OCTENIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE

octenidine hydrochloride

Octenidine hydrochloride is an effective antiseptic compound for skin mucous membranes and wounds.

Octenidine hydrochloride is a type of bispyridine antimicrobial compound that carries 2 cationic active centers per molecule and had shown antimicrobial effects which are broad spectrum in nature and includes both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and several viral species. 

Octenidine hydrochloride exerts bactericidal/fungicidal effects by interfering with cell walls and membranes. 

Octenidine hydrochloride is widely utilized in the medical field for skin burns and decontaminating mucous membranes and open wounds and is also utilized in mouthwash formulations and other dental applications. 
Reports had been shown that Octenidine hydrochloride used in the form of mouthrinse can be beneficial to inhibit bacterial plaque accumulation and progression of dental caries both in rats and humans.
Octenidine hydrochloride has shown relative non-cytotoxicity at the site of action and good antimicrobial activity

OCTENIDINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE
Octenidine HCL or better referred to as Octenidine Dihydrochloride is a lively surfactant that's cationic in nature. 
Octenidine features a Gemini surfactant structure and is a derivative from pyridine. 
The finest part about Octendine HCL is its active nature against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. 
Octenidine Hcl or Octenidine Dihydrochloride is safe to handle, chemically stable and not inflammable. 
It is used for the treatment of wound infections and for disinfecting the skin and mucous membrane.

Since the year 1987, the compound has been utilized in the manufacturing of antiseptic and anti-bacterial products. 
It gained a lot of ground in terms of popularity especially in all over Europe next to neonates.

It's an excellent substitute for chlorhexidine, especially when used in a concentrated form of 0.1 to 2.0%. 
Another aspect of this compound that makes it all the more appealing to the mass production industry is its economic factor. 
In other words, Octendine HCL preparations are cheap to manufacture, design and store.

In controlled tests, especially suspension tests of in-vitro nature over a period of 5 minutes have shown that Octenidine HCL in small amounts is perfectly capable of killing disease-causing bacteria/microbial life like:

Staphylococcus aureus
Escherichia coli
Proteus mirabilis and
the yeast Candida albicans

Back in 2014, a controlled study was carried out that consisted of 17 patients who were subjected to ICU units in different hospitals in Berlin. 
The compound was applied on the skins of each of these patients with the goal of observing whether the compound is capable of decreasing nosocomial infection rates.

Another survey that was carried out in the neonatal ICUs of leading German hospitals proved that when Octenidine HCL is administered to the patients, symptoms of skin conditions like blistering, scarring and necrosis watered down.

All in all, due to its many benefits as an antibacterial and antimicrobial compound, Octendine HCL finds extensive use with in the manufacturing sector related to cosmetics and personal care products.


Product Name: Octenidine Dihydrochloride
CAS No.: 70775-75-6
EINECS No.: 274-861-8
Chemical Name: N,N'-[Decane-1,10-diyldi-1(4H)-pyridyl-4-ylidene]bis(octylammonium) dichloride
Chemical Formula: C 36 H 64 C 12 N 4
Molecular Weight: 623.83
Synonyms: N-octyl-1-[10-(4-octyliminopyridin-1-yl)decyl]pyridin-4-imine dihydrochloride.
N,N'-(decane-1,10-diyldipyridin-1-yl-4-ylidene)dioctan-1-amine dihydrochloride

N,N'-(decane-1,10-diyldi-1(4H)-pyridyl-4-ylidene)bis(octylammonium) dichloride

N,N'-(decane-1,10-diyldi-1(4H)-pyridyl-4-ylidene)bis(octylammonium) dichloride

1,1'-(1,10-Decanediyl)bis(N-octyl-4(1H)-pyridinimine) dihydrochloride

N-octyl-1-{10-[4-(octylimino)-1,4-dihydropyridin-1-yl]decyl}-1,4-dihydropyridin-4-imine dihydrochloride

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
Octenidine Dihydrochloride is a cationic surfactant, pyridine based molecule and is used extensively as an Antiseptic for tropical applications. 
It has been found in large area of application and is an alternative for older substances like Chlorhexidine, Polividone- iodine and Triclosan.

It is used for the tropical application of atopic dermatitis, wounds, vaginal applications, inflated eczema, acne, and herpes and for controlling multidrug resistant pathogens.

Octenidine is a bispyridine bactericidal antiseptic with some antiviral and antifungal activity. 
It has been used as the hydrochloride for skin and mucous membrane disinfection.


Octenidine is an antiseptic with high efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains


Octenidine hydrochloride has good activity against bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis,Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the fungus Candida albicans. 

Octenidine hydrochloride acts bactericidal/fungicidal by interfering with cell walls and membranes. 

Octenidine hydrochloride is relatively non-cytotoxic, and does not affect the human epithelium and the healing process. 

Octenidine hydrochloride is a mild, antimicrobial wash lotion for skin and hair reduces the colonisation of skin with bacteria including MDRO (MRSA, ,VRE, ESBL, etc.) 

Appearance: White to Off-white Solid
Synonyms: N,N'-(1,10-Decanediyldi-1(4H)-pyridinyl-4-ylidene)bis-1-octanamine Hydrochloride; Octenidine dihydrochloride


Octenidine hydrochloride (OCT) Octenidine, is a bispyridine derivative, i.e., N,N-[1,10-decanediyldi-1(4H)-pyridinyl – 4 pylidene] bis (1-octanamine) dihydrochloride a new bipyridine antimicrobial compound, has been developed as a potential antimicrobial/antiplaque agent for use in mouthwash formulations.
The existing data suggest that a mouthrinse containing 0.1% Octenidine hydrochloride may be capable of exerting beneficial clinical effects upon plaque accumulation and gingivitis. 

Octenidine hydrochloride used in the form of mouthrinse was reported to inhibit dental plaque and caries both in rats and humans. 
It has been demonstrated that Octenidine hydrochloride appears to be more effective than chlorhexidine as a means for prolonged bacterial anti-adhesive activity


Octenidine hydrochloride, an antimicrobial, antibiofilm agent and a promising root canal irrigant, can be potentially combined with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) during endodontic treatment. 
The aim of this study was first to identify the precipitate formed on the interaction between Octenidine hydrochloride and NaOCl and secondly to compare its effect on dentinal tubules with that of precipitate formed on combining chlorhexidine (CHX) and NaOCl.


Reference substance name: N,N'-(decane-1,10-diyldi-1(4H)-pyridyl-4-ylidene)bis(octylammonium) dichloride
EC Number: 274-861-8
EC Name: N,N'-(decane-1,10-diyldi-1(4H)-pyridyl-4-ylidene)bis(octylammonium) dichloride
CAS Number: 70775-75-6
Molecular formula: C36H62N4 · 2 HCl
IUPAC Name: N-octyl-1-{10-[4-(octylimino)-1,4-dihydropyridin-1-yl]decyl}-1,4-dihydropyridin-4-imine dihydrochloride


OCTENIDINE HCL
CAS number: 70775-75-6
Origin(s): Synthetic
INCI name: OCTENIDINE HCL
EINECS/ELINCS number: 274-861-8
NAMELYOctenidine HCL is mainly used in deodorants because of its antimicrobial properties.
Its functions (INCI)
Antimicrobial : Helps slow the growth of micro-organisms on the skin and counteracts the development of microbes


Microbicidal activity of octenidine hydrochloride, a new alkanediylbis[pyridine] germicidal agent.

The potential of octenidine hydrochloride (WIN 41464-2) as a topical microbicide was measured both by in vitro death kinetics and reductions in numbers of bacteria on the skin of cynomolgus monkeys. 
Semilogarithmic survival curves were plotted to measure the microbicidal activity of various concentrations of octenidine against Staphylococcus aureus. 
The microbicidal activity of octenidine was also determined for Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, and Candida albicans. 
Death rates for the same microbial strains were compared with those obtained by using chlorhexidine gluconate. 
Octenidine concentrations of less than 1.5 microM (0.94 microgram/ml) caused a greater than 99% reduction of each microbial population within 15 min. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most susceptible of the test organisms, and E. coli and C. albicans were the least susceptible. 
Octenidine was more active than chlorhexidine against each test strain. 
Skin-degerming activities of aqueous and formulated octenidine and formulated chlorhexidine were compared in single and multiple applications of these agents to the hand and foot surfaces of monkeys by using a glove-juice extraction procedure to measure the skin microflora. 
Aqueous octenidine, at a concentration of 0.2 to 1.6% reduced resident microflora populations from 90 to 99.98%, depending on the concentration and number of applications. 

Octenidine formulated at 2% in a surfactant-based vehicle exhibited significantly better skin-degerming activity than did either a nonmedicated vehicle or the Hibiclens brand of 4% chlorhexidine gluconate.


Octenidine concentrations of less than1.5 μM (0.94 μg/mL) causes a greater than 99% reduction of tested microbial population within 15 min. 
Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most susceptible of the test organisms, and E. coli and C.albicans are the least susceptible.

The antimicrobial activity of octenidine hydrochloride (OCT) is maintained when applied to the skin of the hands and feet of cynomolgus monkeys. 
Aqueous octenidine, at a concentration of 0.2 to 1.6% reduces resident microflora populations from 90 to 99.98%. 
A significant reduction in plaque score is observed on the buccal tooth surfaces after daily topical application of 1% solutions of octenidine and chlorhexidine for 7 d; octenidine is more effective than chlorhexidine.


Octenidine dihydrochloride is an effective antiseptic compound for skin mucous membranes and wounds.

Octenidine is an antiseptic active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Mouthwash containing octenidine hydrochloride
Abstract
The present invention relates to an aqueous composition which contains octenidine dihydrochloride. The composition is preferably used as mouthwash or oromucosal solution.


Antibiofilm Effect of Octenidine Hydrochloride on Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA and VRSA
by Mary Anne Roshni Amalaradjou *OrcID andKumar Venkitanarayanan


Millions of indwelling devices are implanted in patients every year, and staphylococci (S. aureus, MRSA and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA)) are responsible for a majority of infections associated with these devices, thereby leading to treatment failures. 
Once established, staphylococcal biofilms become resistant to antimicrobial treatment and host response, thereby serving as the etiological agent for recurrent infections. This study investigated the efficacy of octenidine hydrochloride (OH) for inhibiting biofilm synthesis and inactivating fully-formed staphylococcal biofilm on different matrices in the presence and absence of serum protein.

The effect of the octenidine-based oral antiseptic on the structure of microbial communities and periodontal status in patients with fixed orthodontic treatments.

Abstract. – OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of an octenidine (OCT)-based antiseptic on the gingival inflammation and microbial composition of subgingival dental plaque in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances

A fixed orthodontic treatment is used to correct malocclusion and deformities in order to improve oral health and dental aesthetics. 
However, placement of orthodontic brackets and bands can make oral hygiene difficult, leading to the accumulation of dental plaque, thus increasing the risk of caries and periodontal disease. 
The results6-10 previously published show an association of orthodontic treatments with unfavorable quantitative and qualitative microbial changes of subgingival dental plaque leading to a development of gingivitis and periodontitis. 
Oral antiseptic solutions can contribute to better control of dental plaque. 
One of the most commonly used antiseptics is chlorhexidine (CHX). 
Although CHX is very effective in reducing dental plaque, its use is limited due to side effects, such as tooth staining, build-up of calculus, temporary taste disturbance, and changes in the oral mucosa. 
In addition, it is readily deactivated by common ingredients of toothpastes, in particular, anionic surfactants. 
Hence, other antiseptics comparable to CHX in terms of antiseptic activity and inhibition of accumulation of biofilms are being investigated. 
Octenidine hydrochloride (OCT) is a bispyridine derivative with broad antimicrobial specter. 
It has been used for more than 30 years as a 0.1% oral solution significantly reducing plaque accumulation and gingivitis, thus improving periodontal health


According to the results obtained, among the patients who followed the standard oral hygiene protocol, a generally lower periodontal status has been determined, including the increased levels of periodontopathogens of the genera Prevotella and Tanerella when compared to the patients additionally using the OCT-based antiseptic. 
On average, 110 bacterial genera were detected per sample with a trend of an increasing biodiversity in the experimental group. 
Initially, Veillonela was the dominant member of the microbiome among all subjects. 
The counts of the members of the Prevotella genus were significantly elevated in the control group over the course of the study. 
In addition, an increased presence of Tannerella was detected in the control group while remaining stable in patients using the oral antiseptic. 
Thus, based on the data obtained, the use of an OCT-based antiseptic had a positive effect on the prevention of gingival inflammation, as well as a decrease of periodontopathogens in subgingival dental plaque, during the first three months after the placement of fixed orthodontic appliances

OCTENIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE

UNII-U84956NU4B

U84956NU4B

1-Octanamine,N,N'-(1,10-decanediyldi-1(4H)-pyridinyl-4-ylidene)bis-, hydrochloride (1:2)

Win 41464-2

N-octyl-1-[10-(4-octyliminopyridin-1-yl)decyl]pyridin-4-imine dihydrochloride

Octenidine hydrochloride (USAN)

Octenidine hydrochloride [USAN]

Octenidine HCl

CHEMBL36342

SCHEMBL126065

HY-B2170A

DTXSID90221025

Win-414642

BCP22785

EINECS 274-861-8

LAS189962

MFCD01938808

s5012

CCG-270262

CS-6224

LAS-189962

KS-000002K2

WIN-41464-2

O0388

D05222

Q1409243

1,1'-(Decane-1,10-diyl)bis(N-octylpyridin-4(1H)-imine) dihydrochloride

1,1'-Decamethylenebis(1,4-dihydro-4-(octylimino)pyridine) dihydrochloride

1,1'-(Decane-1,10-diyl)bis(N-octylpyridin-4(1H)-imine) dihydrochloride 70775-75-6

1-Octanamine, N,N'-(1,10-decanediyldi-1(4H)-pyridinyl-4-ylidene)bis-, dihydrochloride

N,N'-(1,10-Decanediyldi-1(4H)-pyridinyl-4-ylidene)bis(1-octanamine) dihydrochloride

N-octyl-1-[10-(4-octyliminopyridin-1-yl)decyl]pyridin-4-imine;dihydrochloride


ABSTRACT
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the tissue-dissolution efficacy of octenidine hydrochloride (OCT) as a new antiseptic solution with sodium hypochlorite solutions (2.5% and 5.25% NaOCl); 17% ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA); 2% chlorhexidine and saline solution on bovine palatal tissue in vitro. 
Material and Methods: Frozen tissue samples obtained from bovine palates were cut into pieces of 4x4x2 mm and thawed at room temperature before use. The samples were randomly divided into five test groups and a control group (n=20 per group): Group 1 (2.5% NaOCl); Group 2 (5.25% NaOCl); Group 3 (17% EDTA); Group 4 (2% chlorhexidine); Group 5 (OCT) and control group (saline solution) and then weighed with a precision balance before placing in separate glass vials containing 5 mL of each test solution with two different temperatures; room temperature (n=10) or 45°C degrees (n=10). 
After incubation for 1h, samples were washed in saline, blotted dry and weighed again. The percentage of weight loss was calculated and statistically analysed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests. 
Results: 5.25% NaOCl solution dissolved the tissue samples more effectively than other solutions (p<0.05). 
No statistically significant difference was found between the tissue weight loss of OCT and saline groups (p>0.05). 
Tissue-dissolving efficacy of 2.5% NaOCl, EDTA and chlorhexidine with 45°C was statistically higher than control group (p<0.05). 
Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that OCT did not have any organic tissue dissolution capacity when compared with other irrigants currently in use in endodontics.

Keywords: Chlorhexidine gluconate; octenidine; sodium hypochlorite

Octenidine hydrochloride for the care of central venous catheter insertion sites in severely immunocompromised patients
Infection Control And Hospital Epidemiology : The Official Journal Of The Society Of Hospital Epidemiologists Of America
Andreas TietzAndreas F Widmer

To determine the efficacy and tolerability of octenidine hydrochloride, a non-alcoholic skin antiseptic, for the care of central venous catheter (CVC) insertion sites. 
Prospective, observational study. 
Bone marrow transplantation unit of a university hospital. 
All consecutive patients with a nontunneled CVC were enrolled prospectively after informed consent. 
Octenidine hydrochloride (0.1%) was applied for disinfection at the CVC insertion site during dressing changes. 
The following cultures were performed weekly as well as at the occurrence of any systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria: 
cultures of the skin surrounding the CVC entry site, cultures of the three-way hub connected to the CVC, blood cultures, and cultures of the CVC tip on removal. 
Enhanced microbiological methods (skin swabs of a 24-cm2 standardized area, roll plate, and sonication of catheter tips) were applied. 
One hundred thirty-five CVCs were inserted in 62 patients during the study period and remained for a mean period of 19.1 days, corresponding to 2,462 catheter-days. 
Bacterial density at the insertion site declined substantially over time, and most cultures became negative 2 weeks after insertion. 
Only 6 patients had a documented catheter-related bloodstream infection. 
The incidence density was 2.39 catheter infections per 1,000 catheter-days. 
No side effects were noted with application of the antiseptic. 
Disinfection with a skin antiseptic that contains octenidine hydrochloride is highly active and well tolerated. 
It leads to a decrease in skin colonization over time and may be a new option for CVC care.


ISSN 2449-8955 European Journal  of Biological ResearchResearch Article European Journal of Biological Research 2019; 9(3): 135-140 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3339499E

ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium causing skin and soft tissue infections, complicated  urinary  tract  infections,  blood  infections,  and  nosocomial  (hospital-acquired)  infections.  
One  of the most often used antiseptics in the skin and soft tissue infections is octenidine dihydrochloride. 
The aim of this  study  was  an  evaluation  of  octenidine  activity  against  strains  of P.  aeruginosa.  
Additionally,  were compared  two  staining  methods  (TTC  and  MTT)  for  confirmation  of  bacterial  growth.  
The  study  involved eight  strains  of P.  aeruginosa.  In  order  to  determine  the  minimum  inhibitory  concentration  (MIC)  of octenidine, the microdilution method was used. 
For bacterial growth detection was used staining method with 2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) and with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT). 
In the study has been demonstrated the excellent activity of octenidine against all strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 
For all tested  strains,  MICs of octenidine  were 0.00039% or 0.00078%, what is equivalent to 3.9 μ g/ml and 7.8 μ g/ml, respectively. 
In the study, test with MTT for three strains was more  sensitive  than  a  test  with  TTC.  
Concluding,  octenidine  is  an  antiseptic  with  high  efficacy  against Pseudomonas  aeruginosa strains.  
Simultaneously,  it  was  stated  that  a  test with  MTT  is  more  sensitive  than study with TTC


Karpiński   Efficacy of octenidine against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains
European Journal of Biological Research 2019; 9(3): 135-140 The  aim  of  this  study  was  an  evaluation  of  octenidine  activity  against  strains  of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  
Additionally,  were  compared  two  staining  methods  (TTC  and  MTT)  for  bacterial  growth detection. 

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study involved eight strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 
Six isolates were from wounds as part of the service activity of the Department of Medical Microbiology, Poznań University of Medical Sciences. 
Two were  reference  strains: P.  aeruginosa  ATCC  27853  (Boston  41501)  and  ATCC  BAA-47  (4901;  PAO1). 
Bacteria were grown on cetrimide agar (Oxoid) for 18-24 h at 37°C. In  order  to  determine  the  minimum  inhibitory  concentration  (MIC)  of  octenidine,  the  microdilution method was used on polystyrene 96-well plates (Nunc). 

The octenidine dihydrochloride was appropriately diluted on the plates to obtain concentrations ranging from 0.000195 to 0.1%. 
A suspension with a density of 1 × 108 cells/ml (0.5 McF) was prepared for each strain. 
The suspension was diluted 10-fold with TSB to obtain a bacterial suspension with a density of 1 × 107 cells/ml. 
10 μl of bacterial suspension was transferred to appropriate wells (2-12) of the plate. 
Well no. 1 was the negative control, filled  with 100 μl of Mueller  Hinton  broth  (MHB).  
Well  no.  2  was  also  the  negative  control  but  filled  with  10 μl  of  bacterial suspension  and  100 μl  of  disinfectant  agent  Aerodesin  2000  (Lysoform), containing  propan-1-ol  32.5  g, ethanol 18 g, and glutaraldehyde 0.1 g.A plate  with appropriate suspensions of bacterial cells  was incubated for  24  hours  at  37°C. 
Two  rows  of  wells  were  prepared  for  each  strain.  2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium  chloride (20 μl,  1%  TTC,  Sigma-Aldrich)  was  added  to  the  wells  of  the  first  row.  
After  24  h  of  culture,  the  optical density  at  the  wavelength λ  =  495  nm  was  measured.  
In  the  presence  of  live,  metabolically  active microorganisms, colorless TTC is reduced to red formazan. 
To the wells of the second row, after 24 h culture, 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium  bromide  (25 μl,  3%  MTT,  Sigma-Aldrich)  was added and incubated 2 hours at 37°C. 
Then, the optical density at the wavelength λ = 554 nm was measured. 
This  assay  is  based  on  the  reduction  of  yellow  tetrazolium  salt  (MTT)  to  a  soluble  purple/blue  formazan product.  
MIC  is  the  lowest  concentration  of  an   antimicrobial  agent  in   which  no   growth  of  a microorganism is observed . 
The MIC  was the concentration of the octenidine in the first  well, in which after incubation, the color did not change. 
Each measurement was carried out in triplicate. 

3. RESULTS In  the  present  study  has  been  demonstrated  the  excellent  activity  of  octenidine  against  all  strains  of Pseudomonas  aeruginosa.  
For  all  tested  strains,  MICs  of  octenidine  were  0.00039%  or  0.00078%,  what  is equivalent  to  3.9  μ g/ml  and  7.8  μ g/ml,  respectively.  
Simultaneously,  it  was  stated  the  difference  between studies with MTT and TTC. 
Test with MTT for three strains (2, 4, and 41501) was more sensitive than study with TTC.  

4. DISCUSSION Octenidine is an antiseptic used clinically in concentrations 0.05% (500 μ g/ml) or 0.1% (1000 μ g/ml).
In  this  work  is  presented  that  bactericidal  level  of  OCT  against Pseudomonas  aeruginosa  is  ranging  from 0.00039% (3.9 μ g/ml) to 0.00078% (7.8 μ g/ml). 
Bartoszewicz et al. obtained for P. aeruginosa MICs of OCT

Karpiński   Efficacy of octenidine against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains138European Journal of Biological Research 2019; 9(3): 135-140 between  3.91  and  125  μ g/ml,  and  MIC90  was  62.5  μ g/ml .  

Koburger  et  al.  demonstrated for  octenidine MIC24 = 2 and MIC48 = 8 μ g/ml against P. aeruginosa. 
MICs of OCT against other bacteria are following, e.g. for Staphylococcus  aureus  0.24-7.81  μ g/ml, S.  epidermidis  125  μ g/ml, Enterococcus  faecalis  4  μ g/ml, Esherichia coli 2 μ g/ml, Streptococcus mutans 120 μ g/ml and Lactobacilli 15-30 μ g/ml. 
Differences  between  MIC  levels  depend,  among  others  on  whether  the  bacteria  were  tested  in planktonic  or  biofilm  form,  which  is  less  sensitive  to  antiseptics.  
Shepherd  et  al.  presented  the  possibility  of increased tolerance to OCT of P. aeruginosa. 
Authors in seven strains of P. aeruginosa showed the initial MICs 4-8 μ g/ml. 
After 12 days of adaptation study, MICs were 32-128 μ g/ml. 
Unfortunately, the highest used OCT concentration (64 μ g/ml = 0.0064%) was about 10-fold lower than the clinical doses. 
Moreover, at OCT level  32  μ g/ml  one  strain  did  not  grow,  and  a  concentration  of  64  μ g/ml  caused  no  growth  in  up  to  3  (43%) strains. 
The phenomenon of adaptation in such low concentrations does not seem to have any significant clinical  significance.  
It  can  be  stated  that  preparations  of  OCT  in  clinical  doses  remained  fully  effective against  bacteria,  especially P.  aeruginosa. 
It  is  also  extremely  important  that  no  resistance  to  OCT  has  been found so far. 
Such resistance has been demonstrated, among others for chlorhexidine.  
Concluding,  octenidine  is  an  antiseptic  with  high efficacy  against Pseudomonas  aeruginosa strains. 
Simultaneously, it was stated that a test with MTT is more sensitive than study with TTC

Background: Protection of the catheter site by antimicrobial agents is one of the most important factors in the prevention of infection. 
Povidone iodine and chlorhexidine gluconate are the most common used agents for dressing. 
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of povidone iodine, chlorhexidine gluconate and octenidine hydrochloride in preventing catheter related infections. 
Materials and Methods: Patients were randomized to receive; 4% chlorhexidine gluconate, 10% povidone iodine or octenidine hydrochlorodine for cutaneous antisepsis. 
Cultures were taken at the site surrounding catheter insertion and at the catheter hub after removal to help identify the source of microorganisms. 
Results: Catheter related sepsis was 10.5% in the povidone iodine and octenidine hydrochlorodine groups. 
Catheter related colonization was 26.3% in povidone iodine group and 21.5% in octenidine hydrochlorodine group. 
Conclusion: 4% chlorhexidine or octenidine hydrochlorodine for cutaneous disinfection before insertion of an intravascular device and for post-insertion site care can reduce the catheter related colonization.


Octenidine dihydrochloride (octenidine) was introduced for skin, mucous membrane and wound antisepsis more than 20 years ago. 
Until now, a wealth of knowledge has been gained, including in vitro and animal studies on efficacy, tolerance, safety and clinical experience both from case reports and prospective controlled trials. 
Nowadays, octenidine is an established antiseptic in a large field of applications and represents an alternative to older substances such as chlorhexidine, polyvidone-iodine or triclosan. 
The review is based on the current literature and unpublished original data as well.

Octenidine HCl is new topical antiseptic solution for wounds and abdominal washing that has been found to be highly effective for inactivating scolices in an in vitro study. 
However, the effects of octenidine HCl on the liver are not yet known. 
The aim of this study was to determine if there are any histopathologic changes after injecting octenidine HCl into the liver. 
A group of 50 male Sprague-Dawley rats were included in the study and randomly divided into five groups of 10 rats each, as follows: sham group; 0.09% NaCl group; 20% NaCl group; undiluted octenidine HCl group; 1% octenidine HCl group. 
The scolicidal agents (0.3 ml) were directly injected into the left lobe of the liver (except in the sham group). 
At 3 and 7 days after the injection, the rats were sacrificed, and the left lobe of the liver was harvested. 
Liver tissue was scored for degree of necrosis and the diameter of the necrosis examined under light microscopy. 
The highest scores were found in the undiluted octenidine HCl group, although a similar effect was observed in the 20% NaCl group. 
There was no necrosis in the sham group, the 0.09% NaCl group, or the 1% octenidine HCl group. 
All of the injury was coagulation-type necrosis. 
No mortality was observed throughout the study. 
The 1% octenidine HCl solution could thus be used as a scolicidal agent in liver tissue, whereas the undiluted form of octenidine and 20% NaCl solutions were shown to cause necrosis when directly injected into liver tissue in our animal model.

APPLICATIONS
Wound management (human & veterinary) and mucous membrane antisepsis: wiping, dabbing, spraying, pouring and compresses
Skin antisepsis
Care of CVC insertion sites
Decontamination of MRSA-colonized patients
Acne
Treatment of vaginal infections
Decontamination of nasal vestibule
Mouth and body wash
Preservative in deodorants
Preservative in cosmetics


Octenidine Hydrochloride for the Care of Central Venous Catheter Insertion Sites in Severely Immunocompromised Patients
Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 June 2016

Abstract
Objective:
To determine the efficacy and tolerability of octenidine hydrochloride, a non-alcoholic skin antiseptic, for the care of central venous catheter (CVC) insertion sites.

Design:
Prospective, observational study.

Setting:
Bone marrow transplantation unit of a university hospital.

Patients:
All consecutive patients with a nontunneled CVC were enrolled prospectively after informed consent.

Methods:
Octenidine hydrochloride (0.1 %) was applied for disinfection at the CVC insertion site during dressing changes. 
The following cultures were performed weekly as well as at the occurrence of any systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria: cultures of the skin surrounding the CVC entry site, cultures of the three-way hub connected to the CVC, blood cultures, and cultures of the CVC tip on removal. 
Enhanced microbiological methods (skin swabs of a 24-cm2 standardized area, roll plate, and sonication of catheter tips) were applied.

Results:
One hundred thirty-five CVCs were inserted in 62 patients during the study period and remained for a mean period of 19.1 days, corresponding to 2,462 catheter-days. 
Bacterial density at the insertion site declined substantially over time, and most cultures became negative 2 weeks after insertion. 
Only 6 patients had a documented catheter-related bloodstream infection. The incidence density was 2.39 catheter infections per 1,000 catheter-days. 
No side effects were noted with application of the antiseptic.

Conclusions:
Disinfection with a skin antiseptic that contains octenidine hydrochloride is highly active and well tolerated. 
It leads to a decrease in skin colonization over time and may be a new option for CVC care.


ANTI-BACTERIAL EFFICACY OF OCTENIDINE AS A MOUTH WASH

Aayush Malhotra *1, Amit Bali 1 and Rajesh Bareja 2

Department of oral and maxillofacial Surgery 1, Department of microbiology 2, M.M. College of Dental Sciences & Research, M.M. University, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India.

ABSTRACT: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Octenidine (OCT) 0.1%, Chlorhexidine (CHX) 0.2% against bacterial strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. 
The strains were inoculated in 7ml of brain heart infusion broth and diluted to reach the concentration equivalent (0.5 McFarland standard). 
1ml of organism suspension was contacted with 1ml of each mouthwash and was removed at time interval of 3,5 and 10 minute and plated on Brain Heart Infusion agar. 
After 72 hours of incubation, colony counts were measured using stereomicroscope. 
Kruskal Wallis test was conducted on mean number of CFU. Post-hoc tests were conducted by using the Mann Whitney U test and Duncan’s-test of multiple comparisons. 
The results showed that OCT 0.1% was found to be the most effective in substantially reducing total bacterial counts after 3, 5 and 10 min time interval. 
OCT 0.1% was found to be the most effective in substantially reducing total bacterial counts

Octenidine dihydrochloride is an effective antiseptic compound for skin mucous membranes and wounds.

Efficacy of octenidine against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains
Tomasz M. Karpiński
Department of Medical Microbiology, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Wieniawskiego 3, 61-712 Poznań, Poland

ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium causing skin and soft tissue infections,complicated urinary tract infections, blood infections, and nosocomial (hospital-acquired) infections. 
One of the most often used antiseptics in the skin and soft tissue infections is octenidine dihydrochloride. 
The aim of this study was an evaluation of octenidine activity against strains of P. aeruginosa. 

Octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT; 1,1'-(1,10-Decanediyl)bis(N-octyl-4(1H)-pyridinimine) dihydrochloride) is a bispyridine compound with 2 cationic active centers. 
This substance has a molecular formula C36H64Cl2N4 and molecular weight 623.826 g/mol. 


Octenidine hydrochloride contains antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and several viruses. 


Octenidine hydrochloride has good activity against bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis,Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the fungus Candida albicans. 

Octenidine hydrochloride acts bactericidal/fungicidal by interfering with cell walls and membranes. 

Octenidine hydrochloride is relatively non-cytotoxic, and does not affect the human epithelium and the healing process. 


 

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