POLYGLYCEROL POLYRICINOLEATE

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate = E476 = PGPR

CAS number: 29894-35-7

E number:  E476

PGPR, the full name of polyglycerol polyricinoleate, is an ingredient commonly used as a water-in-oil type (W/O) emulsifier in chocolate and chocolate-type confectionary to reduce the viscosity in production. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is a type of polyglycerol esters (PGE) with the European food additive number E476. 
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR), E476, is an emulsifier made from glycerol and fatty acids (usually from castor bean, but also from soybean oil). 
In chocolate, compound chocolate and similar coatings, PGPR is mainly used with another substance like lecithin to reduce viscosity. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is used at low levels (below 0.5%), and works by decreasing the friction between the solid particles (e.g. cacao, sugar, milk) in molten chocolate, reducing the yield stress so that it flows more easily, approaching the behaviour of a Newtonian fluid.
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate can also be used as an emulsifier in spreads and in salad dressings, or to improve the texture of baked goods.
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is made up of a short chain of glycerol molecules connected by ether bonds, with ricinoleic acid side chains connected by ester bonds.
PGPR is a yellowish, viscous liquid, and is strongly lipophilic: Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is soluble in fats and oils and insoluble in water and ethanol.

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate using in chocolate
Because PGPR improves the flow characteristics of chocolate and compound chocolate, especially near the melting point, Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate can improve the efficiency of chocolate coating processes: chocolate coatings with PGPR flow better around shapes of enrobed and dipped products, and it also improves the performance of equipment used to produce solid molded products: the chocolate flows better into the mold, and surrounds inclusions and releases trapped air more easily.
PGPR can also be used to reduce the quantity of cocoa butter needed in chocolate formulations: the solid particles in chocolate are suspended in the cocoa butter, and by reducing the viscosity of the chocolate, less cocoa butter is required, which saves costs, because cocoa butter is an expensive ingredient, and also leads to a lower-fat product.

The food additive named polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) and identified with the code E-476 (PGPR) is used as emulsifier in tin-greasing emulsions for the baking trade and for the production of low-fat spreads. 
However, the main application of PGPR is in the chocolate industry, where, besides Polyglycerol Polyricinoleates action as an emulsifier, Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate also has important properties as a viscosity modifier and thus improves the moulding properties of the molten chocolate. 
An additional property of PGPR in chocolate is its ability to limit fat bloom. 
Known chemical methods for preparing this emulsifier involve long reaction times and high operating temperatures, which adversely affect the quality of the final product leading to problems of coloration and odors that could make it inadvisable for the food industry. 
As an alternative, the enzymatic synthesis of PGPR by the catalytic action of two lipases has been developed. 
The enzymes act in mild reaction conditions of temperature and pressure, neutral pH, and in a solvent-free system, which makes the process environmentally friendly and avoids side reaction, so that the product has a higher purity and quality.

What’re the common food uses?
The common applications of PGPR are as an emulsifier in chocolates. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate also can be used in confectionery fillings to reduce fat and improve the flow properties, and in low-fat spreads to stabilize the emulsion and improve mouthfeel and spreadability.

What is this ingredient in chocolate?
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is common to see Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate in the ingredients list of the chocolate candy which you might find in the supermarket. 

Let’s see Polyglycerol Polyricinoleates functions in chocolate:
-Viscosity reduction agent
PGPR has good thermal stability. 
The most important advantage in chocolate manufacturing is Polyglycerol Polyricinoleates ability in preventing crystals occur by reducing the viscosity of the chocolate slurry, thereby improving its fluidity, accelerating and optimizing the chocolate moulding process. 
-Eliminating bubble formation and empty holes
PGPR also help release small bubbles generated during the moulding process, thereby avoiding bubbles and holes in the chocolate product. 
-Synergistic with lecithin
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate has a good synergistic effect when used together with lecithin (an emulsifier, E322).
-Reduction of cocoa butter 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate can significantly reduce the shear stress and the amount of cocoa butter needed (to reduce the cost for chocolate manufacturers) in chocolate formulations, along with the reduction of the thickness of the chocolate coating, and improve the ease of processing.

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate Functions:
PGPR is most often found in foods, on which Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is labelled as E476. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is an FDA approved emulsifying food additive used to lower the viscosity of chocolate and salad dressings among other foods, but Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate has also found use as a skin conditioning agent as well as an emulsifier in cosmetic products. 
These properties are quite typical of long chain fat derived molecules. 
PGPR contains both hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemical groups, meaning that part of the molecule will bind to the water, and the other will bind to the oil part of the product to create a smooth consistency.

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (E476) is an emulsifier made in a three-step process from glycerol and fatty acids. 
PGPR (PolyGlycerol PolyRicinoleate) reduces the viscosity of chocolate and improves the flowability in chocolate mass. 
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate is also used in food as a release agent.

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate (PGPR)
Baking is an appealing activity, especially for moms. 
We all can’t deny that cookies are tasty that’s why our sweet tooths would always go for it anytime. 
In manufacturing chocolates for applications such as baking, polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) works in enhancing the thickness and volume of the product. 
Chocolate coatings flow satisfactorily when PGPR is added unto Polyglycerol Polyricinoleates mixture. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate also complements lecithin when combined.

Description: Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate or PGPR is a combination of polyglycerol and castor oil (oil of the Ricinus communis tree). 
Normal fat consists of glycerol and fatty acids, for these products additional glycerol is coupled to the normal glycerol.
The product generally is a mixture of different components but has a certain element as synthetic as Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate uses an acetone-benzene solution. 
Castor oil seed is also used to make the poison ‘Ricin’
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate (PGPR) is becoming increasingly popular in Chocolate bars from the lower end market and are sold in bulk to offload costs.
Polyglycerol is also used in polymer coatings, paint and as a coating for plastic film to aid in anti-fogging.

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate uses:  PGPR as an emulsifier, stabiliser allowing chocolate coating to be spread more thinly to save costs. 
This is done at the expense of cocoa butter, which is eliminated from certain chocolate, namely Hershey’s, and PGPR used instead.
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is also used in spreadable fats and spreads, creamers and dressings of various kinds, where a plastic viscosity is desired in the products. 
echnically speaking, PGPR is a plastic

INTENDED USAGE:
-Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate serves to produce better quality chocolate reducing cocoa oil quantity in chocolate industry.
-Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate provides easier discharge property eliminating bubble formation and empty holes.
-Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate serves to produce chocolate with desired refirement.
-Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate doesnt have any bad odour. 
-Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate has a good thermal stability. 
-Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is suitable to use together with lecithin. 
-Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate makes the process easier. 

USAGE AREA :
-Chocolate and products thereof
-Low oil content products
-Spreadable oils (oil rate is less than 41%)
-Cocoa based candies
-Spreadable products (oil rate is less than 10%)
-Sauces
-Ice cream mixtures
-Candies
-Drug and cosmetic mixtures
-Oil and water emulsions

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is a W/O type surfactant. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleates lipophilic group is polycondensed ricinoleic acid, and Polyglycerol Polyricinoleates hydrophilic group is polyglycerin group. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate has good solubility in grease and can be used as emulsifier, stabilizer, and thickener. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is widely used in food (chocolate and its products, ice cream icing, etc.), cosmetics, lubricants and other fields.
-Polyglycerol Polyricinoleates most important feature is that Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate can reduce the viscosity of the chocolate slurry without forming crystals, thereby improving Polyglycerol Polyricinoleates fluidity;
-Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate has a good synergistic effect when mixed with lecithin, which can significantly reduce the shear stress of chocolate, reduce the amount of cocoa butter and cocoa butter substitutes, and reduce the thickness of the chocolate coating and the ease of processing;
-Make chocolate and its products easy to discharge the small bubbles generated in the process of filling the mold, and avoid the phenomenon of voids and pores in the product;
-Reduce the amount of chocolate required for effective slurrying and molding; speed up the injection molding of chocolate;
-Improve the ease of processing of the product, make the chocolate icing of the biscuit evenly thick, and the icing thinner and flatter, so that the wrapped air can be released more easily;
-In a humid environment, increase the low-temperature adhesion of the chocolate coating, so that the chocolate icing of the ice cream can be formed quickly, accelerate its adhesion, increase the adhesion, and reduce the tiny pores. 
For example: adding 0.3% polyglycerol polyricinoleate and 0.3% lecithin to chocolate, the shear stress can be reduced by about 50%, or use 0.2% polyglycerol polyricinoleate and 0.5% lecithin together, can reduce the amount of cocoa butter by about 8%, reduce the thickness of the chocolate coating, and improve the ease of processing.
-A thicker and heavier chocolate coating is formed on the biscuit.
-Downward products: Cocoa products, chocolate and Polyglycerol Polyricinoleates products, candy, ice cream coating

Factories find PGPR as a helpful agent in maintaining the good quality of the chocolate or other products that require certain smoothness and viscosity. 
Baking will be much fun for everybody who loves doing Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate.

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate, E476, is an emulsifier made in a three step process from glycerol and fatty acids, respectively. 
PGPR reduces the viscosity of chocolate and similar coatings and compounds. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate works by decreasing the friction between the particles of cacao, sugar, milk, etc. present so they can flow more easily when melted. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is used at low levels. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is made up of a short chain of glycerol molecules connected by ether bonds, with ricinoleic acid side chains connected by ester bonds. 
PGPR is a yellowish, viscous liquid composed of polyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids from castor oil. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate may also be polyglycerol esters of dimerized fatty acids of soybean oil. 
PGPR is strongly lipophilic, soluble in fats and oils and insoluble in water and ethyl alcohol. 
In chocolates, Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is used as a viscosity-reducing agent. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is virtually always paired with lecithin or another plastic viscosity-reducing agent. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate can also be used as an emulsifier in spreads and in salad dressings or as a crystal inhibitor and anticlouding agent in fractionated vegetable oils. 
In a study in 1998, "PGPR was found to be 98% digested by rats and utilized as a source of energy superior to starch and nearly equivalent to groundnut oil." 
Additionally, there was no evidence of interference with normal fat metabolism, nor with growth, reproduction, and maintenance of tissue. 
Overall, Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate did not "constitute a human health hazard."

Use in chocolate candy bars

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is primarily used to reduce the fat content of chocolate. 
PGPR is a yellowish, viscous liquid composed of polyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids from castor oil. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate may also be polyglycerol esters of dimerized fatty acids of soya bean oil.
PGPR is strongly lipophilic, soluble in fats and oils and insoluble in water and ethyl alcohol. 
In chocolates Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is used as a viscosity-reducing agent.
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is virtually always paired with lecithin or another plastic viscosity-reducing agent. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate can also be used as an emulsifier in spreads and in salad dressings or as a crystal inhibitor and anti-clouding agent in fractionated vegetable oils. 
The Vegan Society claims that PGPR may be animal-derived, but no evidence has been presented that any commercially available PGPR products are made using animal-derived substances.

INDUSTRIES
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (E476) is used in food as an emulsifier for chocolate products, spreads, sauces, cocoa based sweets.

SAMPLE AND DATA REQUEST
You have the opportunity to compile a data and sample request for our products, which you can then submit directly to us.

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) is used as an emulsifier in the food industry, especially in chocolate coatings and chocolate bars. 
PGPR improves the characteristics of molten chocolate by reducing yield stress, facilitating the coating of confectionery pieces, while limiting the amount of cocoa butter involved.
The enzymatic synthesis of PGPR catalyzed by lipases presents several advantages over chemical synthesis, including enzyme specificity and the mild conditions needed, thereby avoiding undesirable side-reactions and by-products. 
A novel process to synthesize PGPR using a biocatalyst, is presented. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is appropriate for catalyzing both the reactions involved in this process. 
A PGPR fulfilling European specifications for this food additive as well as recommendations set out in the Food Chemical Codex, was obtained using a discontinuous vacuum reactor with a dry nitrogen flow. 
In addition, the biocatalyst reuse would decrease costs. 
Moreover, Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate was confirmed that the ability to obtain PGPR in a one-step reaction significantly shortens the time required.

FOOD ADDITIVES
-Citrate
-Salts and minerals
-E vitamins
-Proteins and isolates
-Ascorbic acid derivatives
-Triacetin

-Product Type: emulsifier, food grade
-Color: light yellow
-Form: viscous liquid
-Odor: no bad odor
-CNS: 10.029
-INS: 476
-CAS: 29894-35-7

E476 is a food additive used to make foods/sauces smoother and blend easier. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleates scientific name is Polyglycerol polyricinoleate. 
On its Vegan status Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate’s pretty much always vegan.
Generally Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate’s safe to assume E476 is Vegan, as Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate’s essentially always made from either soybean oil or castor oil, however technically Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate can be derived from animal sources/fats. 
In practice while E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) can be made from animal tallow (fat) if Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate’s not made from one of the two plant-based ingredients mentioned above Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate’s generally made with Palm Oil.
In other words, if you’re vegan I don’t believe this is an ingredient that should be of concern, as while Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate technically can be made in a non-vegan way I honestly cannot find a production facility that makes E476 that uses animal products in Polyglycerol Polyricinoleates production.

What other food may contain it?
The following products may with it:
Spreadable fats 
Cocoa products 
Cocoa-based confectionery 
Emulsified sauces

Is PGPR safe to eat?
Yes, PGPR has been approved as a safe emulsifier by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), as well as Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA).

PGPR is most often found in foods, on which Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is labelled as E476. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is an FDA approved emulsifying food additive used to lower the viscosity of chocolate and salad dressings among other foods, but it has also found use as a skin conditioning agent as well as an emulsifier in cosmetic products. 
These properties are quite typical of long chain fat derived molecules. 
PGPR contains both hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemical groups, meaning that part of the molecule will bind to the water, and the other will bind to the oil part of the product to create a smooth consistency.

Manufacture
Glycerol is heated to above 200 °C in a reactor in the presence of an alkaline catalyst to create polyglycerol. 
Castor oil fatty acids are separately heated to above 200 °C, to create interesterified ricinoleic fatty acids. 
The polyglycerol and the interesterified ricinoleic fatty acids are then mixed to create PGPR

How is Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate made?
PGPR is a mixture of esterified products manufactured by the esterification of polyglycerol with condensed castor oil fatty acids. 

What is Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate (PGPR)?

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate (PGPR) is an emulsifier made from castor beans. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate reduces the viscosity of chocolate so Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate will allow the chocolate to melt faster while in your mouth. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is also used to lower the fat content in chocolate. 

Is PGPR Natural or Artificial?

"Some manufacturers are now using PGPR, an artificial emulsifier derived from castor oil that allows them to reduce the amount of cocoa butter while maintaining the same mouthfeel."

The brief 3 step manufacturing processes as follows:
-Polyglycerols preparation: Glycerol is heated to above 200 ℃ in the presence of an alkali catalyst to produce polyglycerol. 
-Condensation of the castor oil fatty acids: Castor oil fatty acids (synthesized by hydrolysing castor oil in water) are heated to above 200 ℃ to create interesterified ricinoleic fatty acid chains of varying lengths. 
-Esterification: Then polyglycerol mixed with interesterified ricinoleic fatty acids to produce PGPR with different chain lengths. 

Fatty acids In Castor Oil 
Castor oil is a vegetable oil that can be pressed from castor beans. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is mainly composed of ricinoleic acid (85–95%). 
Other components are oleic acid (2–6%), linoleic acid (1–5%), stearic acid (0.5–1%) and palmitic acid (0.5–1%). 

On the label you will see it listed as an emulsifier. 
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate is a yellowish, viscous liquid comprised of polyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids from castor oil.

CAS Number: 29894-35-7  
ChemSpider: None
ECHA InfoCard: 100.117.614  
E number: E476 (thickeners, ...)
PubChem CID: 9843407
Chemical formula: (C3H5O2)n(C18H32O2)m

Properties: Yellow highly viscous liquid, odorless or slightly peculiar smell, insoluble in cold water and ethanol, soluble in hot glycerin and hot oil, soluble in ether and hydrocarbons. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is non-ionic and belongs to water-in-oil (W/O) emulsifier.

Physical properties: insoluble in water and ethanol. 
Soluble in ether, hydrocarbons and halogenated hydrocarbons.
Appearance: highly viscous yellow to brown liquid, odorless or slightly peculiar smell
Function: This product is a W/O type surfactant, which can be used as an emulsifier, stabilizer, thickener, and anticaking agent. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is widely used in the fields of food and cosmetics. 
PGPR is a special emulsifier that can stabilize water-in-oil systems with high water content.
Adjust the surface tension. Adjust product viscosity.

Appearance
Clear, highly viscous liquid.

HLB Value
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is strong lipophilic W/O emulsifier and can form stable emulsions even when the water content is very high.

Commercial Production
PGEs are produced by polymerization of glycerol in the presence of an alkaline catalyst followed by esterification with fatty acids.
The fatty acids are from corn oil, cottonseed oil, lard, palm oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, etc.
Besides esters, PGEs also contain impurities, like mono, di, and triglycerides, free fatty acids, free glycerol and polyglycerol, and sodium salts of fatty acids may be present.

Function
Components of bakery products, such as oil, water and flour, are not soluble in each other. 
Interfaces are present between these substances, such as water and oil, gases (air bubbles) and solid substances (flour components), air and water. 
PGEs, like other emulsifiers, have both a hydrophobic and hydrophilic nature so they can reduce interfacial tension between different phases.
PGEs’ hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) depends on the length of the polyglycerol chain and the degree of esterification. 
The HLB can vary from 3 to 14, and the desired HLB value may be obtained by appropriate blending. 
Depending upon their HLB, PGEs can act as water-in-oil (W/O) or oil-in-water (O/W) emulsifiers.
PGEs form highly stable alpha-gel in water. 
The α-gel phase of PGEs is surface active and is able to stabilize foams when the temperature is lower than the melting temperature of the emulsifier. 
The special structure also leads to better emulsification properties.

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate Applications
An important application of PGEs is in cake batters with little or no content of fat and oil (i.e. batters for sponge cakes, Swiss rolls and similar types of cake formulations that are based on egg, sugar and flour and/or starch). 
PGEs enhance aeration and help stabilize foams. 
The use of PGEs makes it possible to produce sponge cakes by single stage mixing, and produce final products with a finer crumb structure and longer shelf life.

PGEs can be used in margarines. 
The addition of PGEs improve the functional properties of the margarine (e.g. the organoleptic properties of spreads, stabilizing or aerating of food) in addition to the emulsification of the emulsion. 
PGEs are reported to improve the organolepic properties of a margarine or low-fat spread by reducing the graininess of the lipid phase to yield a plasticity and elasticity of the margarine corresponding to natural butter.
Compared to alternative emulsifiers, such as monoglycerides, the polyglycerol ester is found to have an advantage in providing long-time stability of  whipping properties, making the emulsifier an excellent choice for cake mixes.

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate Origin:
Combination of polyglycerol and castoroil (oil of the tree Ricinus sp. ). 
Normal fat consists of glycerol and fatty acids, for these products additional glycerol is coupled to the normal glycerol. 
The product generally is a mixture of different components.

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate Function & characteristics:
Emulsifiers and stabilisers.

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate Products:
Bakery products

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate Description
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate (PGPR) E 476 is an emulsifier manufactured from Interesterified Castor oil fatty acids and Polymerized Glycerol. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is a highly lipophilic emulsifier with a low Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance. 
This food additive is a viscous amber coloured liquid. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is insoluble in hot and cold water, soluble in oils and fats.
PGPR works by reducing the friction between the particles of the solid ingredients in molten chocolate and reducing the surface tension or yield stress (Casson yield value) so that chocolate flows much more uniformly and in an easily controllable manner. 
This greatly aids the application of chocolate in bar-making, moulding, enrobing and coating. 

PGPR is also a cost-saving emulsifier as it reduces the quantity of fat required in chocolate production to achieve the desired chocolate viscosity.
The worldwide PGPR food additive market for the chocolate industry had been controlled by a multinational that produced a high functionality PGPR and had a monopoly in this segment. 
They controlled this high functionality segment for over a decade and had no competition.
In 2014, Savannah was the first company to be able to produce a PGPR with the same functionality and break this monopoly. 
Multinational chocolate manufacturers have been the first to affirm Savannah’s quality and several large and small chocolate producers worldwide have also seen the merit in using Savannah’s DynaVisc 999.
Viscosity reduction testing: The percentage reduction in viscosity achieved through the use of Savannah’s 999 grade can be calculated with a very simple mathematical formula. 
This formula is referred to as Viscosity Reducing Power or Viscosity Reduction Index.
(Original Starting Viscosity of Chocolate - Viscosity after addition of 0.2% DynaVisc 999) / Original Starting Viscosity of Chocolate
This number, multiplied by 100, is the percentage viscosity reduction achieved.

Acceptable Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate Daily Intake:
Up to 7.5 mg/kg bodyweight

PGEs can also be used as low fat shortening. 
They can also form emulsion systems with a high amount water, thus reducing the overall caloric content of a food product. 
As the α-tending emulsifier, PGEs also have the crumb softening and anti-staling effects and they also help improve cake volume in baked products. 
The reason is that emulsifiers can reduce the rate of starch retrogradation.

PGEs can be used in whippable emulsions and toppings. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate can promote fat particle aggregation and water absorption, and help achieve increased viscosity and aeration, and reduced coalescence.

Different than monoglycerides (MGs), the α-gel structure formed by PGEs are thermodynamically more stable, which means the emulsion system formed by PGEs are more stable than that of MGs. 
Blends of PGEs and MGs are known to improve sponge cake aeration and stability with less mixing time and improved foam and emulsion stability.
Polyglyceryl polyricinoleate is a Polyglyceryl esters of interesterified ricinoleic acid Polyglyceryl polyricinoleate uses and applications include: Emulsifier, stabilizer, viscous modifier, emulsion stabilizer, pan release agent in foods; emulsifier, stabilizer in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, emulsions; release agent.

Solubility 
Insoluble in water and in ethanol; soluble in ether.

IUPAC name
1,2,3-Propanetriol, homopolymer, (9Z,12R)-12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoate
POLYGLYCEROL POLYRICINOLEATE
Q168686

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate is an emulsifier which is a yellowish, viscous liquid composed of polyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids from castor oil. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is lipophilic , being soluble in fats and oils but insoluble in water. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is used in reducing the friction of chocolate particles to obtain better flow when melted. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate also func- tions to reduce the fat content of chocolate when replacing cocoa butter. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate uses include chocolate candy bars, confectionary. 
PGPR is strong lipophilic W/O emulsifier and is used as anemulsifier for making of baking grease which is used as a release agent in the bread tins in the Bread Industry.
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is used as Emulsifier for margarines and shortenings, stabiliser for water- in-oil emulsion systems, dispersant for high solid preparations, suspending agent for food colors, Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate can be also used as anti-clouding agent for fractionated vegetable oils.
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is used as a Viscosity reducer, which increases the smooth flow without the air problems getting trapped inside. Generally Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is used in the dosage of 0.5%.

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is reported that mixing polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) and polyglycerol laurilester has a great emulsifying capacity, and consequently fine oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions can be formed. 
However, the role of PGPR is not clear. 
The objective of this research is to investigate the phase behavior of vegetable oil/mixture of PGPR and polyglycerol fatty acid ester/water systems, and to clarify the role of PGPR in making a fine emulsion. 
Phase diagrams were constructed to elucidate the optimal process for preparing fine emulsions. 
In all the systems examined in this study, the phases, including the liquid crystal phase (L(c)) and sponge phase (L(3)), spread widely in the phase diagrams. 
We examined droplet size of the emulsions prepared from each phase and found that o/w nano-emulsions with droplet sizes as small as 50 nm were formed by emulsifying either from a single L(3) phase or a two-phase region, L(c) + L(3). 
These results indicate that a sponge phase L(3) or liquid crystal phase L(c) or both is necessary to form an o/w nano-emulsion whose average droplet diameter is less than 50 nm for PGPR and polyglycerin fatty acid ester mixtures used as surfactant.

Three different analytical techniques, namely NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and dynamic light scattering, were used to unravel the structure and morphology of polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR). 
This material is used as an emulsifier in the preparation of chocolate and other confectionary products. 
The use of 1D and 2D NMR techniques led to the distinction of two separate entities in commercial ricinoleic acid (RA) and PGPR samples, namely the monomeric and oligomeric RA (estolides). 
1H and 13C spectra of PGPR confirmed the presence of polyglycerol moieties of various lengths being esterified by RA and estolides and to a lesser extent by oleic and linoleic acids. 
13C-NMR DOSY experiments demonstrated the occurrence of several species in PGPR. 

Item: STANDARD
Acid Value (mgkoH/g): =<6.0
Saponification Value (mgkoH/g): 170-210
Iodine Value (g/100g): 72-103
Hydroxyl Value (mgkoH/g): 80-100
Pb (ppm): =<2

Electrospray Ionization and tandem Mass Spectrometry succeeded in identifying the presence of over 30 glycerol/polyglycerol species containing n glycerol moieties with n = 1–6 esterified by monomeric and oligomeric RA molecules. 
Dynamic light scattering contributed to the characterization of PGPR morphology. 
The PGPR mixture contains relatively small-sized entities (monomers, dimmers, trimmers) and larger aggregates resulted from chain association. 
The percentage of larger aggregates is minimal compared to small-sized species.

Product Specification
E Number: E 476
Form: Viscous Liquid
Colour: Amber Honey
Acid Value: Max 3 mgKOH/gm
Polyglycerol: Less than 10%
Hydroxyl Value: 80-100 mgKOH/gm
Viscosity: 700-900 CPS at 60 C
Saponification Value: 170-185 mgKOH/gm
Heavy Metals (as Pb): Less than 10 mg/kg
Arsenic: Less than 1 mg/kg
Mercury: Less than 1 mg/kg
Cadmium: Less than 1 mg/kg
Lead: Less than 5 mg/kg
Refractive Index: 1.4630-1.4665

This emulsifier (E 476) is produced from ricinoleic acid and glycerol (from castor oil) and used both in cosmetics and in the pharmaceutical and food industries. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is skin-friendly and has virtually no potential for irritation.

Food additives enhances the flavour and shelf life of the food.
With increasing inclination of consumers towards processed food is contributing to the growth of food additives market. 
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate is naturally and chemically obtained food additive with excellent emulsifying properties. 
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate is chemically obtained from polymerized ricinoleic acid and polymerized glycerol, whereas naturally Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is derived from castor bean oil. 
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate has hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties, thus making Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate a water-in-oil emulsifier. 
Hence predominantly used in food & beverage industry. 
Polygylcerol polycricinoleate is chemically prepared through four stages starting from preparation of castor oil fatty acid up to the partial esterification process of castor oil fatty acid with polyglycerol. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate can either be used in blended or individual form depending upon the quality to be obtained.

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate Definition
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate is an emulsifier used to improve the flow and spread of chocolate and candy coatings.

Polyglycerol PolyricinoleateHealth considerations
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate is considered safe at the levels present in food (a maximum of 0.3% in the US). 
Studies in animals and humans found no adverse health effects at intakes of up to 10g a day.

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate may be found in
Chocolate, confectionery, candy coated chocolate, chocolate coated candy/fruit/nuts, salad dressing, fractionated vegetable oil

Related compounds: 
Triricinolein (monomer)
Polyglycerol
Ricinoleic acid
drewpol PGPR
(Z,12R)-12-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid;propane-1,2,3-triol (poly)
1,2,3-propanetriol, homopolymer, (9Z,12R)-12-hydroxy-9-
1,2,3-propanetriol, homopolymer, (9Z,12R)-12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoate
ricinoleic acid, ester with polyglycerol
Polyglyceryl polyricinoleate
Glyceran esters of condensed castor oil fatty acids
Glycerol esters of condensed castor oil fatty acids
PGPR; Polyglycerol esters of interesterified ricinoleic acid
Polyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids from castor oil

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