L-GLUTAMINE

CAS Number: 56-85-9
EC Number: 200-292-1
Chemical formula: C5H10N2O3
Molar mass: 146.146 g·mol−1

L-glutamine is one of two forms of the amino acid glutamine. 
Produced mainly in the muscles, L-glutamine plays a key role in many biological processes, including the synthesis of protein, the regulation of kidney and immune function, and the maintenance and repair of intestinal tissues. 
L-glutamine also serves as a secondary fuel source for cellular energy and helps create other important compounds, including glucose and purines (the building blocks of DNA).
L-glutamine is believed that by supplementing the body's natural reserves of L-glutamine, many of these biological functions can be enhanced. 
L-glutamine is also used by athletes and bodybuilders to build muscle mass and speed exercise recovery.
L-glutamine should not be confused with L-glutathione, the supplement form of glutathione that is believed to have potent antioxidant properties.
As opposed to the glutamine naturally produced by the body, L-glutamine is synthesized in the lab from either animal proteins or fermented vegetable-based compounds.

“L-glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the blood and in muscle cells. 
L-glutamine is classified as a conditionally essential amino acid, which means that the body is normally capable of manufacturing enough to meet its metabolic needs. 
But under certain conditions, additional glutamine may be required. 
For example, during intense exercise, glutamine levels deplete, which means that more glutamine will be required. 
Since the body is in need and cannot produce enough (even though L-glutamine can be made by the body), L-glutamine is necessary to supplement with glutamine to help meet the body’s demands.

Glutamine is a chemical that your body makes to build protein. 
L-glutamine’s also found in foods such as wheat, corn, barley, peanuts, soybeans, egg whites, and milk.
You can also take glutamine supplements as a pill or powder (which can be made into a drink by dissolving L-glutamine in water).

L-glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the body. 
L-glutamine is essential for the synthesis of L-asparagine. 
L-glutamic acid aids the incorporation of NH4+ into biomolecules.
L-Glutamine is an essential amino acid that is a crucial component of culture media that serves as a major energy source for cells in culture. 
L-Glutamine is very stable as a dry powder and as a frozen solution. 
In liquid media or stock solutions, however, L-glutamine degrades relatively rapidly. 
Optimal cell performance usually requires supplementation of the media with L-glutamine prior to use.

Glutamine is an amino acid, amino acids are molecules that play many roles in the body.
Their main purpose is to serve as building blocks for proteins.
Proteins are crucial to the organs. 
They also serve other functions, such as transporting substances in the blood and fighting off harmful viruses and bacteria.
Like many other amino acids, L-glutamine exists in two different forms: L-glutamine and D-glutamine.
They are almost identical but have a slightly different molecular arrangement.
The form found in foods and supplements is L-glutamine. 
Some supplements list L-glutamine as L-glutamine, but others simply use the broader term glutamine.

What Does the “L” in L-Glutamine Signify?
Many molecules exist in two different forms in the body. 

They are mirror images and not identical to each other, kind of like your right hand and your left hand. 
Most living things have these mirror-image molecules and glutamine is one of these, as are 18 of the other 19 amino acids in the body.
The “L” in l-glutamine stands for levo or left. 
For its mirror image, L-glutamine is referred to as d-glutamine, with the “D” standing for dextro, or right. 
Although glutamine exists in a particular ratio of each right and left in your body, l-glutamine is the one that is of most use in your body.
Although not every supplement or ingredient is listed as l-glutamine, you can be assured that L-glutamine is always 100% l-glutamine.

While L-glutamine is used to make proteins and perform other functions, D-glutamine appears to be relatively unimportant in living organisms.
L-glutamine can be produced naturally in your body. 
In fact, L-glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the blood and other body fluids.
However, there are times when the glutamine needs of your body are greater than L-glutamines ability to produce L-glutamine.
Therefore, L-glutamine’s considered a conditionally essential amino acid, meaning that L-glutamine must be obtained from the diet under certain conditions, such as injury or illness.
Also, glutamine is an important molecule for the immune system and intestinal health.

Glutamine is used to:
-Treat weakness and loss of muscle mass caused by cancer treatment
-Treat neuropathy (numbness or tingling hands and feet) caused by chemotherapy
-Treat nausea (feeling like you’re going to throw up), vomiting (throwing up), and diarrhea (loose, watery bowel movements) due to cancer treatments
-Help recovery after surgery by reducing your risk for infection
-Glutamine also has other uses that haven’t been studied by doctors to see if they work.
Glutamine that you get from food is safe. 
Talk with your healthcare provider before taking glutamine supplements because they have higher amounts of glutamine.

Health Benefits
Alternative practitioners have ascribed L-glutamine with a multitude of health benefits, including the treatment of anxiety, bipolar disorder, Crohn's disease, depression, epilepsy, insomnia, irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, peptic ulcers, schizophrenia, and ulcerative colitis.
L-glutamine is also occasionally used to alleviate some of the side effects of chemotherapy or to promote healing in people with serious burns.
As is often the case with dietary supplements, many of these claims are unsubstantiated or exaggerated. 
With that being said, there is some evidence supporting the use of L-glutamine for health purposes.

L-Glutamine is one of the most important nutrients for a healthy digestive tract because of L-glutamines ability to maintain the integrity of the intestinal wall. 
This amino acid (in fact L-glutamine’s the most abundant amino acid in the body) heals all tissue in the body, especially those irritated tissues in the digestive tract. 
L-glutamine is also known as the calming amino acid since L-glutamine’s very effective at reducing anxiety, as well as sugar and alcohol cravings.

Trauma Recovery
One of the most common indications for L-glutamine use is severe trauma. 
L-glutamine is believed that by stimulating protein synthesis and enhancing immune function, the body may be better equipped to recover from severe traumas or surgeries.
Glutamine is considered to be a prime nutrient for critically ill patients, particularly those with severe burns. 
When delivered intravenously (into a vein) or via enteral tube feeding, L-glutamine appears to improve wound healing while preventing the spread of bacteria from the wound site to the bloodstream.
This may be especially useful for people undergoing bone marrow transplants or other types of transplant in which the immune system is deliberately suppressed.

Athletic Performance
There is little scientific evidence to support the claim that L-glutamine supplements are beneficial to athletes, says a 2008 review published in the Journal of Nutrition. 
Typically used to shorten recovery time following high-intensity exercise, L-glutamine has yet to provide any evidence of this in clinical trials.
Even at doses of 20 to 30 grams, L-glutamine neither enhanced metabolism (as measured by glycogen synthesis) nor reduced catabolism (the breakdown of muscle) following extreme exercise.
To date, few clinical trials have looked at the effects of L-glutamine supplements on sports performance. 
Of these, a small study published in the Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness found that L-glutamine failed to enhance high-intensity exercise performance in a group of 10 male athletes.

Glutamine is an important amino acid. 
L-glutamine is the form found in foods, supplements and the human body. 
L-glutamine is part of the proteins in your body and involved in immune function and intestinal health.

L-glutamine can also boost immune cell activity in the gut, helping prevent infection and inflammation, as well as soothing the intestinal tissue.
Because L-glutamine is used for energy production, L-glutamine can support the reduction of intestinal spasms.
People with stress-related IBS may also find that increasing their intake of L-glutamine reduces symptoms.
This benefit is due to the body releasing cortisol when it is stressed, which can lower the levels of L-glutamine stored in the muscle tissue.

Have you heard about the incredible health benefits of L-glutamine? 
First used in powder form by people in the fitness industry (including bodybuilders) who were looking to preserve muscle tissue, L-glutamine (also simply called glutamine) is an amino acid that is a building block of protein and needed by your body in large amounts. 
The most common original uses of glutamine powder were to meet the following goals: to lose weight fast, burn fat and help build muscle.
While that remains the case, science now shows that glutamine benefits are abundant. 
L-glutamine also promotes digestive and brain health, boosts athletic performance — plus L-glutamine’s helpful in treating intestinal issues and leaky gut.
In fact, L-glutamine is one of our top three most recommended supplements overall for treating leaky gut and/or building a lean body. 

What Is Glutamine?
With the chemical formula C5H10N2O3, glutamine is one of 20 naturally occurring amino acids found in protein foods. 
L-glutamine’s also the most abundant amino acid in the bloodstream. 
L-glutamine makes up 30 percent to 35 percent of the amino acid nitrogen in your blood.
L-glutamine’s known as a conditional essential amino acid.

What does “conditional essential amino acid” mean? 
L-glutamine means that your body can make some on L-glutamines own but uses L-glutamine in large amounts.
L-glutamine also becomes essential when an individual faces disease or specifically muscle wasting. 
This can happen in the course of certain diseases or even physical trauma.
Additionally, L-glutamine’s a conditionally essential nutrient during certain catabolic states, including after bone marrow transplantation.
Amazingly, around 60 percent of your skeletal muscle is made up of glutamine – and supplementing with this amino acid can aid protein synthesis and help naturally balance your pH levels.

Food Sources
Found in both animal and plant proteins (including in high levels in both casein and whey protein), glutamine is also available in supplement form and widely popular in the fitness community and beyond.
Glutamine can be found in animal proteins, such as meats and dairy, along with plant-based protein sources, such as beans, raw spinach, parsley and red cabbage. 
L-glutamine’s worth noting, though, that animal proteins tend to provide amino acids that are more digestible than plant proteins.
Studies estimate that most people probably consume between three and six grams of glutamine from their daily diets.

The foods with the most L-glutamine benefits include:
-Eggs
-Tofu
-Milk
-Bone broth
-Grass-fed beef
-Spirulina
-Chinese cabbage
-Cottage cheese
-Asparagus
-Broccoli rabe
-Wild-caught fish (cod and salmon)
-Venison
-Turkey
-Corn
-Rice
To obtain a healthy amount, a general recommendation is to consume at least three servings of these L-glutamine-rich foods daily.

L-Glutamine is an amide of glutamic acid with amine as the functional group. 
L-glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in both intracellular and extracellular compartments produced by the action of glutamine synthase as L-glutamine is required for number of cellular functions. 
The intracellular concentration of L-glutamine range from 2 mM to 20 mM, where as L-glutamines concentration in extracellular fluid and plasma is about 0.7 mM. 
The plasma concentration of L-glutamine is significantly reduced under the conditions of extraneous exercise and under severe shock and trauma. 
Although adequate glutamine is produced in the body to maintain the normal physiological functions in the cell, the depletion of glutamine under conditions of exercise and stress makes the body depend on exogenous glutamine to supplement the body glutamine pool to meet the requirement. 
Therefore, L-glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid 

Uses
Nutrition
Glutamine is the most abundant naturally occurring, nonessential amino acid in the human body, and one of the few amino acids that can directly cross the blood–brain barrier.
Humans obtain glutamine through catabolism of proteins in foods they eat.
In states where tissue is being built or repaired, like growth of babies, or healing from wounds or severe illness, glutamine becomes conditionally essential.
L-Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the body and is necessary for the maintenance of many metabolic functions.

Application of L-glutamine:
L-Glutamine has been used to study the effects of amino acids in promoting food consumption in Drosophila melanogaster.
L-glutamine has also been used to study non-enzymatic gluconeogenesis.

Pharmacodynamics
Like other amino acids, glutamine is biochemically important as a constituent of proteins. 
Glutamine is also crucial in nitrogen metabolism. 
Ammonia (formed by nitrogen fixation) is assimilated into organic compounds by converting glutamic acid to glutamine. 
The enzyme which accomplishes this is called glutamine synthetase. 
Glutamine can then be used as a nitrogen donor in the biosynthesis of many compounds, including other amino acids, purines, and pyrimidines.
L-glutamine improves nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) redox potential Label.

L-Glutamine is the most common amino acid found in muscle and is the primary transporter of nitrogen into muscle cels. 
During intense training, levels can become greatly depleted which is why supplementation can be helpful for individuals looking to optimize their workout performance.

Mechanism of action
Supplemental L-glutamine's possible immunomodulatory role may be accounted for in a number of ways. 
L-glutamine appears to play a major role in protecting the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract and, in particular, the large intestine. 
During catabolic states, the integrity of the intestinal mucosa may be compromised with consequent increased intestinal permeability and translocation of Gram-negative bacteria from the large intestine into the body. 
The demand for L-glutamine by the intestine, as well as by cells such as lymphocytes, appears to be much greater than that supplied by skeletal muscle, the major storage tissue for L-glutamine. 
L-glutamine is the preferred respiratory fuel for enterocytes, colonocytes and lymphocytes. 
Therefore, supplying supplemental L-glutamine under these conditions may do a number of things. 

Glutamine is the most common amino acid found in our body and therefore essential for athletes and people who loves doing sports - over 60% of skeletal muscle is glutamine.
After an intense workout glutamine levels are greatly depleted in your body, which decreases strength, muscle growth and recovery. 
L-glutamine can take up to one week for glutamine levels to return to normal.

For one, L-glutamine may reverse the catabolic state by sparing skeletal muscle L-glutamine. 
L-glutamine also may inhibit translocation of Gram-negative bacteria from the large intestine. 
L-glutamine helps maintain secretory IgA, which functions primarily by preventing the attachment of bacteria to mucosal cells. 
L-glutamine appears to be required to support the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes, as well as the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). 
L-glutamine is also required for the maintenance of lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK). 
L-glutamine can enhance phagocytosis by neutrophils and monocytes. 

L-glutamine is an amino acid that is broken down from proteins. 
L-glutamine is actually the most abundant amino acid in body and makes up 60% of our muscles. 
You may have heard some athletes take L-glutamine to help build muscle and recover from their workouts. 
Taking extra L-glutamine can help increase muscle mass, allow you to burn more fat, and aid in healing sore muscles after exercise. 
But because the organs in your body are lined with muscles, there is more to L-glutamine than that.
Your intestinal lining actually uses L-glutamine as fuel to create a strong surface for digestion and absorption. 

Supplementing with L-glutamine is the most effective treatment to heal the gut lining for those suffering from leaky gut, malabsorption, or inflammatory bowel disease. 
L-glutamine tightens the open junctions that occur in a patient with these diagnoses and triggers them to create more mucus needed for proper digestion.
L-glutamine is also important for the immune system. 
The intestinal lining houses key immune molecules called immunoglobulin. 
Feeding L-glutamine with l-glutamine allows for a stronger immune system to protect us from toxins and infections.
You can naturally get L-glutamine from the following sources:
-Beef
-Chicken
-Fish
-Dairy
-Eggs
-Beans
-Beets
-Cabbage
-Celery
-Leafy greens (spinach, kale)
-Miso
-Brussel sprouts

L-glutamine can lead to an increased synthesis of glutathione in the intestine, which may also play a role in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosa by ameliorating oxidative stress. 
The exact mechanism of the possible immunomodulatory action of supplemental L-glutamine, however, remains unclear. 
L-glutamine is conceivable that the major effect of L-glutamine occurs at the level of the intestine. 
Perhaps enteral L-glutamine acts directly on intestine-associated lymphoid tissue and stimulates overall immune function by that mechanism, without passing beyond the splanchnic bed.
The exact mechanism of L-glutamine's effect on NAD redox potential is unknown but is thought to involve increased amounts of reduced glutathione made available by glutamine supplementation Label. 
This improvement in redox potential reduces the amount of oxidative damage which sickle red blood cells are more susceptible to. 
The reduction in cellular damage is thought to reduce chronic hemolysis and vaso-occlusive events.

Medical food
Glutamine is marketed as medical food and is prescribed when a medical professional believes a person in their care needs supplementary glutamine due to metabolic demands beyond what can be met by endogenous synthesis or diet.

Functions
Glutamine plays a role in a variety of biochemical functions:
-Protein synthesis, as any other of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids
-Lipid synthesis, especially by cancer cells.
-Regulation of acid-base balance in the kidney by producing ammonium
-Cellular energy, as a source, next to glucose
-Nitrogen donation for many anabolic processes, including the synthesis of purines
-Carbon donation, as a source, refilling the citric acid cycle
-Nontoxic transporter of ammonia in the blood circulation.
-Integrity of healthy intestinal mucosa, though small randomized trials have shown no benefit in Crohn’s disease.

Structure
Glutamine can exist in either of two enantiomeric forms, L-glutamine and D-glutamine. 
The L-form is found in nature. 
Glutamine contains an α-amino group which is in the protonated −NH3+ form under biological conditions and a carboxylic acid group which is in the deprotonated −COO− form, known as carboxylate, under physiological conditions.

IUPAC name
Glutamine
Other names
L-Glutamine
(levo)glutamide
2,5-Diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid
2-Amino-4-carbamoylbutanoic acid
Endari

L-glutamine is an essential amino acid additive for cell culture
L-glutamine is an amino acid supplement commonly added to mammalian cell culture media. L-glutamine serves as an auxiliary energy source, especially when cells are rapidly dividing and also can be used by cells as a source of nitrogen for the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids, etc.
In aqueous solutions such as cell culture media, L-glutamine decomposes into ammonia, which is toxic to cells. 
To minimize the effects of this, researchers can adopt a fed-batch strategy to continuously feed low levels of L-glutamine into the culture or they can use an alternative formulation of L-glutamine designed to be more stable in solution.
L-glutamine is an essential amino acid and a key component of culture media, serving as a major energy source for propagating cells. 
L-glutamine is very stable as a dry powder and as a frozen solution but degrades rapidly in liquid media or stock solutions, producing toxic compounds. 
Optimal cell performance usually requires supplementation of the media with L-glutamine prior to use.
This formulation is prepared in cell culture grade water.

L-glutamine for cell culture
L-glutamine is an essential nutrient in cell cultures for energy production as well as protein and nucleic acid synthesis. 
We offer this amino acid media supplement in both liquid and powdered forms. 
Powdered glutamine is supplied as a USP-grade chemical, and liquid formulations are supplied as a ready-to-use 200 mM stock solution.

Glutamine is created in the human body when the non-essential amino acid glutamate (or glutamic acid) is broken down and binds with nitrogen-containing ammonia molecules. 
Think of glutamine as a kind of nitrogen sponge. 
L-glutamine mops up ammonia and shuttles nitrogen between tissues, where L-glutamine can be used for cell growth and tissue repair, among many other functions. 
L-glutamine's been reported that some 30-35 percent of all nitrogen derived from protein breakdown is transported in the form of glutamine. 

Glutamine can also be broken down to re-synthesize glutamate, which makes glutamine a critical source of ammonia and nitrogen.
Approximately 70 percent of your body's internal glutamine is produced in skeletal muscle, from where L-glutamine travels to the small intestine, kidneys, and white blood cells. 
These are the dominant sites of glutamine usage.
Internal levels of this amino acid depend on various factors. 
Pregnancy and lactation significantly deplete the body's glutamine stores, as do exhaustive exercise, illness, disease, starvation or fasting, rapid growth and development, and other conditions of extreme physiological stress. 
These are some of the conditions where increasing your glutamine intake or considering supplementation is appropriate.

What Does L-glutamine Do?
Glutamine—like other alpha-amino acids—is involved in regulating protein synthesis and breakdown. 
However, there's far more to L-glutamine than that. 
Glutamine significantly affects BCAA metabolism, gut barrier maintenance, normal immune function, glucose formation, water transport, neurotransmission, and more.
Your kidneys are a primary consumer of glutamine use that's where the ammonia cleaved from glutamine works to maintain your body's acid-base balance. 

Anywhere you find ammonia, you'll find glutamine. 
As metabolic acidosis increases—as in response to intense training or a high-protein diet—renal uptake of glutamine soars. 
In fact, one study found that just four days of a high-protein, high-fat diet, was enough to cause a 25 percent drop in glutamine levels in the plasma and muscle tissue.
If all of these competing uses begin to outpace your body's ability to produce glutamine, then you may start to show signs of deficiency, including muscle wasting, depleted energy, and increased susceptibility to infections.

What Are the Performance and Physique Applications?
Despite glutamine's various functions, little evidence suggests L-glutamine will directly result in increased muscle mass, reduced body fat, or gains in muscle strength or power in normal, healthy people. 
However, given how stressful intense training is on the human body, athletes may see certain benefits from supplementing with significant levels of glutamine, or from stacking it with other supplements.
One study found that when athletes suffered from mild dehydration, supplemental glutamine increased exercise performance and enhanced fluid and electrolyte uptake when combined with a glucose and electrolyte beverage.
Supplementation has also been shown to raise levels of growth hormone in response to cycling to exhaustion.

Extracellular concentrations of glutamine have also been shown to activate the signaling pathway mTOR, which is known to be responsible for increasing muscle size. 
However, here again, the benefits of glutamine supplementation required that other conditions be met: in this case, mTOR signaling appeared to require the presence of BCAAs (leucine, most importantly), as well as some threshold level of cellular hydration.
In another case, collegiate track and field athletes who consumed four grams of glutamine per day for eight weeks, along with a loading and maintenance dose of creatine, saw greater gains in lean body mass than those who used creatine alone. 
This may sound significant, but L-glutamine's hard to draw conclusions over a mere eight weeks at such a low dosage. 
Whether higher doses or a longer study would have resulted in significant differences is anyone's guess.

What Are the Differences Between Types of Glutamine?
Other than your stack, the most important thing to consider when selecting a glutamine product is the delivery system. 
If you're purchasing a powder, capsule or tablet, then free form L-glutamine works best. 
However, because glutamine is unstable, avoid ready-to-drink beverages or protein bars claiming to contain supplemental L-glutamine.
If you favor RTDs and bars, look for the peptide-bound forms of glutamine, such as L-alanyl-L-glutamine, glycyl-L-glutamine hydrate, or an ingredient listed as "glutamine peptide." 
Just remember that the glutamine concentration of one of these peptide forms is typically approximately 65-70 percent. 
In other words, there's only about 6.5-7g of glutamine per 10g of glutamine peptide. 

Dose accordingly.
Regardless of the form, up to 90 percent of ingested glutamine is eliminated during first pass. 
A mere fraction of the glutamine you consume will make L-glutamine beyond your liver. 
The majority of the glutamine you consume being eliminated by the digestive enterocytes and immune cells within your gut.
L-glutamine's best to avoid products that contain n-acetyl-l-glutamine (not to be confused with N-acetyl glucosamine) or alpha-ketoisocaproyl-glutamine (also known as aKIC-glutamine). 
Both the acylated and aKIC forms may be stable, but the existing evidence suggests that they're both poor delivery forms for glutamine.

What Should I Use L-glutamine With?
Consider stacking glutamine with sodium and other electrolytes first and foremost. 
Glutamine transport occurs via a sodium-dependent mechanism, and it has been shown to significantly increase cell volume, electrolyte absorption, and hydration. 
This might be helpful for both endurance and physique athletes, the latter because cell water volume is one of the many aspects of muscle hypertrophy. 
Significant decreases in cell water volume can also inhibit mTor signaling, which is crucial to building muscle.

L-Glutamine – the most abundant amino acid in the human body – is involved in many metabolic processes, including the synthesis and protection of muscle tissue, the production of glycogen, as well as immune support during periods of immune and muscular stress.
L-Glutamine is also a major source of fuel for enterocytes (intestinal cells) and hence supports the integrity of the intestinal lining.

Other candidates to stack with glutamine include:
BCAAs: There are two main reasons why combining BCAAs and glutamine may promote greater gains in muscle mass and performance. 
First, ammonia concentrations, and therefore glutamine, directly affects BCAA metabolism. 
And second, mTOR signaling from extracellular glutamine first requires the uptake of BCAAs, primarily leucine. 
BCAAs plus glutamine might promote performance and muscle gains.
Citrulline: Glutamine functions as a precursor for arginine and NO synthesis by transporting citrulline between tissues. 

Using glutamine with citrulline might boost citrulline's ability to stimulate the production of nitric oxide, which might lead to better oxygen delivery and nutrient transport to skeletal muscle. 
More nutrients to the muscle might translate to better recovery and growth. 
That may sound somewhat indirect, but then again, a messenger substance like glutamine has L-glutamines hand in a lot of processes.
Alpha-Ketoglutarate: Like glutamine, aKG serves as a precursor to glutamate and has been shown to dose-dependently spare glutamine degradation and increase mTOR signaling pathways, as well as glutathione. 
This means that glutamine, taken with aKG, might boost the potential for muscle growth and the production of glutathione, a powerful antioxidant.
Glucose or N-Acetylglucosamine: Glucose deprivation reduces glutamine uptake and negatively affects cell growth and survival. 
If you're on a low-carb diet, L-glutamine appears that the glycoprotein N-acetylglucosamine (NAG), which is available in supplement form, might be able to restore glutamine uptake and metabolism, potentially boosting recovery and cell function.

How Should I Take L-glutamine?
L-glutamine appears that the daily intake of supplemental glutamine needs to be high—at least 20-30g per day, consumed frequently—in order to raise plasma glutamine concentrations.
To provide some perspective, consider that critically ill patients usually receive a constant intravenous infusion of between 20-30 g of glutamine per day. 
However, the bioavailability of infused glutamine they receive is 100 percent. 
L-glutamine's no more than 30 percent from orally consumed glutamine. 
Thus, I recommend up to 30g of glutamine per day in divided doses throughout the day, preferably with meals or snacks containing carbohydrates to support glucose utilization.
On training days, I recommend you consume glutamine prior to or during exercise to support hydration, electrolyte transport, and BCAA metabolism. 
You could take 10g before, during, and after your workout, or you could reduce those dosages to 5g if you also dose in the hours leading up to or following exercise. 
On non-training days, consume at least 5g of glutamine at frequent intervals, at least every 2-3 hours, to sustain an increase in plasma glutamine concentrations.
There appears to be no need to cycle glutamine. 
In fact, there's more evidence to support the need for chronic ingestion of glutamine during periods of extreme physiological stress.

Glutamine is naturally found in a variety of foods. 
L-glutamine has been estimated that a typical diet contains 3 to 6 grams per day, but this can vary based on your specific diet.
The largest amounts are found in animal products due to their high protein contents.
However, some plant-based foods have a greater percentage of L-glutamine in their protein.

One study used advanced lab techniques to determine how much L-glutamine is found in various foods.
The following are the percentages of protein made up of L-glutamine in each food:
Eggs: 4.4% (0.6 g per 100 g of eggs)
Beef: 4.8% (1.2 g per 100 g of beef)
Skim milk: 8.1% (0.3 g per 100 g of milk)
Tofu: 9.1% (0.6 g per 100 g of tofu)
White rice: 11.1% (0.3 g per 100 g of rice)
Corn: 16.2% (0.4 g per 100 g of corn)
Although some plant sources, such as white rice and corn, have a large percent of protein made up of glutamine, they have fairly low protein contents overall.

Thus, meat and other animal products are the simplest ways to get high amounts of L-glutamine.
Unfortunately, the exact glutamine content of many specific foods has not been studied.
However, because glutamine is a necessary part of proteins, virtually any food containing protein will contain some glutamine.
Focusing on getting enough protein in your overall diet is an easy way to potentially increase the amount of glutamine you are consuming.

Almost any food containing protein will contain some glutamine, but amounts vary. 
Animal foods are good sources due to their protein contents. 
Getting enough protein in your diet can ensure you are getting enough.

L-Glutamine and L-arginine are classified as semi-essential or conditionally essential amino acids, which means that the human body can synthesize them under some health conditions but not others. 
Both are abundant in many foods.
Neither D-glutamine nor D-arginine is common in nature, so the L-amino acids are usually referred to without prefixes. 
In 1883, German chemists Ernst. 
Schulze and E. Bosshard isolated L-glutamine from the juice of sugarbeets. 

L-glutamine is the most common amino acid in human blood and a key component of proteins.
In 1886, Schulze was also the first to isolate L-arginine, in this case from lupin seedlings. 
L-glutamine is also an important amino acid in protein biosynthesis.
L-glutamine turns out that a difference in occurrence between these two amino acids makes a huge difference in huge animals. 
This year, while examining the melanocortin system* of cetaceans, Roger D. Cone at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor) and colleagues discovered that the two suborders of the sea mammals have different components at position 156 in the melanocortin-4 receptor. 
Glutamine is at this position in baleen whales, whereas toothed whales and dolphins contain arginine instead.

Glutamine is an important amino acid with many functions in the body.
L-glutamine is a building block of protein and critical part of the immune system.
What’s more, glutamine has a special role in intestinal health.
Your body naturally produces this amino acid, and L-glutamine is also found in many foods. 
Yet, you may be unsure if you need extra glutamine from supplements for optimal health.

Synonym(s):
Levoglutamide, L-Glutamic acid 5-amide, (S)-2,5-Diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid
Linear Formula:
H2NCOCH2CH2CH(NH2)CO2H

One of the most important functions of glutamine is L-glutamines role in the immune system.
L-glutamine is a critical fuel source for immune cells, including white blood cells and certain intestinal cells.
However, its blood levels can decrease due to major injuries, burns or surgeries.
If the body’s need for glutamine is greater than L-glutamines ability to produce L-glutamine, your body may break down protein stores, such as muscle, to release more of this amino acid.
Additionally, the function of the immune system can be compromised when insufficient amounts of glutamine are available.
For these reasons, high-protein diets, high-glutamine diets or glutamine supplements are often prescribed after major injuries like burns.

Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid found in your muscles and blood, but L-glutamine may be depleted during prolonged exercise. 
Supplementing with L-Glutamine can improve exercise endurance and help preserve muscle mass.
Naked Glutamine is free of any artificial additives. 
Don’t let the supplement industry fool you; additives are for their bottom line, not your health. 
Independent third-party tested for heavy metals.

Production
Glutamine is produced industrially using mutants of Brevibacterium flavum, which gives ca. 40 g/L in 2 days using glucose as a carbon source.
Glutamine is synthesized by the enzyme glutamine synthetase from glutamate and ammonia. 
The most relevant glutamine-producing tissue is the muscle mass, accounting for about 90% of all glutamine synthesized. 
Glutamine is also released, in small amounts, by the lungs and brain.
Although the liver is capable of relevant glutamine synthesis, L-glutamines role in glutamine metabolism is more regulatory than producing, since the liver takes up large amounts of glutamine derived from the gut.

Consumers
The most eager consumers of glutamine are the cells of intestines, the kidney cells for the acid-base balance, activated immune cells, and many cancer cells.

Studies have also reported that glutamine supplements may improve health, decrease infections and lead to shorter hospital stays after surgery.
What’s more, they have been shown to improve survival and reduce medical costs in critically ill patients.
Other studies have shown that glutamine supplements may also improve immune function in animals infected with bacteria or viruses.
However, there is not strong support for benefits in healthy adults, and the needs of these individuals may be met through diet and the body’s natural production.

SUMMARY
Glutamine plays an important role in immune function. 
However, during illness or injury, the body may not be able to produce enough of L-glutamine.
Glutamine supplements may help improve immune function and preserve protein stores in the body.

Glutamine is an amino acid (a building block for proteins), found naturally in the body.
Glutamine is taken by mouth for sickle cell disease, to improve nutrition and help people recover from surgery, injuries, burns, bone marrow transplant, complications of HIV/AIDS, radiation, and cancerchemotherapy, and for many other uses. 
Glutamine is given intravenously (by IV) for improving recovery after surgery and other conditions.
Glutamine is commercially available as capsules or in packets as a powder form. 
Endari is a prescription glutamine product approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

How does L-glutamine work ?
Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid in the body.
Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. 
Glutamine is produced in the muscles and is distributed by the blood to the organs that need L-glutamine. 
Glutamine might help gut function, the immune system, and other essential processes in the body, especially in times of stress. 
L-glutamine is also important for providing "fuel" (nitrogen and carbon) to many different cells in the body. 
Glutamine is needed to make other chemicals in the body such as other amino acids and glucose (sugar).
After surgery or traumatic injury, nitrogen is necessary to repair the wounds and keep the vital organs functioning. 
About one third of this nitrogen comes from glutamine.

If the body uses more glutamine than the muscles can make (i.e., during times of stress), muscle wasting can occur, this can occur in people with HIV/AIDS. 
Taking glutamine supplements might keep the glutamine stores up.
Some types of chemotherapy can reduce the levels of glutamine in the body. 
Glutamine treatment is thought to help prevent chemotherapy-related damage by maintaining the life of the affected tissues.

CAS Number: 56-85-9
CHEBI: 28300 
ChEMBL: ChEMBL930 
ChemSpider: 718 
ECHA InfoCard: 100.000.266
EC Number: 200-292-1
IUPHAR/BPS: 723
KEGG: C00303 
PubChem CID: 738
UNII: 0RH81L854J 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID1023100

Glutamine is one of the 20 naturally occurring amino acids in dietary protein, specifically L-glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid (being elevated to essential during periods of disease and muscle wasting typical of physical trauma). 
L-glutamine is sold as an isolated amino acids as well as being found in high levels in dietary meats and eggs. 
L-glutamine is found in very high levels in both whey and casein protein.
Glutamine is a very effective intestinal and immune system health compound, as these cells use glutamine as the preferred fuel source rather than glucose.
L-glutamine is generally touted as a muscle builder, but has not been proven to enhance muscle building in healthy individuals; only those suffering from physical trauma such as burns or muscular wounds (knife wounds) or in disease states in which muscle wasting occurs, such as AIDS. 
In these individuals, however, glutamine is effective at building muscle and alleviating a decrease in muscle mass typical of the ailment.

How effective is glutamine?
Limited studies in animals have been performed, but there is anecdotal evidence that glutamine works to treat gastrointestinal damage or pancreatitis. 
L-glutamine is probably more effective in pets that are currently very sick and may be undernourished due to illness. 
One study that evaluated cats with intestinal damage due to methotrexate, found that glutamine was no more effective than not using the supplement.

How is glutamine given?
Glutamine is given by mouth in the form of a powder, capsule, or tablet. 
L-glutamine can be given with or without food; however, if stomach upset occurs when dosed on an empty stomach, give future doses with food or a treat. 
The powder can be mixed into food if your pet is eating or mixed into drinking water.

L-Glutamine is one of the most important nutrients for a healthy digestive tract because of L-glutamines ability to maintain the integrity of the intestinal wall. 
This amino acid (in fact L-glutamine’s the most abundant amino acid in the body) heals all tissue in the body, especially those irritated tissues in the digestive tract. 
L-glutamine is also known as the calming amino acid since L-glutamine’s very effective at reducing anxiety, as well as sugar and alcohol cravings. 

L-glutamine degradation results in the build-up of ammonia which can have a deleterious effect on some cell lines. 
Use caution when adding more L-glutamine than called for in the original medium formulation (2 to 4 mM is standard). 
For most cell lines, ammonia toxicity is more critical for cell viability than L-glutamine limitation.

This medication should take effect within 1 to 2 days but can take up to a few weeks before full effects are noted. 
Effects may not be noted outwardly and therefore laboratory tests may need to be done to evaluate this medication’s effectiveness.
L-Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the body. 

Glutamine is an amino acid, aka a building block of protein. 
Protein is essential nutrient, necessary for the cells and muscles to carry out their functions.
L-glutamine supplements are becoming more popular by the day. 
They are mostly found in a powder form that you add to a glass of water or smoothie, but L-glutamine can also be ingested by way of supplement capsules.
According to a study published in the International Journal of Molecular Science, glutamine is one of the most common amino acids in the blood and cells, and L-glutamine's a preferred source of energy for intestinal cells. 
The authors also explain that glutamine supplementation can protect the lining of the bowel and help it keep a strong intestinal barrier, in addition to reducing intestinal permeability (i.e., leaky gut), enhancing immune cell function, and supporting the immune system while reducing the inflammatory response.
Another study from 2017 showed that giving a glutamine supplement to athletes who compete in the heat could reduce intestinal permeability, which indicates to me that L-glutamine may be beneficial to consider supplementation before exercising in extreme conditions, in order to support gut health.

L-glutamine Plays a Role in Intestinal Health
Glutamine’s immune system benefits are related to its role in intestinal health.

In the human body, the intestines are considered the largest portion of the immune system.
This is because of the many intestinal cells with immune functions, as well as the trillions of bacteria that live in your intestines and impact your immune health.
Glutamine is an important energy source for intestinal and immune cells.
L-glutamine also helps maintain the barrier between the inside of your intestines and the rest of your body, thereby protecting against a leaky gut.
This prevents harmful bacteria or toxins from moving from your intestines into the rest of your body.
Additionally, L-glutamine is important for the normal growth and maintenance of the cells in the intestine.
Due to the major role of the intestines in the immune system, glutamine may benefit your overall immune health by supporting the intestinal cells.

SUMMARY
Your intestines are a major part of your immune system. 
Glutamine is an energy source for intestinal and immune cells. 
L-glutamine also helps maintain the barrier between the intestines and the rest of your body and aids with proper growth of intestinal cells.
Effects on Muscle Gain and Exercise Performance
Due to its role as a building block of protein, some researchers have tested whether taking glutamine as a supplement improves muscle gain or exercise performance.

Stay healthy with L-Glutamine
L-glutamine's no mystery to most long distance runners that within 1 week after race day you're likely to get sick. 
In fact, a recent study showed only 49% of those taking a placebo stayed healthy, while 81% of those taking glutamine stayed healthy.
Why? Researchers are discovering that strenuous exercise can reduce the effectiveness of the immune system. 
While most of the body's cells use glucose for fuel, the immune system requires significant amounts of glutamine. 
This amino acid is important for the proliferation of lymphocytes and for several key functions of the macrophages. 
When you take glutamine, you provide your body with the fuel L-glutamine needs to stay healthy. 
This may allow you to train more frequently without as many of those frustrating down periods.

Research
Glutamine supplementation was thought to have potential to reduce complications in people who are critically ill or who have had abdominal surgery but this was based on poor quality clinical trials.
Supplementation does not appear to be useful in adults or children with Crohn's disease or inflammatory bowel disease, but clinical studies as of 2016 were underpowered.
Supplementation does not appear to have an effect in infants with significant problems of the stomach or intestines.
Some athletes use L-glutamine as supplement. 
Studies support the positive effects of the chronic oral administration of the supplement on the injury and inflammation induced by intense aerobic and exhaustive exercise, but the effects on muscle recovery from weight training are unclear.

In one study, 31 people took either glutamine or a placebo during six weeks of weight training.
By the end of the study, both groups showed improved muscle mass and strength. 
However, there were no differences between the two groups.
Additional studies have also shown that L-glutamine has no effects on muscle mass or performance.
However, some research has reported that glutamine supplements may decrease muscle soreness and improve recovery after intense exercise.
In fact, one study found that glutamine or glutamine plus carbohydrates can help reduce a blood marker of fatigue during two hours of running.

Chemical formula: C5H10N2O3
Molar mass: 146.146 g·mol−1
Melting point: decomposes around 185°C
Solubility in water: soluble
Acidity (pKa): 2.2 (carboxyl), 9.1 (amino)
Chiral rotation ([α]D): +6.5º (H2O, c = 2)

Glutamine (symbol Gln or Q) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. 
L-glutamines side chain is similar to that of glutamic acid, except the carboxylic acid group is replaced by an amide. 
L-glutamine is classified as a charge-neutral, polar amino acid. 
L-glutamine is non-essential and conditionally essential in humans, meaning the body can usually synthesize sufficient amounts of L-glutamine, but in some instances of stress, the body's demand for glutamine increases, and glutamine must be obtained from the diet.
L-glutamine is encoded by the codons CAA and CAG.
In human blood, glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid.
The dietary sources of glutamine includes especially the protein-rich foods like beef, chicken, fish, dairy products, eggs, vegetables like beans, beets, cabbage, spinach, carrots, parsley, vegetable juices and also in wheat, papaya, Brussels sprouts, celery, kale and fermented foods like miso.

L-glutamine has also been used to try to boost the immune function of athletes, but results vary.
Other research has found that L-glutamine did not improve the recovery of carbohydrate stores (glycogen) in muscle when added to carbohydrates and certain amino acid.
In the end, there is no evidence that these supplements provide benefits for muscle gain or strength. 
There is some limited support for other effects, but more research is needed.
L-glutamine’s also important to note that many athletes have high protein intakes in their regular diets, meaning they may be consuming large amounts of glutamine even without supplements.

SUMMARY
There is little support for the use of glutamine supplements for muscle gain or strength performance. 
However, they may reduce fatigue or decrease muscle soreness during and after exercise.

L-glutamine benefits.
As I mentioned before, L-glutamine has many reported benefits. 
One study suggested that taking a glutamine supplement may result in decreased muscle soreness after eccentric exercise.
The amino acid can also be used by patients receiving treatment for head and neck cancer since it may reduce the incidence of painful swallowing and inflammation of the mouth. 
In this setting, the glutamine supplement is providing a protective coating to the mouth and esophagus.

L-glutamine has also shown promise for other conditions and bodily functions, such as:

1. Fatty liver disease
Fatty liver is one of the most common conditions I see in my patients, and L-glutamine's largely due to lifestyle and dietary patterns.
One of the leading causes of liver disease, and the need for liver transplantation, in the U.S. is fatty liver and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH.) People with this condition may also have blood sugar problems, heart disease, metabolic syndrome, and/or obesity. 
Data from a recent study demonstrated that mice who took a glutamine supplement were protected from developing NASH. 
Prior literature suggests glutamine could help prevent the development of NASH altogether, but more research is needed to substantiate these findings.

2. Immune support
Another study published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation found mice who were given glutamine saw an increase in their immune response, and were less likely to experience reactivation of herpes infection.
This research further supports the idea that glutamine can play a role in supporting the immune system.
Along these lines, a review of the literature on glutamine suggests that supplementing with this amino acid reduced the rate of hospital-acquired infections, shortened length of hospital stay, and reduced the rate of in-patient mortality. 
We should note, however, that many of these studies suggested associations and did not reach statistical significance. 
Nonetheless, this is still an interesting observation.

3. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
Glutamine supplements are most frequently used to help with inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. 
These conditions can cause painful ulcers in the digestive tract in response to an autoimmune attack to the bowel.

Why is this medication prescribed?
L-glutamine is used to is used to reduce the frequency of painful episodes (crises) in adults and children 5 years of age and older with sickle cell anemia (an inherited blood disorder in which the red blood cells are abnormally shaped and cannot bring enough oxygen to all parts of the body). 
L-glutamine is in a class of medications called amino acids. 
L-glutamine works by helping to prevent damage to red blood cells.

Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the human blood. 
Glutamine may become conditionally essential in certain situations, including intensive physical training, when the body cannot meet L-glutamines needs by synthesizing glutamine. 
This conditionally essential amino acid can be provided by dietary protein intake, including by food supplements.

L-glutamine
glutamine
56-85-9
Levoglutamide
L-(+)-Glutamine
Glutamic acid amide
Stimulina
Cebrogen
H-Gln-OH
glumin
Levoglutamid
Polyglutamine
Glavamin
(S)-2,5-Diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid
glutamic acid 5-amide
L-Glutamide
2-aminoglutaramic acid
Miglu-P
Saforis
L-2-Aminoglutaramidic acid
L-Glutamic acid gamma-amide
L-Glutamin
Glumin (amino acid)
Glutamine (VAN)
L-2-Aminoglutaramic acid
L-Glutamic acid 5-amide
(2S)-2-amino-4-carbamoylbutanoic acid

The International Journal of Molecular Science study from before suggests that L-glutamine could block the activation of two pro-inflammatory mediators, and thereby reduce the expression of inflammatory cytokines. 
In other words, L-glutamine may help reduce inflammation.
The same article reviewed other studies and suggested that glutamine supplementation, in general, seems to help regulate the growth of intestinal cells, maintain the gut's tight junctions, influence inflammatory cascades, and protect against cell death and stresses.
While L-glutamine is an important amino acid when L-glutamine comes to gut health, those benefits have greater implications. 
More than 70% of our immune system lives in the gut. 
Therefore, autoimmune conditions (Hashimoto's thyroiditis, fibromyalgia, and many others) could potentially be influenced by glutamine supplementation.
Further studies are needed to examine each of these conditions individually, to prove or disprove this hypothesis.

How should this medicine be used?
L-glutamine comes as a powder to be mixed with a liquid or soft wet food and taken by mouth twice a day. 
Take L-glutamine at around the same times every day. 
Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. 
Take L-glutamine exactly as directed. 
Do not take more or less of L-glutamine or take L-glutamine more often than prescribed by your doctor.
You will need to mix the medication powder with 8 ounces (240 ml) of a liquid such as water, milk, or apple juice, or 4 to 6 ounces (120 to 180 ml) of a soft wet food such as applesauce or yogurt right before you take it. 
The liquid or food must be cold or room temperature. 
The powder does not need to be completely dissolved in the liquid or food before you take the mixture.

Other uses for this medicine
This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

WHAT DOES GLUTAMINE DO?
Glutamine has several functions including the support of immunity, gastrointestinal integrity, insulin secretion, neurological activity, and muscle protein synthesis. 
Glutamine actually supplies 35% of nitrogen to muscle to synthesise proteins. 
This, in turn, will promote protein synthesis. 
Why is this important? Well, the benefits of maintaining a high nitrogen balance in the muscle prevents muscle breakdown, therefore retaining more muscle. 
This equates to a leaner you. 
A leaner you means you have less body fat, so, in essence, glutamine may help with the reduction of overall body fat.
Please understand that there aren’t any studies available to prove this, nor would I ever recommend glutamine as a “fat burner”. 
But the reference was made to show you that L-glutamine can help add/retain lean muscle tissue, which means you will be leaner. 
On that minor fat burning note, there are some studies that suggest an ability for glutamine supplementation to manipulate tissue insulin sensitivity. 
This may help to partition nutrients away from fat storage and towards the muscles and liver.


Other Name(s):
Acide Glutamique
Acide Glutamique HCl
Acide L-(+)-2-Aminoglutaramique
Acide L-Glutamique
Acide L-Glutamique HCl
Alanyl-L-Glutamine Dipeptide
Éthyle Ester de Glutamine
Éthyle Ester de Glutamine HCl
GLN, Glutamate
Glutamic Acid
Glutamic Acid HCl
Glutamina, Glutaminate
Glutamine Ethyl Ester

Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid in the body. 
Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. 
Glutamine is produced in the muscles and is distributed by the blood to the organs that need L-glutamine. 
Glutamine might help gut function, the immune system, and other essential processes in the body, especially in times of stress. 
L-glutamine is also important for providing "fuel" (nitrogen and carbon) to many different cells in the body. 
Glutamine is needed to make other chemicals in the body such as other amino acids and glucose (sugar).

Glutamine Ethyl Ester HCl
Glutamine Methyl Ester
Glutamine Peptides
Levoglutamide
Levoglutamine
L-(+)-2-Aminoglutaramic Acid
L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine
L-Glutamic Acid
L-Glutamic Acid HCl
L-Glutamic Acid Hydrochloride
L-Glutamic Acid 5-Amide
L-Glutamine
N-Acetyl-L-Glutamine
Peptides de Glutamine Q
(S)-2,5-Diamino-5-oxopentanoic Acid.

What special precautions should I follow?
Before taking L-glutamine,
-tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to L-glutamine, any other medications.
-tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.
-tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. 
If you become pregnant while taking L-glutamine, call your doctor.

Quality Level: 200
product line: ReagentPlus
assay: ≥99% (HPLC)
form: powder
application(s):
cell analysis: suitable
peptide synthesis: suitable
impurities:
≤0.2% free ammonia.
~0.5% Glutamic acid
color: white to off-white
mp: 185 °C (dec.) (lit.)
solubility: 1 M HCl: 50 mg/mL, clear to slightly hazy, colorless
SMILES string: N[C@@H](CCC(N)=O)C(O)=O
InChI: 1S/C5H10N2O3/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H2,7,8)(H,9,10)/t3-/m0/s1
InChI key: ZDXPYRJPNDTMRX-VKHMYHEASA-N
Gene Information: rat ... Ggt1(116568)

Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid (building block of protein) in the body. 
The body can make enough glutamine for its regular needs. 
But during times of extreme stress (the kind you experience after heavy exercise or an injury), your body may need more glutamine than it can make. 
Most glutamine is stored in muscles, followed by the lungs where much of the glutamine is made.

Glutamine is important for removing excess ammonia (a common waste product in the body). 
L-glutamine also helps your immune system function and may be needed for normal brain function and digestion.

(2S)-2,5-diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid
Levoglutamida
Levoglutamidum
2-Aminoglutaramic acid, L-
FEMA No. 3684
Levoglutamidum [INN-Latin]
Levoglutamida [INN-Spanish]
Nutrestore
Levoglutamina
Pentanoic acid, 2,5-diamino-5-oxo-, (S)-
GLUTAMINE, L-
L-Glutamid
2,5-Diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid, (S)-
AI3-24392
MFCD00008044
NSC 27421
UNII-0RH81L854J
BRN 1723797
L-Glutaminsaeure-5-amid
26700-71-0
CHEMBL930
CHEBI:18050
d(-)-glutamine
0RH81L854J
gln
L-gln
GLUTAMINE (D)

You can usually get enough glutamine without taking a supplement because your body makes L-glutamine and you get some in your diet. 
Certain medical conditions, including injuries, surgery, infections, and prolonged stress, can lower glutamine levels. 
In these cases, taking a glutamine supplement may be helpful.

Uses
Wound healing and recovery from illness
When the body is stressed (from injuries, infections, burns, trauma, or surgical procedures), L-glutamine releases the hormone cortisol into the bloodstream. 
High levels of cortisol can lower your body's stores of glutamine. 
Several studies show that adding glutamine to enteral nutrition (tube feeding) helps reduce the rate of death in trauma and critically ill people. 
Clinical studies show that taking glutamine supplements strengthens the immune system and reduce infections, particularly infections associated with surgery. 
Glutamine may help prevent or treat multiple organ dysfunction after shock or other injuries among people in the intensive care unit. 
Glutamine supplements may also help in the recovery of severe burns.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
Glutamine helps protect the lining of the gastrointestinal tract known as the mucosa. 
For that reason, some researchers believe that people who have IBD (ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease) may not have enough glutamine. 
However, two clinical trials found that taking glutamine supplements did not improve symptoms of Crohn disease. 
More research is needed. 
In the meantime, ask your doctor when deciding whether to use glutamine for IBD.

HIV/AIDS
People with HIV or AIDS often experience severe weight loss (particularly loss of muscle mass).
A few studies of people with HIV and AIDS have found that taking glutamine supplements, along with other important nutrients, including vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, selenium, and N-acetylcysteine, may increase weight gain and help the intestines better absorb nutrients.

Athletes
Athletes who train for endurance events (like marathons) may reduce the amount of glutamine in their bodies. 
L-glutamine is common for them to catch a cold after an athletic event. 
Some experts think that may be because of the role glutamine plays in the immune system. 
For this select group of athletes, one study showed that taking glutamine supplements resulted in fewer infections. 
The same is not true, however, for exercisers who work out at a moderate intensity.

Cancer
Many people with cancer have low levels of glutamine. 
For this reason, some researchers speculate that glutamine may be helpful when added to conventional cancer treatment. 
Supplemental glutamine is often given to malnourished cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation treatments, and sometimes used in people undergoing bone marrow transplants.
Glutamine seems to help reduce stomatitis (an inflammation of the mouth) caused by chemotherapy. 
Some studies suggest that taking glutamine orally may help reduce diarrhea associated with chemotherapy.
More clinical research is needed to know whether glutamine is safe or effective to use as part of the treatment regimen for cancer.

Dietary Sources
Dietary sources of glutamine include plant and animal proteins such as beef, pork, poultry, milk, yogurt, ricotta cheese, cottage cheese, raw spinach, raw parsley, and cabbage.

Available Forms
Glutamine, usually in the form of L-glutamine, is available by itself, or as part of a protein supplement. 
These come in powders, capsules, tablets, or liquids.
Standard preparations are typically available in 500 mg tablets or capsules.

How to Take L-glutamine
Take glutamine with cold or room temperature foods or liquids. 
L-glutamine should not be added to hot beverages because heat destroys glutamine.

Glutamine (L-Glutamine)
Poly(glutamine)
Levoglutamide [DCF:INN]
L(+)-Glutamine, 99%
gamma-Glutamine
.gamma.-Glutamine
Glutamine [USAN]
(2S)-2,5-diamino-5-oxopentanoate
GLUTAMINE (L)
EINECS 200-292-1
L-Glutamic acid .gamma.-amide
Glutamine [USAN:USP:INN]

Glutamine is one of the most abundant amino acids in humans and a vital oxidative fuel for rapidly proliferating human tissues.
Glutamine is involved in nitrogen transport, regulation of acid-base homeostasis, and catabolic signaling. 
L-glutamine is a gluconeogenic substrate in certain tissues, and L-glutamine is required for the synthesis of other amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids, nucleotides, and hexosamines. 
Of particular interest to hematologists, glutamine is a precursor for the synthesis of glutathione (GSH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), and arginine, all of which protect erythrocytes from oxidative damage and indirectly maintain vascular tone. 
However, when interpreting the clinical trials of l-glutamine in SCA, L-glutamine is important to consider all the roles of glutamine in the body, not just L-glutamines effects in erythrocytes.

L(+)-Glutamine, specified according to the requirements of USP
laevo-glutamine
CCRIS 9428
NSC-27421
3h-l-glutamine
HSDB 8165
1wdn
(S)-glutamine
[3H]glutamine
Nutrestore (TN)
S(+)Glutamine
Glutamine (USP)
[14C]glutamine
[3H]-glutamine
L-Glutamine Powder

Pediatric
For children 10 years and younger: DO NOT give glutamine to a child unless your pediatrician recommends L-glutamine as part of a complete amino acid supplement.

Adult
Speak with your health care provider regarding dosing instructions.

Precautions
Because of the potential for side effects and interactions with medications, you should take dietary supplements only under the supervision of a knowledgeable health care provider. 
You should only take high doses under the supervision of a physician.
Glutamine powder should not be added to hot beverages because heat destroys glutamine. 

Glutamine supplements should also be kept in a dry location.
People with kidney disease, liver disease, or Reye syndrome (a rare, sometimes fatal disease of childhood that is generally associated with aspirin use) should not take glutamine.
People who have psychiatric disorders, or who have a history of seizures, should use caution when considering supplementation with glutamine. 
Some researchers feel that taking glutamine may worsen these conditions.

Many elderly people have decreased kidney function, and may need to reduce their dose of glutamine.
Glutamine is different from glutamate (glutamic acid), monosodium glutamate, and gluten. 
Glutamine should not cause symptoms (headaches, facial pressure, tingling, or burning sensation) associated with sensitivity to monosodium glutamate. 
People who are gluten sensitive can use glutamine without problems. 
However, some people may be sensitive to glutamine, which is completely separate from gluten.

Glutamine has recently been the focus of much scientific interest. 
A growing body of evidence suggests that under certain circumstances, the body may require more Glutamine than L-glutamine can produce. 
During these times, Glutamine may be considered a "conditionally essential" amino acid. 
Glutamine is involved in maintaining a positive nitrogen balance and act as the primary fuel for rapidly growing cells (immune system and intestinal cells). 
In addition, Glutamine is also a major nitrogen transporter and helps to regulate the body''s acid-base balance.

SBI-0050532.P003
AB0004431
L-Glutamine, BioUltra, >=99.5% (NT)
EU-0100549
G0063
L-Glutamine, SAJ special grade, >=99.0%
C00064
D00015
G 3126
M02960
16575-EP2269996A1
16575-EP2270004A1
16575-EP2275412A1
16575-EP2277861A1
16575-EP2277876A1
16575-EP2281563A1
16575-EP2281815A1
16575-EP2281824A1
16575-EP2284157A1
16575-EP2284171A1
16575-EP2286812A1
16575-EP2289876A1
16575-EP2289883A1
16575-EP2289892A1
16575-EP2289893A1
16575-EP2292611A1
16575-EP2292614A1

Possible Interactions
Lactulose: Glutamine supplementation can increase ammonia in th body, so taking glutamine may make lactulose less effective.

Cancer therapy: Glutamine may increase the effectiveness and reduce the side effects of chemotherapy treatments with doxorubicin, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil in people with colon cancer. 
Preliminary studies suggest that glutamine supplements may prevent nerve damage associated with a medication called paclitaxel used for breast and other types of cancers.
However, laboratory studies suggest that glutamine may actually stimulate growth of tumors.
More research is needed before researchers can determine whether L-glutamine is safe to use glutamine if you have cancer. 
If you are receiving chemotherapy, you should never add supplements to your regimen without consulting your doctor.

L-Glutamine is an essential amino acid found in high concentration in the body that plays a key role in immune, muscle and gut health.
Under body stress or physical demand L-glutamine can be significantly depleted. 
The Eniva Premium L-Glutamine Powder provides pure, USA made and body ready glutamine designed for easy mixing.

Ammonium: 0.1% max.
Arsenic (As): 1ppm max.
Assay Percent Range: 98.5 to 101.0 %
Heavy Metals (as Pb): 10ppm max.
Ignition Residue: 0.1% max.
Identification: Pass Test
Merck Index: 15, 4507
Loss on Drying: 0.2% max.
Other Amino Acids: 1.0% max.
Packaging: Glass Bottle
Formula Weight: 146.15
Specific Rotation: 6.3 to 7.3° (+ or -)
Physical Form: Solid
Percent Purity: 98.5 to 101.0%
State of Solution (%T): 95.0% min.
Alpha Vector: Glutamine
Color: White
Melting Point: 185°C
pH: 4.0 to 6.0
Quantity: 100g
Chemical Name or Material: L-Glutamine

Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. 
Since it easily passes through the blood-brain barrier, L-glutamine is also known as a superb brain fuel. 
Glutamine is converted to Glutamic Acid in the brain, which is essential for cerebral functions, and increases the amount of GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid), required for brain functioning and mental activity. 
Glutamine is used in the muscles for the synthesis of muscle proteins, and is of use for the treatment of wasting muscles after illness or post-operative care. 
Skeletal muscles are the primary sites of Glutamine concentration. 
This is an excellent supplement used in conjunction with a sports training program or a lifestyle requiring prolonged physical exertion. 
For athletes, maximal results will be obtained by supplementing (2 grams/2,000 milligrams) of Glutamine after exercising. 

What special dietary instructions should I follow?
Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, continue your normal diet.

Cebrogen, Stimulina
L-Glutamine,(S)
S(+)-Glutamine
[14C]-glutamine
H-Gln
Endari (TN)
L-Alanyl-L-glutamide
184161-19-1
Spectrum_000131
L-Glutamine [JAN]
SpecPlus_000380
L-Glutamine (JP17)
L-Glutamine, homopolymer

L-glutamine for Gut Health
If you have leaky gut, irritable bowel syndrome, acne, eczema, fatigue and other gut-related issues, L-glutamine is one of the best supplements you can come by.
L-glutamine is pretty top-notch when L-glutamine comes to gut health, and the many benefits of taking a glutamine supplement have been demonstrated in various studies showing L-glutamine to drastically improve gut health.
In fact, studies in both adults and children have demonstrated that supplementing with L-glutamine was able to help to tighten the gut lining in as little as 10 DAYS – a super important improvement for those of you experiencing leaky gut. 
And a huge bonus is that, as an alternative therapy, the 10 day improvement time is comparable to most pharmaceutical drugs, but without all of the nasty side-effects.
As a nutritional scientist, L-glutamine is one of the most common supplements I use when practicing clinical nutrition.
I understand better than most that gut disorders can come from a variety of underlying issues, meaning that personalization in therapy is important, and everyone will need to focus on a different route. 
However, the reason I choose L-glutamine in nearly every program – regardless of underlying cause – is because the majority (and arguably all) disease and disorder is associated with the presence of leaky gut. 
Using an L-glutamine supplement is undoubtedly one of the fastest ways to repair the gut lining, and therefore one of the most universal interventions for disease and disorder.

Spectrum2_001377
Spectrum3_001416
Spectrum4_001709
Spectrum5_000418
L-Glutamine, 98.5%
bmse000038
bmse001014
SCHEMBL7453
Lopac0_000549
BSPBio_003092
GTPL723
KBioGR_002038
KBioSS_000591
4-04-00-03038 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)

What should I know about storage and disposal of this medication?
Keep this medication in the container L-glutamine came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. 
Store L-glutamine at room temperature and away from direct sunlight and excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom).

What should I do if I forget a dose of L-glutamine?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember L-glutamine. 
However, if L-glutamine is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. 
Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.

DivK1c_006476
SPECTRUM1500987
N-(2)-L-alanyl-L-glutamine
S(+)-Glutamic acid 5-amide
SPBio_001334
L-[3,4-3H(N)]glutamine
GTPL4633
GTPL4634
DTXSID1023100
SCHEMBL19240116
BDBM18121
KBio1_001420
KBio2_000591
KBio2_003159

The L-glutamine capsules contain only the best, carefully selected raw materials and are also suitable for vegans thanks to their vegetable based capsule shell.
L-glutamine is a proteinogenic & nonessential α-amino acid
With vitamin C from acerola cherries

KBio2_005727
KBio3_002312
HMS3261N19
HMS3264C03
L-Glutamine, Cell Culture Reagent
Pharmakon1600-01300018
Pharmakon1600-01500987
(S)-2,5-Diamino-5-oxopentanoate
HY-N0390
ZINC1532526
(2S)-2-amino-4-carbamoylbutanoate
Tox21_500549
ANW-32592

L-Glutamine is an essential amino acid commonly used in cell culture. 
However, L-glutamine is notably unstable in liquid media, spontaneously breaking down to release cytotoxic amines. 
This stabilized compound (L-alanyl-L-glutamine) prevents degradation and cytotoxicity, markedly increasing shelf life. 
L-glutamine is prepared at a convenient 200mM (100x) concentration.

L-glutamine supports the development of enterocytes, a type of cell that is plentiful in the epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract.
L-glutamine also supports muscle glycogen stores, growth hormone production, and can cross the blood-brain barrier where the brain uses it for fuel.
Free form amino acid, high purity, well tolerated.

Insufficient levels of L-glutamine can negatively impact intestinal villi, the finger-like tentacles that line the small intestine and increase the absorption of nutrients. 
Villous atrophy occurs when villi are eroded away by inflammation as well as ordinary wear-and-tear on the enterocytes. 
Supplementing with L-glutamine can strengthen intestinal villi against stressors and help maximize the surface area available for nutrient absorption along the small intestine.

CCG-38853
EBD968977
NSC759628
NSC760081
s1749
AKOS015854078
(S)-2-Amino-4-carbamoyl-butyric acid
AM81759
CS-1947
DB00130
LP00549
MCULE-8718820108
NE10548
NSC-759628
NSC-760081

Glutamine is a hugely popular supplement among bodybuilders and athletes who train intensely. 
The reason for this is because intense exercise can rapidly deplete the amount of glutamine in the muscles.
This leads to exhaustion and can start to break the muscles down.

SDCCGMLS-0066691.P001
SDCCGSBI-0050532.P005
NCGC00093936-01
NCGC00093936-02
NCGC00093936-03
NCGC00093936-04
NCGC00093936-05
NCGC00093936-15
NCGC00261234-01
(2S)-2,5-diamino-5-oxo-pentanoic acid
AS-11765
BP-13284

L-Glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid that plays a variety of roles in human physiology. 
L-glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the bloodstream and the preferred fuel of enterocytes, the cells lining the gastrointestinal tract. 
L-Glutamine is involved in protein synthesis and serves as a glutamate donor for the synthesis of glutathione, our most important endogenous antioxidant. 
Glutamine also can be converted into other amino acids and glucose to help supply energy needs.
As a supplement, L-glutamine is often used to help nourish the GI lining. 
L-glutamine has been researched to help support healthy intestinal barrier function, help preserve intestinal mucosal integrity, help prevent bacterial translocation across the gut wall and help promote gut-based immunity.
Moss Nutrition Select L-Glutamine powder may be stirred into water or beverage of choice, blended into a protein shake or mixed with any semi-solid food, such as applesauce or yogurt, for effective dosage delivery.

DISCLAIMER: These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. 
This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease
Supplement products that contain natural ingredients may have color, texture, odor, or flavor variations between different lot numbers.

16575-EP2295055A2
16575-EP2295401A2
16575-EP2295411A1
16575-EP2295416A2
16575-EP2295417A1
16575-EP2295429A1
16575-EP2298312A1
16575-EP2298748A2
16575-EP2298780A1
16575-EP2301533A1
16575-EP2301940A1
16575-EP2302382A2
16575-EP2302383A2

Glutamine, a conditionally essential amino acid, is the most abundant amino acid, containing 60% of the total free amino acids in the body – with the main synthesis sources circulating in plasma being skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and lungs. 
Glutamine is found in dairy foods, such as yogurt, cottage cheese, and all forms of whey protein powder – blend, isolate, and hydrolysate.
Glutamine performs most of the transport of nitrogen from the skeletal muscle to the visceral (abdominal) tissues, and, is used as a glucose-efficient primary fuel for many rapidly dividing cells, including enterocytes, colonocytes, lymphocytes, and fibroblasts, comment the researchers.

Even though L-glutamine is a very important part of a bodybuilder’s supplementation, L-glutamine isn't only for bodybuilders. 
Glutamine is essential for maintaining intestinal function and aiding in the body’s immune response as well. 
Therefore, people who often find themselves becoming ill quite frequently, or show signs of losing lean muscle mass, should be taking the supplement as L-glutamine’s possible they may have a glutamine deficiency.
Glutamine is an important amino acid in the body and although supplementation of L-glutamine is not necessary, many athletes and others concerned about their health will supplement their diet with additional sources of glutamine. 

16575-EP2305640A2
16575-EP2305652A2
16575-EP2305663A1
16575-EP2305688A1
16575-EP2305689A1
16575-EP2305695A2
16575-EP2305696A2
16575-EP2305697A2
16575-EP2305698A2
16575-EP2308844A2
16575-EP2308845A2
16575-EP2308846A2
16575-EP2311453A1
16575-EP2311806A2

Glutamine is essential for the immune system. 
L-glutamine is a significant energy source for your white blood cells, other immune cells, and intestinal cells. 
For optimum and efficient functioning, your body cells need enough proteins.
Glutamine has sufficient proteins to supplement amino acids produced by your body. 
Glutamine for muscle growth will boost your health, decrease recovery time, and reduce infections.

16575-EP2316459A1
29474-EP2272827A1
29474-EP2277867A2
29474-EP2280003A2
29474-EP2292088A1
29474-EP2292611A1
29474-EP2295410A1
29474-EP2301939A1
29474-EP2311842A2
AB00173347-03
AB00173347_04
L-Glutamine, ReagentPlus(R), >=99% (HPLC)
L-Glutamine, Vetec(TM) reagent grade, >=99%
008G044
141066-EP2269996A1
141066-EP2292625A1
Q181619
7FBA778C-D6B8-495C-BFE7-1CB8EC4ABEAB
J-521645
Q-100459
BRD-K83896451-001-01-8
F0001-1471
L-Glutamine, certified reference material, TraceCERT(R)
Z1250208676
UNII-0O72R8RF8A component ZDXPYRJPNDTMRX-VKHMYHEASA-N
Glutamine, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
UNII-5L555N1902 component ZDXPYRJPNDTMRX-VKHMYHEASA-N
L-Glutamine, gamma-irradiated, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture
L-Glutamine, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
L-Glutamine Solution 200 mM, 29.23 mg/mL in saline, solution, suitable for cell culture
L-Glutamine solution, 200 mM, Hybri-Max(TM), sterile-filtered, suitable for hybridoma
L-Glutamine solution, 200 mM, solution, sterile-filtered, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture
L-Glutamine, meets USP testing specifications, cell culture tested, 99.0-101.0%, from non-animal source
L-Glutamine, PharmaGrade, Ajinomoto, USP, Manufactured under appropriate GMP controls for pharma or biopharmaceutical production, suitable for cell culture

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