NICOTINAMIDE

Nicotinamide = Niacinamide

CAS Number: 98-92-0
EC no: 202-713-4
IUPAC Name: pyridine-3-carboxamide
Formula: C6H6N2O
Molar mass: 122.127 g·mol−1

Nicotinamide or Niacinamide (NAM) is a form of vitamin B3 found in food and used as a dietary supplement and medication.
As a supplement, Nicotinamide is used by mouth to prevent and treat pellagra (niacin deficiency).
While nicotinic acid (niacin) may be used for this purpose, niacinamide has the benefit of not causing skin flushing.

As a cream, Nicotinamide is used to treat acne.
Nicotinamide is a water-soluble vitamin. 
Niacinamide is the supplement name while Nicotinamide (NAM) is the scientific name.

Niacinamide is in the vitamin B family of medications, specifically the vitamin B3 complex.
Nicotinamide is an amide of nicotinic acid.
Foods that contain niacinamide include yeast, meat, milk, and green vegetables.

Niacinamide was discovered between 1935 and 1937.
Nicotinamide is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.
Niacinamide is available as a generic medication and over the counter.
Commercially, niacinamide is made from either nicotinic acid (niacin) or nicotinonitrile.
In a number of countries grains have niacinamide added to them.

DESCRIPTION:
A form of niacin (vitamin B3) that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. 
Nicotinamide is found in many plant and animal products and in dietary supplements.
Nicotinamide is water-soluble (can dissolve in water) and must be taken in every day. 
Nicotinamide may be used to treat diabetes and certain skin conditions and is being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. 
Nicotinamide may increase blood flow to cancer cells and block certain enzymes they need to repair damage to their DNA. 

Nicotinamide may make cancer cells easier to kill with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. 
Nicotinamide is a type of radiosensitizing agent and a type of chemosensitizing agent. 
Nicotinamide is also called niacinamide.

Nicotinamide (NSC 13128, Niacinamide, Vitamin PP, Nicotinic acid amide, Vitamin B3, NSC 27452), a water-soluble vitamin, is an active component of coenzymes NAD and NADP, and also act as an inhibitor of sirtuins.
Nicotinamide is an ingredient found in a variety of cosmetic products.
The term ‘niacin’ is used as a generic description of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide with pyridine as the basic structure. 

Medical uses of Nicotinamide:
Niacin deficiency
Niacinamide is the preferred treatment for pellagra, caused by niacin deficiency.
While niacin may be used, niacinamide has the benefit of not causing skin flushing.

Acne:
Niacinamide cream is used as a treatment for acne.
Nicotinamide has anti-inflammatory actions, which may benefit people with inflammatory skin conditions.

Niacinamide increases the biosynthesis of ceramides in human keratinocytes in vitro and improves the epidermal permeability barrier in vivo.
The application of 2% topical niacinamide for 2 and 4 weeks has been found to be effective in lowering the sebum excretion rate.
Niacinamide has been shown to prevent Cutibacterium acnes-induced activation of toll-like receptor 2, which ultimately results in the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory interleukin-8 production.

Other skin benefits from topical niacinamide may include relief to a stripped moisture barrier in the skin, reduced irritation, increase of collagen production, and the lessening of hyperpigmentation in one's skin.

Skin cancer:
Niacinamide at doses of 500 to 1000 mg a day decreases the risk of skin cancers, other than melanoma, in those at high risk.

Chemistry of Nicotinamide:
The structure of nicotinamide consists of a pyridine ring to which a primary amide group is attached in the meta position.
Nicotinamide is an amide of nicotinic acid.

As an aromatic compound, it undergoes electrophilic substitution reactions and transformations of its two functional groups.
Examples of these reactions reported in Organic Syntheses include the preparation of 2-chloronicotinonitrile by a two-step process via the N-oxide, from nicotinonitrile by reaction with phosphorus pentoxide, and from 3-aminopyridine by reaction with a solution of sodium hypobromite, prepared in situ from bromine and sodium hydroxide.
NAD+, the oxidized form of NADH, contains the nicotinamide moiety (highlighted in red)

Industrial production of Nicotinamide:
The hydrolysis of nicotinonitrile is catalysed by the enzyme nitrile hydratase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous J1, producing 3500 tons per annum of nicotinamide for use in animal feed.
The enzyme allows for a more selective synthesis as further hydrolysis of the amide to nicotinic acid is avoided.
Nicotinamide can also be made from nicotinic acid. According to Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, worldwide 31,000 tons of nicotinamide were sold in 2014.

Biochemistry of Nicotinamide:
The active Nicotinamide group on the molecule NAD+ undergoes oxidation in many metabolic pathways.
Nicotinamide, as a part of the cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH / NAD+) is crucial to life.
In cells, nicotinamide is incorporated into NAD+ and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+).
NAD+ and NADP+ are cofactors in a wide variety of enzymatic oxidation-reduction reactions, most notably glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain.

If humans ingest nicotinamide, it will likely undergo a series of reactions that transform it into NAD, which can then undergo a transformation to form NADP+.
This method of creation of NAD+ is called a salvage pathway.
However, the human body can produce NAD+ from the amino acid tryptophan and niacin without our ingestion of nicotinamide.

NAD+ acts as an electron carrier that helps with the interconversion of energy between nutrients and the cell's energy currency, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
In oxidation-reduction reactions, the active part of the cofactor is the nicotinamide.
In NAD+, the nitrogen in the aromatic nicotinamide ring is covalently bonded to adenine dinucleotide.

The formal charge on the nitrogen is stabilized by the shared electrons of the other carbon atoms in the aromatic ring.
When a hydride atom is added onto NAD+ to form NADH, the molecule loses its aromaticity, and therefore a good amount of stability.
This higher energy product later releases its energy with the release of a hydride, and in the case of the electron transport chain, it assists in forming adenosine triphosphate.
When one mole of NADH is oxidized, 158.2 kJ of energy will be released.

Hydrogen Bond Donor Count:1    
Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count:2    
Rotatable Bond Count:1    
Exact Mass:122.048012819 gram 
Monoisotopic Mass:122.048012819 g 
Topological Polar Surface Area:56 Ų    
Heavy Atom Count:9    
Formal Charge:0    
Complexity:114    
Isotope Atom Count:0    Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0    
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0    
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0    
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0    
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1    
Compound Is Canonicalized:Yes    

Nicotinamide is the water-soluble, amide isotype of vitamin B3. 
The body gets Nicotinamide from the diet, including legumes, beans, nuts, seeds, and green leafy vegetables. 
However, most of us don't get enough of these items in our diet, and we may need to supplement with additional Nicotinamide capsules.
Nicotinamide is a water soluble amide of nicotinic acid and has a long heritage of use in dermatology. 

In recent years  Nicotinamide has become the preferred choice among many dermatologists.
Nicotinamide can help support your body’s natural response to skin blemishes by supporting the skin’s natural ability to regenerate a smooth outer layer clear of blemishes, red spots, bumps, and warts.
Preliminary clinical evidence suggests that nicotinamide may help support the body’s natural ability to control Polymorphous light eruption, a type of photosensitivity.
Nicotinamide may support the body’s natural mechanisms that improve energy production due to Nicotinamide’s role as a precursor of NAD, an important molecule involved in energy metabolism.

Biological role of Nicotinamide:
Nicotinamide occurs as a component of a variety of biological systems, including within the vitamin B family and specifically the vitamin B3 complex.
Nicotinamide is also a critically important part of the structures of NADH and NAD+, where the N-substituted aromatic ring in the oxidised NAD+ form undergoes reduction with hydride attack to form NADH.
The NADPH/NADP+ structures have the same ring, and are involved in similar biochemical reactions.
Nicotinamide can be methylated in the liver to biologically active 1-Methylnicotinamide when there's sufficient methyl donors.

Food sources for Nicotinamide:
Niacinamide occurs in trace amounts mainly in meat, fish, nuts, and mushrooms, as well as to a lesser extent in some vegetables.
Nicotinamide is commonly added to cereals and other foods.
Many multivitamins contain 20–30 mg of vitamin B3 and it is also available in higher doses.

Research about Nicotinamide:
A 2015 trial found niacinamide to reduce the rate of new nonmelanoma skin cancers and actinic keratoses in a group of people at high risk for the conditions. 
Niacinamide has been investigated for many additional disorders, including treatment of bullous pemphigoid nonmelanoma skin cancers. 
Niacinamide may be beneficial in treating psoriasis. 

There is tentative evidence for a potential role of niacinamide in treating acne, rosacea, autoimmune blistering disorders, ageing skin, and atopic dermatitis.
Niacinamide also inhibits poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP-1), enzymes involved in the rejoining of DNA strand breaks induced by radiation or chemotherapy.
ARCON (accelerated radiotherapy plus carbogen inhalation and nicotinamide) has been studied in cancer.
Research has suggested niacinamide may play a role in the treatment of HIV.

Density: 1.40 g/cm3
Melting point: 129.5 °C
Boiling point: 334 °C
XLogP3: -0.4
Hydrogen Bond Donor Count: 1
Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count: 2
Rotatable Bond Count: 1
Exact Mass: 122.048012819
Monoisotopic Mass: 122.048012819
Topological Polar Surface Area: 56 Ų
Heavy Atom Count: 9
Formal Charge: 0
Complexity: 114
Isotope Atom Count: 0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count: 1
Compound Is Canonicalized: Yes

Niacinamide is the active form of vitamin B3 and a component of the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Niacinamide acts as a chemo- and radio-sensitizing agent by enhancing tumor blood flow, thereby reducing tumor hypoxia.
Niacinamide also inhibits poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, enzymes involved in the rejoining of DNA strand breaks induced by radiation or chemotherapy.

Nicotinamide is a pyridinecarboxamide that is pyridine in which the hydrogen at position 3 is replaced by a carboxamide group.
Nicotinamide has a role as an EC 2.4.2.30 (NAD(+) ADP-ribosyltransferase) inhibitor, a metabolite, a cofactor, an antioxidant, a neuroprotective agent, an EC 3.5.1.98 (histone deacetylase) inhibitor, an anti-inflammatory agent, a Sir2 inhibitor, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite, an Escherichia coli metabolite, a mouse metabolite, a human urinary metabolite and a geroprotector.
Nicotinamide is a vitamin B3, a pyridinecarboxamide and a pyridine alkaloid. It derives from a nicotinic acid.

About Nicotinamide Helpful information:
Nicotinamide is registered under the REACH Regulation and is manufactured in and / or imported to the European Economic Area, at ≥ 1 000 to < 10 000 tonnes per annum.
Nicotinamide is used by consumers, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites and in manufacturing.

Consumer Uses of Nicotinamide:
Nicotinamide is used in the following products: cosmetics and personal care products, air care products, polishes and waxes, washing & cleaning products and perfumes and fragrances.
Other release to the environment of Nicotinamide is likely to occur from: indoor use as processing aid and outdoor use as processing aid.

Widespread uses of Nicotinamide by professional workers:
Nicotinamide is used in the following products: cosmetics and personal care products, pharmaceuticals, air care products, polishes and waxes, washing & cleaning products and laboratory chemicals.
Nicotinamide is used in the following areas: health services.
Other release to the environment of Nicotinamide is likely to occur from: indoor use as processing aid.

Formulation or re-packing:
Nicotinamide is used in the following products: cosmetics and personal care products, pharmaceuticals, air care products, polishes and waxes, washing & cleaning products and laboratory chemicals.
Nicotinamide has an industrial use resulting in manufacture of another substance (use of intermediates).
Release to the environment of Nicotinamide can occur from industrial use: formulation of mixtures.

Uses of Nicotinamide at industrial sites:
Nicotinamide is used in the following products: cosmetics and personal care products, air care products, pharmaceuticals, polishes and waxes and washing & cleaning products.
Nicotinamide has an industrial use resulting in manufacture of another substance (use of intermediates).

Nicotinamide is used in the following areas: health services and formulation of mixtures and/or re-packaging.
Nicotinamide is used for the manufacture of: chemicals and food products.
Release to the environment of Nicotinamide can occur from industrial use: as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates), of substances in closed systems with minimal release, as processing aid and in processing aids at industrial sites.

Nicotinamide, also known as niacinamide or nicotinic acid amide, is the water-soluble, active form of vitamin B3.
Nicotinamide has been increasingly studied for many different indications in the field of dermatology, but more research is needed to clarify its value.

Nicotinamide is naturally present in small quantities in yeast, lean meats, fish, nuts and legumes. It is also often added to cereals and other foods.
Oral nicotinamide is available as 20–30 mg in multivitamin combinations, and on its own as inexpensive 500-mg tablets.
Nicotinamide has also been incorporated in many topical agents including sunscreens and cosmetic agents.

Niacinamide or Nicotinamide (NAM) is a form of vitamin B3 found in food and used as a dietary supplement and medication.
As a supplement, NICOTINAMIDE is used by mouth to prevent and treat pellagra (niacin deficiency). 
While nicotinic acid (niacin) may be used for this purpose, niacinamide has the benefit of not causing skin flushing.

Nicotinamide, also known as niacinamide or nicotinic acid amide, is the water-soluble, active form of vitamin B3. 
It has been increasingly studied for many different indications in the field of dermatology, but more research is needed to clarify its value.
Niacinamide is required for the function of fats and sugars in the body and to maintain healthy cells. 
Niacin is converted to niacinamide when Niacinamide is taken in amounts greater than what is needed by the body. 

Unlike niacin, niacinamide doesn't help treat high cholesterol.
People use niacinamide to prevent vitamin B3 deficiency and related conditions such as pellagra.
Niacinamide is also used for acne, diabetes, cancer, osteoarthritis, aging skin, skin discoloration, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support most of these uses.
Do not confuse niacinamide with niacin, NADH, nicotinamide riboside, inositol nicotinate, or L-tryptophan. 

How does nicotinamide work?
The broad clinical effects of nicotinamide may be explained by Nicotinamides role as:

A cellular energy precursor
A modulator of inflammatory cytokines
An inhibitor of the nuclear enzyme poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose [ADP]) polymerase [PARP], which plays a significant role in DNA repair, maintenance of genomic stability, and cellular response to injury including inflammation and apoptosis (cell death).

What is nicotinamide used for?
Vitamin B3 is essential for good health; deficiency leads to a serious illness, pellagra. 
Oral nicotinamide can be used effectively to treat pellagra.
Nicotinamide used as medicine may benefit the skin in several different ways.  

Nicotinamide has anti-inflammatory properties, which may be used for the treatment of bullous (blistering) diseases.
Nicotinamide may improve acne by its anti-inflammatory action and by reducing sebum.
Nicotinamide can improve skin barrier function by decreasing water loss through the epidermis (the outer skin layer) thus increasing skin hydration.

Nicotinamide is reported to improve complexion, by improving the pigmentation, blotchiness and redness of ageing skin; it is used in some cosmeceutical products.
Nicotinamide may reduce actinic keratoses and the risk of skin cancer, particularly squamous cell carcinoma.
Nicotinamide is a water-soluble form of vitamin B3 or niacin. 

Nicotinamide is made in the body by eating niacin-rich foods such as fish, poultry, nuts, legumes, eggs, and cereal grains. 
Nicotinamide supplements are used to treat skin conditions and niacin deficiencies.

Recent studies suggest nicotinamide may protect against some forms of skin lesions in patients with sun-damaged skin.
Additional studies are needed to confirm safety and effectiveness across different types of skin cancer and in different people.
In addition, the protective effects of nicotinamide against UV exposure does not mean that it protects against sunburn.

To prevent skin cancer
A large study found that taking nicotinamide can reduce the risk of getting certain types of skin cancers.
A few small studies suggest it may also reduce the occurrence of rough scaly patches.
Additional long-term studies are needed.

To treat acne and other skin conditions
Nicotinamide is used as a medicine for treating skin conditions such as acne and rosacea.

Although nicotinamide appears to protect against ultraviolet (UV) light exposure, it is not a substitute for sunscreen and does not protect against sunburn.
Even though niacin can become nicotinamide in the body, their effects and side effects when used as supplements are different and not interchangeable.

Nicotinamide, also known as niacinamide, is a water-soluble amide form of niacin or vitamin B3. 
Nicotinamide is found in foods such as fish, poultry, eggs, and cereal grains. 
Nicotinamide is also marketed as a dietary supplement, and as a non-flushing form of niacin.

Nicotinamide has established medical uses to treat conditions stemming from niacin deficiency such as pellagra. 
Oral and topical formulations are used to treat a variety of inflammatory skin conditions including acne vulgaris and rosacea.

An animal study suggests nicotinamide supplementation can help prevent glaucoma by preserving mitochondrial function.
Other preclinical models demonstrate photoimmunoprotective and chemopreventive effects against UV radiation.
Nicotinamide enhances repair of UV radiation-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes and keratinocytes and similar effects have been demonstrated in human studies.
Other clinical trials show oral nicotinamide reduces UV-induced and photodynamic therapy (PDT)-induced immunosuppression.

In patients with sun-damaged skin, oral nicotinamide helped prevent the occurrence of nonaggressive skin cancers.
In a small trial among renal transplant patients however, similar effects were not significant.
Other studies found a reduction in actinic keratoses, a predictor of melanoma risk.
Additional studies are warranted.

Nicotinamide appears to be largely well tolerated in clinical studies.
Even though niacin is converted into nicotinamide in the body, these two supplements should not be viewed as interchangeable as they have different side effect profiles.

Nicotinamide is chemically part of the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NAD+ and NADH, used in oxidation-reduction reactions in the body.
Among these activities is the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which fuels cellular metabolic activities.

Photoimmunoprotective effects of oral or topical nicotinamide are linked to its support for DNA repair by preventing post-UV exposure declines in cellular energy or the repletion of energy to irradiated cells.
Nicotinamide is influence on several pathways contribute to this enhanced repair of UV-induced DNA damage.
Skin cancer chemoprevention is attributed in part to reductions in inflammatory macrophages.

In UV-irradiated keratinocytes, nicotinamide reduced expression of IL-6, IL-10, MCP-1 and TNF-alpha mRNA, cytokine mediators whose activity may be involved in inflammation, cellular-tissue injury, cell death, and skin cancer.
In human melanocytes, nicotinamide increased the global nucleotide excision repair rate and number of irradiated melanocytes undergoing DNA repair.
Effects of topical nicotinamide on inflammatory skin conditions are attributed to its sebosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties.

Although niacin and nicotinamide are considered similar in their role as vitamins, their pharmacologic indications, effects, and side effects are different.
Niacin has high affinity to a G-protein-coupled receptor HM74A in human cells resulting in the releasing of prostaglandins that cause vasodilation or flushing of the skin.
Nicotinamide also lowers cholesterol.

Nicotinamide appears to be largely well tolerated.
However nausea, vomiting, and other gastrointestinal symptoms, as well as headache, fatigue, dizziness and liver toxicity have been associated with high oral doses.
Increased risk for thrombocytopenia has also been noted in a meta-analysis of RCTs in hemodialysis patients with the use of nicotinamide

Nicotinamide, also called nicotinamide, is a form of vitamin B3.
Nicotinamide's found in many foods including meat, fish, milk, eggs, green vegetables, and cereals.

Nicotinamide is required for the function of fats and sugars in the body and to maintain healthy cells. 
Niacin is converted to niacinamide when it is taken in amounts greater than what is needed by the body.
Unlike niacin, niacinamide doesn't help treat high cholesterol.

Nicotinamide is naturally present in small quantities in yeast, lean meats, fish, nuts and legumes.
 Nicotinamide is also often added to cereals and other foods. 
Oral nicotinamide is available as 20–30 mg in multivitamin combinations, and on Nicotinamide is own as inexpensive 500-mg tablets. 
Nicotinamide has also been incorporated in many topical agents including sunscreens and cosmetic agents.
In high-risk individuals, nicotinamide supplementation had protective effects against certain types of skin lesions and nonmelanoma skin cancers.

Nicotinamide is a water-soluble form of vitamin B3 or niacin. 
Nicotinamide is made in the body by eating niacin-rich foods such as fish, poultry, nuts, legumes, eggs, and cereal grains. Nicotinamide supplements are used to treat skin conditions and niacin deficiencies.
Recent studies suggest nicotinamide may protect against some forms of skin lesions in patients with sun-damaged skin. Additional studies are needed to confirm safety and effectiveness across different types of skin cancer and in different people. In addition, the protective effects of nicotinamide against UV exposure does not mean that it protects against sunburn.

The broad clinical effects of nicotinamide may be explained by its role as:
-a cellular energy precursor
-a modulator of inflammatory cytokines
-an inhibitor of the nuclear enzyme poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose [ADP]) polymerase [PARP], which plays a significant role in DNA repair, maintenance of genomic stability, and cellular response to injury including inflammation and apoptosis (cell death).

Does vitamin B3 reduce the risk of melanoma?
The protective effects of vitamin B3 should theoretically also work against melanoma. 
This protection hasn’t been demonstrated in studies, but this is probably because melanoma is much less common than BCC and SCC. 
To get significant results, a trial would need to examine many more people over a longer period.
Unfortunately, we don’t yet have evidence that vitamin B3 reduces the risk of melanoma.

Other potential benefits of vitamin B3:
Topical vitamin B3 (i.e. applied directly to the skin as a cream) has been shown to reduce visible signs of sun damage and ageing, including pigmentation  and fine wrinkles, as well as reducing blotchiness and increasing elasticity.
Topical vitamin B3 has been shown in an experimental setting to improve skin healing after excision procedures.

People use niacinamide to prevent vitamin B3 deficiency and related conditions such as pellagra.
Nicotinamide is also used for acne, diabetes, cancer, osteoarthritis, aging skin, skin discoloration, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support most of these uses.
Do not confuse niacinamide with niacin, NADH, nicotinamide riboside, inositol nicotinate, or L-tryptophan, these are not the same.

Nicotinamide (NAM) is a dietary source of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+).
Gram doses of NAM have long been used to treat diverse disease conditions, such as inflammatory diseases and dementia, in humans and animal models.
Recent studies have elucidated some of the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effectiveness of NAM; these appear to be predominantly mediated by its conversion to NAD+.
By increasing the amount of NAD+ and the NAD+/NADH ratio, NAM administration alters mitochondrial physiology and ROS generation.

Nicotinamide also modulates the activity of many proteins.
For example, SIRT1 activation plays important roles by exerting cytoprotection, antiinflammation, and antimetabolic syndrome effects.
However, SIRT1 activity in cells can be either positively or negatively regulated by NAM treatment depending on various conditions.
In this chapter current understandings of the biochemistry and function of NAM and NAD+ are presented with the aim of promoting wider and safer applications of NAM as a pharmaceutical.

Nicotinamide (NAM) is a cell culture supplement used in the differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.
Nicotinamide is an amide derivative of vitamin B3, a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, and represents the primary precursor of NAD+.
Nicotinamide has also been shown to modulate stem cell differentiation in various applications, most notably for the differentiation of pancreatic mouse ES and iPS cells to pancreatic islet-like insulin-secreting cells.

Nicotinamide is an amide of nicotinic acid, a vitamin of the B complex.
In cells, Nicotinamide is incorporated into NADP+ and NAD+, coenzymes for a wide variety of enzymatic oxidation-reduction reactions.
Nicotinamide is reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties and promote the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to insulin producing cells in conjunction with growth factors and other reagents.
Nicotinamide suppresses sirtuin activity and is used to promote the formation and increase the lifespan of organoids.

Nicotinamide supports the proper function of fats and sugars in the body and helps maintain healthy skin cells.
Unlike niacin, nicotinamide has no beneficial effects on fats and should not be used to treat high cholesterol or high-fat levels in the blood.

Topical nicotinamide:
Acne:
Nicotinamide, available in a topical cream, gel and oral forms (eg, Nicomide®), has been shown to be effective in clearing acne. In a controlled clinical trial, 4% nicotinamide gel was found to be as effective as the topical antibiotic 1% clindamycin gel in the treatment of acne vulgaris in 76 patients with moderate acne. 
The study concluded that the anti-inflammatory properties of nicotinamide might have contributed to its success in acne.

Nicotinamide also reduces facial sebum production. 
Sebum is responsible for facial shine and contributes to noninflamed comedones and inflammatory acne lesions. 
Results of a well-controlled clinical trial in Caucasian and Japanese women have shown that application of 2% nicotinamide moisturiser to the face for 4-6 weeks reduces sebum production with significant differences in facial shine and oiliness.

Nicotinamide gel is marketed as an over-the-counter treatment for acne in Canada, Australia, NZ, UK, USA and Ireland. 
If a twice-daily application causes excessive drying of the skin, one may reduce to once a day, or every other day.

Storage class:
Storage class (TRGS 510): 11: Combustible Solids
Exposure controls/personal protection:
Control parameters:
Ingredients with workplace control parameters
Exposure controls:
Personal protective equipment:
Eye/face protection:
Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU). 
Use safety glasses
Skin protection from Nicotinamide:
This recommendation applies only to the product stated in the safety data sheet, supplied by us and for the designated use. 
When dissolving in or mixing with other substances and under conditions deviating from those stated in EN374 please contact the supplier of CE-approved gloves.
Full contact with Nicotinamide:
Material: Nitrile rubber
Minimum layer thickness: 0,11 mm
Break through time: 480 min

Rosacea:
The clinical signs and symptoms of rosacea include increased facial skin dryness, redness and sensitivity. 
In at least two studies, moisturisers containing nicotinamide have been shown to improve skin barrier function in rosacea patients, leading to diminished reaction to irritants including cleansers and cosmetics.

Anti-ageing skin care:
Nicotinamide serves as a precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), which are co-enzymes (facilitators of enzymatic reactions) essential for numerous metabolic pathways. 
These co-enzymes play a role in the metabolism of glucose, cellular energy production, and synthesis of lipids. 
The levels of NADH / NADPH (the reduced forms of NAD and NADP) decrease with age and topical nicotinamide appears to reverse the decline.

In multiple clinical studies, topical nicotinamide improved fine lines and wrinkles, hyperpigmented spots, red blotchiness, and skin sallowness (yellowing) as well as elasticity. 
One study showed nicotinamide to increase the skin's production of ceramides, which are natural emollients and skin protectants, thus improving skin hydration.

A double-blind, placebo-controlled, split-face, left-right, randomised 12-week study in 50 women evaluated the effects of 5% topical nicotinamide on various signs of skin ageing. 
The researchers reported topical nicotinamide resulted in significant improvement in fine lines/wrinkles, pigmentation, texture and red blotchiness. 
The study was sponsored by Proctor and Gamble.

Another study of 30 healthy Japanese females reported improvement of eyelid wrinkles after eight weeks of application of a cosmetic containing 4% nicotinamide.
Nicotinamide is well tolerated and often can be used by those who cannot tolerate topical retinoids or fruit acids.

Anticancer effects of Nicotinamide:
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the main risk factor for skin cancer development. 
The mechanisms by which UVR leads to cancer are complex including direct damage to DNA and effects on the immune system. 
Nicotinamide has been shown to enhance the repair of direct and oxidative DNA damage in human keratinocytes and human skin. Nicotinamide has the potential to prevent UV-induced immune suppression, shown in a study of volunteers with a positive Mantoux test (positive tuberculin sensitivity test). 
The Mantoux reaction can be suppressed by exposure to UVR. 
Nicotinamide reduced this immune suppression when it was applied either before or after exposure to UVR (simulating sunlight exposure).
In a randomised controlled clinical trial in 50 patients, 1% nicotinamide gel applied twice daily to the head, forearms and hands for six months reduced the mean number of precancerous actinic keratoses by 28%.

Nicotinamide causes serious eye irritation.
Precautionary Statement(s) of Nicotinamide:
P264: Wash skin thoroughly after handling.
P280: Wear eye protection/ face protection.
P305 + P351 + P338: IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. 
Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. 
Continue rinsing.
P337 + P313: If eye irritation persists, get medical advice/ attention.

Signal Word: Warning
RTECS:QS3675000
Storage class: 10 - 13 Other liquids and solids
WGK: WGK 1 slightly hazardous to water
Disposal: 3

Relatively unreactive organic reagents should be collected in container A. 
If halogenated, they should be collected in container B. 
For solid residues of Nicotinamide, use container C.
Safety Information of Nicotinamide:
Categories of danger: irritant

Storage and Shipping Information of Nicotinamide:
Storage:  Store of Nicotinamide is at +15°C to +25°C.

Specifications of Nicotinamide:
Assay (perchloric acid titration, calculated on dried substance): 99.0 - 101.0 %
Assay (HPLC, calc. on dried substance): 98.5 - 101.0 %
Identity (IR-spectrum) (Ph Eur): passes test
Identity (IR-spectrum) (USP): passes test
Identity (coloring 1): passes test
Identity (coloring 2): passes test
Identity (UV/VIS-Spectrum): passes test

Appearanceof Nicotinamide: White to almost white, crystalline powder
Appearance of solution (50 g/l; water): Clear, colourless, not more intense in color than reference solution BY₇

pH (50 g/l; water): 6.0 - 7.5
Melting range (lower value): ≥ 128 °C
Melting range (upper value): ≤ 131 °C
Absorption ratio (A 245 nm/A 262 nm): 0.63 - 0.67
Chloride (Cl): ≤ 210 ppm
Sulfate (SO₄): ≤ 190 ppm
Heavy metals (as Pb) (JP): ≤ 30 ppm
As (Arsenic): ≤ 3 ppm
Cu (Copper): ≤ 20 ppm
Pb (Lead):≤ 2 ppm
Zn (Zinc): ≤ 25 ppm

SYNONYMS:
niacinamide
98-92-0
3-Pyridinecarboxamide
pyridine-3-carboxamide
Nicotinic acid amide
vitamin PP
Papulex
Aminicotin
Amixicotyn
Nicobion
Nicotylamide
Nikotinamid
Savacotyl
Benicot
Dipegyl
Endobion
Hansamid
Pelmine
Nicotinic amide
Delonin amide
Pelonin amide
Vi-Nicotyl
Austrovit PP
Inovitan PP
Vitamin B
Nicosylamide
Nicotilamide
Nicotililamido
Amnicotin
Niacevit
Nicamina
Nicamindon
Nicofort
Nicomidol
Nicotamide
Nicovitina
Nicovitol
Nicozymin
Niocinamide
Niozymin
Niamide
Nicasir
Nicogen
Nicota
Nicotol
Nicovit
Niko-tamin
3-Carbamoylpyridine
Nicotine acid amide
Nandervit-N
Pyridine-3-carboxylic acid amide
Niavit PP
Nicosan 2
Nicotine amide
beta-Pyridinecarboxamide
Nikotinsaeureamid
Nicotinamidum
Nicotylamidum
Mediatric
Nicotinsaureamid
Pyridine, 3-carbamoyl-
3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid amide
m-(Aminocarbonyl)pyridine
Acid amide
Factor pp
Nicotinamida
Nicovel
Pelmin
Amid kyseliny nikotinove
Witamina PP
PP-Faktor
Amide PP
NAM
Nictoamide
CCRIS 1901
Dipigyl
HSDB 1237
Vi-noctyl
AI3-02906
NSC 13128
b-Pyridinecarboxamide
Niacinamide [USP]
UNII-25X51I8RD4
3-(aminocarbonyl)pyridine
MFCD00006395
CHEMBL1140
MLS000069714
CHEBI:17154
25X51I8RD4
NSC13128
Niacinamide (USP)
NSC-13128
NSC-27452
NCGC00093354-03
NCGC00093354-05
SMR000058212
WLN: T6NJ CVZ
DSSTox_RID_75873
DSSTox_GSID_20929
Enduramide
CAS-98-92-0
B3, Vitamin
Vitamin B 3
B 3, Vitamin
3 Pyridinecarboxamide
SR-01000721872
Niacinamid
Niacotinamide
Nicotinamid
nicotin-amide
Nicotinsaeureamid
3-Amidopyridine
DEA No. 1405
Nicotinamide,(S)
Vitamin B3 amide
3-yridinecarboxamide
niacin - Vitamin B3
1yc5
Opera_ID_775
Niacin
bmse000281
MolMap_000061
EC 202-713-4
SCHEMBL2926
MLS001424246
SCHEMBL6278767
SGCUT00176
ZINC5878
DTXSID2020929
SCHEMBL19978192
BDBM27507
HMS2090B05
HMS2093H03
HMS2236J03
HMS3370F21
HMS3394M21
HMS3655M20
HMS3713B22
HMS3884A16
HY-B0150
NSC27452
to_000073
Tox21_111202
Tox21_201716
Tox21_302776
NSC759115
s1899
STL163867
AKOS005715850
Tox21_111202_1
CCG-101149
CS-1968
DB02701
MCULE-3532732201
NC00399
NSC-759115
SB74497
NCGC00093354-04
NCGC00093354-06
NCGC00093354-09
NCGC00256432-01
NCGC00259265-01
AS-13845
BN166252
K774
DB-057754
FT-0631517
FT-0672696
FT-0773644
N0078
N1651
SW197779-3
EN300-15612
C00153
D00036
J10422
AB00373895-13
AB00373895_15
AB00373895_16
A845925
AC-907/25014114
Q192423
Q-201470
SR-01000721872-3
SR-01000721872-4
SR-01000721872-5
Z33546463
F2173-0513

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