LABSA

LABSA = Linear alkylbenzene sulphonic acid = SULFONIC ACID = Dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid
LAS = Linear alkylbenzene sulphonic acid SALTS

LAB: Linear alkylbenzene
HAB: Heavy Alkylate bottom
LABSA: Linear alkylbenzene Sulfonic Acid
LAS: Linear alkylbenzene Sulfonate


Synonyms: LABSA, Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid, 
Laurylbenzene Sulfonic Acid,
Laurylbenzene Sulfonate

EC / List no.: 248-289-4
CAS no.: 27176-87-0
Mol. formula: C18H30O3S


Dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid
Dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid
dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid

CAS names
Benzenesulfonic acid, dodecyl-

IUPAC names
2-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid
4-dodecan-3-ylbenzenesulfonic acid
4-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid
4-dodecan-3-ylbenzenesulphonic acid
Benzenesulfonic acid, dodecyl-
Dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid
DODECYLBENZENESULFONIC ACID
DODECYLBENZENESULPHONIC ACID
dodecylbenzensulfonic acid
Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonic Acid


Trade names
-Benzenesulfonic acid, dodecyl-
C12-LAS
DDBSA
Laurylbenzenesulfonic acid
Laurylbenzenesulphonic acid
Linear alkylbenzenesulfonic acid
n-Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid

Our product line consists of linear alkylbenzene sulphonic acids and salts, also known as LABSA and LAS, respectively.

LABSA and LAS are anionic surfactants that exhibit very good properties for relatively low cost. 
For this reason, they are considered one of the main work-horses in large volume applications, such as household and industrial laundry and dishwashing detergents, and all-purpose cleaners. 
Further applications include textile processing and emulsifiers in industrial and agricultural applications.

Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonic Acid (LABSA) is a colorless chemical having viscous properties. 
Owing to its excellent cleaning properties and affordable cost, LABSA is a highly demanded in the detergent formulations. 
The linear chain of LABSA makes it a high biocompatible and efficient compound to be utilized in a variety of applications. 
Hence the product is regarded as a supreme replacement for non-linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates. 
Attributed to its excellent surface properties, LABSA is primarily used for producing household cleaners, detergents, laundry powders, washing liquid and dishwashing liquid. 
Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonic Acid (LABSA) is also used as a lubricating agent and as an additive since it portrays same functionality in acidic environment. 
Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonic Acid (LABSA) is also suitable as a coupling agent and emulsifier for agriculture and emulsion polymerization activities.


Linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid (LABSA) is prepared commercially by sulfonating linear alkylbenzene (LAB). 
Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), the world’s largest-volume synthetic surfactant, which includes the various salts of sulfonated alkylbenzenes, is widely used in household detergents as well as in numerous industrial applications. 
The LABSA market is driven by the markets for LAS, primarily household detergents. 
Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate was developed as a biodegradable replacement for nonlinear (branched) alkylbenzene sulfonate (BAS) and has largely replaced BAS in household detergents throughout the world.

The pattern of LAS consumption demonstrates the overwhelming preference by consumers for liquid laundry detergents in North America, whereas powders continue to be the dominant products in Western Europe, Japan, and China. 
Comparable and reliable data in other world regions are generally unavailable. 
In these less-developed world areas, LAS is essentially used only in laundry powders (particularly in India and Indonesia) and hand dishwashing liquids. 
The latter are often used as general-purpose cleaners.

Linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid, also known as LABSA is a synthetic chemical surfactant, which is a widely used industrial detergent. It is used in washing powder, detergent powder, oil soap, cleaning powder and detergent cake.

Linear alkyl benzene is the raw material used to manufacture linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LABSA), an active ingredient in the formulation of detergents. 
LABSA eliminates dirt by its physicochemical mechanism and it is one of the surfactants most widely used in liquid cleaners and in powder. 
LABSA has been used for more than 45 years in the manufacture of detergents and it is known for its excellent quality/price ratio.

 

DESCRIPTION 
LABSA is an anionic surfactant, whose molecules are characterized by a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic group. This nonvolatile chemical compound is synthesized through the process of sulfonation. The sulfonation reagents include sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfamic acid and diluted sulfur trioxide.

The properties of LABSA, differs in chemical and physical properties based on the length of the alkyl chain. This results in formulations, which finds many applications. The resulting surfactants are used in the chemical industry to improve contact between water and minerals.

 

USES
LABSA is chiefly used in the detergent industry for the manufacture of washing powder, detergent powder, detergent cake, liquid soap, oil soap, scouring bar and cleaning powder. This chemical finds applications in anionic specialty formulations. The quality of pesticide sprays can be improved from it.

Linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid is used as a washing and mercerizing agent in the textile industry.  The surface area of distempers is increased using LABSA. It is used as a wetting agent as well as an emulsifier in small quantities along with other surfactants, for foaming of toilet soaps.

Owing to its high active matter content and miscibility with low salt content and water, LABSA is used in the polymerization of emulsions and in production of coupling agents, emulsifiers, agricultural herbicides, household and industrial cleaners.

 

ENVIRONMENTAL AND SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
Most anionic surfactants including LABSA are nontoxic in nature. However, prolonged exposure to these surfactants, could irritate and damage the skin through the disruption of the lipid membrane, which protects the skin and other cells. On the other hand, the biodegradability is determined by surfactant's hydrophobic hydrocarbon group.

 

ADVANTAGES 
Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid is one of the largest synthetic surfactants by volume due to its low cost and high performance. Apart from this, LABSA can be dried to a stable powder form. This chemical is biodegradable and environmentally friendly.

 

Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonic Acid can be neutralized with caustic soda ( NaOH) to form sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate-an extensively applied anionic surfactant.
LABSA is not inflammable substance and can dissolve in water, but not in organic solvent. LABSA is quite absorbent and its biodegradability is above 90% .
Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonic Acid is extensively applied anionic surfactant. It is raw material for detergent industry characterized by detergency, foam, moisture, and emulsion and dispersing.

Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonic Acid is used as the raw material to produce kinds of detergent, emulsion. 
Such as laundry powder, dish wash cleaner indaily chemical industrial cleaner, Dyeing assistant in textile industrial degrease agent in electroplate and leather manufacture, de-inking agent in paper making.

Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonic Acid
Product description
CAS No.: 27176-87-0

Synonyms: Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid (Strait Chain); LAS; LABSA; Laurylbenzenesulfonic Acid;

Laurylbenzenesulfonate; n-Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid


Linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid, also known as LABSA, is the largest-volume synthetic surfactant because of its relatively low cost and good performance. 
This product is commonly used as a cleaning agent for household and personal care products including laundry powders, laundry liquids, oil soap, cleaning powder, and dish-washing liquids.

This nonvolatile chemical compound is synthesized through the process of sulfonation. 
The sulfonation reagents include sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfamic acid and diluted sulfur trioxide. 
This chemical finds applications in anionic specialty formulations. The quality of pesticide sprays can be improved from it. 
Linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid can be used as a washing and mercerizing agent in the textile industry as well as in numerous industrial applications like as a coupling agent and as an emulsifier for agricultural herbicides and in emulsion polymerization.


Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonic Acid is a synthetic surfactant with a wide range of applications like as a coupling agent, as an emulsifier and in the production of household detergents.


Linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid (LABSA) is the major anionic surfactant material used in detergent formulations

Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid, LABSA is a largest volume surfactant because of its low cost, good performance; environmental friendliness.
For the production of sulfonic acid, LABSA, alkaline benzene linear sulfating is usually used.


Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid (LABSA 96%), as the raw material of detergent, is used to produce alkylbenzene sulfonic acid sodium , which has the performances of cleaning, wetting, foaming, emulsifying and dispersing, etc. 
The rate of biodegradation is more than 90%. 
The product is widely used for producing various detergents and emulsifiers, such as washing powder, detergent of dishware, detergent of light or hard dirt, cleaner of textile industry, dyeing assistant, degreaser of plating and leather making industry, and the deinking agent of paper-making industry, etc.

Linear alkylbenzene (LAB) is the result of the catalytic alkylation of benzene, with linear mono-olefins obtained from n-paraffin dehydrogenation process, extracted from a hydrotreated kerosene cut. LABSA is produced by the sulphonation of LAB with sulfur trioxide (SO3).

LAB is mainly used as a raw material to produce Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonic Acid (LABSA) via sulfonation reaction and then Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) via neutralization.
LAS is one of the major anionic surfactants used in the market for household detergents, such as laundry powders, laundry liquids, dishwashing products and all - purpose cleaners, as well as other minor applications in a wide range of different industries.


As an anionic surfactant the neutralized sulphonate of LAB is used nearly in all kinds of detergent formulations like for household, laundry, dishwashing.

Examples of applications

Linear alkylbenzene (LAB) is a basic raw material for the production of linear alkylbenzene sulphonic acid (LAS). After neutralization it is the most common active ingredient in detergents because of its biodegrability. Sulphonation of linear alkylbenzene (LAB) leads to formation of the relevant sulphonic acid (LABSA). The neutralized LABSA is the most versatile tensioactive and the one most amply used in all kinds of detergent formulations like powder, liquid, gel, admixtures, bars and tablets.

Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid (Strait Chain); LAS; LABSA;Laurylbenzenesulfonic Acid; Laurylbenzenesulfonate; n-Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid; Alkylbenzene sulphonate, sodium salt;Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonic Acid; Dodecylbenzolsulfonsäure (German); ácido dodecilbenceno sulfónico (Spanish); Acide dodécylbenzènesulfonique (French).

The product is used as the raw material to produce kinds of detergent, emulsion. Such as laundry powder, dish wash cleaner indaily chemical industrial .cleaner,Dyeing assistant in textile industrial .degrease agent in electroplate and leather manufacture, de-inking agent in paper making.

LABSA Linear alkyl benzene sulfonic acid  is a chemical which is colorless and have viscous properties. LABSA Linear alkyl benzene sulfonic acid mainly using in detergent formulations. It is one of the most important and cheapest surfactants in powder formulation and detergent fluids. It has excellent cleansing properties.

LABSA Linear alkyl benzene sulfonic acidis in the formulation of anionic, non-anionic, and amphoteric surfactants, and it is extremely important for its degradability in nature. It is soluble in water and emulsifying agent. Alkyl benzene sulfonic acid is one of the most widely used anionic surfactants due to its low cost, high efficiency and biocompatibility due to its linear chain. This anionic surfactant has hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups. These are non-volatile compounds produced by the sulfonation process. These compounds consist of mixtures of carbon chains of 10 to 14 carbon lengths that are a phenyl group with a sulfonate group


LABSA Linear alkyl benzene sulfonic acid application
The properties of  LABSA Linear alkyl benzene sulfonic acid  depend on the length of the alkane chains that give them different functionality. Surfactants are used in the industry to increase the contact of polar and non-polar phases, such as oil, water, or water and minerals. Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate is mainly used for the manufacture of household detergents such as laundry powder, washing liquid, dishwashing liquid and other household cleaners and other industrial uses. LABSA Linear alkyl benzene sulfonic acid uses in produce sulfonic acid. LABSA is an additive as an lubricating agent oils and have as corrosion and rust prevention. his product is a very effective intermediate surfactant. It is usually neutralized with alkali types and forms sulphonates used in different fields. This product can be used in acidic environments.

Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonic Acid is the largest-volume synthetic surfactant because of its relatively low cost, good performance, the fact that it can be dried to a stable powder, biodegradable and environment friendly.

LABSA is an anionic surfactants with molecules characterized by a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic group. They are nonvolatile compounds produced by sulfonation. LABSA are complex mixtures of homologues of different alkyl chain lengths (C10 to C13 or C14) and phenyl positional isomers of 2 to 5-phenyl in proportions dictated by the starting materials and reaction conditions.


LABSA is widely used for producing various detergents and emulsifiers, such as washing powder, detergent of dishware, detergent of light or hard dirt, detergent for the textile industry, dyeing assistant, degreaser of plating and leather making industry, and the deinking agent of paper-making industry, etc.

Sulfonic Acid (LABSA) Definition
Sulfonic Acid (LABSA)
Sulfonic acid or LABSA is a batch of organic Sulfur compounds that are used as an anionic surfactant in most home detergents such as dishwashing detergents and washing powders. LABSA compound is used as a cleaning agent, foaming agent and sponge cleaner in more formulations. For the production of Sulfonic Acid, alkaline benzene linear sulfation is usually used. And its ingredients Linear Alkylbenzene, Oxygen, Sulfur and Citric Acid.

Linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid (LABSA) is prepared commercially by just sulfonating linear alkylbenzene (LAB). Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate which is mainly called (LAS), the worlds largest volume synthetic surfactant, which includes the various salts of sulfonated alkylbenzenes, which is widely used in household detergents as well as in numerous industrial application. The Iran LABSA96% market is driven by the markets for LAS, i.e., household detergents. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate was created as a biodegradable replacement for nonlinear (i.e., branched) alkylbenzene sulfonate (BAS) and has largely replaced BAS in household detergents throughout the World.
Iran Linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid ( LABSA 96% ) is the largest volume synthetic surfactant because of its relatively low cost price, good performance the fact that it can be dried to a stable powder and the biodegradable environmental friendliness as it has right chain.

Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonic Acid can be neutralized with caustic soda (NaOH) to form sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate an extensively applied anionic surfactant. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid is the largest-volume synthetic surfactant because of its relatively low cost, good performance, the fact that it can be dried to a stable powder and the biodegradable environmental friendliness as it has straight chain. LABSA is not inflammable substance and can dissolve in water, but not in organic solvent. LABSA is quite absorbent and its biodegradability is above 90%.

Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonic Acid is extensively applied anionic surfactant. It is raw material for detergent industry characterized by detergency, foam, moisture, and emulsion and dispersing.
Linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid (LABSA) is prepared commercially by sulfonating linear alkylbenzene (LAB). Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), the world’s largest-volume synthetic surfactant, which includes the various salts of sulfonated alkylbenzenes, is widely used in household detergents as well as in numerous industrial applications.

Sulfonic Acid (LABSA) Applications
Sulfonic acid has a high detergent and emulsifying power that is compatible with other surfactants in the formula of detergent products. 
It is also the cheapest surfactant in the world and is used in the formulation of detergent products as much as possible. 
For example, in the dishwashing liquid formula, about 8 to 18% of sulfonic acid can be used, which is neutralized with sodium and converted to sulfonate.

Used as Synthetic detergent industries in formulation of Washing powder, Detergent powder, Detergent cake, Liquid Soap, Cleaning powder, Scouring Bar, Oil soaps etc…
Used in textile industry as a washing agent.
in Pesticides to improve the quality of spray.
HI & I cleaning
Emulsion polymerization
Metalworking
Paints & coatings
Laundry detergents
Industrial auxiliaries
Oil fields
Agriculture

CHARACTERISTICS
Chemical Formula : R-C6H4-SO3H
CAS Number: 27176-87-0
Active Matter (M=320) 96.0 % – 98.0%
Specific Gravity (20°C) 1.050 – 1.060
Free Oil < 2.5%
Sulfuric Acid < 0.75%
Preservation none
Neutralization Index 13 (g NaOH 100/100 g)
Color, APHA; ASTM D 1209 (Klett 5% AM) < 80
Water Content 0.55%

Category Name: Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LABSA) 


LINEAR ALKYLBENZENE SULFONATE (LABSA)
1322-98-1 Decylbenzene sulfonic acid, sodium salt
25155-30-0 Dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid, sodium salt
26248-24-8 Tridecylbenzene sulfonic acid, sodium salt
27636-75-5 Undecylbenzene sulfonic acid, sodium salt
68081-81-2 C10-16 Monoalkylbenzene sulfonic acid, sodium salt
68411-30-3 C10-13 Alkylbenzene sulfonic acid, sodium salt
69669-44-9 C10-14 Alkyl deriv benzene sulfonic acid, sodium salt
85117-50-6 C10-14 Monoalkylbenzene sulfonic acid, sodium salt
90194-45-9 C10-13 Alkyl deriv benzene sulfonic acid, sodium salt
127184-52-5  4-C 10-13-sec Alkyl deriv benzene sulfonic acid, sodium salt 


Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB) is used as surfactant in dilute solutions for their cleaning properties. 
Linear alkyl benzene is derived from petroleum and is the major detergent being used today, because of its low cost. 
LAB is the basic raw material for production of most widely used detergent. 
The need to remain healthy and disease free plays a vital role in the usage of detergents, household & laundry cleaners.

Linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid (LABSA) is the largest-volume synthetic surfactant because of its relatively low cost, good performance. 
LAB is straight chained and can be dried to a stable powder, which are biodegradable.
 LAB is also required for the manufacturing of LABSA and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), which comprises the largest global share in synthetic surfactant sector. 
About 83-87% of LAS is being used in household detergents, dishwashing liquids, laundry liquids, laundry powders, and other household cleaners.


Linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid, also known as LABSA is a synthetic chemical surfactant, which is a widely used industrial detergent. 
It is used in washing powder, detergent powder, oil soap, cleaning powder and detergent cake.
Linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid is one of the largest synthetic surfactants by volume due to its low cost and high performance. 
Apart from this, LABSA sulphonic acid can be dried to a stable powder form. This chemical is biodegradable and environmentally friendly.

Product Name Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid (LABSA).
CAS No. 27176-87-0.
Other Name Dodecyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid (DBSA).
Sulphonic Acid 96%
C18H30O3S.

Properties 
It has the action of detergency, moistening, foaming, emulsion,dispersionand brown visous fluid in appearance with acidity. 
It is nonflammable. quickly ,the product has strong absorbency. it would be unclear viscous liquid after absorbed water.  
LABSA is a largest volume synthetic surfactant because of its relatively low cost, good performance, the fact that it can be dried to a stable powder and the biodegradable environmental friendliness. 
LAB Sulphonic Acid is an anionic surfactant widely used in formulation of all ranges of Domestic Detergents Powder, Cake & Dish wash cleaners.

Advantages of sulphonic Acid 
labsa 96% 
Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid is one of the largest synthetic surfactants by volume due to its low cost and high performance. 
Apart from this, LABSA can be dried to a stable powder form. 
This chemical is biodegradable and environmentally friendly.
LABSA Linear alkyl benzene sulfonic acid is a chemical which is colorless and have viscous properties. 
LABSA Linear alkyl benzene sulfonic acid mainly using in detergent formulations. 
It is one of the most important and cheapest surfactants in powder formulation and detergent fluids. It has excellent cleansing   properties


The LABSA molecule contains an aromatic ring sulfonated at the para position and attached to a linear alkyl chain at any position except the terminal carbons. 
The alkyl carbon chain typically has 10 to 14 carbon atoms and the linearity of the alkyl chains ranges from 87 to 98%. 
While commercial LABSA consists of more than 20 individual components, the ratio of the various homologs and isomers, representing different alkyl chain lengths and aromatic ring positions along the linear alkyl chain, is relatively constant in currently produced products, with the weighted average carbon number of the alkyl chain based on production volume per region between 11.7-11.8. 
LABSA are supported as a category because of the close consistency of the mixtures, their commercial uses, fate, and health and environmental effects. 
LABSA is the primary cleaning agent used in many laundry detergents and cleaners at concentrations up to 25 percent in consumer products, and up to 30 percent in commercial products, with the exception of one reported product at 45% percent in concentrated solid form that is mechanically dispensed into diluted solution for dishwashing.


Chemical Name: Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LABSA) 
Description LABSA is the primary cleaning agent used in many laundry detergents and cleaners at concentrations up to 25 percent in consumer products, somewhat higher in industrial/commercial products. 
The LABSA molecule contains an aromatic ring sulfonated at the para position and attached to a linear alkyl chain at any position except the terminal carbons (Valtorta et al., 2000). 
The linear alkyl carbon chain typically has 10 to 14 carbon atoms, with the approximate mole ratio varying somewhat regionally with weighted averages of 11.7-11.8. 
The alkyl chains are >95% linear. 

While commercial LABSA consists of more than 20 individual components, the ratio of the various homologues and isomers, representing different alkyl chain lengths and aromatic ring positions along the linear alkyl chain, is relatively constant across the various detergent and cleaning applications. 
Because of the close consistency of the mixtures, their commercial uses, fate and effects, LABSA is discussed as a category rather than as individual CAS numbers in this assessment.


LABSA is manufactured from linear alkylbenzene (LAB) in self-contained, enclosed systems (see Annex, Format A, Section VI(1), for more information). 
LAB is produced by reacting paraffins with benzene and a catalyst and isolating the LAB by distillation. 
The LAB is then sulfonated, which in turn is then neutralized to sodium salts of LABSA. 
Commercial LABSA is exclusively manufactured as mixtures of C10 to C13 or C14 alkyl chain homologues, having average alkyl chain lengths ranging from C11.3 to C12.6, with the predominant materials having average alkyl chain lengths ranging from C11.7 to C11.8 (Table above). 
Each alkyl chain homologue consists of a mixture of all the possible sulfophenyl isomers except for the 1-phenyl isomer, which is not found in the commercial material. 
The catalyst used to make the LAB determines the distribution of the phenyl isomers in commercial LABSA with the proportion of the 2-phenyl isomers ranging from 18 to 28% (Valtorta et al., 2000). 
Consequently, OECD SIDS LINEAR ALKYLBENZENE SULFONATE (LABSA) UNEP PUBLICATIONS 10 commercial LABSA consists of a mixture of 20 or more compounds, the 2-phenyl to 5-phenyl isomers of the C10 homologue, the 2-phenyl to 6-phenyl isomers of the C11 and C12 homologues and the 2- phenyl to 7 phenyl isomers of the C13 homologue, etc. 
The commercial material is >95% pure LABSA. 
Some methyl-substituted (i.e., iso-branched) LABSA may be present in the mixtures (Nielsen et al. 1997). 
The amount of the iso-LABSA component is small (1-6%) and was shown not to limit biodegradation relative to pure linear component (Nielsen et al. 1997; Cavalli et al. 1996). 
Non-linear components such as dialkyltetralin sulfonates (DATS) can be present at levels of less than 1 to 8% depending on the manufacturing process (Nielsen et al. 1997). 
DATS, like iso-LABSA, have been shown to be biodegradable (Nielsen et al. 1997). 
Improvements in processing techniques in the U.S., Europe, and Japan incorporated to increase LABSA yields also reduce the amount of DATS present. 
While historically LABSA has ranged from 87-98% pure, recent market information (LABSA SIDS Consortium, unpublished, 2005) indicates that less than 5% of the global LABSA production contains high levels of DATS.


Alkylbenzene sulfonates


The general structure of Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonates, prominent examples of alkylbenzene sulphonates
Alkylbenzene sulfonates are a cLABSAs of anionic surfactants, consisting of a hydrophilic sulfonate head-group and a hydrophobic alkylbenzene tail-group. 
Along with sodium laureth sulfate they are one of the oldest and most widely used synthetic detergents and may be found in numerous personal-care products (soaps, shampoos, toothpaste etc.) and household-care products (laundry detergent, dishwashing liquid, spray cleaner etc.).
They were first introduced in the 1930s in the form of branched alkylbenzene sulfonates (BAS). 
However following environmental concerns these were replaced with linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LABSA) during the 1960s.
Since then production has increased significantly from about 1 million tons in 1980, to around 3.5 million tons in 2016, making them most produced anionic surfactant after soaps.

Extensive foaming Fremont, California - 1972
Branched alkylbenzene sulfonates (BAS) were first introduced in the early 1930s and saw significant growth from the late 1940s onwards, in early literature these synthetic detergents are often abbreviated as syndets. 
They were prepared by the Friedel–Crafts alkylation of benzene with 'propylene tetramer' (also called tetrapropylene) followed by sulfonation. 
Propylene tetramer being a broad term for a mixture of compounds formed by the oligomerization of propene, its use gave a mixture of highly branched structures.

Compared to traditional soaps BAS offered superior tolerance to hard water and better foaming.
However, the highly branched tail made it difficult to biodegrade.
BAS was widely blamed for the formation of large expanses of stable foam in areas of wastewater discharge such as lakes, rivers and coastal areas (sea foams), as well as foaming problems encountered in sewage treatment and contamination of drinking water.
As such BAS was phased out of most detergent products during the 1960s, being replaced with linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LABSA). 
It is still important in certain agrochemical and industrial applications, where rapid biodegradability is of reduced importance.

Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates

An example of a linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LABSA)
Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LABSA) are prepared industrially by the sulfonation of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), which can themselves be prepared in several ways.
In the most common route benzene is alkylated by long chain monoalkenes (e.g. dodecene) using hydrogen fluoride as a catalyst.
The purified dodecylbenzenes (and related derivatives) are then sulfonated with sulfur trioxide to give the sulfonic acid.
The sulfonic acid is subsequently neutralized with sodium hydroxide.
The term "linear" refers to the starting alkenes rather than the final product, perfectly linear addition products are not seen, in-line with Markovnikov's rule. 
Thus, the alkylation of linear alkenes, even 1-alkenes such as 1-dodecene, gives several isomers of phenyldodecane.

Structure property relationships
Under ideal conditions the cleaning power of BAS and LABSA is very similar, however LABSA performs slightly better in normal use conditions, due to it being less affected by hard water.
Within LABSA itself the detergency of the various isomers are fairly similar, however their physical properties (Krafft point, foaming etc.) are noticeably different.
In particular the Krafft point of the high 2-phenyl product (i.e. the least branched isomer) remains below 0 °C up to 25% LABSA whereas the low 2-phenyl cloud point is ∼15 °C.
This behavior is often exploited by producers to create either clear or cloudy products.

Environmental fate
Biodegradability has been well studied, and is affected by isomerization, in this case, branching. 
The salt of the linear material has an LD50 of 2.3 mg/liter for fish, about four times more toxic than the branched compound; however the linear compound biodegrades far more quickly, making it the safer choice over time. 
It is biodegraded rapidly under aerobic conditions with a half-life of approximately 1–3 weeks; oxidative degradation initiates at the alkyl chain.
Under anaerobic conditions it degrades very slowly or not at all, causing it to exist in high concentrations in sewage sludge, but this is not thought to be a cause for concern as it will rapidly degrade once returned to an oxygenated environment.


The LABSA molecule contains an aromatic ring sulfonated at the para position and attached to a linear alkyl chain at any position except the terminal carbons. 
The alkyl carbon chain typically has 10 to 14 carbon atoms and the linearity of the alkyl chains ranges from 87 to 98%. 
While commercial LABSA consists of more than 20 individual components, the ratio of the various homologues and isomers, representing different alkyl chain lengths and aromatic ring positions along the linear alkyl chain, is relatively constant in currently produced products, with the weighted average carbon number of the alkyl chain based on production volume per region between 11.7-11.8. 
LABSA is supported as a category because of the close consistency of the mixtures, their commercial uses, fate, and health and environmental effects. 
LABSA is the primary cleaning agent used in many laundry detergents and cleaners at concentrations up to 25 percent in consumer products, and up to 30 percent in commercial products, with the exception of one reported product at 45% percent in concentrated solid form that is mechanically dispensed into diluted solution for dishwashing. 

2 GENERAL INFORMATION ON EXPOSURE 
2.1 Production Volumes and Use Pattern LABSA is manufactured from linear alkylbenzene (LAB) in self-contained, enclosed systems (see Annex 1 for more information). 
LAB is produced by reacting paraffins with benzene and a catalyst and isolating the LAB by distillation. 
The LAB is then sulfonated, which in turn is then neutralized to sodium salts of LABSA. 
Data on LABSA production and consumption volumes, uses, releases and potential exposures were collected from published sources and surveys of member companies of the Industry Coalition for the SIDS Assessment of LABSA, representing about 75% of the North American production of LABSA. 
Approximately 390,000 metric tons of LABSA were consumed in North America (United States and Canada combined) in 2000 (Colin A. Houston, 2002). 
Production in Europe in 2000 was approximately 400,000 metric tons (as reported in HERA 2004). 
Production in Japan in 2001, where all of the LABSA producers are members of the consortium, was approximately 85,000 metric tons based on the results of the Coalition survey. 
Global production was 2.6 million metric tons in 1995, the most recent data available (EU Risk Assessment Report for LAB, 1997). 
OECD SIDS LINEAR ALKYLBENZENE SULFONATE (LABSA) UNEP PUBLICATIONS 

Based on the results of the survey of consortium members (LABSA SIDS Coalition Survey 2002), about 78-97% of the LABSA consumption worldwide is in liquid and powder consumer and industrial laundry and fine fabric detergents. 
Another 2-10% of the LABSA produced is used in consumer and industrial dishwashing liquids, with the remainder used in other consumer and industrial cleaners. 
Following use, the predominant disposal route for these products is via the wastewater. 

The only exception is a product containing 45% LABSA that is a concentrated solid mechanically dispensed into diluted solution for dishwashing. OECD SIDS LINEAR ALKYLBENZENE SULFONATE (LABSA) UNEP PUBLICATIONS 14 2.2 Environmental Exposure and Fate 2.2.1 Sources of Environmental Exposur


Function/Product Use Description
LABSA is a surfactant used in commercial laundry and cleaning products that are either used as supplied or diluted prior to use. 
Uses include institutional and industrial products; for example:

Product Type Concentration in Products in US/Canada (range)
Laundry detergents (dry) 5-25 %
Dishwashing detergents (liquids) 5-10 %
General cleaners 1-5 %
Disinfectant cleaners (liquids) 5-10 %

Product Type Concentration in Products in Europe (range)
Laundry detergents (dry) 5-10 %
Laundry detergents (liquids) 10-25 %
Pre-washes 10-25 %
Dishwashing detergents (liquids) 25-50 %

Product Type Concentration in Products in Japan (range)
Laundry detergents (dry) 5-10 %
Dishwashing detergents (liquids) 5-50 %
Hard surface cleaners 1-10%


Function/ Product Use Description
LABSA has wide-spread and dispersive use as a surfactant in the following consumer products.


Product Type Concentration in Products in US/Canada (range)
Laundry detergents (dry) 5-25 %
Laundry detergents (liquids) 1-25 %
Laundry detergents (tablets) 5-25 %
Fabric conditioners (sheets) 0.1-0.5 %
Dishwashing detergents (liquids) 5-25 %
General cleaners (dilutable) 1-5 %
Hard surface cleaners 1-5 %
Face and hand soaps (bars) 1-5 %


Product Type Concentration in Products in Europe (range)
Laundry detergents (dry) 5-25 %
Laundry detergents (liquids) 5-10 %
Laundry detergents (tablets) 10-25 %
Dishwashing detergents (liquids) 10-25 %
General cleaners (dilutable) 1-5 %
Hard surface cleaners 0.1-0.5 %

Product Type Concentration in Products in Japan (range)
Laundry detergents (dry) 5-25 %
Laundry detergents (liquids) 5-25 %
Laundry detergents (tablets) 5-25 %
Fine fabric detergents (liquid) 1-5 %
Bleaches 0.1-0.5 %
Pre-washes 5-10 %
Dishwashing detergents (liquids) 1-5 %
Hard surface cleaners 0.5-10 %
Other cleaners 0.1-0.5 %
The level (%) in products shown above is in the formulated product and does not take into account any dilution prior to or during use


About 78-97% of the LABSA consumption worldwide is in liquid and powder consumer and industrial laundry and fine fabric detergents. 
Another 2-10% of the LABSA produced is used in consumer and industrial dishwashing liquids, with the remainder (1-5%) used in other consumer and industrial cleaners.

LABSA is an anionic surfactant that lowers the surface tension of water, enabling soils and stains to loosen and release from fabrics and surfaces. 
LABSA is the primary cleaning agent used in many liquid and powder laundry detergents and speciality household cleaners at concentrations up to 25 percent of the total formulation. 


Application
1
High action of detergency
LABSA 96% linear alkyl benzen with high action of detergency, moistening, foaming, emulsion.

2
Detergents and emulsifiers
LABSA chemical is widely applied in a variety of detergents and emulsifiers, such as washing powder, daily-use chemical detergent, utensils detergents, textile industry of the cleaning agent, dye, electroplating industry, leather industry, degreasing agents, paper industry’s de-coloring agent.

3
Household detergents
Household detergents including laundry powders, laundry liquids, dishwashing liquids and other household cleaners.

(LINEAR ALKYLBENZENE SULFONIC ACID (LABSA
Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonic Acid
Sulfonic Acid

Alternatively, ethylene can be oligomerized (partially polymerized) to produce linear alkenes. The resulting linear mono-olefins react with benzene in the presence of a catalyst to produce the LABs. Hydrogen fluoride (HF) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) are the two major catalysts for the alkylation of benzene with linear mono-olefins.

 

Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonic Acid(LABSA) Packing
 

Sulphonic Acid– LABSA PACKING IS:220 Liter drums.
Please check album.

 

Linear Alkyl Benzene SulfonicAcid(LABSA) use for
 

LAB Sulfonic Acid is an anionic surfactant widely used in formulation of all ranges of Domestic Detergents Powder, Cake &amp; Dishwashing cleaners. 
Due to its high active matter, miscibility with water and low salt content, it is also used in these fields:
• Formulation of Industrial
• Household liquid cleaners
• Washing powder
• Degreaser of plating and leather making industry
• Detergent of dishware

 

Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonic Acid (LABSA) Formula
 

Linear Alkyl Benzene SulfonicAcid(LABSA)
Appearance,25℃: Brown viscous liquid
Odor: characteristic odor Active matter, %: 96 min.
Unsulfonate matter, %: 2.0 max.
Free sulfuric acid, %: 1.5 max.
Color, Klett (50g/L aq.sol): 50 max.

Linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acids (LAS) are anionic surfactants. 
Linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acids are a mixtures of benzene sulphonic acids containing linear alkyl chains of different lengths (C9: less than 1%, C10: 8 to 16%, C11: 26 to 38%, C12: 26 to 38%, C13: 15 to 27% and longer than C13: less than 2.5%). 
The amount of linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid in the products is 2% and these products are indicated for post-dipping or teat-spraying of dairy cows. 
The average dose per teat is assumed to be about 1 ml of the product, which equals to 80 mg of linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid per cow per milking. 
Linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acids are commonly used as cleaning agents (household and personal care products). 
Linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid is included as surface active agent in Commission Decision 96/335/EC of 8 May 1996 establishing an inventory and a common nomenclature of ingredients employed in cosmetic products. 
The occupational and environmental exposure to linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid has been assessed by WHO in 1996: The worldwide consumption of linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acids in 1990 was about 2 million tonnes. 
Linear dodecyl benzene sulphonic acid, under the synonym sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate, has been included in 1987 on the food additive list of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States of America as a surface active agent in commercial detergents used in washing fruits and vegetables or to assist in lye peeling these products. 
The tolerance limit has been set on equal to or less than 0.2% in wash water. 

2. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups of the molecule are both essential for action of surfactants in detergents. According to a published study on the in vitro germicidal activity of teat dips the linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid-containing product (1.94%) was shown to be completely effective against suspensions of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae containing 108 bacteria/ml each following a contact time of 2 minutes. 
According to a published review document on in vitro studies, the 50% haemolytic concentration for linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid was 9 mg/l and the 50% inhibitory concentration for prothrombin time was 0.05 mmol/l (16.3 mg/l). 
Linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid influenced the thermal denaturation of proteins in vitro indicating protein-linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid interaction. 

3. Pharmacokinetic data are presented based on published reports. 
In rats, 14C-labelled alkyl benzene sulphonate was administered daily in the diet at a concentration of 1.4 mg/kg feed (dose per kg bw not given) to 12 male Wistar rats (120 to 140 g) for 5 weeks. Radioactivity was mostly excreted in faeces (52%) and in urine (29%) during the 5-week feeding period. 
After a single intraperitoneal administration of 14C-labelled alkyl benzene sulphonate (384.7 µg/rat), 85% of the dose was excreted during the first 24 hours and 95% within 10 days follow-up period. 
The main elimination route was via urine (50% of radioactivity), while 35% was excreted into faeces. 
However, during days 2 to 10 the percentage of radioactivity excreted into faeces was higher than that excreted into urine. No parent compound could be detected in faeces or urine but 


High quality, high phenyl grade LABSA, a 96% active ionic surfactant. 
A cost effective ingredient for the manufacture of detergent powders, dry mixed as well as spray dried balanced formulation, detergent bars made by extrusion or compression, and liquid detergents over a wide range of concentration and viscosities. 
Provides excellent detergency and compatibility with other anionic, non-ionic and amphoteric surfactants an is soluble in water & alcohol.

High phenyl grade becomes especially important when a clear formulation is desired.  
To prevent clouding when introducing high solids, you will need such a high phenyl grade. This ingredient performed with higher clarity in comparison testing vs other leading ingredient.

Used as the primary surfactant in both household and commercial applications of:

Dish Detergent (both Machine and Hand)
Laundry Detergent
Car Wash
Other applications: Hard Surface Care, Heavy Duty Cleaning, Industrial Cleaning, Light Duty Cleaning, Concentrated Emulsions, Emulsifiable Concentrates, Fumigants, Latex Frothing Agent, Latex Manufacture, Micro-emulsions, Oil Dispersants, Suspension Concentrates, Suspension emulsions.

Other Ingredient Acronyms: DODECYLBENZENE SULFONIC ACID (DDBSA)


Linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid is the largest-volume synthetic surfactant because of its relatively low cost, good performance, the fact that it can be dried to a stable powder and the biodegradable environmental friendliness as it has straight chain. LAS is an anionic surfactants with molecules characterized by a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic group. 
Alpha-olefin sulfonates (AOS) alkyl sulfates (AS) are also examples of commercial anionic surfactants. 
They are nonvolatile compounds produced by sulfonation. 
LAS are complex mixtures of homologues of different alkyl chain lengths (C10 to C13 or C14) and phenyl positional isomers of  2 to 5-phenyl in proportions dictated by the starting materials and reaction conditions, each containing an aromatic ring sulfonated at the para position and attached to a linear alkyl chain at any position with the exception of terminal one (1-phenyl). 
The properties of LAS differ in physical and chemical properties according to the alkyl chain length, resulting in formulations for various applications. 
The starting material LAB (linear alkylbenzene) is produced by the alkylation of benzene with n-paraffins in the presence of hydrogen fluoride (HF) or aluminium chloride (AlCl3) as a catalyst.  

LAS is produced by the sulfonation of LAB with oleum in batch reactors. 
Other sulfonation alternative reagents are sulfuric acid, diluted sulfur trioxide, chlorosulfonic acid and sulfamic acid on falling film reactors. 
LAS are then neutralized to the desired salt (sodium, ammonium, calcium, potassium, and triethanolamine salts). 
Surfactants are widely used in the industry needed to improve contact between polar and non-polar media such as between oil and water or between water and minerals. 
Linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid is mainly used to produce household detergents including laundry powders, laundry liquids, dishwashing liquids and other household cleaners as well as in numerous industrial applications like as a coupling agent and as an emulsifier for agricultural herbicides and in emulsion polymerization.

PARENT SULFONIC ACID

SALTS

CHAIN LENGTH

CAS RN

CAS RN

Dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid    1322-98-1    1322-98-1 (Sodium)
Undecylbenzene sulfonic acid    50854-94-9    27636-75-5 (Sodium)
                        61931-75-7 (Ammonium)
Linear Alkylbenzene sulfonic acid 27176-87-0    25155-30-0 (Sodium)
                        29756-98-7 (Aluminium)
                        1331-61-9 (Ammonium)
                        26264-06-2 (Calcium)
                        27177-77-1 (Potassium)
Tridecylbenzene sulfonic acid    25496-01-9    26248-24-8 (Sodium)
Tetradecylbenzene sulfonic acid    30776-59-1    28348-61-0 (Sodium)
Pentadecylbenzene sulfonic acid    61215-89-2    64716-02-5 (Potassium)
Hexadecylbenzene sulfonic acid    16722-32-0    64716-00-3 (Potassium)
Heptadecylbenzene sulfonic acid    39735-13-2    
 


How to neutralize labsa
This test for studying the neutralization of Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid (LABSA) with Caustic Soda (50% concentration i.e. 150kg water and 150 kg NaOH) in the process of slurry making for the detergent industry. The starts by charging water (900 kg) into the reactor and then adding caustic soda (300 kg) thereby diluting it to 10%. Then LABSA (1050 kg) is added for neutralization reaction. The product is LAS salt and water.

The reaction is as follows:

CH3 (CH2)11C6H4SO3H + 3NaOH =====> CH3 (CH2)11C6H4SO3Na + 3H2O

It is required that the resulting paste from the above reaction contains no acid which means that all of the LABSA should be consumed (making it the limiting reactant). However, stoichiometric ally NaOH is the limiting reactant according to the provided masses.

It should be noted that water is added to make up the quantity of NaOH, so that it is enough to react with the supplied LABSA. But adding water does not convert it into NaOH which means that the quantity of NaOH remains the same (i.e. 150 kg).

Usage labsa:
Linear alkylbenzene sulphonic acid can be neutralized with caustic soda (NAOH) to form sodium.

Alkylbenzene sulphonate-an extensively applied anionic surfactant.

LABSA is not inflammable substance and can dissolve in water, but not in organic solvent.

LABSA is quite absorbent and its biodegradability is above 90%.

Linear alkylbenzene sulphonic acid is extensively applied anionic surfactant.

Labsa is raw material for detergent industry characterized by detergency, foam, moisture, and emulsion and dispersing.


Sulfonic acid, LABSA is a batch of organic sulfur compounds that are used in most dishwashing detergents, detergent powder, cleaning powder, washing powders, detergent cake, liquid soap, soaps etc.  It is used as a foaming agent and cleaning agent in most formulations. It is also used in textile industry as a washing agent, pesticides industries to improve the quality of spray.

It is mainly used as

1. The raw material to produce kinds of detergent, emulsion. Such as laundry powder, dish wash cleaner in daily chemical industrial;

2. Cleaner, dyeing assistant in textile industrial;

3. Degrease agent in electroplate and leather manufacture, de-inking agent in paper making etc.

4. As the raw material of detergents. It is used to produce alkylbenzene sulfonic acid sodium(LAS), which has the performances of decontamination,emulsification, dispersion, wetting and foaming property.


Applications: Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid (LABSA) - Soft Acid Slurry is main Raw Material for Synthetic detergent industries in the formulation of Washing Powder, Detergent Powder, Detergent Cake, Liquid Soap, Cleaning Powder, Scouring Bar, Oil Soaps etc. 
It is used in Anionic specialty formulations. In other Industries like textile industries it is used as mercerizing or washing agent. 
It is used for increasing the surface area of distempers. Also used in Agro Chemicals.


About 82–87% of LAS is used in household detergents, including laundry powders, laundry liquids, dishwashing liquids, and other household cleaners. 
Industrial, institutional, and commercial cleaners account for most of the other applications, but LAS is also used as an emulsifier (e.g., for agricultural herbicides and in emulsion polymerization) and as a wetting agent. Very small volumes are also used in personal care applications. 
Demand in the North American household segment fell sharply in 2000–11, as a result of several developments, including reformulations away from LAS to alternative surfactants because of cost considerations, the greater use of enzymes, and adverse economic conditions that resulted in lower overall surfactant levels in detergents. 
However, consumption stabilized during 2011–17.

Although consumption of LAS will likely stabilize or decline slightly in the highly developed regions, it will increase by 3.0–5.0% in some less-developed regions or countries, such as the Middle East, Africa, India, and China, as well as Southeast Asia. 
As a result of the rapid growth of LAS demand in the Asia Pacific region, demand in the region accounted for over half of global demand in 2017.

The worldwide growth of LAS will be negatively impacted by the efforts of detergent manufacturers to reduce the active content in their surfactant formulations, by the shift to liquid detergents in some countries (which benefits competing surfactants), and by less consumer overdosing (particularly in North America with unit dose laundry products, assuming they continue to take some market share from traditional liquid detergents). 
However, consumption of LAS will be positively affected in countries/regions such as India, China, Africa, and the Middle East, where powder detergents are still a very large part of the laundry detergent market.

Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate competes with several other major surfactants for use in household detergents. 
Some of the competitive surfactants have greater hard-water tolerance and better compatibility with enzymes and are milder than LAS. 
Historically, however, LAS has most often been lower in cost and has had other more favorable properties compared with competing surfactants. 
During 2002–06, very high crude oil prices made LAS far less competitive than had been true in most years since its introduction. 
During 2007–11, LAS prices tracked more closely those of the competitive surfactants. 
This led to a more stable pattern of consumption, even as prices for all surfactants continued to be very volatile. 
From late 2014 through 2017, low crude oil prices helped LAS become more competitive.

LABSA/LAS production is impacted by the supply situation for competing products—mainly alcohol ether sulfates (AES). 
Shortages in AES supply or its high price has usually favored the use of LABSA/LAS. In the developing world, LAS competes with soaps.

Linear alkylbenzene or LAB, the most common raw material in the production of biodegradable detergents.

It is manufactured by using benzene with mono-olefins obtained from normal paraffin. These are substances which, in addition to their solvent character in general, can be used in large number of organic syntheses for the production of very pure intermediate compounds.


The alkylation of benzene with olefins also leads to the formation of small quantities of heavy alkylates, products mainly consisting of dialkyl benzenes. 
Its low viscosity and high dielectric strength give it perfect properties for certain industrial uses such as electric oils, oil additives and coolants.

The sulfonation of LAB leads to the formation of the corresponding sulfonic acid (LABSA). 
LABSA is the most versatile and most widely used surfactant in all types of detergent formulations in powder, liquids, gels, agglomerates, bars or tablets.

LABSA is a complex mixtures of homologues of different alkyl chain lengths (C10 to C13 or C14) and phenyl positional isomers of 2 to 5-phenyl in proportions dictated by the starting materials and reaction conditions, each containing an aromatic ring sulfonated at the Para position and attached to a linear alkyl chain at any position with the exception of terminal one (1-phenyl). 
The properties of LABSA differ in physical and chemical properties according to the alkyl chain length, resulting in formulations for various applications in laundry and home care products. 
The starting material LAB (linear alkyl benzene) is produced by the alkylation of benzene with n-paraffins in the presence of hydrogen fluoride (HF) or aluminium chloride (AlCl3) as a catalyst, the latest is DETAL process by UOP. 

LABSA is produced by the sulfonation of LAB with sulphuric acid in batch reactors. 
Other sulfonation alternative reagents are oleum, diluted sulfur trioxide, chlorosulfonic acid and sulfamic acid on falling film reactors. 
Surfactants are widely used in the industry needed to improve contact between polar and non-polar media such as between oil and water or between water and minerals. 
Linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid is mainly used to produce household detergents including laundry powders, laundry liquids, dishwashing liquids and other household cleaners as well as in numerous industrial applications like as a coupling agent and as an emulsifier for agricultural herbicides and in emulsion polymerization. 
Because they are stable, sulfonic acids can be isolated, stored and shipped as an article of commerce. 
SO3 is an aggressive electrophilic reagent that rapidly reacts with any organic compound containing an electron donor group. 
Sulfonation is a difficult reaction to perform on an industrial scale because the reaction is rapid and highly exothermic; releasing approximately 380 kJ/kg SO3 (800 BTUs per pound of SO3) reacted. 
Most organic compounds form a black char on contact with pure SO3 due to the rapid reaction and heat evolution. 
Additionally, the reactants increase in viscosity between 15 and 300 times as they are converted from the organic feedstock to the sulfonic acid.
This large increase in viscosity makes heat removal difficult. 

The high viscosity of the formed products reduces the heat transfer coefficient from the reaction mass. 
Effective cooling of the reaction mass is essential because high temperatures promote side reactions that produce undesirable by-products. 
Also, precise control of the molar ratio of SO3 to organic is essential because any excess SO3, due to its reactive nature, contributes to side reactions and by-product formation. 
Therefore, commercial scale sulfonation reactions require special equipment and instrumentation that allows tight control of the mole ratio of SO3 to organic and rapid removal of the heat of reaction. 
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is widely used as sulfonating agent. 
It is an equilibrium process, as water is formed in the reaction and the resultant water dilutes the sulfuric acid. 
The sulfonation reaction stops when the sulfuric acid concentration drops to approximately 80%. This process has the dual advantage of low SO3 cost and low capital equipment cost as compared to the gas sulphonation route. 
However, it has the disadvantage of being an equilibrium process which leaves large quantities of un-reacted sulfuric acid. 
This waste acid must be separated from the reaction mixture and subsequently used in manufacture of SSP and other fertilizers. 
Sulfuric acid can be used to sulfonate aromatics and alcohols in either batch or continuous equipment. 
For detergent alkylates, the batch equipment is used which is a Reactor, with a provision for and cooling to remove the heat of reaction and maintain suitable temperature during the reaction.
The detergent alkylate is first added to the reaction vessel then the Sulphuric acid is slowly added over a period time.
The reaction is highly exothermic and the acid addition rate is determined by the ability to remove the heat of reaction.
The temperature should be maintained below 65°C for optimum product quality. 
Frequently the heat of reaction is removed by pumping the reaction mixture through an external heat exchanger.
Because it is an equilibrium reaction, except for the special case of azeotropic sulfonation of hydrotropes with sulfuric acid, a large surplus of sulfuric acid forms. 
When the sulfonation reaction is complete,the sulfuric acid may be separated from the sulfonated detergent alkylate by adding water. 
The water addition (typically about 6 to 8% by weight of the reaction mixture) causes a phase separation to occur between the sulfonic acid and the diluted sulfuric acid called spent acid. 
The separation usually takes place in a separate, lined vessel and occurs over a period of about for 1/2 hour.
After separation, the sulfonic acid is transfered in to a storage tank from which material is dispatched. 
Material is sold either in lorry tankers or in HDPE barrels. 
An automatic barrel filling machine is used to make sure that correct weight of material is filled in to each barrel. 
Road tankers are weighed in weighbridges before dispatch


 

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