LINOLEIC ACID


Linoleic acid is the most favored fatty acid used in cosmetic and personal care products as it cannot be synthesised by the body and always used as emollients or moisturiser for skin, nails, and hair.

Linoleic Acid is a polyunsaturated essential fatty acid found mostly in plant oils. 
Linoleic acid is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes.

Linoleic acid is a colorless to straw colored liquid. A polyunsaturated fatty acid essential to human diet.
Linoleic acid is an octadecadienoic acid in which the two double bonds are at positions 9 and 12 and have Z (cis) stereochemistry. 
Linoleic acid has a role as a plant metabolite, a Daphnia galeata metabolite and an algal metabolite. 
Linoleic acid is an omega-6 fatty acid and an octadecadienoic acid. Linoleic acid is a conjugate acid of a linoleate.


Linoleic acid is an essential building block for ceramides, one of skin's main moisturizing elements. 
Our bodies can't make this essential fatty acid, so we need get it from our food or put it on our skin. 
Linoleic acid helps makes the skin's barrier stronger so it can effectively keep water in and irritants out.


EC / List no.: 200-470-9
CAS no.: 60-33-3
Mol. formula: C18H32O2


Synonyms     
(9Z,12Z)-Octadecadienoic acid    
(Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid    
9-cis,12-cis-Octadecadienoic acid    
9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid    
acide cis-linoléique Français    
acide linoléique Français    
ácido linoleico Español    
all-cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid    
C18:2 9c, 12c ω6 todos cis-9,12-octadienoico Español    
C18:2, n-6,9 all-cis    
cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid    
cis,cis-linoleic acid    
cis,cis-linoleic acid    
cis-Δ9,12-octadecadienoic acid    
LA    ChEBI
Linoleic acid    
LINOLEIC ACID    
linolic acid


Not to be confused with linolenic acid, alpha-Linolenic acid, or lipoic acid.

In physiology
The consumption of linoleic acid is vital to proper health, as it is an essential fatty acid.
In rats, a diet deficient in linoleate (the salt form of the acid) has been shown to cause mild skin scaling, hair loss, and poor wound healing.

Cosmetic Uses:    
antistatic agents
cleansing agents
hair conditioning
skin conditioning
skin conditioning - emollient
surfactants


Vitamin F is a mixture of the only two essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as linoleic acid (LA), and α linolenic acid (ALA) required by humans.
α-linolenic acid satisfies the need for an omega-3 fatty acid back-bone structure and linoleic acid satisfies the need for an omega-6 fatty acids back-bone structure.


Our Linoleic acid is a high purity grade of linoleic acid derived wholly from a tall oil fatty acid source. 
It is a pale, oily liquid with low odor, and is highly resistant to discoloration on exposure to heat and light. 
Because of the near absence of saturated fatty acids, this product has exceptionally low titer. 
Our linoleic acid contains a low percentage of unsaponifiables and resin acids. 
Linoleic acid is designed especially for the protective coatings industry for production of pale, color retentive, fast drying alkyds and epoxy resin ester coatings. 
Other uses for this linoleic acid are in applications that require both wetting and drying properties, such as printing ink vehicles and caulking and sealant compositions.

Linoleic acid (LA), an omega-6 fatty acid, and α-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid, are considered essential fatty acids because they cannot be synthesized by humans.


Applications/uses
Adhesives/sealants-B&C
Commerical printing inks
Paints & coatings
Polymer modification
Protective coatings
 
Key attributes
Good initial color and color stability
High purity linoleic acid
Low rosin acids and unsaponifiables content
Very low titer point


Linoleic acid

Names
IUPAC name: (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid

Other names
cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid
C18:2 (Lipid numbers)


CAS Number: 60-33-3 
EC Number: 200-470-9

Properties
Chemical formula: C18H32O2
Molar mass: 280.452 g·mol−1
Appearance: Colorless oil
Density: 0.9 g/cm3
Melting point: −12 °C (10 °F)
−6.9 °C (19.6 °F)
−5 °C (23 °F)
Boiling point: 229 °C (444 °F) at 16 mmHg
230 °C (446 °F) at 21 mbar[3]
230 °C (446 °F) at 16 mmHg[1]

Solubility in water: 0.139 mg/L
Vapor pressure    16 Torr at 229 °C

Flash point: 112 °C (234 °F)


Linoleic acid is an organic compound with the formula COOH(CH2)7CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)4CH3. 
Both alkene groups are cis. Linoleic acid is a fatty acid sometimes denoted 18:2 (n-6) or 18:2 cis-9,12. A linoleate is a salt or ester of this acid.

Linoleic acid is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid. 

Linoleic acid is a colorless or white oil that is virtually insoluble in water but soluble in many organic solvents.

Linoleic acid typically occurs in nature as a triglyceride (ester of glycerin) rather than as a free fatty acid.

Linoleic acid is one of two essential fatty acids for humans, who must obtain it through their diet.

The word "linoleic" derives from the Latin linum "flax" + oleum "oil", reflecting the fact that it was first isolated from linseed oil.

Linoleic acid is the main essential fatty acid, although arachidonic and linolenic acid are partially effective in replacing it. 
Arachidonic can be synthesized in the body from linoleic acid. 
The essential fatty acids are referred to as those the body is not able to synthesize, or at least not adequately, to meet body requirements. 
Linoleic and arachidonic acid are the most effective with linolenic being effective in certain animal species under certain conditions. 
Arachidonic acid is found only in animal fats and in relatively small amounts whereas linoleic acid is found in other feeds and at much higher levels. 
Linoleic acid, therefore, is the primary source of essential fatty acids and should be considered for animal diets. 
The chick, for example, cannot synthesize linoleic acid. 
Therefore, linoleic acid must be supplied in the diet. 
Arachidonic acid can be synthesized only from linoleic acid.


Linoleic acid is a precursor to arachidonic acid (AA) with elongation and saturation, arachidonic acid is the precursor to some prostaglandins, leukotrienes (LTA, LTB, LTC), and thromboxane (TXA).[12]

The metabolism of 
Linoleic acid to arachidonic acid begins with the conversion of LA into gamma-Linolenic acid (GLA), effected by Δ6desaturase.
GLA is converted to dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA), the immediate precursor to AA.


Linoleic acid is also converted by various lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases, cytochrome P450 enzymes (the CYP monooxygenases), and non-enzymatic autoxidation mechanisms to mono-hydroxyl products viz., 13-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, and 9-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid; these two hydroxy metabolites are enzymatically oxidized to their keto metabolites, 13-oxo-octadecadienoic acid and 9-oxo-octadecdienoic acid. Certain cytochrome P450 enzymes, the CYP epoxygenases, catalyze oxidation of LA to epoxide products viz., its 12,13-epoxide, Vernolic acid, and its 9,10-epoxide, Coronaric acid. 
These linoleic acid products are implicated in human physiology and pathology.

Uses and reactions
Linoleic acid is a component of quick-drying oils, which are useful in oil paints and varnishes. 
These applications exploit the lability of the doubly allylic C-H groups (-CH=CH-CH2-CH=CH-) toward oxygen in air (autoxidation). 
Addition of oxygen leads to crosslinking and formation of a stable film.

Reduction of the carboxylic acid group of linoleic acid yields linoleyl alcohol.

Linoleic acid is a surfactant with a critical micelle concentration of 1.5 x 10−4 M @ pH 7.5.

Linoleic acid has become increasingly popular in the beauty products industry because of its beneficial properties on the skin. 
Research points to linoleic acid's anti-inflammatory, acne reductive, skin-lightening and moisture retentive properties when applied topically on the skin.

Dietary sources
Linoleic acid is abundant in safflower, sunflower, corn, and comprises over half their composition by weight. 
Linoleic acid is present in medium quantities in soybean oils, sesame, and almonds.

Name    % LA†    ref.
Salicornia oil    75%    
Safflower oil    74.62%    
Evening Primrose oil    65-80%    
Melon seed oil    70%    
Poppyseed oil    70%    
Grape seed oil    69.6%    
Sunflower oil    65.7%    
Prickly Pear seed oil    63%    
Hemp oil    54.3%    
Corn oil    59%    
Wheat germ oil    55%    
Cottonseed oil    54%    
Soybean oil    51%    
Walnut oil    51%    
Sesame oil    45%    
Rice bran oil    39%    
Argan oil    37%    
Pistachio oil    32.7%    
Peanut oil    32%    
Peach oil    29%    
Almonds    24%    
Canola oil    21%    
Chicken fat    18-23%    
Egg yolk    16%    
Linseed oil (flax)    15%    
Lard    10%    
Olive oil    10% (3.5 - 21%)    
Palm oil    10%    
Durio graveolens    4.95%    
Cocoa butter    3%    
Macadamia oil    2%    
Butter    2%    
Coconut oil    2%    
     
Other occurrences
Cockroaches release oleic and linoleic acid upon death, which discourages other roaches from entering the area. 
This is similar to the mechanism found in ants and bees, which release oleic acid upon death.[31]

History
In 1844, F. Sacc, working at the laboratory of Justus von Liebig, isolated linoleic acid from linseed oil.
In 1886, K. Peters determined the existence of two double bonds.
Its essential role in human diet was discovered by G. O. Burr and others in 1930.
Its chemical structure was determined by T.P. Hilditch and others in 1939, and it was synthesized by R. A. Raphael and F. Sondheimer in 1950.

Linoleic acid is a liquid found mostly in polyunsaturated fats, such as cooking oils. It’s an omega 6 fatty acid which, along with omega 3, is one of two essential fats our body requires but can’t manufacture, so we have to get it through our diet. It plays a role in reproduction, brain activity, hair growth, bone density and energy production 


linoleic acid
60-33-3
Linolic acid
Telfairic acid
cis,cis-Linoleic acid
(9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid
Linoleate
cis,cis-9,12-Octadecadienoic acid
Grape seed oil
cis-9,cis-12-Octadecadienoic acid
9Z,12Z-Linoleic acid
Emersol 315
(Z,Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoic acid
9,12-Linoleic acid
Unifac 6550
9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid
Extra Linoleic 90
9-cis,12-cis-Linoleic acid
Emersol 310
Polylin 515
all-cis-9,12-Octadecadienoic acid
Polylin No. 515
9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (9Z,12Z)-
Linoleic
acide linoleique
9,12-Octadecadienoic acid
Linoleic acid, pure
9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-
acido linoleico
Leinoleic acid
(9Z,12Z)-Octadecadienoic acid
UNII-9KJL21T0QJ
9-cis,12-cis-Octadecadienoic acid
alpha-Linoleic acid
acide cis-linoleique
9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, (Z,Z)-
(9Z,12Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid
CHEBI:17351
cis-9, cis-12-octadecadienoic acid
MFCD00064241
cis-Delta(9,12)-octadecadienoic acid
9KJL21T0QJ
CHEMBL267476
9-cis,12-cis-Octadecadienoate
C18:2
Oils, grape
NSC-281243
Linoleic acid, 99%
cis,cis-linoleate
NCGC00091049-04
VESPULA PENSYLVANICA B708568K063
DSSTox_CID_5505
DSSTox_RID_77814
DSSTox_GSID_25505
Linoleic acid, 60%, tech.
2197-37-7
Oils, grape seed
CAS-60-33-3
CCRIS 650
14C-Linoleic acid
HSDB 5200
(14C)-Linoleic acid
SR-01000944790
cis-delta9,12-Octadecadienoic acid
UNII-7552P0K6PN
EINECS 200-470-9
NSC 281243
(14C)alpha-Linolenic acid
7552P0K6PN
Linolate
grapeseed oil
Leinolic acid
AI3-11132
trans-9,trans-12-Octadecadienoic acid
linoleic acid group
9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, (9E,12E)-
9Z,12Z-Linoleate
Linoleic Acid 315
8024-22-4
n-6,9 all-cis
Linoleic acid, 95%
9Z,12Z-Octadecadienoate
9-cis,12-cis-Linoleate
Linoleic acid, >=95%
Linoleic acid, >=99%
bmse000497
bmse000604
Epitope ID:117705
linoleic and linolenic acids
SCHEMBL7067
cis,12-Octadecadienoic acid
Pamolyn 125 (Salt/Mix)
cis-D9,12-Octadecadienoate
BSPBio_001374
CCRIS 652
all-cis-9,12-Octadecadienoate
BML3-C03
cis-9,cis-12-Octadecadienoate
GTPL1052
Linoleic acid, >=95%, FG
Linoleic acid, puriss., 90%
delta9,12-Octadecadienoic acid
(Z,Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoate
DTXSID2025505
ACon1_000270
BDBM22231
C18:2, n-6,9 all-cis
cis-D9,12-Octadecadienoic acid
Linoleic acid, >=93% (GC)
CHEBI:137735
9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, (Z,Z)-, labeled with carbon-14
HMS1361E16
HMS1791E16
HMS1989E16
HMS3402E16
HMS3649F07
HMS3886F05
Linoleic acid, analytical standard
9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (VAN)
HY-N0729
LIN
ZINC4474613
9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, (Z)-
Tox21_111067
Tox21_202171
Tox21_303080
(9Z,12Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoate
C18:2 9c
cis,cis-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid
cis-9,cis-12-Octadecadienoic acid,
LMFA01030120
NSC281243
s5821
(Z,Z)-Octadeca-9, 12-dienoic acid
9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, (E,E)-


Metabolism of linoleic acid
Linoleic acid maintains the skin's impermeability to water; however, to exert its other effects on the body, linoleic acid must undergo specific metabolic processes. 
The first step in the metabolism of linoleic acid is converted to gama-linolenic acid by delta-6-desaturation. Gama-linolenic acid is subsequently converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, which is in turn converted to arachidonic acid.

Arachidonic acid can form prostaglandins and thromboxanes, which are hormone-like lipids that promote blood clotting, induce inflammation and cause smooth muscle contraction. 
In an alternative pathway, arachidonic acid can also form leukotrienes, which are one of the most potent inflammatory agents in the human body.

The necessity of metabolism for is reflected by the increasing potency of each substance that is eventually formed by this essential fatty acid. 
Therefore, to achieve a full range of activities, linoleic acid must be metabolized to other substances, which allows this fatty acid to also be considered analogous to provitamins.

In infants, delta-6-desaturase is too immature to provide the desired metabolism of linoleic acid, which is the reason why human milk contains gamma-linoleic acid, dihomo-gamma-linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid. 
In contrast, conventional infant formulas only provide linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid, which can lead to a deficiency state in formula-fed infan

Conjugated linoleic acid
Linoleic acid (cis, cis Δ 9,12-octadecadienoic acid) is the principal essential fatty acid and has attracted the attention of nutritionists for many years. 
However, conjugated isomers of linoleic acid (CLA) have attracted very considerable attention recently. 
Conjugated isomers of linoleic acid is a mixture of eight positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid which have a number of health-promoting properties, including anticarcinogenic and antiatherogenic activities, reduction of the catabolic effects of immune stimulation and the ability to enhance growth promotion and reduce body fat (see Parodi, 1994, 1997a, 1999; Belury, 1995; Banni and Martin, 1998; Yurawecz et al., 1999). 
Of the eight isomers of CLA, only the cis 9, trans 11 isomer is biologically active. This compound is effective at very low concentrations, 0.1 g per 100 g diet.

Fat-containing foods of ruminant origin, especially milk and dairy products, are the principal sources of dietary Conjugated isomers of linoleic acid which is produced as an intermediate during the biohydrogenation of linoleic acid by the rumen bacterium, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. 
Since Conjugated isomers of linoleic acid is formed from linoleic acid, it is not surprising that the Conjugated isomers of linoleic acid content of milk is affected by diet and season, being highest in summer when cows are on fresh pasture rich in PUFAs (Lock and Garnsworthy, 2000; Lawless et al., 2000) and higher in the fat of milk from cows on mountain than on lowland pasture (Collomb et al., 2002). 
The concentration of CLA in milk fat can be increased 5–7 fold by increasing the level of dietary linoleic acid, e.g., by duodenal infusion (Kraft et al., 2000) or by feeding a linoleic acid-rich oil, e.g., sunflower oil (Kelly et al., 1998).

A number of other lipids may have anticarcinogenic activity, e.g., sphingomyelin, butanoic acid and ether lipids, but few data are available on these to date (Parodi, 1997a, 1999).


Requirements for Omega-6 Fatty Acids
Linoleic acid has a physiological role in maintaining the water permeability barrier of the skin as a constituent of acylglycosyl ceramides. 
Besides its structural role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in cell membranes, linoleic acid gives rise to arachidonic acid, which is the major precursor of a series of bioactive metabolites called eicosanoids, which regulate a large number of physiological processes. 
These include the classical prostaglandins, thromboxane A2 (a vasoconstrictor and platelet aggregator), prostacyclin I2 (a vasodilator and platelet inhibitor), leukotriene B4 (a bronchoconstrictor and regulator of inflammation), and anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine), which is an agonist for the endocanniboid receptors (located mainly in the brain). Linoleic acid deficiency does not occur among individuals selecting their own diet, but has been encountered in infants fed skimmed milk, in patients with chronic fat malabsorption, and in those undergoing total parenteral nutrition. 
Linoleic acid deficiency, which can be cured/prevented by an intake as low as 1% of the dietary energy, results in poor growth and development in infants, a scaly dermatitis, and an impaired immune response. 
In adults, dermatitis is the most obvious sign, and the skin symptoms can be improved by the topical application of linoleic acid. 
Intakes of linoleic acid are typically greater than 4% energy and have increased in many countries over the past 30–40 years to between 5% and 8% energy as a result of the increased use of vegetable oils (Harika et al., 2013; WHO/FAO, 2010)

Linoleic acid is the primary dietary omega-6 fatty acid. 
Once consumed in the diet, linoleic acid can be converted via chain elongation and desaturation to longer-chain fatty acids including arachidonic acid. 
The omega-6 fatty acids have two main roles in the body: 
(1) they act as structural components of membranes influencing membrane function, and 
(2) they act as precursors of eicosanoids, which modulate renal and pulmonary function, vascular tone, and inflammatory responses. 


Linoleic Acid and Other Omega-6 Fatty Acids
Linoleic acid and the family of fatty acids derived from it are called the omega-6 fatty acids. 
This is because the number of carbons from the methyl end to the first double bond is six. 
Linoleic acid is used to make arachidonic acid (20:4ω6), a fatty acid essential for the synthesis of various hormones. 
These hormones are the prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. 
These three classes of hormones are used for the regulation of many physiological processes. 
DPA (22:5ω6) is a 22-carbon fatty acid synthesized from arachidonic acid. 
DPA is found in high concentrations in the central nervous system and other tissues.


Linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, ALA) from plants give rise to long-chain omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), respectively. 
In human tissues, linoleic acid is converted mainly to arachidonic acid and ALA less efficiently to docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA). 
Compared to omnivores, vegetarians and vegans have higher intakes of linoleic and similar/greater intakes of ALA, but they usually lack DHA and have higher proportions in blood, milk, and tissue lipids of linoleic acid and long-chain omega-6 PUFA, and fewer long-chain omega-3 PUFA. 
The regular consumption of eggs or single-cell oils increases DHA levels in blood lipids and breast milk. 
However, there is a lack of evidence based on meaningful clinical outcomes to support supplementing pregnant and lactating vegetarian women with DHA. 
Despite the lack of dietary long-chain omega-3 PUFA, vegetarians and vegans are not at increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Linoleic acid is the shortest chain n-6 fatty acid and the most common PUFA in plant oils and can be present in commercial oils at levels >50% in cottonseed, corn, soybean, safflower, and sunflower (Table 2.1). 
In the human diet, linoleic acid is subsequently converted by desaturase and elongation enzymes in the liver into other longer chain n-6 PUFAs such as arachidonic (5c,8c,11c,14c-20:4) and docosapentaenoic (4c,7c,10c,13,16c-22:5) acids. 
Arachidonic acid is an important metabolite of linoleic acid and allegedly plays a role in obesity and in vivo enzymatic production of proinflammatory prostoglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes implicated as mediators and regulators of inflammatory responses and other essential biological functions (Choque et al., 2014). 
Although arachidonic acid can be biosynthesized in the body, meat and fish serve as the main sources of arachidonic acid in the human diet. 
The yeast Mortierella alpina is a commercial source of arachidonic acid via fermentation (Harwood, 2007).


Sunflower Oil as Essential Fatty Acid Source
Linoleic and linolenic acids are the two first (parent) members of ω-6 (n-6) and ω-3 (n-3) fatty acid families, respectively. 
Both are essential and must be supplied by the diet because humans and many animals have lost the ability to synthesize them. 
Moreover, other fatty acids of the n-6 family such as γ-linolenic acid (18:3, n-6), dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (20:3, n-6), and arachidonic acid (20:4, n-6) cannot be formed.

The major n-6 fatty acid in the western diet is linoleic acid. 
Although other oils are very rich in linoleic acid, sunflower oil appears to be the primary source of this fatty acid. 
The importance of linoleic acid consumption in humans and animals is detailed elsewhere. (See ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS.)

Deficiency of this fatty acid is called essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency; it is well documented in the rat and can be produced in several animals, including humans. 
The disease is characterized by skin symptoms such as dermatosis. 
Growth is retarded, reproduction is impaired, and there is degeneration or impairment of function in many organs of the body. 
EFA deficiency is characterized by changes in the fatty acid composition of many biological membranes, depending on how much vegetable oil, such as sunflower oil, is consumed in the diet; the intake of this fatty acid generally varies from 4–10%. 
Overt EFA deficiency is only seen when it provides less than 1–2% of dietary energy (about 2–5 g d−1 for adults).


Linoleic Acid leads to the production of arachidonic acid, which is the precursor to the proinflammatory prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes.


Linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid, is metabolized to dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, which serves as an important constituent of neuronal membrane phospholipids and as a substrate for the formation of PGE, which appears to be important for preserving nerve blood flow. In diabetes, conversion of linoleic acid to γ-linolenic acid and subsequent metabolites is impaired, possibly contributing to the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy.752 In a recent multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients using γ-linolenic acid for 1 year showed significant improvements in clinical measures and on electrophysiologic testing

Increased intake of omega-6 rich plant oils such as soybean and corn oil over the past few decades has inadvertently tripled the amount of n-6 linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) in the diet. Although LA is nutritionally “essential”, very little is known about how it affects the brain when present in excess. This review provides an overview on the metabolism of Linoleic acid by the brain and the effects of excess dietary Linoleic acid intake on brain function. Pre-clinical evidence suggests that excess dietary Linoleic acid increases the brain’s vulnerability to inflammation and likely acts via its oxidized metabolites. In humans, excess maternal Linoleic acid intake has been linked to atypical neurodevelopment, but underlying mechanisms are unknown. It is concluded that excess dietary Linoleic acid may adversely affect the brain. The potential neuroprotective role of reducing dietary Linoleic acid merits clinical evaluation in future studies.

Introduction
Linoleic acid (Linoleic acid, 18:2n-6) is an essential n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)1 required for normal growth and development at 1 to 2% of daily energy.2 Linoleic acid has become ubiquitous in Western diets over the past few decades due to agricultural shifts towards high-Linoleic acid soybean and corn oils during the late 1930s, resulting in a greater than 3-fold increase in intake.3,4 Historic levels of Linoleic acid intake ranged between 1 to 2% of daily calories pre-1930s, but currently average more than 7% of daily calories.4 Based on economic disappearance data, the majority of Linoleic acid in the US diet comes from soybean oil.4

Amongst other dietary PUFAs important for optimal health, Linoleic acid is the only one that has markedly changed in the diet over the past few decades. Contrary to common misconception, the intake of Linoleic acid’s elongation-desaturation product, arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), and the essential n-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), and its elongation-desaturation products eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has remained relatively constant at <1% energy since the early 1900s.4 Excess Linoleic acid in the food supply has shifted the n-6 to n-3 ratio from 4:1 to 20:1.4,5

Surprisingly, little is known about how this increase in dietary Linoleic acid affects the brain. It is mainly viewed as an essential precursor to AA, which is important for neurodevelopment and other physiological processes.6 Despite being a major part of the diet, Linoleic acid has been considered non-functional in the brain because of its low concentration (<2% of total fatty acids) compared to palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), oleic acid (18:1n-9), DHA, and AA which make up over 84% of brain fatty acids in rats and humans.7,8

Linoleic acid is known to enter the brain at a rate of ~4 pmol/g/s, which is comparable to the rate of entry of AA, DHA, and other fatty acids into the brain.9,10 However, unlike AA and DHA which mostly incorporate into brain membrane phospholipids, the majority (~59%) of Linoleic acid entering the brain is rapidly β-oxidized into aqueous products, likely composed of carbon dioxide, acetate, and other polar metabolites of β-oxidation.9 Some of the 2-carbon acetate molecules produced by β-oxidation are recycled into cholesterol via de novo lipid synthesis pathways within the brain.9,11

Linoleic acid is also a precursor to oxidized products known as ‘oxidized linoleic acid metabolites’ (OXLAMs) that are produced by auto-oxidation or enzymatically via lipoxygenase (LOX), cyclooxygenase (COX), cytochrome P450 (CYP450), and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH).12,13,14,15 OXLAMs are lipid mediators known to regulate pain and inflammatory signaling in peripheral tissue,16,17,18,19 where they are abundant.18,20 In the brain, they are presumed to be formed by LOX, COX, CYP450, and sEH enzymes, but their role there is not fully understood.

This review highlights the current state of knowledge on the role and metabolism of Linoleic acid and OXLAMs in the brain. Studies linking Linoleic acid and OXLAMs to reported biochemical, neuropathological, or behavioral endpoints in chickens, rodents, and humans are discussed, and directions for future research are proposed.

Pre-clinical and clinical studies dispel previous assumptions that Linoleic acid is a benign fatty acid in the brain. On the contrary, when present in excess and chronically, it induces ataxia in chickens, promotes neuroinflammation in rats and is linked to abnormal neurodevelopment in humans. Linoleic acid administered acutely to rats confers seizure protection, although its chronic effects on seizures has not been tested.

Recent animal studies suggest that the effects of Linoleic acid might be mediated by OXLAMs generated from Linoleic acid entering the brain. Although OXLAMs are present in the diet,48 the extent of their bioavailability and accumulation in the brain from dietary sources appears to be minimal.35,36 However, further assessment of their degradation products on brain neurophysiology and other organs is warranted.

Chronic consumption of low Linoleic acid diets might protect the brain against inflammation, as evidenced by rat studies showing an anti-inflammatory lipidome in the brains of rats fed a low Linoleic acid diet,29,30,31 and human studies showing that Linoleic acid lowering combined with EPA and DHA reduced headache frequency in patients with drug-resistant migraines.38,39

In conclusion, this review presents evidence that excess Linoleic acid in the food supply might adversely affect the brain. The potential benefit of Linoleic acid lowering merits detailed evaluation in well-designed and adequately-powered clinical studies, to test whether this translates into tangible reductions in the risk of neurodegenerative disorders and neurodevelopmental abnormalities at a population level.


inoleic acid (18:2ω6; cis, cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid) is the most highly consumed PUFA found in the human diet. 
On consumption, linoleic acid has 4 primary fates. Like all fatty acids, it can be used as a source of energy. 
It can be esterified to form neutral and polar lipids such as phospholipids, triacylglycerols, and cholesterol esters. 
As part of membrane phospholipids, linoleic acid functions as a structural component to maintain a certain level of membrane fluidity of the transdermal water barrier of the epidermis. In addition, when released from membrane phospholipids, it can be enzymatically oxidized to a variety of derivatives involved in cell signaling [i.e., 13-hydroxy or 13-hydroperoxy octadecadienoic acid, 13-H(P)ODE].

As the parent compound for the family of ω6 PUFAs, linoleic acid can be elongated and desaturated to other bioactive ω6 PUFAs, such as γ-linolenic acid (18:3ω6) and arachidonic acid (20:4ω6). Subsequently, arachidonic acid can be converted to a myriad of bioactive compounds called eicosanoids, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes. These eicosanoids are important in normal metabolic function of cells and tissues, but when persistently produced in excess, they are known to contribute to a number of chronic diseases, such as inflammation and cancer. It is this possible conversion to arachidonic acid for which linoleic acid has received the most notoriety. Although it has been hypothesized that limiting the intake of linoleic acid can reduce tissue levels of arachidonic acid, this does not seem to be the case in individuals who are consuming a typical Western diet. In tracer kinetic studies, fractional conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid is believed to be between 0.3% and 0.6%, and this conversion appears to be offset by turnover.

After consumption and absorption by enterocytes lining the small intestines, linoleic acid is packaged into chylomicrons as phospholipids, triacylglycerols, or cholesterol esters and enters the general circulation (subclavian vein) via the thoracic duct. Linoleic acid is delivered to hepatic and extrahepatic tissues as chylomicrons are delipidated en route to and cleared by the liver during its transition to much smaller remnant particles. After cellular uptake, the fate of linoleic acid is determined by the needs of the tissue, i.e., incorporation into membrane phospholipids, desaturation and elongation, etc.

Deficiencies
Linoleic acid is an essential (indispensible) nutrient that contains 2 double bonds at the ninth and 12th carbons from the carbonyl functional group. Because humans cannot incorporate a double bond beyond the ninth carbon of a fatty acid, this fatty acid cannot be synthesized and thus must be consumed. As an essential component of ceramides, linoleic acid is involved in the maintenance of the transdermal water barrier of the epidermis. The level of essentiality in infants could be as low as 0.5–2.0% of energy and deprivation of linoleic acid (i.e., fat-free intravenous feeding) can result in scaly skin lesions, growth retardation, and altered plasma fatty acid patterns and thrombocytopenia (1). Because linoleic acid is abundantly found in infant formulas and foods and in human breast milk, essential fatty acid deficiency is extraordinarily uncommon in otherwise healthy individuals. Similarly, evidence of ω6 PUFA deficiency is extremely rare in the adult population in the absence of an inborn error of metabolism, i.e., a deficiency in FADS2 (fatty acid desaturase 2; Δ6 desaturase), a rate-limiting step in the desaturation of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid.

Diet recommendations
Typical intakes of linoleic acid in the United States diet are ∼6% of energy. 
Although linoleic acid is an essential nutrient, “no specific information is available on the amount of linoleic acid required to correct the symptoms of (ω6) PUFA deficiency” (2); therefore, a recommended daily allowance (RDA) has yet to be established. As such, the dietary reference intakes for linoleic acid reports that the adequate intakes (AIs) for women and men between the ages of 19 and 50 y of age are 12 g/d and 17 g/d, respectively. The AI is based on approximate median intakes of healthy individuals in the US population. These amounts are modified to 11 g/d and 14 g/d for women and men, respectively, between the ages of 51 and 70 y of age. The Scientific Advisory Board of the American Heart Association recommends intakes between 5 and 10% of energy for adults to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (3).

The AI for linoleic acid for children 1–3 y old (both sexes) is 7 g/d and progressively increases in boys and girls as they grow into adulthood. 
The AI for ω6 PUFAs (not just linoleic acid) in infants is based on the levels of ω6 PUFAs found in breast milk along with the transition to complementary foods. 
These levels are 4.4 g/d and 4.6 g/d for infants aged 0–6 mo and 7–12 mo, respectively (2).

Food sources
The major dietary sources of linoleic acid are vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, meats, and eggs. 
The consumption of linoleic acid in the US diet began to increase around 1969 and paralleled the introduction of soybean oil as the major commercial additive to many processed foods (4). Manufactured foods containing soybean oil as a primary ingredient will be rich in linoleic acid. Currently, soybean oil accounts for ∼45% of dietary linoleic acid in the US diet. Nevertheless, linoleic acid is also the most abundant PUFA in most foods. Although linoleic acid accounts for ∼88% of the total PUFAs in soybean oil, the levels in most commonly consumed foods exceed 70%. For example, of all the PUFAs in most meats (beef, chicken, and pork), the contribution of linoleic acid is between 70 and 85% and >80% in eggs. Although it is well recognized that most vegetable oils are linoleic acid-based (noted exception is flaxseed), even foods with very low fat content (vegetables, fruits, and grains) are predominantly rich in linoleic acid as the major PUFA. Noted exceptions are beans, in which linoleic acid comprises between 40 and 50% of the total PUFAs.

Clinical uses
Because linoleic acid is an essential nutrient, it is typically provided in enteral, parenteral, and infant formulas where the fat content can vary depending on the specific use. Similarly, topical applications can also provide linoleic acid, helping to treat skin-related disorders related to deficiency. 
In the case of an inborn error in the metabolic step mediated by FADS2, more highly unsaturated fatty acids are provided to bypass this rate-limiting step.

Toxicity
No upper limit (UL) has been set for linoleic acid because of a lack of a defined intake establishing adverse affects (2). 
In epidemiologic studies, there is little evidence that suggests linoleic acid contributes to cardiovascular disease, cancer, or inflammation (where inverse correlations may exist). Nevertheless, consumption above recommended intakes should be carefully considered because there are equally insufficient data to adequately evaluate adverse effects at these higher levels.

Recent research
More than a century after linoleic acid was first described as an essential nutrient, there is a concern that current intake levels are unhealthy. 
It has been suggested that high dietary linoleic acid intake increases the incidence of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and inflammation. 
The putative mechanism for these adverse health outcomes relates to the conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid and the subsequent eicosanoids derived thereof. 
A couple of recent papers have undermined this theoretical model. 
For example, evidence suggests that modifying linoleic acid intakes has little effect on tissue arachidonic acid in humans (5). 
In 2009, the American Heart Association published an advisory that reviewed the data from randomized trials and case-control and cohort studies and came to the conclusion that at least 5–10% of energy from ω6 PUFAs (linoleic acid primarily) reduces the risk of CVD and that to reduce current levels would likely increase risk (3). 
The putative link between high linoleic acid intake and greater inflammation has been the subject of a recent systematic review. 


linoleic acid has role Daphnia galeata metabolite (CHEBI:83038)
linoleic acid has role algal metabolite (CHEBI:84735)
linoleic acid has role plant metabolite (CHEBI:76924)
linoleic acid is a ω−6 fatty acid (CHEBI:36009)
linoleic acid is a octadecadienoic acid (CHEBI:25627)
linoleic acid is conjugate acid of linoleate (CHEBI:30245)

LINOLEIC ACID 

The famous omega-6 fatty acid, the mother of all ω-6 fatty acids in our body. 
It is a so-called polyunsaturated fatty acid meaning it has more than one (in this case two) double bonds and a somewhat kinky structure that makes LA and LA-rich oils a thin liquid.

It is also an essential fatty acid meaning our body cannot synthesize it and has to take it from food. 
This is not hard at all as plenty of nuts (such as flax, poppy or sesame seeds) and vegetable oils (such as sunflower or safflower) are rich in LA

Many animals require some fat containing one or more of the essential fatty acids (linoleic, arachidonic, and to a limited extent linolenic) to prevent the physical symptoms of essential-fatty-acid deficiency manifested by skin lesions, scaliness, poor hair growth, and low growth rates. These essential fatty acids must be supplied in the diet since they cannot be synthesized in the body.

Synonyms:
     emersol 310
     emersol 315
9-cis,12-cis-    grape seed oil
9-cis,12-cis-    linoleic acid
9Z,12Z-    linoleic acid
cis-    linoleic acid
cis-9,cis-12-    linoleic acid
     linoleic acid pure 99%
     linolic acid
(9Z,12Z)-    octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid
(9Z,12Z)-    octadecadienoic acid
(9Z,12Z)-9,12-    octadecadienoic acid
(Z,Z)-9,12-    octadecadienoic acid
(Z)-9,12-    octadecadienoic acid
9-cis,12-cis-    octadecadienoic acid
9Z,12Z-    octadecadienoic acid
all-cis-9,12-    octadecadienoic acid
cis-9,cis-12-    octadecadienoic acid
cis-delta9,12-    octadecadienoic acid
cis,cis-9,12-    octadecadienoic acid
     pamolyn 210 linoleic acid
     polylin 515
     telfairic acid
     unifac 6550

Linoleic acid [Wiki]
(9Z,12Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoic acid [ACD/IUPAC Name]
(9Z,12Z)-9,12-Octadecadiensäure [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
(9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid
1727101 [Beilstein]
200-470-9 [EINECS]
60-33-3 [RN]
9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, (9Z,12Z)- [ACD/Index Name]
9-cis,12-cis-Linoleic acid
9-cis,12-cis-Octadecadienoic acid
9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid
Acide (9Z,12Z)-9,12-octadécadiénoïque [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
acide linoleique [French]
acido linoleico [Spanish]
cis-9,cis-12-Octadecadienoic acid
cis-Linoleic acid
MFCD00064241 [MDL number]
Telfairic acid
(9,12,15)-linolenic acid
(9Z, 12Z)-Octadecadienoate
(9Z,12Z)octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid
(9Z,12Z)-Octadecadienoic acid
(Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid
(Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid
(Z,Z)-Octadeca-9, 12-dienoic acid
121250-47-3 [RN]
17966-12-0 [RN]
200-470-9MFCD00064241
2197-37-7 [RN]
3380
506-21-8 [RN]
79050-23-0 [RN]
8024-22-4 [RN]
80969-37-5 [RN]
9-(Z), 12-(Z)-Octadecadienoic acid
9,12-Linoleic acid
9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (9Z,12Z)-
9,12-octadecadienoic acid (z,z)-
9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, (Z,Z)-
9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, cis,cis-
98353-71-0 [RN]
9Z,11Z-linoleic acid
9Z,12Z-Linoleic acid
acide cis-linoleique
acide linoleique
acido linoleico
all-cis-9,12-Octadecadienoic acid
C18:2
C18:2 9c, 12c ω6 todos cis-9,12-octadienoico
cis,cis-9,12-Octadecadienoic Acid
cis,cis-9,12-Octadecadienoic Acid, Linolic Acid
cis,cis-linoleic acid
cis-9, cis-12-octadecadienoic acid
cis-9,cis-12-Linoleic acid
cis-δ(9,12)-octadecadienoic acid
cis-δ9,12-Octadecadienoic acid
EIC
Emersol 310
Emersol 315
http://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB0000673
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:17351
Linoelaidic Acid
Linoleic Acid - CAS 60-33-3 - Calbiochem
Linoleic Acid 315
linoleic acid, from plants
Linoleic acid, tech.
Linoleic acid, technical
linoleic and linolenic acids
LINOLIC ACID
Linolic Acid, cis,cis-9,12-Octadecadienoic Acid
Linonelic acid
Octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid, (cis,cis)-
Z,Z-9,12-octadecandienoic acid
α-linoleic acid
α-Linoleic acid
α-Lnn
亚油酸 [Chinese]


Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)
CLA makes a positive contribution to lifetime yield and fertility of dairy cows.
When dairy cows have access to pastures or green fodder, they ingest linoleic acid, among other things, which can be converted into conjugated linoleic acid in the rumen. This is why milk from grass-fed cows usually contains more conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) than milk from cows that have no access to pastures or green fodder.

One form of CLA – trans-10, cis-12 CLA – can be found in particularly high concentrations in milk from grass-fed cows in spring. It is in this period that the ruminant animals would have originally calved. Today’s dairy cows calve at any time during the year often also have no access to pastures. It therefore seems appropriate, especially at the beginning of lactation, to support dairy cows with CLA-enriched feed.

CLA reduces the milk fat content during the supplementary feeding phase in a dose-dependent manner and leads to lower blood glucose utilization per kilogram of milk. Scientific studies prove that a targeted reduction in milk fat through CLA leads to higher blood glucose levels in the first weeks of lactation, and less body fat is mobilized.


Key benefits of CLA
Increase of daily milk yield which contributes to sustainable lifetime performance
Supports cows health by relieving metabolism after calving
Positive contribution to fertility of dairy cows
Lower resource and feed costs per kg of milk produced
Short and long-term savings by improved milk production and fertility


The lower body fat mobilization reduces the load on the liver which, among other things, reduces the risk of fatty liver disease. 
Subsequent effects such as milk fever, retained placenta or mastitis occur less frequently. The dairy cow responds with a higher milk yield.

A consequence of the increased glucose level in the blood is that important hormones that are responsible for fertility can also be affected. 
As a result, dairy cows can get into calf much earlier. CLA thus makes a positive contribution to the lifetime yield and fertility of dairy cows.
 It increases the milk yield and health of the cows and therefore contributes to more sustainable milk production.

Sometimes referred to as Vitamin F, Linoleic Acid is one of the most effective ingredients in skincare, strengthening the skin’s protective barrier while providing excellent moisturizing and healing properties. Several types of skin care oils, including Sunflower Seed Oil, Hemp Oil, Grapeseed Oil, and Prickly Pear Seed Oil, are particularly high in Linoleic Acid.


ALL-CIS-9,12-OCTADECADIENOIC ACID
ALPHA-LINOLEIC ACID
9-CIS,12-CIS-LINOLEIC ACID
CIS,CIS-9,12-OCTADECADIENOIC ACID
CIS,CIS-LINOLEIC ACID
CIS-9,CIS-12-OCTADECADIENOIC ACID
CIS-DELTA9,12-OCTADECADIENOIC ACID
EMERSOL 310
EMERSOL 315
EXTRA LINOLEIC 90
LEINOLEIC ACID
LINOLEIC ACID
9,12-LINOLEIC ACID
LINOLIC ACID
9,12-OCTADECADIENOIC ACID (Z,Z)-
9,12-OCTADECADIENOIC ACID, (Z,Z)-
9,12-OCTADECADIENOIC ACID
POLYIN NO.515
POLYLIN 515
TELFAIRIC ACID
UNIFAC 6550
(Z)-9,12-OCTADECADIENOIC ACID
9Z,12Z-LINOLEIC ACID
(Z,Z)-9,12-OCTADECADIENOIC ACID

Health Benefits of Vitamin F
IN THIS ARTICLE
Health Benefits Amounts and Dosage
Despite its name, vitamin F is not really a traditional vitamin. It’s a fat — two fats, actually. Namely alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA). Without these fatty acids, it’s impossible to live a healthy life.

ALA and LA are both types of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Polyunsaturated fatty acids do a lot of important things, including protecting nerves. Without them, your blood cannot clot, and you can't even move your muscles. However, your body can’t make its own ALA and LA. They have to come from your diet. 

There are two main families of polyunsaturated fatty acids. One is omega-3 fatty acids, which include ALA. The other is omega-6 fatty acids, which include LA. 

So why are two fats sometimes referred to as a single vitamin? The mix-up dates back to 1923, when the two substances were first discovered. At the time they were misidentified as a vitamin. The label stuck, even though their nature as fats was proven only a few years later. An umbrella term used today to refer to ALA, LA, and their related omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids is “essential fatty acids.”

Health Benefits
The two fatty acids that make up vitamin F are used by your body in many different ways. They are a key component of our cell membranes. They are also important for our retinas to develop and function properly. 

Some other health benefits of vitamin F include:

Brain and Nervous System Health

Our brains are loaded with polyunsaturated fatty acids. We need them to generate the energy we use to think and operate on a daily basis. For developing infants, it’s especially important for their bodies to have enough essential fatty acids. Without them, the neurons and synapses of the brain don’t develop properly.

Heart Health

High intake of both ALA and LA appears to be associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular mortality in general. Replacing saturated fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids has also been shown to lower cholesterol in the blood.

Vitamin F is not a traditional vitamin but a term for two essential fatty acids: alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid. People need to consume these essential fatty acids as part of their diet to stay healthy.


Vitamin F is not a traditional vitamin but a term for two fats: alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA).

ALA and LA are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). ALA is an omega-3 fatty acid, and LA is an omega-6 fatty acid.

Scientists coined the term vitamin F in the 1920s to describe ALA and LA. The scientific community has since disregarded the term, but people may still notice skin care companies referring to vitamin F in their product marketing.


Vitamin F forte nurtures, protects and acts as a skin conditioner. It is particularly suitable for the treatment of dry, stressed and sensitive skin, potently supporting the skin in rebuilding and maintaining its natural healthy structure and functionality.

Vitamin F forte also is a strong hair conditioner, improving hair combability, and has shown to protect against hair breakage.

Vitamin F forte contains natural polyunsaturated essential free fatty acids originating from safflower oil, with a particularly high content of linoleic acid.

Also available as Vitamin F water-soluble CLR in watersoluble form. In addition, essential fatty acids in ester form are available as Vitamin F Ethyl Ester CLR and Vitamin F Glyceryl Ester CLR.

INCI Name : Linoleic Acid, Linolenic Acid

Dosage : 0.5 – 3.0%

pH range : 3.0 – 10.0

Solubility : oil-soluble


Written by Beth Gibbons on February 15, 2019 Reviewed by Amanda Hamilton on February 24, 2019
Overview
What is vitamin F and what does it do?
Vitamin F is actually a blend of fatty acids, the majority of which is linoleic acid or omega-6.1 Omega-6 is an important source of energy, as well as playing a role in numerous tasks from brain function and immune response, to skin and hair health.2
The body is unable to produce linoleic acid naturally, which means we need to get it from our diet.3 This makes it an essential fatty acid, like omega-3.

Function of vitamin F
What does vitamin F do in the body?
Linoleic acid is a key building block of membranes throughout the body,4 helping to move water in and out of cells. In the skin, it is converted to ceramide, a protective compound that allows cells to retain moisture.5 There’s also some evidence that the omega-6 fatty acid can help reduce the inflammation associated with autoimmune disorders such as psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis.6
How much vitamin F do I need?
UK experts say linoleic acid should make up at least 1% of your daily calorie intake, while the European Food Safety Authority recommends an ‘adequate intake’ of 4% – the minimum needed for good health.7
Most of us already get enough omega-6, so you don’t need to worry about upping your intake. It’s actually omega-3 that’s thought to be more lacking in our diets, so most advice on getting enough EFAs tends to focus on redressing this imbalance.

Do children need vitamin F?
The World Health Organisation says very young children can get at least half their daily omega-6 requirements from breast milk8 – breast milk is naturally rich in linoleic acid9 – while infant formula is usually fortified with the nutrient.10 Over the age of two, children need the same amount of vitamin F as adults.11
Vitamin F foods
Which foods are the best sources of vitamin F?
Good sources of vitamin F include:12
vegetable oils, such as rapeseed oil
seeds, such as flax, pumpkin and hemp
nuts, including walnuts and almonds
soybeans
tofu
Vitamin F deficiency
What are the symptoms of vitamin F deficiency?
A lack of omega-6 fatty acids can lead to dry skin and hair, and poor wound healing. In young children, low levels are also associated with slow growth and susceptibility to infection.13
What happens if I consume too much vitamin F?
A healthy, balanced diet should provide all the vitamin F your body needs. But there’s some concern that we’re consuming far too much omega-6 and not enough omega-3. It’s thought that too much omega-6 can stop the body using omega-3 properly, upping your risk of heart disease.14 A good ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 is around 4:1, but you don’t need to start eating a lot of omega-3s to try to balance out your diet.15 Scientists say reducing your intake of omega-6 – and in particular, vegetable oils – and eating two portions of fish a week, one of which should be oily fish, such as salmon or mackerel, is the best way to ensure you’re getting the right balance of both fatty acids.16
If you don’t like oily fish, or struggle to eat enough, omega-3 supplements or blended omega oils can be very helpful. Good plant-based sources of omega-3 include chia seeds, nuts and flaxseeds.

Vitamin F supplements
When should I take vitamin F supplements?
You don’t need to take a vitamin F or omega-6 supplement if your diet includes a wide range of healthy, nutritious foods.

Should children take a vitamin F supplement?
No – like adults, children can get the right amount through their diet.

Should women take a vitamin F supplement during pregnancy?
If you’re following a well-balanced diet, an omega-6 supplement during pregnancy is not necessary.

What are the potential benefits of vitamin F?
Linoleic acid has been shown to have a number of positive effects on cardiovascular health:

research by the Harvard School of Health in 2017 concluded that replacing saturated fats with polyunsaturated versions, rich in linoleic acid, can help lower the risk of heart disease17

a 1991 study published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition found adults who ate a diet rich in linoleic acid for three weeks reduced their LDL cholesterol levels by 18% after just two weeks18

after analysing data on 4,680 adults from multiple countries, Japanese researchers reported that people who ate more linoleic acid had lower blood pressure than those eating less omega-619
Vitamin F could also support healthy skin. In one 2002 study, people with acne who used a solution of linoleic acid on their skin saw spots shrink by 25% after a month, compared with those using a placebo.20


Vitamin F is composed of a mixture of two essential fatty acids: omega 3 and omega 6. 
It’s not produced by the body but it is a fat-soluble vitamin, meaning it’s stored in the body and released in small doses whenever necessary.

Vitamin F acid maintains a healthy balanced scalp, and minimizes water loss in our hair (ensuring that each strand stays optimally hydrated).

It provides moisture and plumpness without weighing down the hair, earning it a solid reputation for rejuvenating brittle, lifeless locks. 
This strengthening and protection benefit helps fend off UV damage and air pollutants that can further damage hair. It’s ideal for treating a dry, seborrheic scalp, and replenishing its lipid barrier to prevent flakes.


Vitamin F is a mixture of the only two essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as linoleic acid (LA), and α linolenic acid (ALA) required by humans. 
α-linolenic acid satisfies the need for an omega-3 fatty acid back-bone structure and linoleic acid satisfies the need for an omega-6 fatty acids back-bone structure.

Biochem/physiol Actions
Vitamin F or linoleic acid exhibits restorative properties and properties, which may aid in skin-care. Therefore, it is used in cosmetics and dermatology.

Other Notes
Vitamin F, its application and designation[1]; Stabilization and use for cosmetic purposes

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