POTASSIUM PEROXYMONOSULFATE

Potassium peroxymonosulfate is used as an active ingredient in disinfectant formulations and as an oxidizing agent in other formulations, such as pool & spa non-chlorine shock oxidizers, denture cleansers and laundry bleaches. 

Potassium peroxymonosulfate is also used as a wet strength resin paper repulping aid, metal surface treatment agent, selective oxidizer in chemical synthesis, wool shrinkproofing treatment, waste water treatment and odour control agent.


Potassium peroxymonosulfate (also known as MPS, KMPS, potassium monopersulfate, potassium caroate, the trade names Caroat and Oxone, and as non-chlorine shock in the pool and spa industry) is widely used as an oxidizing agent. It is the potassium salt of peroxymonosulfuric acid.

Synonyms: Potassium peroxymonosulfate, KMPS, Potassium Monopersulfate
Cas No : 37222-66-5


Potassium peroxomonosulfate
Potassium Peroxymonosulfate
potassium mono persulphate
EC / List no.: 609-357-2
CAS no.: 37222-66-5

EC / List no.: 274-778-7
CAS no.: 70693-62-8
Mol. formula: H3K5O18S4

Pentapotassium bis(peroxymonosulphate) bis(sulphate)
EC Inventory
Pentapotassium bis(peroxymonosulphate) bis(sulphate)
pentapotassium bis(peroxymonosulphate) bis(sulphate)


Translated names
Bis(peroksymonosiarczano) bis(siarczan) pentapotasu (pl)
Bis(perossimonosolfato)bis(solfato) di pentapotassio (it)
Bis(perossimonosulfat) tal-pentapotassju bis(sulfat) (mt)
bis(Peroximonossulfato)bis(sulfato) de pentapotássio (pt)
Bis(peroximonosulfat) bis(sulfat) de pentapotasiu (ro)
Bis(peroximonosulfato) bis(sulfato) de pentapotasio (es)
bis(peroxosíran)-bis(síran) pentadraselný (cs)

Bis(peroxymonosulfate)bis(sulfate) de pentapotassium (fr)
hydrogenperoxosíran-bissíran pentadraselný (sk)
Pentakaaliumbis(peroksümonosulfaat)bis(sulfaat) (et)
Pentakalijev bis(peroksimonosulfat) bis(sulfat) (hr)
Pentakalijev bis(peroksimonosulfat) bis(sulfat) (sl)
Pentakalio bis(peroksimonosulfatas)bis(sulfatas) (lt)
pentakalium-bis(peroxymonosulfat)-bis(sulfat) (da)
Pentakalium-bis(peroxymonosulfat)-bis(sulfat) (de)
Pentakaliumbis(peroksimonosulfaatti)bis(sulfaatti) (fi)
Pentakaliumbis(peroximonosulfat)bis(sulfat) (sv)
Pentakaliumbis(peroxymonosulfaat)bis(sulfaat) (nl)
Pentakálium-bisz(peroximonoszulfát)-bisz(szulfát) (hu)
Pentakālija bis(peroksimonosulfāts) bis(sulfāts) (lv)Pentapotassium bis(peroxymonosulphate) bis(sulphate) (no)
Όξινο μονοϋπερθειικό θειικό κάλιο (el)
Пентакалиев бис(пероксимоносулфат) бис(сулфат) (bg)

CAS names: Potassium peroxymonosulfate sulfate (K5[HSO3(O2)][SO3(O2)](HSO4)2)
IUPAC names
KMPS triple salt

pentapotassium bis((hydroperoxysulfonyl)oxidanide) hydrogen sulfate sulfate
pentapotassium bis(O-(hydroperoxysulfonyl)oxidanidolate) hydrogen sulfate sulfate
Pentapotassium bis(peroxymonosulphate) bis(sulphate)
pentapotassium bis(peroxymonosulphate) bis(sulphate)
pentapotassium bis(peroxymonosulphate) bis(sulphate)

Potassium peroxymonosulfate
potassiummonopersulfat
Trade names
Caroat
Caroat(R)
Kybreak
Oxone
Oxone (R)
Virkon S


Potassium peroxymonosulfate is Non-chlorinate oxidizer in free flowing solid form.
Potassium peroxymonosulfate has high water solubility at ambient temperatures and it has long solution stability (even under acidic conditions).
Potassium peroxymonosulfate has low toxicity when compared to chlorinated options and other oxidizers.
Potassium peroxymonosulfate has highly predictable etch rate for production of micro electronics.

37222-66-5
Potassium Peroxomonosulfate
Potassium monopersulfate triple salt
MFCD00040551
Oxone, monopersulfate
DTXSID8051415
OXONE(R), monopersulfate compound
AKOS015912003
AKOS030228420
SC-26713
FT-0697154
O0310
Potassium monopersulfate triple salt, >=47% KHSO5 basis
pentapotassium;hydrogen sulfate;oxido hydrogen sulfate;sulfate


Application
Potassium peroxymonosulfate is used in the formulations of Denture cleaners. Potassium peroxymonosulfate is effective main ingredient in Cleaning tablets for dentures.
Potassium peroxymonosulfate is used in disinfectants:Potassium peroxymonosulfate is suitable for use for chlorine-free disinfection or purification of swimmingpool water and spas. 
Prevention of chlorine acne and eye irritation.
Approved for oxidative drinking water treatment.
Potassium peroxymonosulfate is a bleaching agent: Potassium peroxymonosulfate has a bleaching effect comparable to that of organic peracids; in the TAED/perborate system it is particularly effective at low temperatures.
Potassium peroxymonosulfate has biocidal effect: Potassium peroxymonosulfate is suitable as an additive to acidic cleaning agents with bleaching and disinfectant effect.
Potassium peroxymonosulfate works very well at effluent treatment: Oxidative treatment of problematic effluents; sulfide oxidation, nitrite oxidation and cyanide detoxification (see our technical information).
Plaster additive: Addition of Potassium peroxymonosulfate leads to generation of oxygen and improved product characteristics (e.g. thermal insulation, water absorbency, mechanical properties).
Metal treatment: Microetchant: Potassium peroxymonosulfate is used for etching printed circuit boards.

Others:
- Textile finishing (shrink proofing of wool)
- Chemical synthesis (production of dioxirane)
- Paper manufacture (repulping, particularly of wet-strength paper).

APPLICATIONS:
Odor control agent
Paper industry
Pulp and paper recycling
Professional Disinfection
Personal Care
Pool & Spa
Pool & Spa Shock Oxidizer
Pulp & paper repulping aid
rendering plants
Laundry Bleach Ingredient
Material protection
Selective oxidizer in chemical synthesis
Food industry
Chemical Industry
Disinfection of drinking water
Denture cleanser bleach additive
Disinfection
Effluent treatment agent
Electronics Industry
Surface Treatment (elektronic industrie)
Waste water treatment agent
Textile industry
Wool treatment
Washing- and cleaning agent industry
Waste water treatment
Water Treatment
Metal surface treatment
Laundry
Animal Hygiene
Chemical synthesis
Cosmetics


Applications
Pool & Spa shock treatment
Printed circuit board microetchant
Repulping aid for wet-strength resin destruction
Oxidizing agent for Felt Wash
Odor control agent in wastewater treatment
Cyanide destruction in mining
Bleach functionality for denture cleanser, textiles, and cleaning applications
Active ingredient for disinfection applications


Stability
Potassium Peroxomonosulfate is a very stable peroxygen in the solid state and loses less than 0.5% (relative) of its activity per month when stored under recommended conditions. 
However, like all other peroxygens, Potassium Peroxomonosulfate undergoes very slow disproportionation with the liberation of heat and oxygen gas. 
If a decomposition is associated with high temperature, decomposition of the constituent salts of Oxone may generate sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, or sulfur trioxide.
The stability is reduced by the presence of small amounts of moisture, alkaline chemicals, chemicals that contain water of hydration, transition metals in any form, and/or any material with which Potassium Peroxomonosulfate can react.
Since the decomposition of Potassium Peroxomonosulfate is exothermic, the decomposition can self-accelerate if storage conditions allow the product temperature to rise (see Product Safety and Handling bulletin).
Aqueous solutions of Potassium Peroxomonosulfate are relatively stable when made up at the unmodified pH of the product.
The stability of Potassium Peroxomonosulfate is adversely affected by higher pH, especially above pH 7. 
A point of minimum stability exists at about pH 9, at which the concentration of the mono-anion HSO5- is equal to that of the di-anion SO5=
Cobalt, nickel, and manganese are particularly strong catalysts for the decomposition of Potassium Peroxomonosulfate in solution; the degree to which catalysis occurs is dependent on the concentrations of Oxone and of the metal ion.


The triple salt 2KHSO5·KHSO4·K2SO4 is a form with higher stability.
The standard electrode potential for this compound is +1.81 V with a half reaction generating the hydrogen sulfate (pH=0).

HSO5− + 2 H+ + 2 e− → HSO4− + H2O


Reactions
Potassium Peroxomonosulfate is a versatile oxidant. Potassium Peroxomonosulfate oxidizes aldehydes to carboxylic acids; in the presence of alcoholic solvents, the esters may be obtained.
Internal alkenes may be cleaved to two carboxylic acids (see below), while terminal alkenes may be epoxidized. 
Sulfides give sulfones, tertiary amines give amine oxides, and phosphines give phosphine oxides.

Illustrative of the oxidative power of this salt is the conversion of an acridine derivative to the corresponding acridine-N-oxide.

Potassium Peroxomonosulfate will also oxidize a sulfide to a sulfone with 2 equivalents.
With one equivalent the reaction converting sulfide to sulfoxide is much faster than that of sulfoxide to sulfone, so the reaction can conveniently be stopped at that stage if so desired.

Oxidation of an oragnic sulfide by oxone.png
Potassium Peroxomonosulfate can also react with ketones to form dioxiranes, with the synthesis of dimethyldioxirane (DMDO) being representative. 
These are versatile oxidising agents and may be used for the epoxidation of olefins. 
In particular, if the starting ketone is chiral then the epoxide may be generated enantioselectively, which forms the basis of the Shi epoxidation.

The Shi epoxidation
Uses
Swimming Pools
Potassium peroxymonosulfate can be used in swimming pools to keep the water clear, thus allowing chlorine in pools to work to sanitize the water rather than clarify the water, resulting in less chlorine needed to keep pools clean.[11] One of the drawbacks of using potassium peroxymonosulfate in pools is it can cause the common DPD #3 water test for combined chlorine to read incorrectly high.[12] Moreover, byproducts can be formed during the peroxymonosulfate treatment, which are sometimes even more toxic than the original contaminants.[13]

Laboratory Disinfection
Potassium peroxymonosulfate is the main active ingredient in Virkon, which is used for disinfection of laboratory equipment.


Metatags : oxone, Potassium peroxysulfate, potasyum peroxomonosülfat, caroat , potassium monopersulfate, Cas No : 10361-76-9,virkon s

Potassium peroxymonosulfate, potasyum peroksimonosülfat, potassium monopersulfate, Potassium peroxysulfate
Potassium peroxymonosulfate sulfate;Potassium peroxomonosulfate;potassium mono persulphate;

Potassium peroxymonosulfate 
IUPAC name: Potassium peroxysulfate;Potassium peroxymonosulfate 
Other names: Caroat, Oxone, potassium monopersulfate, MPS. 
Chemical formula: KHSO5
Molar mass: 152.2 g/mol (614.76 as triple salt)
Appearance: off-white powder
Solubility in water: decomposes
Main hazards: Oxidant, Corrosive


caroate; oxone;Potassium peroxymonosulfate;peroxymonosulfuric acid potassium salt;potassium hydrogen persulfate; potassium peroxomonosulfate; potassium peroxymonosulfuric acid;CAS:70693-62-8;Potassium monopersulfate (KMPS)

Chemical Properties
Formula: 2KHSO5.KHSO4.K2SO4
Formula Weight: 615.50
Form: Granular
Density: 1.15
Storage & Sensitivity: Hygroscopic. Ambient temperatures.
Solubility: Soluble in water (100 mg/ml).


CAROAT
Potassium monopersulfate (KMPS)
CAS:70693-62-8
Potassium peroxymonosulfate – triple salt: 2KHSO5 • KHSO4 • K2SO4
Structural Formula
Description
White, crystalline, odourless, free flowing salt consisting of potassium peroxymonosulfate, potassium hydrogen sulfate and potassium sulfate. 
The only stable transportable salt of Caro's acid is its triple salt (theoretical Formula see above). 
KMPS undergoes a strongly acid reaction in aqueous solution.
As a result of its high oxidation potential and microbiological effectiveness, it can be used for a large number of different applications.
It has the particular advantage of being highly stable in storage, easy and safe to handle, free from chlorine and of having a high reactivity.

Technical Data
Appearance White crystalline salt
KHSO5 content Ca.45 % w/w (typical),43 % w/w (min.)
Active oxygen (AO): Ca. 4.7 % w/w (typical)
Active oxygen (AO): Ca. 5.2 % w/w (Theoretical, pure triple salt
Iron content (typically): < 20 ppm (mg/kg)
Bulk density (typically): Ca. 1100 g/l
Melting point (decomposition)
Solubility in water at 20°C: Ca. 250 g/l
pH of a 1% solution in water (typically): Ca. 2.0
Decomposition of the product as supplied: At above 60 °C
Recommended storage temperature: Below 30 °C
Storage stability as from date of delivery: 12 months
Moisture content (typically): <0.1 %
This product is in compliance with the ElektroG (EU-Directives: RoHS2002/95/EG, WEEE 2002/96/EG) 

Technical Data Sheet

Application
Denture cleaner: Effective main ingredient in Cleaning tablets for dentures.
Disinfectant: Use for chlorine-free disinfection or purification of swimmingpool water and spas. 
Prevention of chlorine acne and eye irritation.
Approved for oxidative drinking water treatment.
Bleaching agent: CAROAT has a bleaching effect comparable to that of organic peracids; in the TAED/perborate system it is particularly effective at low temperatures.
Biocidal effect: Suitable as an additive to acidic cleaning agents with bleaching and disinfectant effect.
Effluent treatment: Oxidative treatment of problematic effluents; sulfide oxidation, nitrite oxidation and cyanide detoxification (see our technical information).
Plaster additive: Addition of CAROAT leads to generation of oxygen and improved product characteristics (e.g. thermal insulation, water absorbency, mechanical properties).
Metal treatment: Microetchant: Use for etching printed circuit boards.
Others:
- Textile finishing (shrink proofing of wool)
- Chemical synthesis (production of dioxirane)
- Paper manufacture (repulping, particularly of wet-strength paper).

Storage
CAROAT must be stored under dry conditions. It has to be protected from direct sunlight and from any other sources of heat.
Standard Packaging: The standard packaging of CAROAT is 25 kg PE-bag


DuPont Oxone monopersulfate compound is a white, granular, freeflowing peroxygen that provides powerful non-chlorine oxidation for a wide variety of industrial and consumer uses.
Applications
•     Swimming pool shock oxidizer
•     Printed wiring board microetchant
•     Repulping aid for wet-strength-resin destruction
•     Odor control agent in wastewater treatment
•     Bleach component in denture cleanser and laundry formulations
•     Activator in antimicrobial compositions
•     Other uses where its combination of powerful oxidation and relative safe handling properties are of value

The active ingredient of Oxone is potassium peroxymonosulfate, KHSO5 (CAS 10058-23-8), commonly known as potassium monopersulfate,which is present as a component of a triple salt with the formula2KHSO5·KHSO4·K2SO4 potassium hydrogen peroxymonosulfate sulfate (5:3:2:2), [CAS 70693-62-8]).
The oxidizing power of Oxone is derived from its peracid chemistry; it is the first neutralization salt of peroxymonosulfuric acid H2SO5 (also known as Caro’s acid).

Standard Potential
The standard electrode potential (E°) of KHSO5 is given by the following half cell reaction:
The thermodynamic potential is high enough for many room temperature oxidations including:
•     Halide to active halogen
•     Oxidation of reduced sulfur and nitrogen compounds
•     Cyanide to cyanate
•     Epoxidation of olefins
•     Baeyer-Villigar oxidation of ketones
•     Copper metal to cupric ion
•     Ferrous to ferric ion
•     Manganous to manganic ion

Stability
DuPont Oxone is a very stable peroxygen in the solid state and loses less than 0.5% (relative) of its activity per month when stored under recommended conditions. 
However, like all other peroxygens, Oxone undergoes very slow disproportionation with the liberation of heat and oxygen gas. 
If a decomposition is associated with high temperature, decomposition of the constituent salts of Oxone may generate sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, or sulfur trioxide.
The stability is reduced by the presence of small amounts of moisture, alkaline chemicals, chemicals that contain water of hydration, transition metals in any form, and/or any material with which Oxone can react.
Since the decomposition of Oxone is exothermic, the decomposition can self-accelerate if storage conditions allow the product temperature to rise (see Product Safety and Handling bulletin).
Aqueous solutions of Oxone are relatively stable when made up at the unmodified pH of the product.
The stability is adversely affected by higher pH, especially above pH 7. 
A point of minimum stability exists at about pH 9, at which the concentration of the mono-anion HSO5- is equal to that of the di-anion SO5=
Cobalt, nickel, and manganese are particularly strong catalysts for the decomposition of Oxone in solution; the degree to which catalysis occurs is dependent on the concentrations of Oxone and of the metal ion.

Product Description
Potassium peroxymonosulfate
CAS:70693-62-8

Name: Potassium peroxymonosulfate
Synonyms: Potassium peroxymonosulfate sulfate; Pentapotassium bis(peroxymonosulphate) bis(sulphate)
Molecular Formula: 2(KHSO5).KHSO4.K2SO4;H3K5O18S4
Molecular Weight: 614.76
CAS Registry Number: 70693-62-8
EINECS: 274-778-7

It is present as a component of a triple salt including potassium monopersulfate, potassium sulfate and potassium bisulfate with the formula 2KHSO5•KHSO4•K2SO4. The oxidation potential of this compound is derived from its peracid chemistry.
Potassium peroxymonosulfate can be used in swimming pools to keep the water clear, thus allowing chlorine in pools to work to sanitize the water rather than clarify the water, resulting in less chlorine needed to keep pools clean.

The compound provides powerful non-chlorine oxidation for a wide variety of industrial and consumer uses. It’s applications may be found in oral hygiene formulations, pool and spa shock and disinfections, paper recycling, printed circuit board etching, wool shrink proofing, precious metal extraction process.

Applications.

• Disinfectants: in the pool, spa field recycled water disinfectants;
• Metal processing: printed circuit board cleaning and etching;
• Paper Regeneration: as wet strength paper re-pulping and recycled fiber additives;
• Textiles: can be used as an oxidizing agent, dyeing wool shrink-proof fabric bleach pretreatment;
• Denture cleaners, plaster additives, organic synthesis adjuvants, colorants carpet, water purifying agent;

Key Applications
Pool & Spa, Pulp & Paper, Electronics, Mining, Water Treatment, HI&I, Denture Cleaning

Product Description
Also known as KPMS or potassium peroxymonosulfate, Oxone is a white granular product that provides non-chlorinated oxidation in a wide variety of applications.  It's safe to use in a production facility, in the environment, and even as a key ingredient in your denture cleaner!

Most notably, the active ingredient allows for efficient non-chlorinated oxidation as a pool shock, allowing less use of sanitizer and leaves the pool clean, clear, and swimmable nearly immediately.  The powerful oxidation as a microetchant in printed circuit boards improves process control in multi-step copper etching with a predictable rate to completion.  KPMS is of particular interest in metal plating and mining as it safely, economically, and conveniently oxidizes cyanide in waste streams.  These key benefits of rapid rate of reaction as well as non-chlorinated oxidation has allowed repulping papers with wet strength resins to move their processes to greener methods without sacrificing production time.  

Oxone PS-16 known as KPMS or potassium peroxymonosulfate. Oxone is a white granular product that provides non-chlorinated oxidation in a wide variety of applications such as: industrial processing, pulp and paper production, waste water treatment, industrial and household cleaning, oil and gas production, and denture cleaning. 


Potassium peroxymonosulfate (also known as MPS, KMPS, potassium monopersulfate, potassium caroate, the trade names Caroat and Oxone, and as non-chlorine shock in the pool and spa industry) is widely used as an oxidizing agent. 
It is the potassium salt of peroxymonosulfuric acid.

The triple salt 2KHSO5·KHSO4·K2SO4 (known by the tradename Oxone) is a form with higher stability.
The standard electrode potential for this compound is +1.81 V with a half reaction generating the hydrogen sulfate (pH=0)

MPS is a versatile oxidant.
It oxidizes aldehydes to carboxylic acids; in the presence of alcoholic solvents, the esters may be obtained.
Internal alkenes may be cleaved to two carboxylic acids (see below), while terminal alkenes may be epoxidized. 
Sulfides give sulfones, tertiary amines give amine oxides, and phosphines give phosphine oxides.

Swimming Pools
Potassium peroxymonosulfate can be used in swimming pools to keep the water clear, thus allowing chlorine in pools to work to sanitize the water rather than clarify the water, resulting in less chlorine needed to keep pools clean.
One of the drawbacks of using potassium peroxymonosulfate in pools is it can cause the common DPD #3 water test for combined chlorine to read incorrectly high.
Moreover, byproducts can be formed during the peroxymonosulfate treatment, which are sometimes even more toxic than the original contaminants.

Laboratory Disinfection
Potassium peroxymonosulfate is the main active ingredient in Virkon, which is used for disinfection of laboratory equipment.


Oxone, Potassium peroxomonosulfate
The composition of the oxidizing agent Oxone is 2KHSO5.KHSO4.K2SO4.
 The active component potassium monopersulfate (KHSO5, potassium peroxomonosulfate) is a salt from the Caro´s acid H2SO5.

The use of Oxone has increased rapidly. Reasons for this are the stability, the simple handling, the non-toxic nature, the versatility of the reagent and the low costs.

As long as Oxone is stored under dry and cool conditions, it loses about 1% activity per month under release of oxygen and heat. Decomposition to SO2 and SO3 takes place under the influence of heat (starting at 300°C). 

Acidic, aqueous solutions of the pure reagent in distilled water are relatively stable. The stability reaches a minimum at pH 9, where the mono anion (HSO5-) has the same concentration as the dianion (SO52-). Iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, manganese and further transition metals can catalyze the decay of Oxone in solution.

The following secondary reactions should be avoided: Halides can be oxidized to halogens (e.g. chloride to chlorine), cyanides react with Oxone under release of hydrogen cyanide, "heavy" transition metals (Cu, Mn, Co, Ni) and their salts lead to the decomposition of Oxone under release of oxygen.


Potassium Peroxomonosulfate
Potassium monopersulfate triple salt
PotassiumPeroxomonosulfate
DTXSID8051415
KS-00000EUF
OXONE(R), monopersulfate compound
Potassium monoperoxysulfate OXONE(R)
Potassium monopersulfate triple salt, >=47% KHSO5 basis

Treatment efficiency of potassium monopersulfate compound, a new kind of oxidation reagent, on killing algae and bacteria has been valued and the effect of influence factors, such as dosage, contact time and temperature are also discussed. The results indicated that potassium monopersulfate is appropriate for killing algae and bacteria in landscape water, dosage and contact time are the major influence factors. The contact time should be longer than 20min and the algicidal rate is higher when the temperature is above 20°C.

An acidic agent, potassium monopersulfate (PMPS), was evaluated for bactericidal and virucidal effects against Salmonella Infantis (SI), Escherichia coli, rifampicin-resistant Salmonella Infantis (SI-rif), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and avian influenza virus (AIV), in the absence or presence of organic materials. In addition, inactivation activity toward a virus on virus-spiked clothes was also examined. PMPS could inactivate SI, E. coli, and SI-rif even in the presence of organic materials under various concentrations and exposure/contact time conditions. PMPS could also inactivate NDV and AIV. In addition, PMPS could inactivate AIV on a virus-spiked rayon sheet. In conclusion, the present study showed that PMPS has good antimicrobial properties against SI, E. coli, SI-rif, NDV, and AIV when used at the optimal dosage and exposure timing. These results suggest that PMPS could be used as an alternative disinfectant for biosecurity enhancement in animal farms or hospitals.

Keywords: acidic agent, bactericidal, disinfectant, potassium monopersulfate, virucidal

Generally, foods derived from animal products, such as eggs, meat, and milk, have been implicated as vehicles of one or more of pathogens causing food-borne illness [3, 5, 6], especially Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. In Japan, hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) have been introduced at animal farms for food safety [12]. One of the key points for HACCP is the appropriate usage of disinfectants to enhance biosecurity on and around animal farms.

Normally, poultry virus diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI), have a strong negative economic impact on the poultry industry. The viruses of both diseases are excreted in large amounts from the respiratory and digestive systems of clinically infected birds and contaminate the environment. Hence, an important aspect of disease control consists of proper cleaning and disinfection of the farm environment, which depends upon the use of an effective disinfectant agent. Many disinfectants are commercially available, and it is important to ensure that the disinfectant being used is effective against various pathogens.

The appropriate usage of disinfectants is critical for establishing a successful sanitation program. Because not all disinfectants are effective against major pathogens, different families of disinfectants that target specific microorganisms should be considered. For instance, several bacteria and viruses are sensitive to phenols; however, most bacteria are also sensitive to quaternary ammonium, iodophors, paracetic acid, glutaraldehydes, and cresols [2, 7]. Therefore, there is no single disinfectant reported in the literature that would be efficacious against a wide spectrum of etiological agents that economically impact diseases in animal farms. Moreover, special care should be taken when applying the disinfectant as it should be safe for both animals and humans. In addition, the hardness of water, correct dilutions, duration of contact with the pathogens, and the presence of organic material should also be taken into consideration.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate efficacies of potassium monopersulfate (PMPS) against Salmonella Infantis (SI), E. coli, rifampicin-resistant Salmonella Infantis (SI-rif), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and avian influenza virus (AIV), in the absence or presence of organic materials, as well as to evaluate the inactivation activity of PMPS toward AIV on a rayon sheet for biosecurity applications in animal farms and animal hospitals.

PMPS is the potassium salt of peroxymonosulfuric acid, which is widely used as an oxidizing agent. This salt probably acts on bacteria by oxidation. 
It also attacks viral protein capsids, thereby releasing and inactivating the nucleic acids of viruses, thus affecting the bactericidal and virucidal efficacies under various concentrations, exposure/contact times, and organic material conditions. The results also indicated that bacteria were more sensitive than viruses to inactivation by PMPS. Several products, such as Oxone and DupontTM, contain potassium monopersulfate for their main ingredient, as a non-chlorine shock agent; PMPS breaks the chorine–ammonia bond formed when chlorine combines with ammonia, without increasing the chlorine level of the swimming pool; hence, PMPS can be used in swimming pools to keep the water clear [14]. In addition, Virkon-S contains PMPS at 21.41% and has been used at concentrations of 5,000–20,000 ppm for multipurpose virucidal disinfection, with the greatest numbers of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA Registration No. 71654-6)-registered claims, against pathogens affecting domestic and companion animals. 
However, The PMPS tablet in the present study was used at concentrations of 312.5–5,000 ppm; hence, this PMPS is confirmed for safety and toxicity towards animals and humans.

Generally, bacteria and viruses are highly resistant to disinfectants contained in bio-environmental constituents such as feces, saliva, or vomitus. 
In addition, viruses can survive on the surfaces of materials, fomites, and food for long periods [1, 11]. Our model of evaluating virus inactivation involved utilizing rayon sheets to simulate carpets, bedding, towels, or cloths contaminated with viruses and containing organic materials. In addition, several quaternary ammonium compounds have been reported to exhibit broad-spectrum virucidal activity, including in the present study that used rayon; therefore, considering the cloth savings and its efficacy, DDAB was selected for comparison with PMPS. As shown in Table 7, 5,000, 2,500 and 1,250 ppm of PMPS could inactivate AIV, while DDAB could not inactivate this virus on rayon sheets at the recommended dose. These results suggest that PMPS can be applied as a disinfectant or a virucidal agent that can inactivate AIV in contaminated carpets, clothes, towels, or bedding, especially in animal farms or hospitals.

In conclusion, PMPS can inactivate bacteria and viruses either in the absence or presence of organic materials, and can be useful as an alternative disinfectant, especially for biosecurity enhancement aiming to control bacteria and viruses that contaminate animal farms and hospitals.

The most popular sanitizers used in pools and spas—chlorine and bromine—function both as biocides (they kill bacteria and other potentially harmful microbes) and oxidizers (they "burn up" unpleasant organic contaminants like bather wastes, dust, and pollen). In a heavily used pool, as much as 90% of the chlorine or bromine may be working to eliminate organic impurities. Periodic addition of a supplemental oxidizer—a "shock treatment"—can free up the sanitizer for its highest purpose, killing germs. A popular choice is a non-chlorine product with potassium monopersulfate as the active ingredient. (The label may also call it potassium peroxymonosulfate.)

Potassium monopersulfate is a powerful oxidizer with several attractive properties (see last section). 
Properly applied, it will prevent the formation of new combined chlorine by eliminating organics in the water without creating more combined chlorine. Bathers can re-enter the water after waiting a short period of time (usually one hour) to allow proper mixing and circulation. The reaction byproducts are harmless sulfate salts.

The key concept to note here is that monopersulfate products will NOT remove existing combined chlorine but only prevents the formation of new combined chlorine. 
It is recommended that if there is a combined chlorine level ≥ 0.2 ppm, you should shock the pool using traditional methods (i.e., 10 x the combined chlorine level = ppm of non-stabilized chlorine added all at once). After traditional shocking, then use the monopersulfate product to prevent further combined chlorine development.

Monopersulfate products are particularly useful in indoor environments where proper air exchange rates may be nonexistent. 
Monopersulfate does not cause odors or irritation. Caution: The standard “shock” dosage for monopersulfate is 2 lbs. per 10,000 gallons of water. 
Overdosing may cause a dramatic drop in pH and lower total alkalinity as the pH of monopersulfate is approximately 2.3 (acidic).

Monopersulfate is not an algaecide and does not sanitize (kill). It can also raise TDS levels dramatically.

Monopersulfate does have one major drawback when used in chlorinated pools: It can interfere with the combined chlorine reading obtained with DPD and FAS-DPD tests. 
Some pools even have been closed because of supposed high combined chlorine (chloramine) readings when, in fact, the high readings were the result of this test interference.

 

Chlorine test interferences
Commercial operators are generally required by regulatory authorities to use a DPD test to monitor chlorine. 
Kits for this purpose may employ liquids, tablets, a powder, or a combination of these forms, depending on the manufacturer. 
The test method can involve either color matching (the pink color that develops in the treated water sample is proportional to the amount of chlorine present; the reading is determined by matching the pink to a set of color standards), or counting drops (the treated water sample goes from pink to colorless upon the addition of a titrating reagent, and the number of drops used determines the amount of chlorine present). 
The reagent all the best-selling kits have in common is DPD #3. DPD #3 contains potassium iodide. 
Monopersulfate will react with the potassium iodide in DPD #3, making it seem there is a higher combined chlorine level in the water than there actually is.

Here are two typical scenarios:

In the standard color-matching DPD test, you first add DPD #1 and DPD #2 to your water sample to develop a pinkish-red color proportional to the level of free chlorine. 
After taking that reading, you add DPD #3 to obtain the total chlorine level. You then calculate the amount of combined chlorine by subtracting free from total chlorine.

 

Combined Chlorine = Total Chlorine – Free Chlorine

 

When monopersulfate is present in the sample, it reacts with DPD #3 in the total chlorine test, producing a dark pink/red color characteristic of a high total chlorine reading. 
However, monopersulfate will not react with the DPD #1 and #2 reagents used to measure free chlorine. 
Therefore, the combined chlorine level obtained doing the calculation above is artificially high.

In an FAS-DPD drop-count titration, you add DPD indicator powder to the water sample and it will turn pink if free chlorine is present. 
Next, you add FAS-DPD titrating reagent drop by drop until the sample changes from pink to colorless. 
You then multiply the number of drops added by an equivalence factor (stated in the test instructions) to get the free chlorine reading. 
Finally, you add DPD #3 reagent to the treated sample, which will turn pink if combined chlorine is present. 
Once again, you titrate until the sample turns colorless and multiply the drop count by the given equivalence factor to get the combined chlorine reading. 
If monopersulfate is present in the sample it will react with DPD #3, artificially increasing the combined chlorine reading.

 

Preventive measures
To obtain an accurate combined chlorine reading, commercial operators should use a test kit with reagents that can eliminate the monopersulfate interference. 
There are kits on the market that include a neutralizing agent for monopersulfate along with the standard chlorine test reagents, or the neutralizer can be purchased separately. You simply add the neutralizer as instructed then take the readings as you normally would.

Should you wish to measure monopersulfate concentrations, take a fresh sample and perform the chlorine tests a second time without masking the interference. 
The result will be the total amount of oxidizer in the water. 
Subtract the total chlorine reading obtained in the first test from this total oxidizer reading to find the level of monopersulfate. 
Note: This will give a monopersulfate reading in ppm as chlorine. To convert to ppm monopersulfate, multiply the result obtained by a factor of 5.

 

Monopersulfate Level = Total Oxidizer – Total Chlorine

 

Test strips are also available for analyzing monopersulfate itself. 
Be sure to check the strip manufacturer's test instructions to determine at what concentration chlorine or bromine will interfere with the monopersulfate test.

 

More on monopersulfate
Since monopersulfate doesn't contain chlorine, it won't produce chloramines or chlorine odors and will not bleach vinyl liners. 
Moreover, monopersulfate dissolves quickly at normal pool temperatures without premixing, can be used day or night, and allows swimming to resume after a short waiting period for complete mixing and circulation. It is well suited for indoor use where odors from high doses of chlorine and persistent combined chlorine residuals are magnified.

Potassium peroxymonosulfate (oxidizing agent)
Product Examples

Virkon, Trifectant

Contact Time, min

10

Advantages

Broad spectrum, with activity against nonenveloped viruses and bacterial spores.
Active in the presence of moderate organic debris.
Disadvantages

Corrosive, especially with metal surfaces. Masks should be worn when mixing powdered solutions
Comments

Commonly used routine disinfectant.
Care must be taken when handling concentrated product.
Consider rinsing metal and concrete surfaces after required contact time.

OXONE ( OKZON )

Metatags : oxone, Potassium peroxysulfate, potasyum peroxomonosülfat, caroat , potassium monopersulfate, Cas No : 10361-76-9, potasyum perokzomonosülfat, peroxomonosülfat, virkon s

Potassium peroxymonosulfate, potasyum peroksimonosülfat, potassium monopersulfate, Potassium peroxysulfate, peroksisülfat
Potassium peroxymonosulfate sulfate;Potassium peroxomonosulfate;potassium mono persulphate;

Potassium peroxymonosulfate 
IUPAC name: Potassium peroxysulfate;Potassium peroxymonosulfate 
Other names: Caroat, Oxone, potassium monopersulfate, MPS. 
Chemical formula: KHSO5
Molar mass: 152.2 g/mol (614.76 as triple salt)
Appearance: off-white powder
Solubility in water: decomposes
Main hazards: Oxidant, Corrosive


caroate
oxone
peroxymonosulfuric acid potassium salt
potassium hydrogen persulfate
potassium peroxomonosulfate
potassium peroxymonosulfuric acid

Chemical Properties
Formula: 2KHSO5.KHSO4.K2SO4
Formula Weight: 615.50
Form: Granular
Density: 1.15
Storage & Sensitivity: Hygroscopic. Ambient temperatures.
Solubility: Soluble in water (100 mg/ml).


CAROAT
Potassium monopersulfate (KMPS)
CAS#70693-62-8
Potassium peroxymonosulfate – triple salt: 2KHSO5 • KHSO4 • K2SO4
Structural Formula
Description
White, crystalline, odourless, free flowing salt consisting of potassium peroxymonosulfate, potassium hydrogen sulfate and potassium sulfate. 
The only stable transportable salt of Caro's acid is its triple salt (theoretical Formula see above). 
KMPS undergoes a strongly acid reaction in aqueous solution.
As a result of its high oxidation potential and microbiological effectiveness, it can be used for a large number of different applications.
It has the particular advantage of being highly stable in storage, easy and safe to handle, free from chlorine and of having a high reactivity.

Technical Data
Appearance White crystalline salt
KHSO5 content Ca.45 % w/w (typical),43 % w/w (min.)
Active oxygen (AO) Ca. 4.7 % w/w (typical)
Active oxygen (AO) Ca. 5.2 % w/w (Theoretical, pure triple salt
Iron content (typically) < 20 ppm (mg/kg)
Bulk density (typically) Ca. 1100 g/l
Melting point (decomposition)
Solubility in water at 20°C: Ca. 250 g/l
pH of a 1% solution in water (typically): Ca. 2.0
Decomposition of the product as supplied: At above 60 °C
Recommended storage temperature: Below 30 °C
Storage stability as from date of delivery: 12 months
Moisture content (typically): <0.1 %
This product is in compliance with the ElektroG (EU-Directives: RoHS2002/95/EG, WEEE 2002/96/EG) 

Technical Data Sheet

Application
Denture cleaner: Effective main ingredient in Cleaning tablets for dentures.
Disinfectant: Use for chlorine-free disinfection or purification of swimmingpool water and spas. 
Prevention of chlorine acne and eye irritation.
Approved for oxidative drinking water treatment.
Bleaching agent: CAROAT has a bleaching effect comparable to that of organic peracids; in the TAED/perborate system it is particularly effective at low temperatures.
Biocidal effect: Suitable as an additive to acidic cleaning agents with bleaching and disinfectant effect.
Effluent treatment: Oxidative treatment of problematic effluents; sulfide oxidation, nitrite oxidation and cyanide detoxification (see our technical information).
Plaster additive: Addition of CAROAT leads to generation of oxygen and improved product characteristics (e.g. thermal insulation, water absorbency, mechanical properties).
Metal treatment: Microetchant: Use for etching printed circuit boards.
Others:
- Textile finishing (shrink proofing of wool)
- Chemical synthesis (production of dioxirane)
- Paper manufacture (repulping, particularly of wet-strength paper).

Storage
CAROAT must be stored under dry conditions. It has to be protected from direct sunlight and from any other sources of heat.
Standard Packaging: The standard packaging of CAROAT is 25 kg PE-bag


DuPont Oxone monopersulfate compound is a white, granular, freeflowing peroxygen that provides powerful non-chlorine oxidation for a wide variety of industrial and consumer uses.
Applications
•     Swimming pool shock oxidizer
•     Printed wiring board microetchant
•     Repulping aid for wet-strength-resin destruction
•     Odor control agent in wastewater treatment
•     Bleach component in denture cleanser and laundry formulations
•     Activator in antimicrobial compositions
•     Other uses where its combination of powerful oxidation and relative safe handling properties are of value

The active ingredient of Oxone is potassium peroxymonosulfate, KHSO5 (CAS 10058-23-8), commonly known as potassium monopersulfate, which is present as a component of a triple salt with the formula2KHSO5·KHSO4·K2SO4 potassium hydrogen peroxymonosulfate sulfate(5:3:2:2), [CAS 70693-62-8]).
The oxidizing power of Oxone is derived from its peracid chemistry; it is the first neutralization salt of peroxymonosulfuric acid H2SO5 (also knownas Caro’s acid).
Standard Potential


OXONE 

Metatags : oxone, Potassium peroxysulfate, potasyum peroxomonosülfat, caroat , potassium monopersulfate, Cas No : 10361-76-9,virkon s

Potassium peroxymonosulfate, potasyum peroksimonosülfat, potassium monopersulfate, Potassium peroxysulfate
Potassium peroxymonosulfate sulfate;Potassium peroxomonosulfate;potassium mono persulphate;

Potassium peroxymonosulfate 
IUPAC name: Potassium peroxysulfate;Potassium peroxymonosulfate 
Other names: Caroat, Oxone, potassium monopersulfate, MPS. 
Chemical formula: KHSO5
Molar mass: 152.2 g/mol (614.76 as triple salt)
Appearance: off-white powder
Solubility in water: decomposes
Main hazards: Oxidant, Corrosive


caroate
oxone
peroxymonosulfuric acid potassium salt
potassium hydrogen persulfate
potassium peroxomonosulfate
potassium peroxymonosulfuric acid

Chemical Properties
Formula: 2KHSO5.KHSO4.K2SO4
Formula Weight: 615.50
Form: Granular
Density: 1.15
Storage & Sensitivity: Hygroscopic. Ambient temperatures.
Solubility: Soluble in water (100 mg/ml).


CAROAT
Potassium monopersulfate (KMPS)
CAS#70693-62-8
Potassium peroxymonosulfate – triple salt: 2KHSO5 • KHSO4 • K2SO4
Structural Formula
Description
White, crystalline, odourless, free flowing salt consisting of potassium peroxymonosulfate, potassium hydrogen sulfate and potassium sulfate. 
The only stable transportable salt of Caro's acid is its triple salt (theoretical Formula see above). 
KMPS undergoes a strongly acid reaction in aqueous solution.
As a result of its high oxidation potential and microbiological effectiveness, it can be used for a large number of different applications.
It has the particular advantage of being highly stable in storage, easy and safe to handle, free from chlorine and of having a high reactivity.

Technical Data
Appearance White crystalline salt
KHSO5 content Ca.45 % w/w (typical),43 % w/w (min.)
Active oxygen (AO): Ca. 4.7 % w/w (typical)
Active oxygen (AO): Ca. 5.2 % w/w (Theoretical, pure triple salt
Iron content (typically): < 20 ppm (mg/kg)
Bulk density (typically): Ca. 1100 g/l
Melting point (decomposition)
Solubility in water at 20°C: Ca. 250 g/l
pH of a 1% solution in water (typically): Ca. 2.0
Decomposition of the product as supplied: At above 60 °C
Recommended storage temperature: Below 30 °C
Storage stability as from date of delivery: 12 months
Moisture content (typically): <0.1 %
This product is in compliance with the ElektroG (EU-Directives: RoHS2002/95/EG, WEEE 2002/96/EG) 

Technical Data Sheet

Application
Denture cleaner: Effective main ingredient in Cleaning tablets for dentures.
Disinfectant: Use for chlorine-free disinfection or purification of swimmingpool water and spas. 
Prevention of chlorine acne and eye irritation.
Approved for oxidative drinking water treatment.
Bleaching agent: CAROAT has a bleaching effect comparable to that of organic peracids; in the TAED/perborate system it is particularly effective at low temperatures.
Biocidal effect: Suitable as an additive to acidic cleaning agents with bleaching and disinfectant effect.
Effluent treatment: Oxidative treatment of problematic effluents; sulfide oxidation, nitrite oxidation and cyanide detoxification (see our technical information).
Plaster additive: Addition of CAROAT leads to generation of oxygen and improved product characteristics (e.g. thermal insulation, water absorbency, mechanical properties).
Metal treatment: Microetchant: Use for etching printed circuit boards.
Others:
- Textile finishing (shrink proofing of wool)
- Chemical synthesis (production of dioxirane)
- Paper manufacture (repulping, particularly of wet-strength paper).

Storage
CAROAT must be stored under dry conditions. It has to be protected from direct sunlight and from any other sources of heat.
Standard Packaging: The standard packaging of CAROAT is 25 kg PE-bag


DuPont Oxone monopersulfate compound is a white, granular, freeflowing peroxygen that provides powerful non-chlorine oxidation for a wide
variety of industrial and consumer uses.
Applications
•     Swimming pool shock oxidizer
•     Printed wiring board microetchant
•     Repulping aid for wet-strength-resin destruction
•     Odor control agent in wastewater treatment
•     Bleach component in denture cleanser and laundry formulations
•     Activator in antimicrobial compositions
•     Other uses where its combination of powerful oxidation and relative safe handling properties are of value

The active ingredient of Oxone is potassium peroxymonosulfate, KHSO5 (CAS 10058-23-8), commonly known as potassium monopersulfate,which is present as a component of a triple salt with the formula2KHSO5·KHSO4·K2SO4 potassium hydrogen peroxymonosulfate sulfate (5:3:2:2), [CAS 70693-62-8]).
The oxidizing power of Oxone is derived from its peracid chemistry; it is the first neutralization salt of peroxymonosulfuric acid H2SO5 (also known as Caro’s acid).

Standard Potential
The standard electrode potential (E°) of KHSO5 is given by the following half cell reaction:
The thermodynamic potential

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