Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)


Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), also commonly called polyvidone or povidone, is a water-soluble polymer made from the monomer N-vinylpyrrolidone

IUPAC name: 1-ethenylpyrrolidin-2-one

PVP, Povidone
PVPP, Crospovidone, Polyvidone
PNVP
Poly[1-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl)ethylen]
1-Ethenyl-2-pyrrolidon homopolymer
1-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidinon-Polymere

Identifiers
CAS Number: 9003-39-8 

EC / List no.: 618-363-4
CAS no.: 9003-39-8


SYNONYMS Povidone, PVP; INS No. 1201
DEFINITION
Chemical names Polyvinylpyrrolidone, poly-[1-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl)- ethylene]
C.A.S. number 9003-39-8 

Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is one of the most widely used excipients in pharmaceuticals

PVP-Polyvinylpyrrolidone is a nonionic water-soluble polymer and can be applied in a variety of fields-of-use owing to following advantageous characteristics.

Good solubility in water as well as various organic solvents
Good affinity to various polymers and resins
High hygroscopicity
Good film formation property
Good adhesiveness to various substrates
Good chelate / complex formation property

2-Pyrrolidinone, 1-ethenyl-, homopolymer
Polyvinylpyrrolidone

Trade names
PVP

Other names
poly[1-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidynyl)ethylene]
Polyvinylpyrrolidon
polyvinylpyrrolidone
PVP


Medical

Structure of povidone-iodine complex, a common antiseptic.
PVP was used as a plasma volume expander for trauma victims after the 1950s. 
It is not preferred as volume expander due to its ability to provoke histamine release and also interfere with blood grouping.

It is used as a binder in many pharmaceutical tablets; it simply passes through the body when taken orally. 
(However, autopsies have found that crospovidone (PVPP) contributes to pulmonary vascular injury in substance abusers who have injected pharmaceutical tablets intended for oral consumption.

The long-term effects of crospovidone or povidone within the lung are unknown).

PVP added to iodine forms a complex called povidone-iodine that possesses disinfectant properties.
This complex is used in various products like solutions, ointment, pessaries, liquid soaps and surgical scrubs. 
It is known under the trade names Pyodine and Betadine, among a plethora of others.

It is used in pleurodesis (fusion of the pleura because of incessant pleural effusions). 

For this purpose, povidone iodine is equally effective and safe as talc, and may be preferred because of easy availability and low cost.

PVP is used in some contact lenses and their packaging solutions. 
It reduces friction, thus acting as a lubricant, or wetting agent, built into the lens. Examples of this use include Bausch & Lomb's Ultra contact lenses with MoistureSeal Technology and Air Optix contact lens packaging solution (as an ingredient called "copolymer 845").

PVP is used as a lubricant in some eye drops, e.g. Bausch & Lomb's Soothe.

Technical
PVP is also used in many technical applications:

as an adhesive in glue stick and hot-melt adhesives[citation needed]
as a special additive for batteries, ceramics, fiberglass, inks, and inkjet paper, and in the chemical-mechanical planarization process
as an emulsifier and disintegrant for solution polymerization
to increase resolution in photoresists for cathode ray tubes (CRT)
in aqueous metal quenching
for production of membranes, such as dialysis and water purification filters
as a binder and complexation agent in agricultural applications such as crop protection, seed treatment and coating
as a thickening agent in tooth whitening gels[11]
as an aid for increasing the solubility of drugs in liquid and semi-liquid dosage forms (syrups, soft gelatine capsules) and as an inhibitor of recrystallisation
as an additive to Doro's RNA extraction buffer[citation needed]
as a liquid-phase dispersion enhancing agent in DOSY NMR 
as a surfactant, reducing agent, shape controlling agent and dispersant in nanoparticle synthesis and their self-assembly
as a stabilizing agent in all inorganic solar cells

Other uses
PVP binds to polar molecules exceptionally well, owing to its polarity. 
This has led to its application in coatings for photo-quality ink-jet papers and transparencies, as well as in inks for inkjet printers.

PVP is also used in personal care products, such as shampoos and toothpastes, in paints, and adhesives that must be moistened, such as old-style postage stamps and envelopes. 


Synonyms    
2-Pyrrolidinone,1-vinyl-, polymers (8CI);1-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone polymer;1-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone homopolymer;1-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone polymer;Antitox Vana;Bolinan;Deltaspeed AF;Divergan F;Divergan RS;Hemodesis;Hemodez;N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone homopolymer;N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidonehomopolymer;N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone polymer;N-Vinylbutyrolactam polymer;N-Vinylpyrrolidinone polymer;N-Vinylpyrrolidone homopolymer;N-Vinylpyrrolidone polymer;Neohemodes;PV 03 (vinyl pyrrolidone polymer);Povidone/Polyvinylpyrrolidone(PVP);Polyvinylpyrrolidone;Povidone K-30;Povidone/PVP/POLYVINYL PYRROLIDONE;


Polyvinylpyrrolidon, with CAS number of 9003-39-8, is a kind of white powder. 
It can be called Povidone; PVP 3000; N-Vinylpyrrolidone polymer; N-Vinylbutyrolactam polymer; N-Vinylpyrrolidone homopolymer; N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone polymer and N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone homopolymer. 
Polyvinylpyrrolidone should be stored in shady and cool warehouse and mainly used as pharmaceutical Intermediates.


Uses of Polyvinylpyrrolidon: It is used as a binder in many pharmaceutical tablets; it simply passes through the body when taken orally. 
PVP is also used in many technical applications: as an adhesive in glue stick and hot-melt adhesives. 
Except, It is also used in the wine industry as a fining agent for white wine or some beers. 
Other references state that polyvinyl pyrrolidone and its derivatives are fully from mineral synthetic origin. 
Therefore, its use in the production should not be a problem for vegans.


Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is a water-soluble polymer obtained by polymerization of monomer N-vinylpyrrolidone. 
PVP is an inert, non-toxic, temperature-resistant, pH-stable, biocompatible, biodegradable polymer that helps to encapsulate and cater both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs. 
These advantages enable PVP a versatile excipient in the formulation development of broad conventional to novel controlled delivery systems. 
PVP has tunable properties and can be used as a brace component for gene delivery, orthopedic implants, and tissue engineering applications. Based on different molecular weights and modified forms, PVP can lead to exceptional beneficial features with varying chemical properties. 
Graft copolymerization and other techniques assist PVP to conjugate with poorly soluble drugs that can inflate bioavailability and even introduces the desired swelling tract for their control or sustained release. 
The present review provides chemistry, mechanical, physicochemical properties, evaluation parameters, dewy preparation methods of PVP derivatives intended for designing conventional to controlled systems for drug, gene, and cosmetic delivery. 
The past and growing interest in PVP establishes it as a promising polymer to enhance the trait and performance of current generation pharmaceutical dosage forms. 
Furthermore, the scrutiny explores existing patents, marketed products, new and futuristic approaches of PVP that have been identified and scope for future development, characterization, and its use. 
The exploration spotlights the importance and role of PVP in the design of Povidone-iodine (PVP-I) and clinical trials to assess therapeutic efficacy against the COVID-19 in the current pandemic scenario.


It has also been used in contact lens solutions and in steel-quenching solutions.
PVP is the basis of the early formulas for hair sprays and hair gels, and still continues to be a component of some.

As a food additive, PVP is a stabilizer and has E number E1201. 
PVPP (crospovidone) is E1202. 
It is also used in the wine industry as a fining agent for white wine and some beers.

In molecular biology, PVP can be used as a blocking agent during Southern blot analysis as a component of Denhardt's buffer. 
It is also exceptionally good at absorbing polyphenols during DNA purification. 

Polyphenols are common in many plant tissues and can deactivate proteins if not removed and therefore inhibit many downstream reactions like PCR.

In microscopy, PVP is useful for making an aqueous mounting medium.

PVP can be used to screen for phenolic properties, as referenced in a 2000 study on the effect of plant extracts on insulin production.

Safety
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved this chemical for many uses, and it is generally considered safe. 

However, there have been documented cases of allergic reactions to PVP/povidone, particularly regarding subcutaneous (applied under the skin) use and situations where the PVP has come in contact with autologous serum (internal blood fluids) and mucous membranes. 
after povidone-iodine solution was applied internally. 


Povidone is commonly used in conjunction with other chemicals. 

Some of these, such as iodine, are blamed for allergic responses, although testing results in some patients show no signs of allergy to the suspect chemical. 

Properties
PVP is soluble in water and other polar solvents. 

For example, it is soluble in various alcohols, such as methanol and ethanol, as well as in more exotic solvents like the deep eutectic solvent formed by choline chloride and urea (Relin).

When dry it is a light flaky hygroscopic powder, readily absorbing up to 40% of its weight in atmospheric water. 

In solution, it has excellent wetting properties and readily forms films. 

This makes it good as a coating or an additive to coatings.

A 2014 study found fluorescent properties of PVP and its oxidized hydrolyzate.

History
PVP was first synthesized by Walter Reppe and a patent was filed in 1939 for one of the derivatives of acetylene chemistry. 

PVP was initially used as a blood plasma substitute and later in a wide variety of applications in medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics and industrial production


PVP is a polymer with a hydrophobic alkyl backbone and hydrophilic pendant groups, which can be envisaged to coil around the CNTs so that its backbone is in good contact with the surface of CNTs and consequently pyrrolidone groups are exposed to water.
Polynucleotides are rearranged in an opposite way to PVP, since they have a hydrophilic sugar–phosphate backbone with relatively hydrophobic aromatic nucleotide bases as pendants.


Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)
PVP or povidone is a hygroscopic, amorphous, synthetic polymer consisting of linear 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone groups. 
As a binder, PVP is used in the concentration range of 0.5%–5% w/w. 
Different degrees of polymerization of PVP resulted in polymers of various molecular weights. 
It is generally characterized by its viscosity in aqueous solution relative to that of water and expressed as a K value in the range of 10–120. 
Povidones with K-values ≤ 30 are manufactured by spray drying as spheres, whereas povidones with higher K-values are manufactured by drum drying as plates. 
Wet granulation with povidone K25/30/90 generally gives harder granules with better flow properties than with other binders with lower friability and higher binding strength. 
Moreover, povidone also promotes the dissolution of APIs. 
For example, the drug release was faster in paracetamol tablets with 4% povidone K90 compared to tablets with gelatin or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as binder. 
It has been shown that PVP was more efficient than HPMC owing to the lower work of cohesion and adhesion of HPMC. 
It could be further attributed to the better adhesion of PVP, especially to hydrophilic surfaces. 
Using PVP solution as granulating agent, it was observed that the addition of MCC as an insoluble excipient to a lactose-based formulation led to increase in solvent requirement and produced larger granules 


The PVP was used as a blood plasma expander for trauma victims. 
It is used as a binder in many pharmaceutical tablets and it simply passes through the body when it is administered orally. 
However, autopsies have found that crospovidone does contribute to pulmonary vascular injury in substance abusers who have injected pharmaceutical tablets intended for oral consumption. 
PVP added to iodine forms a complex called povidone-iodine that possesses disinfectant properties. 
This complex is used in various products like solutions, ointment, pessaries, liquid soaps, and surgical scrubs. 
It is known under the trade name Betadine and Pyodine. 
It is used in pleurodesis (fusion of the pleura because of incessant pleural effusions). 
For this purpose, povidone-iodine is equally effective and safe as talc and may be preferred because of easy availability and low cost. 

It is used as an aid for increasing the solubility of drugs in liquid and semiliquid dosage forms (syrups and soft gelatin capsules) and as an inhibitor of recrystallization.


There have been many studies that have been devoted to the determination of the molecular weight of PVP polymer. 
The low molecular weight polymers have narrower distribution curves of molecular entities than the high molecular weight compounds. 
Some of the techniques for measuring the molecular weight of various PVP polymer products are based on measuring sedimentation, light scattering, osmometry, NMR spectroscopy, ebullimometry, and size exclusion chromatography for determining absolute molecular weight distribution. 
By the use of these methods, any one of three molecular weight parameters can be measured, namely the number average (Mn), viscosity average (Mv), and weight average (Mw). 
Each of these characteristics can yield a different answer for the same polymer as illustrated by using these measurement techniques in the analysis of the same PVP K-30 polymer sample. 
The following results are reported: Number average (Mn) – 10,000 Viscosity average (Mv) – 40,000 Weight average (Mw) – 55,000 Therefore, in any review of the literature, one must know which molecular average is cited. 
Conventionally, molecular weights are expressed by their “K-values,” which are derived from relative viscosity measurements.

PVP polymers are supplied in various viscosity grades as a powder and/or aqueous solution. 
The full line of PVP polymers are also available for personal care applications such as film forming, emulsion stabilization and colorant dispersion. 
Ashland also offers pharmaceutical and agriculture grades of PVP polymer; our Plasdone™ and Polyplasdone™ polymer products are used in the pharmaceutical industry, Agrimer™ polymers are used by the Agriculture industry


Adhesives – pressure-sensitive and water-remoistenable types, food packaging (indirect food contact), metal adhesives, abrasives, sandcore binder, rubber to metal adhesives and glue sticks. 
Specific adhesive for glass, metal, plastics. Imparts high initial tack, strength, hardness. 
Particularly suitable for remoistenable adhesive applications. Forms grease-resistant films. 
Films can be cast from water or organic solvents. Modifies viscosity of polymer-based adhesives. 
Raises cold-flow temperature. Raises softening point of thermoplastics

Ceramics – binder in high temperature fire-prepared products such as clay, pottery, porcelain, brick product, dispersant for ceramic media slurries and viscosity modifier. 
Binder is completely combustible in the firing process and therefore exerts no influence on the ceramic end product and in addition, is compatible with inorganic materials.


Glass and Glass Fibers – acts as a binder, lubricant and coating agent. Aids in processing and helps to prevent abrasion of glass.

Coatings/lnks – digital printing coating, ball-point inks, protective colloid and leveling agent for emulsion polymers/ coatings/ printing inks, pigment dispersant, water-colors for commercial art, temporary protective coatings, paper coatings, waxes and polishes. 
Suspending agent, flow promoter in inks. 
Nonthixotropic. 
Promotes better gloss, high tinctorial strength, more uniform shades. 
Antiblack agent. 
Grease resistant. 
Inkjet dye fixative.

Detergents Dye transfer inhibition and enzyme stabilization

Electrical Applications – storage batteries, printed circuits, cathode ray tubes, binder for metal salts or amalgams in batteries, gold, nickel, copper and zinc plating, a thickener for solar gel ponds and as an adhesive to prevent leakage of batteries, serves as an expander in cadmium-type electrodes, binder in sinterednickel powder plates. 
Hydrophilic material in electrode separators of microporous film types. Compatible dispersant in printed circuits to improve uniformity. 
Shadow masks and protects light sensitive material in the CRT. 
Compatible dispersant for solar collection heat transfer liquids, for gold, nickel, copper and zinc plating baths and cathode ray tubes.

Lithography and Photography – foil emulsions, etch coatings, plate storage, gumming of litho- graphic plates, dampener roll solutions, photo and laser imaging processes, microencapsulation, thermal recording, carrier, finisher preserver of lithographic plates, thermal transfer recording ribbons and optical recording discs. Light-hardenable, water-soluble colloid for diazo, dichromate, or silver emulsion layers. 
Obviates deep-etching of metal plates. Offers uniform viscosity, temperature stability. 
Nonthixotropic. 
Defoggant. Adheres tightly to plates in nonimage areas. Grease-proof and water receptive. 
Chemically inert to ink ingredients. Binder, dispersant carrier and improves adhesion for light absorber dyes and antistick agent. 
Increases covering power density and contrast as well as speed of emulsions used in photography.
Fiberglass Sizing agent and helps to prevent abrasion of glass

Fibers and Textiles – synthetic fibers, dyeing and printing, fugitive tinting, dye stripping and dispersant, scouring, delustering, sizing and finishing, greaseproofing aid, soil release agent. Widely used as dye dispersant and to disperse titanium dioxide. 
Backbone for grafting monomers. Improves dye receptivity of such hydrophobic fibers as polyolefins, viscoses, rubber latices, poly acrylonitriles and acrylics. Dye fixation improver and dye vehicle in wool transfer printing. Thickener for heat activated textile adhesives, textile finishes and print parts for various types of fabrics. Textile dye stripping and strike rate control through dye complexion. Acts as a dye scavenger in print washing. Contributes enhanced adhesives to glass-fiber sizes.

Inks / Coatings Viscosity control, suspension stabilization, flow control

Membranes – macroporous, multiporous, desalination, gas separating, liquid ultrafiltration, hemodialysis, selective permeability types of membranes, hollow fiber membranes. 
Good compatibility and crosslinking properties Ability to complex with a broad variety of compounds. Strong polar character and hydrophilicity improves selective material separation properties.

Metallurgy – processing for both ferrous and non ferrous metals, coating ingredient to aid or remove material from metal surfaces such as copper, nickel, zinc and aluminum. 
Steel quenching bath media. Coating to facilitate the cold forming of metals. Binder for casting molds and cores. Thickener, viscosity controlling agent, adhesion improver, water soluble flux.

Paper – inorganic papers, cellulose papers, rag stock, rag stripping, coloring and beating operations, copying paper, printing paper and electric insulating papers, paper adhesives. 
Improves strength and stability. Prevents sliding. 
Fluorescent whitening agent carrier. Improves luster, binding, absorbency, whitening and gloss. 
Solubilizes dyes for coloring, dyestripping. Fiber and pigment dispersant. 
Helps in preventing deposition of pitch. 
omplexing agent for modifying resins. Binder for inorganic flakes and fibers.

Polymerizations – acrylic monomers, unsaturated polyesters, olefins, including PVC, styrene beads, substrate for graft polymerization, template in acrylic polymerization. Acts as particle-size regulator, suspending agent and viscosity modifier of emulsion polymers. In polymerization products, improves strength, clarity, color receptivity. Post-polymerization additive to improve dyeability and stability of latices. Pigment dispersant.
Suspensions / Dispersions PVP polymer is adsorbed on the surface of the colloid particles preventing them from coagulating.


Tableting Binder agent

Water and Waste Treatment, and Hygiene – clogging of reverse osmosis membranes, water treatment in fish hatchery ponds, removal of oil, dyes from waste water and as an oil-ball forming agent in oil spill removal, flocculant in waste water treatment, waste water clarifier in papermaking, in deodorants for neutralization of irritant and poisonous gas, in air conditioning filters.
Complexes and gels in water to react with undesired water products


Polyvinylpyrrolidone
Excipient (pharmacologically inactive substance)

What is it?
Polyvinylpyrrolidone, also known as povidone or PVP, is used in the pharmaceutical industry as a synthetic polymer vehicle for dispersing and suspending drugs. 
It has multiple uses, including as a binder for tablets and capsules, a film former for ophthalmic solutions, to aid in flavoring liquids and chewable tablets, and as an adhesive for transdermal systems.[1]
Povidone has the molecular formula of (C6H9NO)n and appears as a white to slightly off-white powder. 
Povidone formulations are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry due to their ability to dissolve in both water and oil solvents. 
The k number refers to the mean molecular weight of the povidone. Povidones with higher K-values (i.e., k90) are not usually given by injection due to their high molecular weights. The higher molecular weights prevent excretion by the kidneys and lead to accumulation in the body. The best-known example of povidone formulations is povidone-iodine, an important disinfectant.[2]


Re‐evaluation of polyvinylpyrrolidone (E 1201) and polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (E 1202) as food additives and extension of use of polyvinylpyrrolidone (E 1201)
EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Flavourings (FAF)  Maged Younes  Gabriele Aquilina  Laurence Castle  Karl‐Heinz Engel  Paul Fowler  Peter Fürst  Rainer Gürtler
First published: 10 August 2020 https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2020.6215

Requestor: European Commission
Question numbers: EFSA‐Q‐2011‐00584, EFSA‐Q‐2011‐00585, EFSA‐Q‐2020‐00232
Panel members: Gabriele Aquilina, Laurence Castle, Karl‐Heinz Engel, Paul Fowler, Maria Jose Frutos Fernandez, Peter Fürst, Rainer Gürtler, Ursula Gundert‐Remy, Trine Husøy, Melania Manco, Wim Mennes, Sabina Passamonti, Peter Moldeus, Romina Shah, Dina Hendrika Waalkens‐Berendsen, Detlef Wölfle, Matthew Wright and Maged Younes.
Acknowledgements: The Panel wishes to thank Brian Flynn for the support provided to this scientific output. 
The FAF Panel wishes to acknowledge all European competent institutions, Member State bodies and other organisations that provided data for this scientific output.
Note: The full opinion will be published in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EU) No 257/2010 once the decision on confidentiality will be received from the European Commission.

Abstract
The present opinion deals with the re‐evaluation of polyvinylpyrrolidone (E 1201, PVP) and polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (E 1202, PVPP) when used as food additives. 
One request for extension of use of PVP (E 1201) in foods for special medical purposes was also considered in this assessment. 
The Panel followed the conceptual framework under Commission Regulation (EU) No 257/2010 and considered that: 
the exposure assessment was based on the reported use and use levels (one food category out of the two food categories in which PVP and PVPP are authorised); 
the 95th percentile of exposure to PVP and PVPP of maximally 23.7 and 25 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day in children, respectively, was overestimated, because it was assumed that 100% of the food supplements consumed contained PVP or PVPP at the maximum reported use levels; 
the extension of use of PVP (E 1201) to foods for special medical purposes (FC 13.2) would result in an exposure of PVP of 4.3 mg/kg bw per day for children; 
the absorption of PVP and PVPP is very low; sufficient toxicity data were available for PVP; 
there is no concern with respect to the genotoxicity of PVP and PVPP; 
no carcinogenic effects were reported in carcinogenicity studies in rats at a dose of 2,500 mg PVP/kg bw per day, the highest dose tested; 
there is no need for chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity data for PVPP for the safety assessment of PVPP given the chemical similarity between PVP and PVPP, and the lack of adverse effects in the available repeated dose toxicity studies. 
Therefore, the Panel concluded that there is no need for numerical acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) for PVP and PVPP, and that there is no safety concern for the reported uses and use levels of PVP and PVPP as food additives. 
The Panel further concluded that the proposed extension of use is not expected to be of safety concern at the proposed maximum permitted level (MPL) and recommended consumption level.

Summary
The present opinion deals with the re‐evaluation of polyvinylpyrrolidone (E 1201) and polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (E 1202) when used as food additives.

Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, E 1201) and polyvinylypolypyrrolidone (PVPP, E 1202) are authorised as food additives in the European Union (EU) in accordance with Annex II and Annex III to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 on food additives and specific purity criteria have been defined in the Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012.

Polyvinylpyrrolidone (E 1201) as a food additive was lately evaluated by JECFA in 1986 (JECFA, 1987). 
The previously adopted acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 0–25 mg/kg body weight (bw) was revised into 0–50 mg/kg bw, considering that the maximum limit for hydrazine in the final product was 1 mg/kg, and this level did not represent a significant risk. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (E 1202) as a food additive was evaluated by JECFA in 1983 and an ADI non‐specified was proposed (JECFA, 1983). In the EU, polyvinylpyrrolidone (E 1201) as a food additive was evaluated by the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) in 1990 (SCF, 1992). The SCF considered PVP as toxicologically acceptable for its use as an excipient in vitamins and sweeteners, on the basis of the summary data published by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 1987 (that established an ADI of 0–50 mg/kg bw). SCF also concluded that ‘If other uses in the future should significantly increase the potential intake the Committee would wish to review the original data’. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (E 1202) was evaluated by the SCF in 1990 (SCF, 1992). The SCF considered PVPP as toxicologically acceptable for the uses as a disintegration aid in tabletting and a processing aid in wine production, considering the expected limited exposure. SCF also concluded that ‘If other uses should significantly increase the potential intake the Committee would wish to review the original data’.

One request for extension of use of PVP (E 1201) was also considered in this assessment. 
he request referred to an extension of use in foods for special medical purposes in tablet and coated tablet form (i.e. the food category 13.2 of part E of Annex II to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008).

PVP and PVPP are homopolymers of the N‐vinyl‐2‐pyrrolidone monomer. 
While PVP exhibits a linear polymeric structure, PVPP is cross‐linked: the same CAS number (9003‐39‐8) is used to identify both polymers. E 1202 is produced by a polymerisation process that produces cross‐linked insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone. The infrared spectra of soluble polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPP) do not reveal any differences. A main difference between both polymers is the solubility in water. According to information provided by the interested party, PVP polymers are identified based on the weight‐average molecular weights derived from kinematic viscosity measurements (K‐values). PVP grade K‐25 or higher are compliant with the EU specification for E 1201 in respect to the minimum weight‐average molecular weight required. Soluble PVP polymers are obtained by free‐radical polymerisation of N‐vinyl‐2‐pyrrolidone (NVP) in high purity water. Insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPP) can be produced by the polymerisation of N‐vinyl‐2‐pyrrolidone in the presence of either caustic catalyst or N, N’‐divinyl‐imidazolidone. According to the information provided by interested parties on particle size distribution of PVP and PVPP, the Panel could not exclude the presence of nanosized particles in the analysed materials.

Biological and toxicological studies have been provided by the interested party. No additional studies have been identified in the open literature. The Panel noted that the parameters and maximum limits established in the EU specifications for PVP and PVPP (except for lead and free N,N’‐divinyl‐imidazolidone) are included in the specifications for the pharmaceutical‐grade products (European Pharmacopoeia, 2017). Therefore, the tested material(s) in toxicological studies complying with Pharmacopoeia meet also the EU specifications for E1201 and E1202.

The studies with radiolabelled PVP or PVPP in laboratory rats showed that the vast majority of the dose was found in the faeces with low amount in urine and bile and trace amounts of the radiolabel were detected in the organs. 
These observations indicated low absorption. The amount that was absorbed was mainly eliminated via the kidney.

Feeding of rats up to 9,000 mg PVP/kg bw per day in the basal diet for up to 90 days had no adverse effects. Feeding of dogs with PVP up to 2,500 mg/kg bw per day for 90 days showed no adverse effects. No treatment‐related effects were seen in rabbits receiving up to 2,700 mg PVP/kg bw per day by gavage for 4 weeks.

PVPP had no adverse effects in rats receiving for 28 days a diet with containing up to 12,000 mg PVPP/kg bw per day or given by gavage a dose of 1,500 mg PVPP/kg per day for 90 days. 
Dietary administration of PVPP to rats for 90 days resulted in an no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 9,000 mg/kg bw per day. In dogs, no treatment‐related adverse effects were seen in 90‐day studies in which bolus doses of 1,000 mg PVPP/kg bw per day (capsules) or up to 4,800 mg PVP/kg bw (gavage) were administered for 6 months.

Based on the results of the available in vitro and in vivo studies on PVP and its precursor N‐vinyl‐2‐pyrrolidone (NVP), and information on genotoxicity of the potential impurities 2‐pyrrolidone (2‐PY), N‐(3′‐hydroxy‐3′‐methylbutyl) ‐2‐pyrrolidone, N,N’‐divinyl‐imidazolidone and triethanolamine formate, the Panel concluded that PVP used as a food additive does not raise a concern with respect to genotoxicity. The Panel considered that this conclusion would also apply to PVPP. The Panel also noted that even under the scenario of 3% content of 2‐PY in PVPP, the risk related to endogenous nitrosation of 2‐PY is very low.

Chronic studies with 5,000 mg PVP (K‐25 or K‐30)/kg bw per day in rats or 2,500 mg PVP (K‐30)/kg bw per day in dogs, both the highest dose tested, showed no toxicity or carcinogenicity. However, the Panel noted that these studies were limited in design and reporting. 
A well‐conducted 2‐year oral study in Sprague Dawley rats demonstrated that exposure to 2,500 mg PVP (K‐90), the highest dose tested, is neither toxic nor carcinogenic. No chronic toxicity or carcinogenicity studies with PVPP were available.

No reproductive toxicity studies were available for PVP and PVPP; however, no effects on reproductive organs were observed in subchronic and chronic studies. 
No adverse developmental effects of PVP were observed in two prenatal developmental toxicity studies at the highest dose tested (5,000 mg/kg bw per day) after administration from gestation day (GD) 0–20. No adverse developmental effects were observed in the prenatal developmental toxicity study after administration of PVPP from GD 6–15 at the highest dose tested (3,000 mg/kg bw per day), and in a peri‐ and postnatal study after administration from GD 15 to postnatal day 21 at the highest dose tested (3,000 PVPP mg/kg bw per day).

Overall, the Panel considered that sufficient toxicity studies were available for PVP showing no adverse effects at the highest doses tested.

Based on the chemical similarity between PVP and PVPP, and the lack of adverse effects in the available repeated dose toxicity studies, the Panel considered that chronic toxicity data for PVPP are not necessary for the safety assessment of PVPP.

To assess the dietary exposure to PVP (E 1201) and PVPP (E 1202) from their use as food additives according to Annex II to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008, the exposure to each of the additives was calculated based on the reported use levels. 
As both food additives are authorised in two food categories at QS and use levels were reported only for food supplements (FC 17.1), the food supplements consumers only scenario was used.

Mean exposure to PVP (E 1201) from its use as a food additive in food supplements ranged from 0.6 mg/kg bw per day in adults to 17.6 mg/kg bw per day in children. 
The 95th percentile of exposure to PVP (E 1201) ranged from 3.1 mg/kg bw per day in adolescents to 23.7 mg/kg bw per day in children.

For PVPP (E 1202), mean exposure ranged from 0.6 mg/kg bw per day in adults to 18.6 mg/kg bw per day in children. 
The 95th percentile of exposure to PVPP (E 1202) ranged from 3.3 mg/kg bw per day in adolescents to 25 mg/kg bw per day in children.

The Panel considered overall that the uncertainties identified resulted in an overestimation of the exposure to PVP (E 1201) and PVPP (E 1202) from their use as food additives according to Annex II in food supplements (FC 17.1). 
The Panel noted that food categories which may contain the additives due to carry‐over (Annex III, Part 1, to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008) were not considered in the current exposure assessment. This could result in an underestimation of the exposure. 
Data from the Mintel Database indicate that PVP or PVPP are not used in table‐top sweeteners; therefore, leaving this food category 11.4.3 out of the exposure assessment is not anticipated to result in a major underestimation of exposure. 
The presence of PVPP in must, wine and wine products, and beers due to its use as a processing aid is assumed to be negligible owing to the employed filtration step during the production processes of these beverages.

Exposure to PVP (E 1201) resulting from the proposed extension of use of in foods for special medical purposes in tablet and coated tablet form (FC 13.2) was estimated based on an average daily consumption of two tablets, as recommended by the applicants, and a PVP level of 50 mg/tablet. 
The exposure for consumers of foods for special medical purposes (FC 13.2) would be therefore 100 mg per day, i.e. for adults, 1.4 mg/kg bw per day, for adolescents, 1.9 mg/kg bw per day and for children, 4.3 mg/kg bw per day.

According to the conceptual framework for the risk assessment of certain food additives re‐evaluated under Commission Regulation (EU) No 257/2010 (EFSA ANS Panel, 2014), the Panel considered that there is no need to allocate numerical ADIs for PVP (E 1201) and PVPP (E 1202).

According to the conceptual framework for the risk assessment of certain food additives re‐evaluated under Commission Regulation (EU) No 257/2010 (EFSA ANS Panel, 2014) and given that:
the exposure assessment carried out by the Panel was based on the reported use and use levels (one food category out of the two food categories in which PVP and PVPP are authorised);
the 95th percentile of exposure to PVP and PVPP of maximally 23.7 and 25 mg/kg bw per day in children, respectively, was overestimated, because it was assumed that 100% of the food supplements consumed contained PVP or PVPP at the maximum reported use levels;
extension of use of PVP (E 1201) to foods for special medical purposes (FC 13.2) would result in an exposure of PVP of 4.3 mg/kg bw per day for children;
the absorption of PVP and PVPP is very low;
sufficient toxicity data were available for PVP;
there is no concern with respect to the genotoxicity of PVP and PVPP;
no carcinogenic effects were reported in carcinogenicity studies in rats at a dose of 2,500 mg PVP/kg bw per day, the highest dose tested;
there is no need for chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity data for PVPP for the safety assessment of PVPP given the chemical similarity between PVP and PVPP, and the lack of adverse effects in the available repeated dose toxicity studies;
the Panel concluded that there is no need for numerical ADIs for PVP and PVPP, and that there is no safety concern for the reported uses and use levels of PVP and PVPP as food additives. The Panel further concluded that the proposed extension of use is not expected to be of safety concern at the proposed MPL and recommended consumption level.

The Panel recommend that the European Commission considers:
revising of the EU specifications for PVP (E 1201) and PVPP (1202) in order to include better definitions and assays in line with the definitions;
lowering the current limits for lead in the EU specifications for PVP (E 1201) and PVPP (E 1202) in order to ensure that both food additives will not be a significant source of exposure to lead in food.
including in the EU specifications for PVP and PVPP, limits for several elements of toxicological importance analysed by the interested parties such as arsenic, cadmium, mercury, chromium, cobalt, copper and nickel;
change the name of E1202 to ‘crosslinked polyvinylpyrrolidone’ (synonyms: Crospovidone, Crospovidonum, insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone, cross‐linked PVP, PVPP);
replacing the term ‘molecular weight (average)’ by the term ‘weight‐average molecular weight’ for PVP (E 1201) in the EU specifications;
including a limit for 2‐pyrrolidone in the EU specifications for PVP (E1201) and PVPP (E1202);
revising the range for nitrogen content for PVP and PVPP in the EU specifications;
including limits for the peroxide content, formic acid and triethanolamine formate in the EU specifications for PVP (E 1201), and for peroxide content in the EU specifications for PVPP (E 1202);
requesting appropriate data on the potential presence of nanoparticles in PVP (E 1201) and PVPP (1202). The data should be generated in accordance with the EFSA Guidance (2018) and following the principle outlined in the latest Guidance (add the link of the latest one for PC), prior to consideration on the need for inclusion of particle size distribution as an additional parameter in the EU specifications.
1 Introduction
The present opinion deals with the re‐evaluation of polyvinylpyrrolidone (E 1201) and polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (E 1202) when used as food additives.

1.1 Background and Terms of Reference as provided by the European Commission
1.1.1 Background
Regulation (EC) No 1333/20081 of the European Parliament and of the Council on food additives requires that food additives are subject to a safety evaluation by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) before they are permitted for use in the European Union. 
In addition, it is foreseen that food additives must be kept under continuous observation and must be re‐evaluated by EFSA.

For this purpose, a programme for the re‐evaluation of food additives that were already permitted in the European Union before 20 January 2009 has been set up under the Regulation (EU) No 257/20102. This Regulation also foresees that food additives are re‐evaluated whenever necessary in the light of changing conditions of use and new scientific information. 
For efficiency and practical purposes, the re‐evaluation should, as far as possible, be conducted by group of food additives according to the main functional class to which they belong.

The order of priorities for the re‐evaluation of the currently approved food additives should be set on the basis of the following criteria: the time since the last evaluation of a food additive by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) or by EFSA, the availability of new scientific evidence, the extent of use of a food additive in food and the human exposure to the food additive taking also into account the outcome of the Report from the Commission on Dietary Food Additive Intake in the EU3 of 2001. 
The report “Food additives in Europe 20004” submitted by the Nordic Council of Ministers to the Commission, provides additional information for the prioritisation of additives for re‐evaluation. 
As colours were among the first additives to be evaluated, these food additives should be re‐evaluated with a highest priority.

In 2003, the Commission already requested EFSA to start a systematic re‐evaluation of authorised food additives. 
However, as a result of adoption of Regulation (EU) 257/2010 the 2003 Terms of References are replaced by those below.

1.1.2 Terms of Reference
The Commission asks the European Food Safety Authority to re‐evaluate the safety of food additives already permitted in the Union before 2009 and to issue scientific opinions on these additives, taking especially into account the priorities, procedures and deadlines that are enshrined in the Regulation (EU) No 257/2010 of 25 March 2010 setting up a programme for the re‐evaluation of approved food additives in accordance with the Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on food additives.

1.2 Information on existing authorisations and evaluations
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, E 1201) and polyvinylypolypyrrolidone (PVPP, E 1202) are authorised as food additives in the EU in accordance with Annex II and Annex III to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 on food additives and specific purity criteria have been defined in the Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012.

Polyvinylpyrrolidone (E 1201) as a food additive was lately evaluated by JECFA in 1986 (JECFA, 1987). 
In 1987, the concerns previously expressed were resolved regarding contamination with low levels of hydrazine. 
The previously adopted ADI of 0–25 mg/kg body weight (bw) was revised to 0–50 mg/kg bw, considering that the maximum limit for hydrazine in the food additive was 1 mg/kg, and that this level did not represent a significant risk to health.

Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (E 1202) as a food additive was evaluated by JECFA in 1983 and an ADI non‐specified was proposed (JECFA, 1983).

In the EU, polyvinylpyrrolidone (E 1201) as a food additive was evaluated by the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) in 1990 (SCF, 1992). 
The Committee was provided with information on metabolism, absorption, reticuloendothelial system (RES) accumulation, acute toxicity, short‐term studies in rat, cat and dog, long‐term feeding studies in rat and dog, teratogenicity studies, in vitro mutagenicity studies, a study of the effects on the canine immune system, data on the current levels of the contaminant hydrazine and observations in man. 
The SCF considered PVP as acceptable from a toxicological point of view for its use as an excipient in vitamins and sweeteners, on the basis of the summary data published by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 1987 (that established an ADI of 0–50 mg/kg bw). 
The SCF also concluded that ‘If other uses in the future should significantly increase the potential intake the Committee would wish to review the original data’.

Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (E 1202) was evaluated by the SCF in 1990 (SCF, 1992). 
The Committee was provided with information on metabolism, short‐term studies in rats and dogs and teratogenicity studies in rats, on the basis of which JECFA established an ADI non‐specified in 1983. 
The SCF considered PVPP as toxicologically acceptable for use as a disintegration aid in tabletting and as a processing aid in wine production, considering the expected limited exposure. 
SCF also concluded that ‘If other uses should significantly increase the potential intake the Committee would wish to review the original data’.

In 2002, the SCF evaluated the safety of the monomer (N‐vinyl‐2‐pyrrolidone, NVP) residues in both food additives PVP and PVPP. 
The Committee considered that ‘there was an adequate margin between worst case estimates of exposure to NVP from food, consumer goods and pharmaceutical preparations, and occupational exposures which have been shown not to be associated with serious human health effects. 
The Committee concluded that the intakes of NVP from food additive uses of PVP and PVPP did not give cause for concern’. 
The use of PVP in dietary supplements and of PVPP as a processing aid for beer and wine remained acceptable, provided that the existing specifications of PVP and PVPP were amended to set the proposed limit for NVP residues of 10 mg/kg PVP or PVPP. The Committee noted that the manufacturer supplying the EU market currently met such a specification. 
In the light of this conclusion, the SCF re‐evaluated NVP as a food contact material (when used as a co‐monomer in the production of thickening agents in adhesives for food packaging purposes) in 2002. On the basis of adequate migration data, the SCF classified it as SCF_list: 4A, only to be used in adhesives for paper and board and QMA < 10 μg/6 dm².

In 2006, the EFSA AFC Panel endorsed the previous SCF opinions and considering that the exposure to NVP from the use of PVP in food contact materials is in a similar range to the exposure from its use as excipient in food supplements, concluded that ‘PVP is acceptable for use in food contact materials provided that the specifications for the food additive are met’ (EFSA, 2006).

In 2010, the EFSA ANS Panel evaluated the safety of the co‐polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone/vinyl acetate (PVP/VA) when used as a food additive. 
The ANS Panel considered the calculated Margins of Safety (MoS) for PVP/VA co‐polymer sufficient and concluded that the residual level of hydrazine, proposed up to a maximum of 1.0 mg/kg in the final product, was unlikely to be of safety concern. 
Furthermore, the Panel concluded that the use of PVP/VA co‐polymer in solid food supplements as a binding/coating agent was unlikely to be of safety concern at the proposed uses and use levels. However, the Panel considered that the level of hydrazine should be kept as low as reasonably achievable (EFSA ANS Panel, 2010).

Polyvinylpyrrolidone (E 1201) and Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (E 1202) have also been reviewed by the Nordic Council of Ministers (TemaNord, 2002), who concluded that there was no need for a re‐evaluation and that specifications should reflect the opinion of SCF of 2002, that residual monomer NVP should not exceed 10 mg/kg additive.

Polyvinylpyrrolidone is authorised in Pharmacopoeia Europea to be used in Medical Products, where it is known as Povidone. 
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) evaluated polyvinylpyrrolidone when used in medicinal preparations in 2014 (EMA, 2014).
The Coordination Group for Mutual Recognition and Decentralised Procedures – Human (CMDh) endorsed the recommendation to suspend the marketing authorisation of methadone solutions via oral administration containing high molecular weight povidone (known as K90). 
These compounds were suspended until they were reformulated. 
Additionally, the CMDh agreed that methadone tablets that contained low molecular weight povidone (e.g. K25 and K30) should remain on the market.

Polyvinylpyrrolidone is included in the Union list of authorised substances that may be intentionally used in the manufacture of plastic layers in plastic materials and articles (Annex I to Commission Regulation (EU) No 10/20116). Furthermore, PVP is permitted as an antistatic/binding/emulsion for stabilising/film forming/hair fixing in cosmetic products (European Commission database – CosIng7).

Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone and polyvinylimidazole‐polyvinylpyrrolidone copolymers (PVI/PVP) are also authorised to be used as clarifying and stabilising agents (e.g. in wine making) according to Regulation No 934/2019.

2 Data and methodologies
2.1 Data
The Panel on Food Additives and Flavourings (FAF) was not provided with a newly submitted dossier. 
EFSA launched public calls for data8,9 to collect information from interested parties.

The Panel based its assessment on information submitted to EFSA following the public calls for data, information from previous evaluations and additional available literature up to the date of the last WG meeting.
Attempts were made at retrieving relevant original study reports on which previous evaluations or reviews were based however these were not always available to the Panel.

One request for extension of use was also considered in this assessment. 
The request referred to an extension of use in foods for special medical purposes in tablet and coated tablet form (i.e. the food category 13.2 of part E of Annex II to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008).

Food consumption data used to estimate the dietary exposure to polyvinylpyrrolidone (E 1201) and polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (E 1202) were derived from the EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database (Comprehensive Database11).

The Mintel's Global New Products Database (GNPD) was used to verify the uses of polyvinylpyrrolidone (E 1201) and polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (E 1202) in food and beverage products and food supplements within the EU's market. 
The Mintel's GNPD is an online database that contains the compulsory ingredient information present on the label of numerous products.

2.2 Methodologies
This opinion was formulated following the principles described in the EFSA Guidance on transparency with regard to scientific aspects of risk assessment (EFSA Scientific Committee, 2009) and following the relevant existing guidance documents from the EFSA Scientific Committee.

The FAF Panel assessed the safety of polyvinylpyrrolidone (E 1201) and polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (E 1202) as food additives in line with the principles laid down in Regulation (EU) 257/2010 and in the relevant guidance documents: Guidance on submission for food additive evaluations by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF, 2001) and taking into consideration the Guidance for submission for food additive evaluations in 2012 (EFSA ANS Panel, 2012).

When in animal studies, the test substance was administered in the feed or in drinking water, but doses were not explicitly reported by the authors as mg/kg bw per day based on actual feed or water consumption, the daily intake is calculated by the Panel using the relevant default values. 
In case of rodents, the values as indicated in the EFSA Scientific Committee Guidance document (EFSA Scientific Committee, 2012) are applied. 
In the case of other animal species, the default values by JECFA (2000) are used. 
In these cases, the dose was expressed as ‘equivalent to mg/kg bw per day’. 
If a concentration in feed or drinking water was reported and the dose in mg/kg bw per day was calculated (by the authors of the study report or by the Panel) based on these reported concentrations and on reported consumption data for feed or drinking water, the dose was expressed as ‘equal to mg/kg bw per day’.

Dietary exposure to polyvinylpyrrolidone (E 1201) and polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (E 1202) from their use as food additives was estimated by combining food consumption data available within the EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database with reported use levels submitted to EFSA following a call for data. 

One scenario was used to calculate the exposure (see Section 3.4). 
Uncertainties on the exposure assessment were identified and discussed.

In the context of this re‐evaluation, the Panel followed the conceptual framework for the risk assessment of certain food additives re‐evaluated under Commission Regulation (EC) No 257/2010 (EFSA ANS Panel, 2014).

3 Assessment
3.1 Technical data
3.1.1 Identity of the substance
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (E 1201)

According to Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012, polyvinylpyrrolidone (E 1201) has chemical formula (C6H9NO)n and average molecular weight not lower than 25,000 g/mol; no EINECS (EC) or CAS identifiers are reported. The anhydrous substance must have a nitrogen content between 11.5 % and 12.8 %; polyvinylpyrrolidone is described as a white or nearly white powder, soluble in water and in ethanol but not in ether, and a pH in the range 3.0–7.0 for a 5% aqueous solution.

The Panel noted that the terminology used in the EU specifications for average molecular weight should correspond to weight‐average molecular weight.

According to JECFA (2006a), PVP is identified with CAS No 9003‐39‐8.

Polyvinylpyrrolidone is used as an emulsifier and disintegrant for solution polymerization; also for production of membranes, such as dialysis and water purification filters; as an aid for increasing the solubility of drugs in liquid and semi-liquid dosage forms (syrups, soft gelatine capsules) and as an inhibitor of recrystallisation. Complexes with phenolics and alkaloids for their removal from plant samples, thus preventing their modification of proteins and any interference they may cause in spectrophotometric determinations of protein content. This is also reported to improve stability of enzymes.


Adhesives    
water-activated (envelopes, stamps)
pressure-sensitive
glue sticks
bookbinding

Protective Colliods    
particle-size regulators
suspending agents
viscosity modifiers

Resin Compounds    
dye-receptivity/printability improvers
compatibilizers for heterogeneous resins
filler dispersants
wood plastic composites
anti-static agents

Films    
printability improvers
adhesiveness improvers
anchor coatings
anti-fogging agents
image receiving coatings
water soluble films

Textiles / Fibers    
dye stripping
dye-receptivity improvers

pigment dispersants
anti-fouling agents
hydrophilicity improvers
anti-static agents

Paper / Printing    
strength improvers
sizing agents
pigment dispersants
ink removal in recycling paper
ink jet paper

Coatings / Inks    
pigment /dye dispersants
viscosity modifiers
film levellers
anti-fogging coatings
anti-fouling coatings
ball-point inks

Laundry Detergants    
anti-redeposition agents
dye-transfer inhibitors
binders for tablet formulations
Metal Working    
metal quench bath

Oil / Gas Fields    
drilling fluid additives
fluid loss cotrol
gas hydrate preventors

Electrical    
black matrix for TV tube
binders for battery electrodes
nonwoven battery separator treatment

Ceramics    
binders for green sheets

Photography    
photo emulsion additives
colorant receptors

Cosmetic    
hair gel
hair spray
lip stick


Polyvinylpyrrolidone is found in a lot of places where you wouldn't expect to find polymers. 

What kind places? 
For example, polyvinylpyrrolidone was the main ingredient in the first really successful hairsprays in the early 1950s. 
That's right, the eventual giant beehive hairdos that followed in the sixties owed their existence to polyvinylpyrrolidone.
This polymer worked as a hairspray because it was soluble in water. 
This meant it could be rinsed out when you wash your hair. 
But its affinity for water gave it a drawback. 
Polyvinylpyrrolidone tended to adsorb water out of the air, giving hair that tacky look that was so common in the sixties.

This was fixed with the help of another polymer, a silicone called polydimethylsiloxane. 
To understand how this silicone made a better hairspray, it helps to understand how the hairspray works in the first place. 
When you spray it on, the polyvinylpyrrolidone forms a thin coating on the hair. 
This coating is stiff and keeps the hair from moving around.

Now remember, most of the time, two different kinds of polymers will not blend or mix together homogeneously. 
So if we put some of the silicone in the hairspray, the silicone and the polyvinylpyrrolidone will phase separate once they're on the hair


The silicone forms a layer on top of the polyvinylpyrrolidone layer that keeps water out, so the hair has a more natural look.

But that's not all polyvinylpyrrolidone can do. 
Its found in the glue that holds plywood together. 
But if want a more exciting use than that, I'll tell you that this polymer can actually save lives. 
Sometime in the first half of the twentieth century, someone figured out that a patient who has lost a lot of blood can be given blood plasma, and the plasma will help keep the patient alive until whole blood can be administered. 
But sometimes even blood plasma is hard to find, and we have to figure out how to make the plasma go further. One such time and place is on a battlefield. 
During the Second World War and the Korean War blood plasma was diluted with polyvinylpyrrolidone, so that more of the injured could be treated with the limited supplies of blood plasma. 
Of course the much simpler idea of just not having a war in the first place doesn't seem to have occurred to anyone.


Roles Classification 
Application(s):    blood substitute
A substance that can carry oxygen to and carbon dioxide away from the tissues when introduced into the blood stream. 
Blood substitutes are used to replace hemoglobin in severe hemorrhage and also to perfuse isolated organs.

diagnostic agent
A substance administered to aid diagnosis of a disease.

hematologic agent
Drug that acts on blood and blood-forming organs and those that affect the hemostatic system.
    
poly(vinylpyrrolidone) has role blood substitute 
poly(vinylpyrrolidone) has role diagnostic agent 
poly(vinylpyrrolidone) has role hematologic agent 
poly(vinylpyrrolidone) is a vinyl polymer macromolecule 
    

poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-coated Ag nanoparticle (CHEBI:82780) has part poly(vinylpyrrolidone) 


Crospovidonum     
Polividona     
Polyvidonum     
Povidone


Synonyms     
1-Ethenyl-2-pyrrolidinone homopolymer    
1-Ethenyl-2-pyrrolidinone polymers    
1-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone homopolymer    
1-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone polymer    
1-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone polymer    
N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone polymer    
N-Vinylbutyrolactam polymer    
N-Vinylpyrrolidinone polymer    
N-Vinylpyrrolidone polymer    
Polividone    
Poly(1-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl)ethylene)    
Poly(1-ethenyl-2-pyrrolidinone)    
Poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone)    
Poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone) homopolymer    
Poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)    
Poly(1-vinylpyrrolidinone)    
poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone)    
Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone)    
Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)    
Poly(N-vinylbutyrolactam)    
Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidinone)    
poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)    
poly(vinylpyrrolidone)    
Poly-N-vinyl pyrrolidone    
Polyvinylpyrrolidone    
polyvinylpyrrolidone    
Povidone    
PVP    ChEBI
PVPON    SUBMITTER
Vinylpyrrolidinone polymer    
Vinylpyrrolidone polymer


Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) gives products an extra fixative power: it forms a thin coating over the hair that helps to maintain it in the position you wish. 
PVP promotes the dispersion of pigments, making it a very effective ingredient for creating well spread out makeup products. 
It is also a binder, helping to control the viscosity of a formula.
Description

Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was first synthesized by the German chemist Walter Reppe and a patent was filed in 1939. 
It eventually had applications in medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics and industrial production and continues to be used very widely today.
After a quick search online, you may find that PVP is sometimes referred to as plastic. 
There are no official definitions of some types of plastics. 
A convincing argument can be made one way or the other as to whether a polymer like PVP should be defined as plastic or not. 
Styrene/acrylate/ammonium methacrylate copolymer is a similar material. 
Any material that may be traced back to the term 'plastic' is, very correctly, under scrutiny.
When people say 'plastic' they mostly mean lunchbox, rigid plastics. 
And when people say microplastics they mean small particles of rigid plastic that do not biodegrade and can move through water systems and out into oceans.
These two polymer ingredients are not solid plastics but are dissolved and used in solution within the product. 
PVP is water-soluble while Styrene/acrylate/ammonium methacrylate copolymer is oil-soluble.
As they are in liquid form they are not thought of in the same way as microplastics and their impact in marine or freshwater environments has not been sufficiently researched yet. 
The lack of data and conflicting studies around their biodegradability is of great concern to us and we remain on the lookout for any new information on this or alternative, natural compounds.
For these reasons, we have long debated the inclusion of polymers in our makeup. 
Right now there are no new types that we can use to create the effect we know our customers want. 
Therefore, to make a product that works well and that is as close as possible to our ethics, we use these two types - PVP and Styrene/acrylate/ammonium methacrylate copolymer. 
Used together, they make it possible to have products that do what our customers need them to do. 
In makeup they need to stay on the eyes and face and not slip off or smudge. 
Therefore the final effects will be long-lasting and beautiful.

Polyvinylpyrrolidone Excipients for Pharmaceuticals:
Povidone, Crospovidone and Copovidone


PVP is being used in many industries such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents and brewing. 
Beside those applications PVP is also being used in technical applications such as membranes, glue sticks, hot melts, skin adhesives, molding and metal quenching


Polyvinylpyrrolidone is a water-soluble polymer made from the monomer N-vinylpyrrolidone. 
Typically used as thickeners, dispersing agents, detoxicant, complexing agent, lubricants and binders. 
Polyvinylpyrrolidone is used as an emulsifier and disintegrant for solution polymerization

General Description
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) can form complexes with phenolics and alkaloids. 
The complex formation allows removal of phenolics and alkaloids from plant samples, thereby inhibiting any modification of proteins by them and any hindrance they may cause in spectrophotometric determinations of protein content. 
PVP might also enhances the stability of enzymes.
Polyvinylpyrrolidone has been used in the purification of glutamine synthetases from plant samples. 
It has been used to block the PVDF (polyvinylidene difluoride) membrane and to avoid nonspecific binding.
CAS Number: 9003-39-8
Synonyms: Polyvidone, Povidone
Molecular Formula: (C6H9NO)n


Polyvinylpyrrolidone is abbreviated as PVP, and is the polymer of vinylpyrrolidone. 
According to the different degree of polymerization, it is further classified into soluble PVP and insoluble PVPP (polyvinyl polypyrrolidone). 
Molecular weight of the soluble PVP is 8,000 to 10,000.The soluble PVP can be used as a precipitating agent which can be settle down through its action with polyphenols. 
Using this method, it is easily to have residual PVP in the alcohol. 
Due to the savings effect of PVP inside the human body, the World Health Organization doesn’t recommend to apply this substance. 
In recent years, the use of soluble PVP has been rare. Insoluble PVPP system had began to be used in the beer industry since the early 1960s. 
It has a relative molecule weight greater than the relative mass greater than 700,000. 
It is a insoluble polymer derived from the further cross-linking and polymerization of PVP and can be used as an adsorbent of polyphenols with a good efficacy.

The molecular formula of Polyvinylpyrrolidone
Polyvinylpyrrolidone PVP is one of the three major pharmaceutical new excipients and can be used as the co-solvent of tablets, granules, and injection, as the glidant of capsules, as the dispersant agent of liquid preparations and the colorant, as the stabilizer of enzyme and heat sensitive drug, as the co-precipitating agent of poorly soluble drugs, and as the detoxicant of ophthalmic drugs and lubricants.
It is industrially used as expanded polystyrene additive, as the gelling agents for suspension polymerization, stabilizer, and fiber treating agents, paper processing aids, adhesives, and thickening agents.
Polyvinylpyrrolidone PVP and its copolymers CAP is an important raw material of cosmetics, mainly used for hair retaining agent. 
The film it formed in the hair is elastic and shiny, and has excellent carding property as well as being free of dust. 
Adopting different category of resin can meet various kinds of relative humidity climatic conditions. 
Therefore, it is an indispensable raw material in styling hair cream, hair gel, and mousse. 
It can also be used for the cosmetics of skin moisturizing agents and the dispersants for grease based hair dying, also as foam stabilizers, and can improve the consistency of the shampoo.
Insoluble PVP is the stabilizer of beer and juice which can improve its transparency

Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) is a water soluble polyamide. Commercially available PVP is divided into four viscosity grades according to its press K value (Fikentscher K value): K-15, K-30, K-60, K-90, with the average molecular weight being 10,000, 40000,160000, and 360000, respectively. 
K value or molecular weight is an important factor which decides the various properties of PVP.
Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) is dissolved in water, chlorinated solvents, alcohol, amine, nitro-paraffin and low molecular weight fatty acids, and is mutually soluble with most inorganic salts and a variety of resin; insoluble in acetone and ether. 
PVP used for the matrix of dropping pill matrix is odorless, tasteless, white to pale yellow waxy solid with the relative density being 1.062, and its 5% aqueous solution pH being 3 to 7. PVP is hygroscopic and of good thermal stability, and can be dissolved in various kinds of organic solvents, and has high melting point. 
Adding certain natural or synthetic polymers or organic compounds can effectively adjust the PVP’s hygroscopicity and softness. 
PVP is not prone to have chemical reaction. Under normal storage conditions, dry PVP is quite stable. 
PVP has excellent physical inertia and biocompatibility and has not stimulation to skin, eyes no stimulation with no allergic reactions and being non-toxic.
Because of the hydrogen bonding or complexation effect, PVP’s viscosity is increased and this further inhibits the formation and growth of crystallized nuclei of drugs, making the drug being in the amorphous state. 
The dropping pill whose matrix is PVP can enhance the dissolution and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. 
In general, the greater the PVP amount, the higher dissolution and solubility of drug in the medium. 
Susana et al have studied the dissolution of the PVP solid dispersant of the slightly soluble drug albendazole. 
The increased amount of PVP (k30) can increase the dissolution rate and efficiency of drug inside the solid dispersant. 
Teresa et al have studied the dissolution of the poorly soluble drugs, flunarizine in PVP solid dispersant and obtained similar conclusion. 
PVP also found that the higher the content, the more significant increase in dissolution. 
IR has showed that flunarizine and PVP has no chemical reaction except in some cases that a best dissolution efficacy is obtained only in certain ratio between some drugs with the PVP. 
Tantishaiyakul et al has found that: when the ratio of piroxicam: PVP is 1:5 and 1:6, the dissolution of the solid dispersant is the largest with a 40 times as high as that of single drug within 5min.
PVP can also be dissolved in another molten dropping pill matrix, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyoxyethylene monostearate (S-40), poloxamer and stearyl acid, glyceryl monostearate, etc for making complex matrix., color, and flavor.

In the early 1950s, older, with shellac and oil-based hairspray had been rapidly replaced by PVP sprays which are still widely used until now. 
It can form wet, transparent film on the hair which is shiny and has good lubrication effect.
 PVP has good compatibility with a variety of good propellant and also has corrosion resistance. 
It is widely used in hair styling, as the film former in combing products, as the creatinine and stabilizer of skin care lotions and creams, as the base stock material for eye and facial cosmetics and lipstick base, and also as hair dye dispersants and shampoo foam stabilizer. 
PVP has detoxification effect and can reduce the irritation effects of other preparation on the skin and eyes. 
It is also used as toothpaste detergents, gelling agents and antidotes. 
The main drawback of PVP is its sensitivity to moisture. 
However, this issue can be tackled by using its vinyl acetate copolymer in order to mitigate the effects of moisture and humidity. 
In addition, PVP also has wide application in the pharmaceutical, beverage and textile industries.

Polyvinylpyrrolidone is mainly used as pharmaceutical excipient, blood compatibilizer, cosmetics thickening agents, latex stabilizers, and clarifying agent of beer brewing.
Not matter whether in solution or in the form of film, PVP always has a high degree of compatibility. 
It has good compatibility with various kinds of inorganic salt solution, many natural and synthetic resins and other chemical compatibility

PVP is physiologically inert. Acute oral toxicity of PVP: LD50 > 100g/kg. 
It does not irritate the skin or eyes, do not cause skin allergies. 
A large number of long-term toxicology studies have confirmed that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) can tolerate intraperitoneal, intramuscular, intravenous administration and parenteral applications. Subacute and chronic toxicity result was negative.

It is the cross-linked homopolymer of pure vinylpyrrolidone. It is hygroscopic and free-flowing white or off-white powder. 
It has a slight foul smell. It is insoluble in common solvents such as water, ethanol and ether. So its molecule weight range can’t be measured. 
However, PVP has ability to form complex with various kinds of substances (such as “Hu” class substance which can lead to the discoloration of a variety of wines and beverages discoloration). Also it is easily to be removed after filtration because of its insolubility.

Clarifying agent; pigment stabilizer; colloidal stabilizer; It is mainly used for beer clarifying and quality stabilizing (reference amount 8~20g/100L, maintained for 24h and remove it by filtration), and can also be applied in combination with enzymes (protease) and protein adsorbents. It is also used to clarify the wine and as a stabilizer to prevent discoloration (reference amount 24~72g/100L).
Clarifying agents; stabilizers; thickeners agent; tablet fillers; dispersants; PVP of molecular weight 360,000 are often used as the clarifying agent of beer, vinegar, and grape wine.
Used as the fixing liquid for gas chromatography.
It is used as a colloidal stabilizer and clarifying agent for beer clarification. 
Apply proper amount according the demands of production.
It can be used for pharmacy, aquaculture, and livestock disinfectant for the sterilization of the skin and mucous.
PolyFilterTM molecule has an amide bond for absorbing the hydroxyl groups located in polyphenol molecule to form hydrogen bonds, and therefore, can be used as the stabilizer of beer, fruit wine/grape wine, and drinking wine to extend their shelf life and improve the transparency, color and taste. The products have two specifications: disposable type and regeneration type. Disposable products are suitable for application by SMEs; renewable products demand the purchase of special filtration equipment; but since it is recyclable, it is suitable for large breweries for recycle application.
In daily cosmetics, PVP and its copolymer has good dispersion property and filming property, and thus being able to be used as a setting lotion, hair spray and styling mousse, as opacifiers for hair care agents, as the stabilizer of shampoo foam, as wave styling agent and as the dispersants and affinity agents in hair dye. Adding PVP to cream, sunscreen, and hair removal agent can enhance wetting and lubricating effect. Taking advantage of the excellent properties of PVP such as surface activity, film-forming and non-irritating to the skin, no allergic reactions, etc., has broad prospects in its application in hair care and skin care products.

Povidone occurs as a fine, white to creamy-white colored, odorless or almost odorless, hygroscopic powder. 
Povidones with K-values equal to or lower than 30 are manufactured by spray-drying and occur as spheres. 
Povidone K-90 and higher K-value povidones are manufactured by drum drying and occur as plates.


Brand name    Kollidon CL (BASF); Kollidon CLM (BASF); Polyplasdone (International Specialty Products);Acu-dyne;Adapettes;Adsorbobase;Adsovbotear;Agent at 717;Albigen a;Aldacol q;Amiorel eritro;Amyderm s;Andrestrac 2-10;Anexa;B 7509;Betaisod;Bridine;Clinidine;Final step;Frepp/sepp;Ganex p 804;Ga-pvp-101;Gyno-bidex;Isoplasma;Jodoplex;K 115;Kollidon 17;Kollidon 25;Kollidon 30;Kollidon 90;Kollidon ce 50/50;Kollidon k 25;Kollidon k 30;Luviskol k 17;Luviskol k 25;Luviskol k 30;Luviskol k 90;Luvisteol;Medicort;Molycu;Mundidon;Neojodin;Oftan flurekain;Peragal st;Periston-n-toxobin;Pevidine;Plasmadone;Plasmoid;Plassint;Podiodine;Polyclar at;Polyclar h;Polyclar l;Polyplasdone xl;Polyvidone-escupient;Polyvinyl pyrrolidone;Povadyne;Povidone k 29-32;Pvp 50;Pvp0;Pvp-k 15;Pvp-k 25;Pvp-k 30;Pvp-k 60;Pvp-k 90;Pvp-macrose;Pvp-macrox;Rocmuth;Sd 13;Soft-care;Tears plus;Venostasin retard;Vetedine;Yodiplexin.

Polyvidone, a polymer of vinylpyrrolidinone, is an excipient used as a suspending and dispersing agent. 
Injectable preparations containing polymers with a molecular weight in the order of 12,000 have caused painful local granulomatous lesions. 
This has led to the withdrawal of polyvidone from such preparations in some countries. 
Polyvidone was formerly also used as a plasma expander but, because it was sequestered within the liver and spleen, this use has been discontinued. 
However, it remains widely used as a vehicle for ophthalmic preparations, and as the major component of artificial tears.

Although povidone is used in a variety of pharmaceutical formulations, it is primarily used in solid-dosage forms. 
In tableting, povidone solutions are used as binders in wet-granulation processes.Povidone is also added to powder blends in the dry form and granulated in situ by the addition of water, alcohol, or hydroalcoholic solutions. 
Povidone is used as a solubilizer in oral and parenteral formulations, and has been shown to enhance dissolution of poorly soluble drugs from solid-dosage forms. Povidone solutions may also be used as coating agents or as binders when coating active pharmaceutical ingredients on a support such as sugar beads.
Povidone is additionally used as a suspending, stabilizing, or viscosity-increasing agent in a number of topical and oral suspensions and solutions. 
The solubility of a number of poorly soluble active drugs may be increased by mixing with povidone.
Special grades of pyrogen-free povidone are available and have been used in parenteral formulations;

Polyvinylpyrrolidone is widely used as is in cosmetics such as hair care products and in medical products. 
It acts as iodophor in iodine-polyvinylpyrrolidone. 
PVP is an irritant and has been claimed as the allergen in some cases of dermatitis from iodine-polyvinylpyrrolidone (although iodine is more likely the hapten). 
It may cause type I contact urticaria or anaphylaxis.


Povidone has been used in pharmaceutical formulations for many years, being first used in the 1940s as a plasma expander, although it has now been superseded for this purpose by dextran.
Povidone is widely used as an excipient, particularly in oral tablets and solutions. 
When consumed orally, povidone may be regarded as essentially nontoxic since it is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract or mucous membranes.Povidone additionally has no irritant effect on the skin and causes no sensitization. exists that povidone may accumulate in the organs of the body following intramuscular injection.
A temporary acceptable daily intake for povidone has been set by the WHO at up to 25 mg/kg body-weight.
(mouse, IP): 12 g/kg

storage    
Povidone darkens to some extent on heating at 150°C, with a reduction in aqueous solubility. 
It is stable to a short cycle of heat exposure around 110–130°C; steam sterilization of an aqueous solution does not alter its properties. 
Aqueous solutions are susceptible to mold growth and consequently require the addition of suitable preservatives.
Povidone may be stored under ordinary conditions without undergoing decomposition or degradation. 
However, since the powder is hygroscopic, it should be stored in an airtight container in a cool, dry place.

Povidone is compatible in solution with a wide range of inorganic salts, natural and synthetic resins, and other chemicals. 
It forms molecular adducts in solution with sulfathiazole, sodium salicylate, salicylic acid, phenobarbital, tannin, and other compounds
The efficacy of some preservatives, e.g. thimerosal, may be adversely affected by the formation of complexes with povidone.

Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), also commonly called polyvidone or povidone, is a water-soluble polymer made from the monomer N-vinylpyrrolidone

Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is a linear polymer of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone monomers used as a binder, emulsion stabilizer, film former, hair fixative, and suspending agent-nonsurfactant. 
The molecular weight of the polymer ranges from 10,000 to 700,000. 
PVP K-30, with an average molecular weight of 40,000, is typically used in cosmetic formulations. 
The highest concentration reported to be used is 35%. 
There was no significant absorption of PVP K-30 given orally to rats, and the acute oral LD50 was >100 g/kg for rats and guinea pigs. 
Neither toxic effects nor gross lesions were found in rats maintained for two years on a diet containing 10% PVP K-30. 
Short-term PVP inhalation studies produced mild lymphoid hyperplasia and fibroplasia in rats, but no inflammatory response. 
In animal studies, no evidence of significant ocular irritation, skin irritation, or skin sensitization was found at PVP-iodine solution concentrations of 10%. 
While PVP-iodine is not a cosmetic ingredient, these negative findings were considered to support the safety of the PVP component. 
Undiluted PVP K-30 was not a dermal irritant or sensitizer in clinical tests. No developmental toxicity was seen in vehicle controls where PVP was used as a vehicle for another agent. 
In certain assay systems, PVP was genotoxic, but was negative in the majority of studies. 
Orally administered PVP significantly decreased the rate of bladder tumors in mice exposed to bracken fern. 
Several studies tested the carcinogenicity of subcutaneous implants of particulate PVP in rats, mice, and rabbits. 
Although the majority of these studies conducted in rats were positive, tumors (sarcomas) were localized to the site of implantation. 
Based on the available data, it was concluded that PVP is safe as used in cosmetics.


PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) is a large polymer that associates with the particle surface through Van der Waals forces. 
The 40 kDa PVP molecule is not easily displaced by other molecules and offers excellent steric stability. 
It’s a great choice for particles that may be exposed to a broad range of salt, pH, and solvent conditions. 
PVP is made from the monomer n-vinylpyrrolidone and at nanoComposix we typically use a 40 kDa version that helps prevent particles from directly contacting and aggregating when solution conditions change or when the particles are dried down onto a substrate or thin film.

Many of our PVP-stabilized materials are also available as dried powders that can be readily dispersed in wide variety of solvents

Polyvinylpyrrolidone is a compound which has been widely tested and used in human and veterinary medicine as an effective wound healing accelerator and disinfectant when combined with iodine and other compounds.


Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), also commonly called polyvidone or povidone, is a water-soluble polymer made from the monomer N-vinylpyrrolidone that binds polyphenols. 
PVP is available in a variety of molecular weights. with the smaller molecular weights capable of binding to proteins. 
For use with proteins, it is recommended to start with 2-4% 40KD PVP. 
Depending on the specific phenolics in the plant tissue, the molecular weight of PVP will need to be optimized. Different molecular weights bind certain phenolics better than others, so PVP does not bind all phenolics universally. 


Preparation of polyvinylpyrrolidone
Abstract
Polyvinylpyrrolidone having a Fikentscher K value of from 14 to 95 is prepared at from 50° to 95° C. in aqueous solution with hydrogen peroxide as starter, the solution being maintained at pH 7-11 by means of NaOH, KOH, their carbonates or bicarbonates.

Processing aids (PVP) > for plastics applications
PVP can act as efficient compatibiliser between various inert matters and plastics.

Brands
Sokalan®

Properties
One of the outstanding properties of Sokalan® PVP is its universal solubility both in hydrophobic and in extremely hydrophilic solvents. 
Sokalan® products are soluble in water and polar solvents including plastics. 
Sokalanc® PVP is a transparent compound which does not alter in colour with time. 
As such, Sokalan® products will not affect the colour stability, or the aesthetics of a product.

Applications
Sokalan® PVP from BTC is used as compatibilizer in selected pigment preparations or inorganic fillers or glass fibers and plastics matrices.


PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidon) > for technical applications
Initial tack, long lasting adhesion
Tack is a valuable property when assembling as it helps maintain the parts together and keep them in position.
 But an assembly can only be validated if there is durable adhesion over time.

Transparency
Luvitec® PVP is a transparent compound which does not alter in colour with time. 
As such, Luvitec® products will not affect the colour stability, nor the product's aesthetics.

Colour stability
From a technical point of view, Luvitec® PVP does not evolve in colour as it does not absorb the light and UV as the spectrum is totally flat. 
Therefore formulations containing Luvitec® will not be affected in colour over time.

Toxicological safeness
Luvitec® PVP does not present any hazard if absorbed or inhaled. 
It has been used for many years in pharmaceutical applications. 
It is also component of products being used by children. 
More specifically Luvitec® grades present the following features: Very low acute oral toxicity, non-irritating to the skin as well as to the eye.

Chemical, biological inertness
Luvitec® products are chemically and biologically inert. They are very stable in a wide temperature and pH range which is due to the polyethylene polymer backbone. 
There is no hazard risk in case of body contact. 
PVP has been used for many years in cosmetics and hair care applications. 
Luvitec® PVP provides the following features: Non-sensitizing, no evidence of mutagenic potential and non-toxic to aquatic organisms.

Compatibility with many media
One of the outstanding properties of Luvitec® PVP is its universal solubility both in hydrophobic and in extremely hydrophilic solvents. 
Luvitec® products are soluble in water and polar solvents:

In solutions, excellent wetting properties and film forming
In powder, absorbs up to 18% of its weight of atmospheric water
With higher molecular weight PVP and when producing concentrated solutions, the rate of dissolving can be significantly increased by raising the temperature to 50-60° C. 
This universal solubility makes it good as a coating or as an additive to coatings at it can be blended with many polymers, in particular with polyacrylics.

Crosslinkability
Luvitec® PVP can react with the matrix according to a physical interaction with hydrogen dipolar links. 
Therefore, it won't migrate and crosslinability has a positive impact on tack duration and quality which is a very important aspect in terms of process reliability and manufacturing.
Moreover, when crosslinked, Luvitec® PVP is capable of swelling in polar solvent such as water. 
On account of its outstanding adhesion and physiological compatibility, such weakly crosslinked PVP with high water content forms hydrogel and is employed as a skin-adhesive gel.

Viscosity adjustment
Luvitec® PVP exhibits strictly Newtonian behaviour and will therefore not affect the rheology of the base formulation.
The rise in viscosity with increasing concentration depends essentially on the molecular weight or K value. 
While in the case of low molecular weight, such as the Luvitec® K30 grade, an increase in concentration for example from 5% to 10% has only a slight effect on the viscosity, changes by a factor of 5 or more can be found for a high molecular weight Luvitec® K90 type.


N-VINYL-2-PYRROLIDONE
88-12-0
N-Vinylpyrrolidone
1-vinylpyrrolidin-2-one
1-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone
N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone
POLYVINYLPYRROLIDONE
2-Pyrrolidinone, 1-ethenyl-
Vinylpyrrolidone
1-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone
9003-39-8
N-Vinylpyrrolidinone
1-ethenylpyrrolidin-2-one
Povidone
1-Vinylpyrrolidone
Pvpp
Vinylbutyrolactam
Polyvidone
Plasdone
Vinylpyrrolidinone
Kollidon
Luviskol
Periston
Protagent
Bolinan
1-Vinylpyrrolidinone
Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone
Polyplasdone XL
Polyclar AT
V-Pyrol
Neocompensan
Hemodesis
Hemodez
Peviston
Plasmosan
Polygyl
Sauflon
Subtosan
Vinisil
2-Pyrrolidinone, 1-vinyl-
Periston-n
Polyclar H
Polyclar L
Albigen A
Plasdone XL
Polyclar-AT
Peragal ST
Peregal ST
Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)
25249-54-1
Kollidon 17
Kollidon 25
Kollidon 30
1-Ethenyl-2-pyrrolidinone
Plasdone No. 4
1-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone, monomer
N-Vinyl pyrrolidone
Povidone (usp xix)
Tolpovidone I-131
Antaron P 804
Poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)
K 25 (polymer)
K 30 (polymer)
K 60 (polymer)
Vinylpyrrolidone polymer
Ganex p-804
PVP 40
K 115 (polyamide)
Poly(vinylpyrrolidinone)
Ganex P 804
Plasdone K 29-32
Poly-N-vinyl pyrrolidone
Vinylpyrrolidinone polymer
Poly(N-vinylbutyrolactam)
N-Vinylpyrrolidone polymer
Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidinone)
N-Vinylbutyrolactam polymer
Poly(1-vinylpyrrolidinone)
N-Vinylpyrrolidinone polymer
Polyvinylpyrrolidine
PVP 1
PVP 2
PVP 3
PVP 4
PVP 5
PVP 6
PVP 7
NSC 10222
Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)
PVP K 3
N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone polymer
1-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone polymer
MPK 90
Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone)
PVP-K 30
PVP-K 60
PVP-K 90
N-Vinylpyrrolidone-2
Poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone)
Poly(1-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl)ethylene)
PVP
1-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone polymer
HSDB 7231
Poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone
UNII-76H9G81541
1-Ethenyl-2-pyrrolidinone polymers
EINECS 201-800-4
143 RP
AT 717
1-vinyl-pyrrolidin-2-one
Polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30
Polyvinylpyrrolidone polymers
BRN 0110513
K 15
K 90
Poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone) homopolymer
PVP-40
DTXSID2021440
CHEBI:82551
MFCD00003197
Poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone) Hueper's Polymer No.1
Poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone) Hueper's Polymer No.2
Poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone) Hueper's Polymer No.3
Poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone) Hueper's Polymer No.4
Poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone) Hueper's Polymer No.5
Poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone) Hueper's Polymer No.6
Poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone) Hueper's Polymer No.7
2-Pyrrolidinone, polymers
76H9G81541
DSSTox_CID_1440
DSSTox_RID_76160
2-Pyrrolidinone, homopolymer
DSSTox_GSID_21440
Poly[1-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl)-1,2-ethanediyl]
WLN: /T5NVTJ AY*1*/
1-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone(stabilized with 200ppm Ammonium hydroxide)
MFCD01076626
CAS-88-12-0
Povidone K30
K 25
K 115
Caswell No. 681
Polyvinylpyrrolidone, average M.W. 3500, K12
Poly(1-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl)-1,2-ethanediyl)
N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, 99%, stabilized with NaOH
Polyvinylpyrrolidone, average M.W. 50.000, K30
Polyvidonum [INN-Latin]
Polividona [INN-Spanish]
Polyvinylpyrrolidone K 90
Polyvinylpyrrolidone, average M.W. 8.000, K16-18
2-Pyrrolidinone, polymers, compd. with aluminum acetate
Crospovidonum [INN-Latin]
N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, 99%, stabilized with Kerobit(R)
Polyvinylpyrrolidone, average M.W. 1.300.000, K85-95
CCRIS 3611
CCRIS 8581
HSDB 205
vinyl pyrrolidone
Polyvidone iodine
Polyvinylpyrrolidon
Poly[1-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl)-1, .alpha.-hydro-.omega.-[[4-(iodo-131I)phenyl]methyl]-
NCI-C60582
N-vinyl-pyrrolidone
K 115 (VAN)
Povidone Impurity A
N -vinylpyrrolidinone
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 079033
NSC 114022
NSC 142693
n-Vinyl-2-pyrolidone
1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidon
N-vinylpyrrolidin-2-one
N-vinyl pyrrolidin-2-one
N-vinyl-pyrrolidin-2-one
PVP K3O
EC 201-800-4
poly (N-vinyl pyrrolidone)
SCHEMBL10869
WLN: T5NVTJ A1U1
PVP K15
PVP K30
PVP-K30
KSC490C6R
Polyvinylpyrrolidone PVP K30
poly(1-vinylpyrrolidin-2-one)
CHEMBL1878943
CTK3J0168
PVP - K-30 (Pharm Grade)
Polyvinylpyrrolidone, cross linked
KS00000C7M
NSC10222
ZINC3590964
Polyvinylpyrrolidone, M.W. 8,000
Tox21_202462
Tox21_300073
2-Pyrrolidinone, 1-vinyl-, polymers, compd. with aluminum acetate
ANW-41383
NSC-10222
NSC114022
NSC142693
NSC683040
N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, optical grade
Polyvinylpyrrolidone, M.W. 10.000
Polyvinylpyrrolidone, M.W. 40.000
Polyvinylpyrrolidone, M.W. 58,000
AKOS000119985
AC-038204

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