid
Arginine, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
(2S)-2-amino-5-[(diaminomethylidene)amino]pentanoic acid
7F15B0C7-356D-45D7-AC33-03AEE4394A0E
S-(+)-2-Amino-5-[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]pentanoic acid
UNII-0O72R8RF8A component ODKSFYDXXFIFQN-BYPYZUCNSA-N
UNII-FL26NTK3EP component ODKSFYDXXFIFQN-BYPYZUCNSA-N
L-Arginine, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
L-Arginine, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
L-
L-Arginine, from non-animal source, meets EP, USP testing specifications, suitable for cell culture, 98.5-101.0%
L-Arginine, PharmaGrade, Ajinomoto, EP, USP, manufactured under appropriate GMP controls for Pharma or Biopharmaceutical production, suitable for cell culture

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