MALIC ACID

DL-Malic Acid is a white crystalline powder. 
Malic is widely used as a food additive in soft drinks, candy, jelly, jam, dairy products, canned foods, frozen foods, fresh fruits and vegetables, beverages, meat products,and spices.

Malic acid is found in other fruits such as grapes, watermelons, cherries, and in vegetables such as carrots and broccoli. 
This acid is mainly used in food applications including candy and beverages. 
Malic acid gives a tart taste, lowers the pH, has antimicrobial effects, and confers special blending and flavor-fixing properties. 
There are also nonfood applications such as use for metal cleaning and finishing, textile finishing, electroless plating, pharmaceuticals, infusions, and paints.

Malic Acid
Malic acid, like citric acid, is a general-purpose acidulant. 
It normally is associated with apples; in fact, its common name is derived from the Latin word for apple, malum, although it is also a major acid constituent of cranberries, grapes, guava, lingonberries, papaya, passion fruit, peaches, pears, pineapple, plums, and raspberries. 
Although it is used in many food products, it often is preferred in apple-containing foods, such as ciders, due to its flavor and relatively higher cost when compared with citric acid. Malic acid, however, has a fuller, smoother taste than citric acid that is beneficial in low-energy drinks, where malic acid masks the unpleasant flavors of some artificial sweeteners. 
It is positioned economically between citric and tartartic acids in price.


Malic acid was petitioned to include its use in organic processing operations. Synthetic DL- malic acid is being petition for use as a pH adjuster in processing operations. Malic acid is a food processing aid, which is used in bottled iced teas, dry mix beverages, carbonated beverages, bakery products, fruit juices, candies, gelatins, desserts, frozen specialties, and sports drinks. Non- food uses of malic acid include pharmaceuticals, paints, metal cleaning, electroplating, soaps and as a chelating agent.
The NOP final rule does not list malic acid under sections 205.605 or 205.606 as an approved substance allowed in processing of "organic" products. The ruling does however list citric acid as an approved processing aid under section 205.605 if the citric acid used is produced by microbial fermentation of carbohydrate substances (non synthetic). NOSB standards dictate that malic acid must not be used for the sole purpose of a flavor, color, or texture enhancer or preservative. Malic acid is being petitioned for use as a pH adjuster. Malic acid is used also in beverage dry mixes, carbonated beverages, bakery products, fruit juices, candies, gelatins, desserts, frozen specialties and other foods. Malic acid is used as a flavor enhancer and food acidulant


MALIC ACID [ C4H6O5 ]
Malic Acid is an organic compound that is the active ingredient in many sour and tart foods. 
It can be blended with multiple food acids, sugars, high intensity sweeteners, flavors and seasonings to create distinctive taste experiences in foods, beverages, and confections.

Malic Acid is also used in the manufacture of skin and dental care products and can be used in a number of technical applications, such as Electroplating and metal cleaning.

Malic Acid is generated during metabolism of living cells in the Kreb’s cycle and occurs naturally in all fruits and many vegetables. 
It is the predominant acid in apples thus the name is derived from the Latin name for apples which is malus. 
Malic Acid is also essential in the preparation of medical products such as throat lozenges, cough syrups, effervescent powdered preparations, toothpaste, and mouthwash.

Additionally, Malic Acid is used in the manufacture of skin care products to rejuvenate and improve skin conditions and also can be used in a number of technical applications, such as metal cleaning, textile dying to improve color value, and paint, preventing the formation of skin on the top layer during storage.

Malic acid
EC / List no.: 230-022-8
CAS no.: 6915-15-7
Mol. formula: C4H6O5


DL-malic acid
EC / List no.: 210-514-9
CAS no.: 617-48-1
Mol. formula: C4H6O5


Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid with the molecular formula C4H6O5. 
It is made by all living organisms and it contributes to the pleasantly sour taste of fruits. 
Malic acid is used as a flavor enhancer, flavor agent and adjuvant, and pH control agent in food products

Function
It has a clean, mellow, smooth, persistent sourness.
It has flavor enhancement and blending abilities. 
Malic acid aids the formulator, because it intensifies the impact of many flavors in foods or beverages, often reducing the amount of flavor needed. 
It blends distinct flavors resulting in a well-rounded flavor experience, improves aftertaste by extending the impact of some flavors, increases burst and aromaticity of some flavor notes in certain beverage applications, boosts savory flavors like cheese and hot peppers in snack food coatings and deepens and broadens the flavor profile of many products, resulting in a richer, more natural flavor experience.
It has a high solubility rate.
It has lower hygroscopicity than citric or tartaric acids.
It has a lower melting point than other acids for easier incorporation into molten confections.
It has good chelating properties with metal ions.

Commercial Production
Malic acid has two stereoisomeric forms (L- and D- enantiomers), and only the L-isomer exists naturally. 
Commercial production of malic acid is by hydration of fumaric acid or maleic acid and the product is DL-malic acid.

Application
When it is used to enhance flavors, usually less flavor additives are needed. 
This improves economies while the overall flavor profile is broader and more natural.
In the non-carbonated beverages, malic acid is a preferred acidulant since it could enhance fruit flavors, and mask the aftertaste of some salts.
In powdered mixes, it is preferred due to its rapid dissolution rate.
In beverage containing intense sweeteners, malic acid’s extended sourness masks sweetener aftertaste and its blending and fixative abilities give a balanced taste.
In calcium-fortified beverages, using malic acid in place of citric acid prevents turbidity due to precipitated calcium citrate.
Malic acid has a lower melting point than other food acids- this means that it can be incorporated into the molten hard candy without added water- shelf life is increased since the initial moisture level in the hard candy is lower.
Bakery products with fruit fillings (cookies, snack bars, pies, and cakes) have a stronger and more naturally balanced fruit flavor when the fruit filling includes malic acid. 
Pectin gel texture is more consistent due to Malic Acid’s buffering capacity.
It is the predominately active ingredient for prune juice concentrate as the natural mold inhibitor for baking products.
FDA Regulation
Malic acid is affirmed as GRAS by FDA which is listed in the Code of Federal Regulations (Title 21 Part 184.1069). 
The ingredients are used in food, except baby food, at levels not to exceed good manufacturing practice. 
Current good manufacturing practice results in a maximum level, as served, of 3.4% for nonalcoholic beverages, 3.0% for chewing gum, 0.8% for gelatins, pudding, and fillings, 6.9% for hard candy, 2.6% for jams and jellies, 3.5% for processed fruits and fruit juices, 3.0% for soft candy, 0.7% for all other food categories.


Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-

IUPAC names
2-Hydroxy butane diacid
2-hydroxybutanedioic acid
Apfelsäure
Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy
Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-
DL - malic acid
DL-MALIC ACID
DL-Malic Acid
DL-Malic acid
DL-malic acid
Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid
Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure

hydroxybutanedioic acid
hydroxylsuccinic acid
L-Äpfelsäure

MALIC ACID
Malic Acid
Malic acid
malic acid
malic acid
malic acid CAS information ?

(RS)-Hydroxylbutansäure
(S)-Hydroxybutanedioic acid and (R)-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
2- hydroxybutanedioic acid
2-Hydroxybutandisäure
2-hydroxybutanedioic acid
D-L malic acid
DL - malic acid
DL Malic Acid
DL-HYDROXYSUCCINIC ACID
DL-Hydroxysuccinic acid
DL-malic acid
DL-Malic acid
DL-malic acid
hidroxybutanedionic acid
Hydroxy butanedioic acid
Hydroxybutanedioic acid
hydroxybutanedioic acid
Malic acid
malic acid 
Malic acid
Malic Acid, DL Malic Acid

Trade names
DL MALIC ACID
DL MALIC ACID - FOOD GRADE
DL-Malic acid
Hydroxysuccinic Acid
Malic acid

DETAILED APPLICATIONS
Carbonated Beverages
Adding Malic Acid improves artificially sweetened products. Flavors are enhanced, allowing the use of less additives, and the overall flavor profile is broader, smoother and more natural.

Non-carbonated Beverages
Malic Acid is a preferred acidulant for still beverages (fruit drinks, nectars, iced-teas, sports drinks, calcium fortified juices), because it enhances fruit flavors, improves pH stability, and masks the aftertaste of artificial sweeteners and some salts.

Ciders and Wines
For alcoholic apple ciders, Malic Acid is added to maintain a consistent “sharp” taste.

Confectionaries
Malic Acid gives an appealing tartness to hard, soft, tableted, and sugarless candies as well as chewing gum. Blending multiple acids creates unique tasting confections. 
Malic Acid’s high solubility allows it to be blended with cooled confections. Adding acids at the end of the candy making process minimizes sugar inversion.

Hard Candy
Malic Acid boosts sourness intensity and enhances fruit flavors. 
It has a lower melting point than other food acids this means that it can be incorporated into molten hard candy without added water. 
The shelf life is increased as the initial moisture level in the hard candy is lower.

Soft Candy
In agar, gelatin or pectin-based candies such as jellies and gummies, Malic Acid is used to achieve a natural fruit flavor profile, uniform & controlled gelling, and good product clarity.


Powdered Mixes
In iced tea, sports drink, or fruit soup dry mixes, Malic Acid is preferred due to its rapid dissolution rate and flavor enhancement qualities. 
Since Malic Acid provides more sourness than Citric Acid, less acidulant is required and unit weight can be reduced.

Calcium Supplements and Calcium-fortified Beverages
In liquid calcium supplements, Malic Acid adds a tart and fruity flavor while controlling the pH and improving the solubility and bio-availability.

Low Calorie Beverages
Malic Acid’s extended sourness masks sweetener aftertaste and its blending and fixative abilities give a balanced taste profile.

Acidified Dairy Products
Whey-based protein beverages acidified with Malic Acid have enhanced fruit flavor with less noticeable whey flavor. 
Fruit flavored milk drinks made with fruit juice and acidified with Malic Acid have improved flavor and palatability.

Fruit Preparations and Preserves
Malic Acid enhances fruit flavors and creates a more natural flavor profile in jams, jellies, and fruit preparations. 
Fruit preparations are acidified with Malic Acid so that the fruit flavor stays strong, even when the fruit preparation is used in dairy products, frozen desserts or baked goods.

Desserts
Malic Acid is an economical fruit flavor enhancer in sherbets and water ices. In gelled desserts, Malic Acid enhances fruit flavors and helps stabilize pH to control gel texture.

Bakery Products
Bakery products with fruit fillings (cookies, snack bars, pies, and cakes) have a stronger and more naturally balanced fruit flavor when the fruit filling includes Malic Acid.

Medical and Personal Care Products
In throat lozenges, cough syrups, and effervescent powdered preparations, Malic Acid enhances fruit flavor and can diminish the flavor impact of active components. 
As Malic Acid stimulates saliva flow, it can be used in tooth-cleaning preparations and mouthwashes. 
Germicidal compounds are used in combination with Malic Acid in soaps, mouthwashes, and toothpaste.

Acid-Based Facial Products
Malic Acid can be used in skin care products to rejuvenate and improve skin conditions.

Oil Field Applications
Demands for Malic Acid in the oil industry are rapidly increasing. 
The product is used to aid in the transfer of raw crude from the well to the refinery.

Gypsum Cement Retarders
Malic Acid is used in Gypsum cement to control the rate of setting of the cement by retardation.

Acrylic Fibre Production
Acrylic fibre whiteness is enhanced by the addition of Malic Acid during the manufacturing process and also helps in the control of polymerization reaction and prevents oxidation.

Electroplating Chemicals
Malic Acid is an important constituent in plating chemicals to maintain pH, improve and control the rate of deposition of active metals like nickel.


Dl-malic acid is primarily used for acidifiers in the food industry. 
Its other manufacturing applications include metal platings, specialty paints and dyes.

Dl-malic acid, which can be found in nature, is an essential acidifier for carbohydrate metabolism. 
Its acidity is about 20% higher than a similar acidifier, citric acid, which can provide a cost-saving effect. 
It also raises an a appetite because its taste is smooth and its sourness lasts for a longer time.

L-Malic acid is produced to satisfy the increasing demand for nutritional bars and protein drinks as well as healthier functional beverages with high nutrient flavors


Malic Acid
Malic acid produces a sour taste in comparison with lactic acid and therefore most wine producers have turned to malolactic fermentation to produce “softer” wines through the accumulation of lactic acid

Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid with pK values of 3.40 and 5.11. Malic acid has a smooth, tart taste that lingers in the mouth without imparting a burst of flavour. 
Malic acid is highly water soluble. 
It is inhibitory to yeasts, moulds and bacteria, probably due to its impact on pH (Doores, 1993). 
It is used in beverages, hard candies, canned tomatoes and fruit pie fillings.

Malic acid is an organic compound with the molecular formula C4H6O5. 
It is a dicarboxylic acid that is made by all living organisms, contributes to the sour taste of fruits, and is used as a food additive. 
Malic acid has two stereoisomeric forms (L- and D-enantiomers), though only the L-isomer exists naturally. 
The salts and esters of malic acid are known as malates. The malate anion is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle.

Malic Acid
Malic acid (E296) is a four-carbon dicarboxylic acid that is used as acidity regulator and flavor enhancer in food. 
It is often found in unripe fruit and is also present in wine. 
Malic acid levels in soft drinks, fruit juices and wine need to be strictly controlled as too low or high levels may result in product deterioration.
Together with tartaric acid, malic acid makes up about 90% of the total acidity of wine. 
Malic acid is also used as flavoring agent in the sour confectionary sector. 
Similar as the other organic acids, malic acid has been found to be an effective agent for inactivating common food pathogens on fresh vegetables.

Malic acid is often synthesized chemically starting from fumaric acid. 
However, the increasing cost of fumaric acid production and the quest for more eco-friendly techniques has triggered more research efforts into producing malic acid from sugars using microorganisms

Malic acid, with a worldwide consumption of 55,000 tons in 2006, is mostly used in the beverage (51%) and food (42%) industry and it shares a 10% market of the food and beverage industry mainly as an acidulant. 
Malic acid is widely used in fruit and vegetable juices, carbonated soft drinks, jams, wines, and candies by improving their sweetness or tartness. 
Malic acid is also used in the cosmetic industry mainly to adjust pH in a low concentration. 
Many cosmetic products, such as self-tanning cream, cleansing form and facial cream, contain malic acid as a pH controller. 
Its derivative, malic acid monolaurylamide, is also used as a skin care cleansing agent. 
As malic acid can diminish flavors of active chemicals, it is often included in the soaps, mouthwasher fluid, and toothpaste

Other names: Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; α-Hydroxysuccinic acid; Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid; Hydroxysuccinic acid; Pomalus acid; dl-Malic acid; Deoxytetraric acid; Kyselina hydroxybutandiova; Kyselina jablecna; Succinic acid, hydroxy-; Hydroxybutanedioic acid; (.+/-.)-Malic acid; 2-Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid; Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-; FDA 2018; Musashi-no-Ringosan; NSC 25941; R,S(.+/-.)-Malic acid; Apple acid (Salt/Mix)

Malic acid is generally used for the production of low-calorie beverages. 
It is a bit cheaper in comparison to citric acid and can replace citric acid in some flavored CBs. 
Malic acid enhances fruit flavors in soft drinks by prolonging their release and so the recipient cells are stimulated for a longer period of time, which is translated by the brain as a stronger fruit flavor. 
Malic acid provides more acidity per unit of weight than other acidulants used in carbonated soft drinks. 
The result is that the weight of the acidulant packages weighed previously is reduced. 
It can also provide cost savings and is recommended for use in beverage syrup (0.03%–0.90%) by dissolving after the addition benzoates, if used, have completely dissolved.
Despite its sinister sounding name, the word malic acid comes from the Latin word malum, which means apple. 
Malic acid was first isolated from apple juice in 1785, and it’s what gives some foods and drinks a tart taste. 
If you’re a fan of slightly acidic wine, malic acid probably played a huge role. 
It’s also a common ingredient in many hair and skin care products that include:

shampoos
body lotions
nail treatments
acne and anti-aging products
Malic acid is part of a family of fruit acids, called alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs). Alpha hydroxy acids stimulate exfoliation by interfering with how your skin cells bond. 
As a result, dull skin is removed to make way for newer skin. Skin care products that contain malic acid can provide benefits that include:

skin hydration
exfoliation, or the removal of dead skin cells
improved skin smoothness and tone
reduction in wrinkles
Your body also produces malic acid naturally when converting carbohydrates into energy. Movement would be very difficult without malic acid. 
It’ll probably be no surprise that malic acid also has other health benefits too.

Malic acid
Malic acid (2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, C4H6O5) (Figure 9) is a white, odorless, crystalline solid. 
In contrast to other fruit acids, it is very hygroscopic and has a tendency to lump. 
Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid and has an asymmetric carbon and occurs as l(the natural)- and d-isomers.


Malic acid is an organic compound also known by the name of "apple acid" and "fruit acid", and it is contained in many prepared foods. 
This compound is found naturally in apple, and in particular in the skin, and other fruit. 
It is a so-called alpha-hydroxy organic acid, and it also present in many plant and animal species. 
This intermediate is the key element in the main cellular energy production cycle, the Krebs cycle (also known as the citric acid cycle). 
Malic acid is often present in the label of the food, but it is not dangerous or toxic to human health. Its purpose is to increase the acidity of food, giving more flavour, but it is also used as a flavouring substance and colour stabilizer. 
It is identified with the acronym E296. 
This acidifying compound is widely used in the food industry and it is generally obtained through a chemical synthesis. 
It is normally found in fruit juices - mostly of grape or apple - as well as in jellies, spreadable fruit, jams, wine and in some low calories foods. 
In nature, the malic acid is contained in foods such as prunes, currants, tomatoes and even bananas, in small quantities. 
This fruit acid is closely related to acid and it is characterized by a sour, bitter, strong and penetrating taste.

MALIC ACID IN FOOD – ADVANTAGES
The malic acid in food provides a range of benefits as follows:
It supports the body in the release of energy from food;
It increases physical endurance of athletes and sportsmen;
It provides valuable support during the hypoxic phase of training;
It can relieve the symptoms of chronic fibromyalgia reducing pain.
For the reasons above, the consumption of food containing malic acid is highly recommended for people who practice sports at intense, competitive or professional level, since it is believed to increase the physical performance especially in cases of lack of oxygen in the cells.   
It can prolong sports performances especially when taken as a dietary supplement, during the hypoxic phases of the training.

Malic acid in food – safety
In terms of safety, we should remember that the malic acid in food can irritate eyes and skin, but it does not cause damage to health. 
On this point, Europe has not defined the reference values for the daily quantity ingested.

Malic Acid is an organic compound that is the active ingredient in many sour and tart foods. 
It can be blended with multiple food acids, sugars, high intensity sweeteners, flavors and seasonings to create distinctive taste experiences in foods, beverages, and confections.

Malic Acid is also used in the manufacture of skin and dental care products and can be used in a number of technical applications, such as Electroplating and metal cleaning.

Malic acid was first described by Sheele who, in 1785, isolated this acid from unripe apples. The name malic is from the Latin for apple, malum.

Malic acid is found in other fruits such as grapes, watermelons, cherries, and in vegetables such as carrots and broccoli. 
This acid is mainly used in food applications including candy and beverages. 
It gives a tart taste, lowers the pH, has antimicrobial effects, and confers special blending and flavor-fixing properties. 
There are also nonfood applications such as use for metal cleaning and finishing, textile finishing, electroless plating, pharmaceuticals, infusions, and paints.

Etymology
The word 'malic' is derived from Latin 'mālum', meaning 'apple'. 
It is also the name of the genus Malus, which includes all apples and crabapples; and the origin of other taxonomic classifications such as Maloideae, Malinae, and Maleae. 
This derivation is also seen in the traditional German name for malic acid, 'Äpfelsäure' meaning 'apple acid' as well as in modern Greek, 'mēlicon oxy' (Μηλικόν οξύ), after the original European discovery of apples in modern-day Kazakhstan 2350 years ago by Alexander the Great's expeditionary foray into Asia

Biochemistry
L-Malic acid is the naturally occurring form, whereas a mixture of L- and D-malic acid is produced synthetically.

Malate plays an important role in biochemistry. In the C4 carbon fixation process, malate is a source of CO2 in the Calvin cycle. 
In the citric acid cycle, (S)-malate is an intermediate, formed by the addition of an -OH group on the si face of fumarate. 
It can also be formed from pyruvate via anaplerotic reactions.

Malate is also synthesized by the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate in the guard cells of plant leaves. 
Malate, as a double anion, often accompanies potassium cations during the uptake of solutes into the guard cells in order to maintain electrical balance in the cell. 
The accumulation of these solutes within the guard cell decreases the solute potential, allowing water to enter the cell and promote aperture of the stomata.

In food
Malic acid was first isolated from apple juice by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1785.
Antoine Lavoisier in 1787 proposed the name acide malique, which is derived from the Latin word for apple, mālum—as is its genus name Malus.
In German it is named Äpfelsäure (or Apfelsäure) after plural or singular of the fruit apple, but the salt(s) Malat(e). 
Malic acid is the main acid in many fruits, including apricots, blackberries, blueberries, cherries, grapes, mirabelles, peaches, pears, plums, and quince and is present in lower concentrations in other fruits, such as citrus.
It contributes to the sourness of unripe apples. Sour apples contain high proportions of the acid. 
It is present in grapes and in most wines with concentrations sometimes as high as 5 g/l.
It confers a tart taste to wine; the amount decreases with increasing fruit ripeness. 
The taste of malic acid is very clear and pure in rhubarb, a plant for which it is the primary flavor. 
It is also a component of some artificial vinegar flavors, such as "salt and vinegar" flavored potato chips.

In citrus, fruits produced in organic farming contain higher levels of malic acid than fruits produced in conventional agriculture.

The process of malolactic fermentation converts malic acid to much milder lactic acid. 
Malic acid occurs naturally in all fruits and many vegetables, and is generated in fruit metabolism.

Malic acid, when added to food products, is denoted by E number E296. 
It is sometimes used with or in place of the less sour citric acid in sour sweets. 
These sweets are sometimes labeled with a warning stating that excessive consumption can cause irritation of the mouth. 
It is approved for use as a food additive in the EU,USand Australia and New Zealand (where it is listed by its INS number 296).

Malic acid provides 10 kJ (2.39 kilocalories) of energy per gram during digestion.


Production and main reactions
Racemic malic acid is produced industrially by the double hydration of maleic anhydride. 
In 2000, American production capacity was 5000 tons per year. 
Both enantiomers may be separated by chiral resolution of the racemic mixture, and the (S)- enantiomer may be specifically obtained by fermentation of fumaric acid.

Self-condensation of malic acid with fuming sulfuric acid gives the pyrone coumalic acid:

Coumalic Acid Synthesis
Malic acid was important in the discovery of the Walden inversion and the Walden cycle, in which (−)-malic acid first is converted into (+)-chlorosuccinic acid by action of phosphorus pentachloride. 
Wet silver oxide then converts the chlorine compound to (+)-malic acid, which then reacts with PCl5 to the (−)-chlorosuccinic acid. 
The cycle is completed when silver oxide takes this compound back to (−)-malic acid.


The production of quality wines requires a judicious balance between the sugar, acid and flavour components of wine. 
L-Malic and tartaric acids are the most prominent organic acids in wine and play a crucial role in the winemaking process, including the organoleptic quality and the physical, biochemical and microbial stability of wine. 
Deacidification of grape must and wine is often required for the production of well-balanced wines. 
Malolactic fermentation induced by the addition of malolactic starter cultures, regarded as the preferred method for naturally reducing wine acidity, efficiently decreases the acidic taste of wine, improves the microbial stability and modifies to some extent the organoleptic character of wine. 
However, the recurrent phenomenon of delayed or sluggish malolactic fermentation often causes interruption of cellar operations, while the malolactic fermentation is not always compatible with certain styles of wine. 
Commercial wine yeast strains of Saccharomyces are generally unable to degrade L-malic acid effectively in grape must during alcoholic fermentation, with relatively minor modifications in total acidity during vinification. 
Functional expression of the malolactic pathway genes, i.e. the malate transporter (mae1) of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the malolactic enzyme (mleA) from Oenococcus oeni in wine yeasts, has paved the way for the construction of malate-degrading strains of Saccharomyces for commercial winemaking.

Preferred IUPAC name
2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
Other names
Hydroxybutanedioic acid
2-Hydroxysuccinic acid
L-Malic acid
D-Malic acid
(–)-Malic acid
(+)-Malic acid
(S)-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
(R)-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
Identifiers
CAS Number    
617-48-1 ☒
6915-15-7 ☒


What Is It?
Malic acid is a tart-tasting organic dicarboxylic acid that contributes to the taste of many sour or tart foods such as apples. 
Sodium Malate is the sodium salt of Malic Acid. 
Malic Acid and Sodium Malate can be found in a wide range of cosmetics and personal care products.

Why is it used in cosmetics and personal care products?
Malic Acid and Sodium Malate are used primarily to control the pH of cosmetic products.

Scientific Facts: 
Malic Acid is an organic acid which can be prepared by fermentation from natural sugars. 
The naturally occurring form of Malic Acid can be found in unripe apples and other fruits. 
Malic acid can make a wine taste tart, although the amount decreases with increasing fruit ripeness. 
The process of malolactic fermentation converts Malic Acid to much milder lactic acid.

WHAT OTHER NAMES IS MALIC ACID KNOWN BY?
(-)-Acide Malique, (+)-Acide Malique, Acide 2-Hydroxybutanédioïque, Acide malique, Acide (R)-Hydroxybutanédioïque, Acide (S)-Hydroxybutanédioïque, Ácido málico, (-)-Malic Acid, (+)-Malic Acid, (R)-Hydroxybutanedioic Acid, (S)-Hydroxybutanedioic Acid, 2-Hydroxybutanedioic Acid, D-Malic Acid, L-Malic Acid, Malic Acid, Malate.

WHAT IS MALIC ACID?
Malic acid is a chemical found in certain fruits and wines. It is used to make medicine.

People take malic acid by mouth for tiredness and fibromyalgia.

In foods, malic acid is used as a flavoring agent to give food a tart taste.

In manufacturing, malic acid is used to adjust the acidity of cosmetics.

HOW DOES MALIC ACID WORK?
Malic acid is involved in the Krebs cycle. 
This is a process the body uses to make energy.


Malic acid is a 2-hydroxydicarboxylic acid that is succinic acid in which one of the hydrogens attached to a carbon is replaced by a hydroxy group. 
It has a role as a food acidity regulator and a fundamental metabolite. 
It is a 2-hydroxydicarboxylic acid and a C4-dicarboxylic acid. 
It derives from a succinic acid. It is a conjugate acid of a malate(2-) and a malate.
Malic acid in skin care products is celebrated for its ability to brighten the skin and smooth its texture. 
That’s why it’s a common ingredient in anti-aging creams.

According to a brain-skin connection studyTrusted Source, higher stress can worsen skin conditions like eczema, acne, and premature aging. 
And while wine can help reduce stress, external use of malic acid might be a healthier application.

Skin pH balance and hydration
Malic acid is also a humectant. 
It helps with moisture retention to help your skin stay hydrated.

A 2014 study about the hydration effects of aloe veraTrusted Source used malic acid, glucose, and a chemical compound in aloe vera (acemannan), as markers for fresh gel. 
Another small study also saw improvements in scales from old wounds after applying an ointment made of malic acid and petroleum jelly, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Malic acid is often used as an ingredient in cosmetics to balance pH levels. 
According to Bartek, a manufacturer that makes cosmetic and food grade chemicals, malic acid is more balanced than other fruit acids. 
It has a better buffer capacity than other AHAs like citric and lactic acid.

Having a better buffer capacity means that you can use more malic acid without upsetting your skin’s acid-base balance, or pH levels. 
If your skin’s pH level is unbalanced, then your skin’s protective barrier may be destabilized and more prone to dryness or acne.

Anti-aging and scar lightening
AHAs promote a high skin cell turnover rate. This means your skin cells are renewed more quickly, resulting in:

fewer fine lines and wrinkles
more even skin tone
smoother skin texture
decreased blemishes
“Malic acid at higher concentrations can also penetrate into lower levels of the skin to bring about new collagen formation,” says dermatologist Dr. Annie Chiu, director of the Derm Institute in California. Collagen is a protein that helps build and repair cells. 
It supports the skin and other body tissues’ strength and flexibility and prevents sagging. 
Collagen production slows down as you age, which is partly why skin loses its elasticity and firmness the older you get.

Using products with malic acid may increase collagen production and reduce signs of aging. 
Check out beauty blog ‘Hello Glow’ for three DIY (do it yourself) apple-based masks to rejuvenate your face, skin, and hair.


Acne prevention
Whether it’s in a lotion, cleanser, or light peeling agent, malic acid can help remove a buildup of dead cells. 
This is great for acne-prone skin. 
When the skin’s pores get clogged with too many dead skin cells and the skin’s natural oil (sebum), blackheads can form. 
Bacterial infections can also develop and cause breakouts.

“Malic acid breaks down the ‘glue’ that holds the dead skin cells together on the outer layer of the skin,” says Dr. Chiu. 
When these dead skin cells are swept away, “Your skin looks less dull and when your pores are unclogged, it helps reduce the formation of acne bumps and the discoloration that’s often associated with acne.”

While it sounds like a miracle cure, Dr. Chiu recommends sticking to low doses of malic acid. 
Unless your doctor recommends it, nonprescription skin care products will contain all the malic acid you need to fight breakouts or sagging skin. Higher doses, such as supplements, should only be taken if recommended by your doctor.

Help with fibromyalgia
Fibromyalgia is a complex disorder that causes pain and fatigue in the muscles. Some research suggests that people with fibromyalgia also have a hard time producing malic acid. 
While there is little supporting evidence, two studies evaluated whether a combination of high doses of malic acid and magnesium helped reduce muscle pain and tenderness. 
One study was inconclusive, but suggested that the combination may be beneficial in high doses over a long period of time.

In the other study, people who took the malic acid and magnesium reported significant improvement within 48 hours of starting treatment. 
This continued for the full eight weeks of the study. After eight weeks of the active treatment dosage, some of the participants were given a placebo instead. 
People who took the placebo reported reoccurrence of muscle pain within 48 hours.

Unless your doctor recommends malic acid supplements, you should get all the malic acid your body needs from a healthy diet that includes plenty of fruits and vegetables.

Use with caution
Although malic acid is less irritating on the skin than other AHAs, it should still be used with caution. 
Malic acid can make your skin turn red, itch, or burn, especially around the eyes.

You may want to patch test a product before a complete application. 
To patch test, swab a small amount of product on your wrist or behind your ear. 
Then wait 24 hours to see how your skin reacts. 
If your skin begins to burn, wash off the product immediately. Seek medical attention if the irritation doesn’t go away after washing.

Also, inhaling malic acid is considered hazardous.

Malic acid is an AHA that occurs in fruits, vegetables, and wine. 
Our bodies also produce malic acid naturally when converting carbohydrates into energy. 
Many cosmetic companies use malic acid to balance the pH levels of the skin and increase moisture retention. 
Including malic acid in your skin care routine may help with skin concerns like aging, pigmentation, acne, or dryness. 
Just remember to patch test when trying out new products as malic acid can irritate the skin, especially around the eyes.

Some research also suggests that taking malic acid, with magnesium, is beneficial for people with muscle pain and fatigue. 
But always consult your doctor before taking supplements.

The global malic acid market reached a volume of 83.4 Kilotons in 2019. 
Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid made by all living organisms and has the molecular formula C4H6O5. 
It contributes to the sour and tart taste of foods and is found in nearly all fruits including apples, apricots, blackberries, grapes, peaches, plums, pears, strawberries and mangoes. 
The consumption of malic acid helps in detoxification, energy production, treating chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and improving overall muscle performance. 
It is extensively used in the food processing industry as it assists in increasing the shelf life of packaged food and bakery items. 
It also facilitates the preparation of bakery products, desserts, fruit juices, frozen specialties and sports drinks. 
Apart from this, malic acid finds applications in the detergent, health, and cosmetics and personal care industries.

Global Malic Acid Market Drivers:

In recent years, the growing use of malic acid for manufacturing sugarless confectioneries has escalated its demand among obese and diabetic people. 
Moreover, regulatory authorities such as the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA), European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) have approved the use of malic acid in food processing, thereby catalyzing its sales. Malic acid is also utilized as a substitute for citric acid and tartaric acid in the detergent industry, owing to its lower hygroscopicity and higher solubility. 
Apart from this, it is used as an ingredient in many cosmetic and personal care products as it has antioxidant properties which make the skin healthy and shiny. 
In the pharmaceutical industry, malic acid is used in the production of medical products including cough syrups, throat lozenges, toothpaste, mouthwash and health supplements such as protein shakes and nutrition bars. 
Looking forward, IMARC Group expects the global malic acid market to continue its moderate growth during the next five years.

Market Summary:

Based on the product types, the market has been segmented into L-malic acid, D-malic acid and DL-malic acid.
On the basis of applications, the market has been segregated into beverages, confectionery and food, personal care, and others. 
Currently, beverages represent the largest application segment since malic acid is used as a preferred acidulent in this segment.
Region-wise, Asia Pacific exhibits a clear dominance in the market. Other major regions include North America, Middle East and Africa, Latin America, and Europe.

(±)-Malic Acid
(±)-1-Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic Acid
(±)-2-Hydroxysuccinic acid
1723539 [Beilstein]
210-514-9 [EINECS]
230-022-8 [EINECS]
2-hydroxybutanedioic acid
2-Hydroxy-succinic acid
2-Hydroxysuccinic Acid
617-48-1 [RN]
6915-15-7 [RN]
Acide malique [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
a-Hydroxysuccinic Acid
Apfelsäure [German]
Äpfelsäure [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy- [ACD/Index Name]
DL-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
DL-Malic acid
Hydroxybutandisaeure
Kyselina hydroxybutandiova [Czech]
Malic acid [ACD/IUPAC Name]
MALIC ACID, (DL)
Malic acid, dl-
MFCD00064212 [MDL number]
R,S(±)-Malic acid
R,S(±)-Malic Acid
R,S-Malic acid
R,SMalic acid
(±)-1-Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid
(±)-Hydroxysuccinic acid
(±)-Hydroxysuccinic acid
(±)-Malic acid
(R)-2-Hydroxysuccinic acid
(S)-(-)-Hydrosuccinic acid
(S)-(-)-Hydroxysuccinic acid
(S)-2-hydroxysuccinic acid
±-Malic acid
104596-63-6 [RN]
124501-05-9 [RN]
1723540 [Beilstein]
202-601-5 [EINECS]
2-hydroxybutanedioate
2-Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid
2-Hydroxysuccinic acid|Malic Acid
41308-42-3 [RN]
481-74-3 [RN]
498-37-3 [RN]
52055-23-9 [RN]
6283-27-8 [RN]
6294-10-6 [RN]
676-46-0 [RN]
78644-42-5 [RN]
84781-39-5 [RN]
97-67-6 [RN]
Aepfelsaeure
APPLE ACID
Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-
Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-, (±)-
BUTANEDIOIC ACID, HYDROXY-, (±)-
d,l-malic acid
Deoxytetraric acid
DL-2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
DL-Apple acid
DL-hydroxysuccinic acid
DL-Malic acid;DL-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
DL-MALICACID
D-malate
E296
H2mal
Hydroxybutanedioate
Hydroxybutanedioic acid
Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid
hydroxysuccinic acid
hydroxy-succinic acid
Kyselina hydroxybutandiova
Kyselina jablecna [Czech]
mal
MALATE LIKE INTERMEDIATE
MalicAcid
Maslic acid
MFCD00004245 [MDL number]
MFCD00064213 [MDL number]
MLT
Monohydroxybernsteinsaeure
Musashi-no-Ringosan
OAA
Oxaloacetate Ion
Pomalus acid
R,S(±)-Malic acid
STR03457
Succinic acid, hydroxy-
TEO
α-Hydroxysuccinic acid
α-Hydroxysuccinic acid
苹果酸 [Chinese]


malic acid
DL-malic acid
6915-15-7
2-Hydroxysuccinic acid
2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
617-48-1
malate
Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-
hydroxysuccinic acid
Kyselina jablecna
Deoxytetraric acid
hydroxybutanedioic acid
Pomalus acid
Malic acid, DL-
Musashi-no-Ringosan
alpha-Hydroxysuccinic acid
Hydroxybutandisaeure
dl-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
Caswell No. 537
Monohydroxybernsteinsaeure
Succinic acid, hydroxy-
R,S(+-)-Malic acid
2-Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid
Kyselina jablecna [Czech]
FDA 2018
(+-)-Malic acid
DL-2-hydroxybutanedioic acid
FEMA No. 2655
FEMA Number 2655
Kyselina hydroxybutandiova [Czech]
Malic acid [NF]
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 051101


CAS names
Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-

IUPAC names
2-Hydroxy butane diacid
2-hydroxybutanedioic acid
Apfelsäure
Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy
Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-
DL - malic acid
DL-MALIC ACID
DL-Malic Acid
DL-Malic acid
DL-malic acid
Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid
Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure
hydroxybutanedioic acid
hydroxylsuccinic acid


What Is Malic Acid Used for in Foods?
Malic acid is the tartness that is added to extremely sour candies and may be used in combination with citric acid in sour sweets as well. 
In carbonated drinks that are artificially sweetened, the addition of malic acid allows less use of the flavor additives. 
It is also used widely in non-carbonated beverages of all types, ciders and wines, acidified dairy products such as fruit flavored milk drinks, whey based protein drinks and soy milk.

If you consume confectioneries, hard or soft candy, chewing gum, fruit preserves and bakery products, you are most likely eating malic acid in the process.

±)-Malic Acid
(±)-1-Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic Acid
(±)-2-Hydroxysuccinic acid
1723539 [Beilstein]
210-514-9 [EINECS]
230-022-8 [EINECS]
2-hydroxybutanedioic acid
2-Hydroxy-succinic acid
2-Hydroxysuccinic Acid
617-48-1 [RN]
6915-15-7 [RN]
Acide malique [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
a-Hydroxysuccinic Acid
Apfelsäure [German]
Äpfelsäure [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy- [ACD/Index Name]
DL-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
DL-Malic acid
Hydroxybutandisaeure
Kyselina hydroxybutandiova [Czech]
Malic acid [ACD/IUPAC Name]
MALIC ACID, (DL)
Malic acid, dl-
MFCD00064212 [MDL number]
R,S(±)-Malic acid
R,S(±)-Malic Acid
R,S-Malic acid
R,SMalic acid
(±)-1-Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid
(±)-Hydroxysuccinic acid
(±)-Hydroxysuccinic acid
(±)-Malic acid
(R)-2-Hydroxysuccinic acid
(S)-(-)-Hydrosuccinic acid
(S)-(-)-Hydroxysuccinic acid
(S)-2-hydroxysuccinic acid
±-Malic acid
104596-63-6 [RN]
124501-05-9 [RN]
1723540 [Beilstein]
202-601-5 [EINECS]
2-hydroxybutanedioate
2-Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid
2-Hydroxysuccinic acid|Malic Acid
41308-42-3 [RN]
481-74-3 [RN]
498-37-3 [RN]
52055-23-9 [RN]
6283-27-8 [RN]
6294-10-6 [RN]
676-46-0 [RN]
78644-42-5 [RN]
84781-39-5 [RN]
97-67-6 [RN]
Aepfelsaeure
APPLE ACID
Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-
Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-, (±)-
BUTANEDIOIC ACID, HYDROXY-, (±)-
d,l-malic acid
Deoxytetraric acid
DL-2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
DL-Apple acid
DL-hydroxysuccinic acid
DL-Hydroxysuccinic acid, Hydroxybutanedioic acid
DL-Malic acid;DL-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
DL-MALICACID
D-malate
E296
H2mal
http:////www.amadischem.com/proen/531473/
http:////www.amadischem.com/proen/586105/
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:6650
Hydroxybutanedioate
Hydroxybutanedioic acid
Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid
hydroxysuccinic acid
hydroxy-succinic acid
Kyselina hydroxybutandiova
Kyselina jablecna [Czech]
mal
MALATE LIKE INTERMEDIATE
MalicAcid
Maslic acid
MFCD00004245 [MDL number]
MFCD00064213 [MDL number]
MLT
Monohydroxybernsteinsaeure
Musashi-no-Ringosan
OAA
Oxaloacetate Ion
Pomalus acid
R,S(±)-Malic acid
STR03457
Succinic acid, hydroxy-
TEO
α-Hydroxysuccinic acid
α-Hydroxysuccinic acid
苹果酸 [Chinese]


D-Apple Acid; (+-)-Hydroxysuccinic acid; (+-)-Malic acid;Deoxytetraric Acid; Malic acid; 2-Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid; Deoxytetraric acid; Hydroxybutandisaeure; Hydroxybutanedioic acid; (+-)-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; Hydroxysuccinic acid; Kyselina hydroxybutandiova; Monohydroxybernsteinsaeure; Pomalus acid; R,S(+-)-Malic acid; alpha-Hydroxysuccinic acid; (+-)-1-Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid; Other CAS RN; 41308-42-3; 617-48-1; 623158-98-5; 879715-44-3;

here are two types of DL-Malic Acid: granular type and powder type. 
It features pureness, gentleness, smoothness, tenderness, lasting acidic taste, high solubility and salt stability etc. 
DL-Malic Acid is widely used in soft drinks, candy, jelly, jam, dairy products, canned foods, frozen foods, fresh fruits and vegetables, beverages, meat products, flavor, spice and pharmaceutical products.

Malic Acid is an organic compound, a dicarboxylic acid that is the active ingredient in many sour and tart foods. Malic Acid is generated during fruit metabolism and occurs naturally in all fruits and many vegetables.

The pleasant, refreshing experience of biting into a juicy apple or cherry is partly caused by Malic Acid. Its mellow, smooth, persistent sourness can be blended with multiple food acids, sugars, high intensity sweeteners, flavors and seasonings to create distinctive taste experiences in foods, beverages and confections.

Malic Acid is formed in metabolic cycles in the cells of plants and animals, including humans. The compound provides cells with energy and carbon skeletons for the formation of amino acids. The human body produces and breaks down relatively large amounts of Malic Acid every day.

Malic Acid contributes to the sourness of green apples. It is present in grapes and gives a tart taste to wine. When added to food products, Malic Acid is the source of extreme tartness. It is used with or in place of the less sour citric acid in sour sweets.

Malic Acid is used as a flavor enhancer in food preparation for confectionaries, beverages, fruit preparations and preserves, desserts, and bakery products. It is also essential in the preparation of medical products such as throat lozenges, cough syrups, effervescent powdered preparations, toothpaste and mouthwash. Additionally, Malic Acid is used in the manufacture of skin care products to rejuvenate and improve skin conditions.


Malic acid is widely used in fruit and vegetable juices, carbonated soft drinks, jams, wines, and candies by improving their sweetness or tartness. 
Malic acid is also used in the cosmetic industry mainly to adjust pH in a low concentration. 
Many cosmetic products, such as self-tanning cream, cleansing form and facial cream, contain malic acid as a pH controller. 
Its derivative, malic acid monolaurylamide, is also used as a skin care cleansing agent. 
As malic acid can diminish flavors of active chemicals, it is often included in the soaps, mouthwasher fluid, and toothpaste. 
Macromolecular materials from l-malic acid are also utilized for biomedical applications with adjusting structures and properties. 
Among them, poly(l-malic acid) is widely used in biomedical applications, because it is nontoxic when degraded. 
This is ideal characteristic for its use as a water-soluble drug carrier to introduce biologically active molecules after proper chemical modifications


MALIC ACID is widely used in food industry to enhance sweetness or tartness of fruit and vegetable juices, carbonated soft drinks, jams, wines, and candies.


Malic acid is the major organic acid in apples compared to citric acid and tartaric acid. 
A study says that malic acid in the fruit accounts for around 90 per cent of the total organic acids. 
Citric acid exists in apples but in a very low concentration.


Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid available as the racemic DL-malic acid and the two optically active isomers, D-malic acid and L-malic acid. 
L-Malic acid is the naturally occurring form. Malic acid occurs naturally in fruits including apples and cherries.  
Because of this, malic acid is commonly referred to as "apple acid."    
Malic acid is produced in the metabolic cycles of humans, plants, and animals. 
In the glyoxylate cycles, malic acid provides cells with the carbon skeleton and energy necessary for amino acid formation.

Identification  
Chemical names and other names:
DL-Malic Acid [6915-15-71 (Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-, (+-)-; DL-2-
Hydroxybutanedioic acid; DL-Apple Acid; DL-hydroxybutanedioic acid; DLHydroxysuccinic acid; DL-malic acid)
L- Malic Acid [97-67-61 (Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-, (S)-; L-2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; L-(-)-Apple Acid; L-Hydroxysuccinic acid; L-(-)-Malic acid; (S)-Malate)
D- Malic Acid [636-61-31 (D-Hydroxysuccinic acid; D(+)-Malic acid; (R)Hydroxybutanedioic acid; (R)-Malate)

Characterization

Properties:
DL- Malic Acid
Molecular Weight 134.0884
Melting Point 101-103 deg
a clean, mellow, smooth, persistent sourness,   flavor enhancement and blending abilities,   a high solubility rate,   less hygoscopic than Citric or Tartaric acids,   a lower melting point than other acids for easier incorporation into molten confections,   and good chelating properties with metal ions.
It forms:
     economical acidulant blends with other acids,
     more soluble calcium salts than Citric acid, and
     effective buffering mixtures.
The main use of synthetic malic acid is pH adjustment. Citric acid works as a modest acidulant with green teas, but malic acid is a better pH adjuster with black teas. Malic acid is more versatile for commercial tea production and storage. Malic acid is used as a direct food additive to adjust pH. Malic acid is used to lower beverage pH while inhibiting bacteria growth.
Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) by FDA when used in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), and contains no residues ofheav metals or other contaminants in excess ofFDA tolerances.
Its primary purpose is not as a preservative or used only to recreate/improve flavors, colors, textures, or nutritive value lost during processing except in the latter case as required by law.
Its purpose is to adjust ph, and although the petition is not for improving taste, this seems to be the main reason it is preferred over other acids.

Its use is compatible with the principles oforganic handling.
A main principle of organic handling is to avoid compromising the organic integrity of the organic agricultural product you are starting with. That means not adding anything artificial or synthetic. It seems much more compatible with the principle of organic food handling to use a food acid produced by fermentation or a food acid judged nonsynthetic or a naturally sour food source such as vinegar or lemon juice, rather than one made by  the catalytic conversion of butane.
There is no other way to produce a similarproduct without its use and it is used in the minimum quantity required to achieve the process. There are alternatives to malic acid for this application.


DL- Malic acid is commercially produced by the catalytic hydration of maleic anhydride or by the hydration of fumaric acid.   
DL- malic acid is made synthetically by catalytic oxidation of benzene to maleic acid, which is converted to malic acid by heating with steam under pressure. 
DL- malic acid is produced by the hydration ofmaleic anhydride (derived from butane), which is converted to maleic and then malic acid. 
Bartek, a manufacturer of malic acid, makes DL- malic acid by the catalytic conversion of butane gas, water, and oxygen to DL- malic acid. 
This process results in 99% DL-Malic acid and less than 1% fumaric acid

Synthetic DL-Malic acid is used in tea production for pH adjustment. 
It is used to keep the pH of bottled teas to a level of 4.6 or below. 
Malic acid reduces the amount of flavors needed in certain foods and beverages by intensifying the previously existing flavors. 
In particular, this pertains to carbonated beverages. 
Malic acid extends the taste of foods by increasing the impact of certain flavors (improving aftertaste). 
This is normally the case with "still" or un-carbonated beverages, including teas, fruit juices, sports drinks, and calcium fortified beverages. 
The presence of malic acid in these types of beverages masks salty aftertastes and improves pH stability while enhancing fruit flavors. 
Malic acid is also typically added to drink mixes because of its rapid rate of dissolution. 
Malic acid is more sour than citric acid, therefore less acidulant is required, reducing unit 
 

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