PROPYL ALCOHOL

Propyl alcohol = n-propyl alcohol = 1-propanol = Propan-1-ol = Propanol

CAS Number: 71-23-8  
EC Number: 200-746-9
Chemical formula: C3H8O
Molar mass: 60.096 g·mol−1

Propyl alcohol, also called n-propyl alcohol or 1-propanol, one of two isomeric alcohols used as solvents and intermediates in chemical manufacturing. 
The second isomer is isopropyl alcohol (2-propanol).
Propyl alcohol is an antiseptic and disinfectant used in a variety of clinical and domestic settings.

Propyl alcohol is a clear liquid commonly used as a germ killer (antiseptic). 
Propyl alcohol is the second most commonly ingested alcohol after ethanol (drinking alcohol).

Propan-1-ol (also propanol, n-propyl alcohol) is a primary alcohol with the formula CH3CH2CH2OH and sometimes represented as PrOH or n-PrOH. 
Propyl alcohol is a colorless liquid and an isomer of 2-propanol. 
Propyl alcohol is formed naturally in small amounts during many fermentation processes and used as a solvent in the pharmaceutical industry, mainly for resins and cellulose esters, and, sometimes, as a disinfecting agent.

Normal (n-) propyl alcohol is formed as a by-product of the synthesis of methanol (methyl alcohol) from carbon monoxide and hydrogen. 
Propyl alcohol also occurs in fusel oil. Its largest use is as a solvent in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and in the preparation of lacquers. 
Propyl alcohol easily forms esters and ethers, some of which are commercially important.
Propyl alcohol is a colourless, flammable, fragrant liquid that is miscible with water in all proportions and is moderately toxic.

Propyl Alcohol is a colorless liquid with a mild odor of Alcohol. 
Propyl alcohol is used in printing, making textile and leather products, and making other chemicals. 

Applications/uses of Propyl alcohol:
-Agriculture intermediates
-Architectural coatings
-Auto OEM
-Auto plastics
-Auto refinish
-Commerical printing inks
-Consumer printing inks
-Flexographic printing inks
-General industrial coatings
-Graphic arts
-Gravure printing inks
-Marine
-Packaging components non food contact
-Packaging inks non food contact
-Paints & coatings
-Pharmaceutical chemicals
-Process solvents
-Protective coatings
-Wood coatings

Chemical properties of Propyl alcohol:
Propyl alcohol shows the normal reactions of a primary alcohol. 
Thus Propyl alcohol can be converted to alkyl halides; for example red phosphorus and iodine produce n-propyl iodide in 80% yield, while PCl3 with catalytic ZnCl2 gives n-propyl chloride. 
Reaction with acetic acid in the presence of an H2SO4 catalyst under Fischer esterification conditions gives propyl acetate, while refluxing propanol overnight with formic acid alone can produce propyl formate in 65% yield. 
Oxidation of propan-1-ol with Na2Cr2O7 and H2SO4 gives a 36% yield of propionaldehyde, and therefore for this type of reaction higher yielding methods using PCC or the Swern oxidation are recommended. 
Oxidation with chromic acid yields propionic acid.

Preparation of Propyl alcohol:
Propyl alcohol is manufactured by catalytic hydrogenation of propionaldehyde. 
Propionaldehyde is produced via the oxo process by hydroformylation of ethylene using carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst such as cobalt octacarbonyl or a rhodium complex.
H2C=CH2 + CO + H2 → CH3CH2CH=O
CH3CH2CH=O + H2 → CH3CH2CH2OH
A traditional laboratory preparation of propan-1-ol involves treating n-propyl iodide with moist Ag2O.

PROPYL ALCOHOL is classified as:
-Antifoaming
-Solvent

CAS Number: 71-23-8
EINECS/ELINCS No: 200-746-9
COSING REF No: 37265
Chem/IUPAC Name: Propan-1-ol

Safety of Propyl alcohol:
Propyl alcohol is thought to be similar to ethanol in its effects on the human body, but 2–4 times more potent. 
Oral LD50 in rats is 1870 mg/kg (compared to 7060 mg/kg for ethanol). 
Propyl alcohol is metabolized into propionic acid. 
Effects include alcoholic intoxication and high anion gap metabolic acidosis. 
As of 2011, one case of lethal Propyl alcohol poisoning was reported.

Propyl alcohol as fuel:
Propyl alcohol has high octane number and is suitable for engine fuel usage. 
However, Propyl alcohol is too expensive to use as a motor fuel. 
The research octane number (RON) of Propyl alcohol is 118, and anti-knock index (AKI) is 108.

Propyl alcohol is a colorless, flammable chemical compound (chemical formula CH3CHOHCH3) with a strong alcoholic odor.
Propyl alcohol is the simplest example of a secondary alcohol, where the alcohol carbon atom is attached to two other carbon atoms. 

Propyl alcohol is used in the manufacture of a wide variety of industrial and household chemicals and is a common ingredient in products such as antiseptics, disinfectants, hand sanitizer and detergents. 
Well over one million tonnes is produced worldwide annually.

Propyl alcohol has a very mild odor, similar to that of ethanol and is completely soluble in water. 
Propyl alcohol is useful in organic synthesis, as a chemical intermediate, and as a coating solvent. 
Propyl alcohol helps balance the drying and flow characteristics in a variety of surface coating applications.

CAS Number: 71-23-8  
Beilstein Reference: 1098242
CHEBI: 28831 
ChEMBL: ChEMBL14687  
ChemSpider: 1004  
DrugBank: DB03175  
ECHA InfoCard: 100.000.679  
EC Number: 200-746-9
Gmelin Reference: 25616
KEGG: C05979  
MeSH:1-Propanol
PubChem CID: 1031
RTECS number: UH8225000
UNII: 96F264O9SV  
UN number: 1274
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID2021739

Propyl alcohol is a colorless, volatile, flammable liquid having a low order of toxicity and a mild odor. 
Propyl alcohols main uses are as a chemical intermediate and in solvent applications in medicine and industry. 
The majority of the Propyl alcohol in the United States is produced by indirect hydration of propylene in the weak sulfuric acid process. 
Outside the United States, several acid‐catalyzed direct hydration of propylene processes are also used. 

The indirect process can use refinery‐grade propylene streams and lower operating pressures than the direct process, but suffers from higher corrosion and maintenance costs. 
These processes and the various catalysts employed are described. 
Propyl alcohol demand in the United States has been declining slowly since 1983. 

Demand is expected to grow slightly owing to increasing use as a chemical intermediate. 
In addition to Propyl alcohols use in the production of acetone, isoproyl alcohol is consumed in the production of higher ketones, amines, esters, and other chemicals. 
The use of diisopropyl ether as a fuel oxygenate may become a significant outlet for Propyl alcohol.

About Propyl alcohol Helpful information:
Propyl alcohol is registered under the REACH Regulation and is manufactured in and / or imported to the European Economic Area, at ≥ 10 000 to < 100 000 tonnes per annum.
Propyl alcohol is used by consumers, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites and in manufacturing.

Biocidal Uses of Propyl alcohol:
Propyl alcohol is approved for use as a biocide in the EEA and/or Switzerland, for: human hygiene, disinfection, food and animals feeds.

Consumer Uses of Propyl alcohol:
Propyl alcohol is used in the following products: lubricants and greases, anti-freeze products, coating products, finger paints, washing & cleaning products, adhesives and sealants, polishes and waxes and perfumes and fragrances.
Other release to the environment of Propyl alcohol is likely to occur from: outdoor use, indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners), indoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. cooling liquids in refrigerators, oil-based electric heaters) and outdoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. hydraulic liquids in automotive suspension, lubricants in motor oil and break fluids).

Article service life of Propyl alcohol:
Other release to the environment of Propyl alcohol is likely to occur from: outdoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. metal, wooden and plastic construction and building materials) and indoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. flooring, furniture, toys, construction materials, curtains, foot-wear, leather products, paper and cardboard products, electronic equipment).
Propyl alcohol can be found in products with material based on: wood (e.g. floors, furniture, toys).

Widespread uses by professional workers of Propyl alcohol:
Propyl alcohol is used in the following products: coating products, laboratory chemicals, washing & cleaning products, lubricants and greases, metal working fluids and plant protection products. 
Propyl alcohol is used in the following areas: scientific research and development and health services. 
Propyl alcohol is used for the manufacture of: fabricated metal products, electrical, electronic and optical equipment, machinery and vehicles and textile, leather or fur. 
Other release to the environment of Propyl alcohol is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners), outdoor use, indoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. cooling liquids in refrigerators, oil-based electric heaters) and outdoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. hydraulic liquids in automotive suspension, lubricants in motor oil and break fluids).

Formulation or re-packing of Propyl alcohol:
Propyl alcohol is used in the following products: coating products and inks and toners.
Release to the environment of Propyl alcohol can occur from industrial use: formulation of mixtures, manufacturing of the substance, formulation in materials and in processing aids at industrial sites.

Uses at industrial sites of Propyl alcohol:
Propyl alcohol is used in the following products: laboratory chemicals, coating products, pharmaceuticals, washing & cleaning products, lubricants and greases and metal working fluids.
Propyl alcohol has an industrial use resulting in manufacture of another substance (use of intermediates).
Propyl alcohol is used in the following areas: health services and formulation of mixtures and/or re-packaging.
Propyl alcohol is used for the manufacture of: chemicals.
Release to the environment of Propyl alcohol can occur from industrial use: in processing aids at industrial sites, as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates), of substances in closed systems with minimal release and manufacturing of the substance.

Manufacture of Propyl alcohol:
Release to the environment of Propyl alcohol can occur from industrial use: manufacturing of the substance, formulation of mixtures and in processing aids at industrial sites.

Chemical formula: C3H8O
Molar mass: 60.096 g·mol−1
Appearance    : Colorless liquid
Odor: mild, alcohol-like 
Density: 0.803 g/mL
Melting point: −126 °C; −195 °F; 147 K
Boiling point: 97 to 98 °C; 206 to 208 °F; 370 to 371 K
Solubility in water: miscible
log P: 0.329
Vapor pressure: 1.99 kPa (at 20 °C)
Acidity (pKa): 16
Basicity (pKb): −2
Magnetic susceptibility (χ): −45.176·10−6 cm3/mol
Refractive index (nD): 1.387
Viscosity: 1.959 mPa·s (at 25 °C)  
Dipole moment: 1.68 D

Propyl alcohol (also known as n-propanol, 1-propanol, Propan-1-l) is a primary alcohol with a molecular formula of CH3(CH2)2OH. 
Propyl alcohol is a colourless, transparent liquid that has a typical sharp musty odour that is comparable with the smell of rubbing alcohol. 
Propyl alcohol is fully miscible in water and freely miscible with all common solvents such as glycols, ketones, alcohols, aldehydes, ethers and aliphatic hydrocarbons. 
Propyl alcohol has a flash point of around 15° C and improves drying in coating applications.

Substance name:Propyl alcohol
Trade name:n-Propyl Alcohol
EC no:200-746-9
CAS no:67-63-0
HS code:29051200
Formula:C3H8O

Synonyms:(1-hydroxypropane / 1-propanol, anhydrous / alcohol C3 / ethyl carbinol / normal-propanol /
normal-propyl alcohol / n-propanol / n-propanol (propyl alcohol, normal) / OPTAL / OS MOSOL /
osmosol extra / propan-1-ol / propanol / propyl alcohol / propyl alcohol, normal / propylic alcohol

Properties of Propyl alcohol:
Propyl alcohol is miscible in water, ethanol, and chloroform as, like these compounds, isopropyl is a polar molecule. 
Propyl alcohol dissolves ethyl cellulose, polyvinyl butyral, many oils, alkaloids, and natural resins.
Unlike ethanol or methanol, Propyl alcohol is not miscible with salt solutions and can be separated from aqueous solutions by adding a salt such as sodium chloride. 
The process is colloquially called salting out, and causes concentrated Propyl alcohol to separate into a distinct layer.

Propyl alcohol forms an azeotrope with water, which gives a boiling point of 80.37 °C (176.67 °F) and a composition of 87.7% by mass (91% by volume) isopropyl alcohol. 
Alcohol mixtures have depressed melting points.
Propyl alcohol has a slightly bitter taste, and is not safe to drink.

Propyl alcohol becomes increasingly viscous with decreasing temperature and freezes at −89 °C (−128 °F).
Propyl alcohol has a maximal absorbance at 205 nm in an ultraviolet-visible spectrum.

Reactions of Propyl alcohol:
Propyl alcohol can be oxidized to acetone, which is the corresponding ketone. 
This can be achieved using oxidizing agents such as chromic acid, or by dehydrogenation of Propyl alcohol over a heated copper catalyst:
(CH3)2CHOH → (CH3)2CO + H2

Propyl alcohol is often used as both solvent and hydride source in the Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reduction and other transfer hydrogenation reactions. 
Propyl alcohol may be converted to 2-bromopropane using phosphorus tribromide, or dehydrated to propene by heating with sulfuric acid.

Like most alcohols, Propyl alcohol reacts with active metals such as potassium to form alkoxides that can be called isopropoxides. 
The reaction with aluminium (initiated by a trace of mercury) is used to prepare the catalyst aluminium isopropoxide.

History of Propyl alcohol:
In 1920, Standard Oil first produced Propyl alcohol by hydrating propene. 
Propyl alcohol was oxidized to acetone for the preparation of cordite, a smokeless, low explosive propellant.

Production of Propyl alcohol:
In 1994, 1.5 million tonnes of Propyl alcohol were produced in the United States, Europe, and Japan.
Propyl alcohol is primarily produced by combining water and propene in a hydration reaction or by hydrogenating acetone.
There are two routes for the hydration process and both processes require that the Propyl alcohol be separated from water and other by-products by distillation. 
Propyl alcohol and water form an azeotrope, and simple distillation gives a material that is 87.9% by mass isopropyl alcohol and 12.1% by mass water.
Pure (anhydrous) Propyl alcohol is made by azeotropic distillation of the wet isopropyl alcohol using either diisopropyl ether or cyclohexane as azeotroping agents.

Biological:
Small amounts of Propyl alcohol are produced in the body in diabetic ketoacidosis.

Indirect hydration:
Indirect hydration reacts propene with sulfuric acid to form a mixture of sulfate esters. 
This process can use low-quality propene, and is predominant in the USA. 

Direct hydration:
Direct hydration reacts propene and water, either in gas or liquid phase, at high pressures in the presence of solid or supported acidic catalysts. 
This type of process usually requires higher-purity propylene (> 90%).
Direct hydration is more commonly used in Europe.

Hydrogenation of acetone:
Propyl alcohol can be prepared via the hydrogenation of acetone; however, this approach involves an extra step compared to the above methods, as acetone is itself normally prepared from propene via the cumene process.
IPA cost is primarily driven by raw material (acetone or propylene) cost. 
A known issue is the formation of MIBK and other self-condensation products. 
Raney nickel was one of the original industrial catalysts, modern catalysts are often supported bimetallic materials.

Uses of Propyl alcohol:
One of the small scale uses of Propyl alcohol is in cloud chambers. 
Propyl alcohol has ideal physical and chemical properties to form a supersaturated layer of vapor which can be condensed by particles of radiation.
In 1990, 45,000 metric tonnes of Propyl alcohol were used in the United States, mostly as a solvent for coatings or for industrial processes. 
In that year, 5400 metric tonnes were used for household purposes and in personal care products. 

Propyl alcohol is popular in particular for pharmaceutical applications, due to its low toxicity. 
Some Propyl alcohol is used as a chemical intermediate. 
Propyl alcohol may be converted to acetone, but the cumene process is more significant.

Solvent:
Propyl alcohol dissolves a wide range of non-polar compounds. 
Propyl alcohol evaporates quickly and the typically available grades tend to not leave behind oil traces when used as a cleaning fluid unlike some other common solvents. 
Propyl alcohol is also relatively non-toxic. 

Thus, Propyl alcohol is used widely as a solvent and as a cleaning fluid, especially for situations where there can be oils or other oil based residues which would not be easily cleaned with water, conveniently evaporating and (depending on water content, and other potential factors) posing less of a risk of corrosion or rusting than plain water. 
Together with ethanol, n-butanol, and methanol, Propyl alcohol belongs to the group of alcohol solvents.
Propyl alcohol is commonly used for cleaning eyeglasses, electrical contacts, audio or video tape heads, DVD and other optical disc lenses, removing thermal paste from heatsinks on CPUs and other IC packages.

Intermediate:
Propyl alcohol is esterified to give isopropyl acetate, another solvent. 
Propyl alcohol reacts with carbon disulfide and sodium hydroxide to give sodium isopropylxanthate, a herbicide and an ore flotation reagent.
Propyl alcohol reacts with titanium tetrachloride and aluminium metal to give titanium and aluminium isopropoxides, respectively, the former a catalyst, and the latter a chemical reagent.
This compound may serve as a chemical reagent in itself, by acting as a dihydrogen donor in transfer hydrogenation.

Medical:
Rubbing alcohol, hand sanitizer, and disinfecting pads typically contain a 60–70% solution of Propyl alcohol or ethanol in water. 
Water is required to open up membrane pores of bacteria, which acts as a gateway for Propyl alcohol. 
A 75% v/v solution in water may be used as a hand sanitizer. 
Propyl alcohol is used as a water-drying aid for the prevention of otitis externa, better known as swimmer's ear.

Early uses as an anesthetic:
Although Propyl alcohol can be used for anesthesia, its many negative attributes or drawbacks prohibit this use. 
Propyl alcohol can also be used similarly to ether as a solvent or as an anesthetic by inhaling the fumes or orally. 

Early uses included using the solvent as general anesthetic for small mammals and rodents by scientists and some veterinarians. 
However, Propyl alcohol was soon discontinued, as many complications arose, including respiratory irritation, internal bleeding, and visual and hearing problems. 
In rare cases, respiratory failure leading to death in animals was observed.

Automotive:
Propyl alcohol is a major ingredient in "gas dryer" fuel additives. 
In significant quantities, water is a problem in fuel tanks, as it separates from gasoline and can freeze in the supply lines at low temperatures. 
Alcohol does not remove water from gasoline, but the alcohol solubilizes water in gasoline. 

Once soluble, water does not pose the same risk as insoluble water, as it no longer accumulates in the supply lines and freezes but is dissolved within the fuel itself. 
Propyl alcohol is often sold in aerosol cans as a windshield or door lock deicer. 
Propyl alcohol is also used to remove brake fluid traces from hydraulic braking systems, so that the brake fluid (usually DOT 3, DOT 4, or mineral oil) does not contaminate the brake pads and cause poor braking. 
Mixtures of Propyl alcohol and water are also commonly used in homemade windshield washer fluid.

Molecular Weight: 60.10 
XLogP3: 0.3     
Hydrogen Bond Donor Count: 1     
Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count: 1     
Rotatable Bond Count: 1     
Exact Mass: 60.057514874     
Monoisotopic Mass: 60.057514874     
Topological Polar Surface Area: 20.2 Ų     
Heavy Atom Count: 4     
Formal Charge: 0 
Complexity: 7.2     
Isotope Atom Count: 0     
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0     
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0     
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0     
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count    : 0     
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count: 1     
Compound Is Canonicalized: Yes     

Propyl alcohol is well known to cause ocular surface irritation, epithelial keratitis and occasional corneal abrasion. 
Most commonly, Propyl alcohol comes into contact with the eye surface during Goldmann applanation tonometry. 
Tonometer tips are frequently cleaned with a wipe saturated in 70% Propyl alcohol or soaked for at least 5 minutes in a 70% solution (the method recommended by the US Center for Disease Control) and applied to the corneal surface. 

If this is done before the alcohol has completely dried, a familiar round epithelial defect, a burning sensation or frank eye pain may ensue. 
Another potential route of ocular injury includes pre-surgical preparation of the peri-ocular skin with alcohol wipes. 
Occupational exposures to Propyl alcohol vapors have been reported to cause eye irritation but no significant injury.

Laboratory:
As a biological specimen preservative, Propyl alcohol provides a comparatively non-toxic alternative to formaldehyde and other synthetic preservatives. 
Propyl alcohol solutions of 70–99% are used to preserve specimens.

Propyl alcohol is often used in DNA extraction. 
A lab worker adds it to a DNA solution to precipitate the DNA, which then forms a pellet after centrifugation. 
This is possible because DNA is insoluble in Propyl alcohol.

Specifications of Propyl alcohol:
Assay (by GC) Min 99.5 %
Calcium (Ca) Max 0.00002 %
Colour APHA Max 10
Copper (Cu) Max 0.000002 %
Ethanol Max 0.01 %
Iron (Fe) Max 0.00001 %
Lead (Pb) Max 0.000002 %
Magnesium (Mg) Max 0.00001 %
Methanol Max 0.005 %
Potassium (K) Max 0.00002 %
Propan-2-ol Max 0.005 %
Residue after evaporation (ppm) Max 10
Sodium (Na) Max 0.0001 %
Substances darkened by H2SO4
(APHA) Max 10

Inhalation: Leave the contaminated area immediately and take deep breaths of fresh air. 
If symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, or burning in the mouth, throat or chest develop, call a doctor.

Contact with Skin: Flood the skin with water. 
Remove and isolate contaminated clothing. 
Gently and thoroughly wash all affected skin areas with soap and water. 
Call a doctor if symptoms such as redness or irritation develop.

Contact with Eyes: Check the victim for contact lenses; remove if present. 
Flush eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20-30 minutes and call a hospital or the poison control center. 
Do not put any ointments, oils or medication in the victim’s eyes without instructions from a doctor. 
Transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms such as redness or irritation develop.

Ingestion: Do not induce vomiting; volatile chemicals have a high risk of being aspirated into the lungs during vomiting. 
If the victim is conscious and not convulsing, give 1-2 glasses of water to dilute the chemical. 
Call a hospital or the poison control center. 

If the victim is convulsing or unconscious, do not give anything by mouth, ensure that the victim’s airway is open and lay the victim on his or her side with the head lower than the body. 
Refer to a material safety data sheet (MSDS).
Proper Handling and Storage Procedures 

Before working with isopropyl alcohol, individuals should be trained in its proper handling and storage and know how to use proper personal protective equipment. 
Store the compound in a tightly closed container in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. 
Keep away from heat, sparks, flames and other sources of ignition, as well as strong oxidizers, acetaldehyde, chlorine, ethylene oxide, acids and isocyanates. 
A flammable safety cabinet is the best storage option.

Isopropyl alcohol is highly flammable and can easily ignite. 
Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air, traveling to a source of ignition and flash back. 
Use of water spray to fight fires may be inefficient.

Personal Protective Equipment 
Clothing: Avoid skin contact with Propyl alcohol. 
Wear chemical-resistant clothing and protective gloves compatible with isopropyl alcohol. 
Nitrile gloves are best suited for prolonged contact, but Silvershield/4H gloves are also acceptable. 
Check with the glove manufacturer for recommended use and duration guidelines.

Eye Protection: Employees should use indirect vented splash goggles when there is any possibility of Propyl alcohol exposure. 
A gravity-feed eyewash or plumbed eyewash should be located within 10 seconds of the hazard location.

Respiratory Protection: Engineering controls should be implemented to reduce environmental concentrations to the OSHA time weighted average (400 ppm). 
Use respirators when engineering and work practice controls are not feasible or are being installed. 
Respiratory protection should be NIOSH approved for isopropyl alcohol and used in accordance with the OSHA Respiratory Protection Standard, 29 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) 1910.134. 

The appropriate cartridge for isopropyl alcohol protection is organic vapor. 
Any exposure over the allowed exposure for the cartridge style used or of unknown concentrations, such as uncontrolled releases, the user must don a supplied air respirator, such as an airline respirator, an ambient air pump system or a pressure-demand SCBA. 
Limit respirator use to those who have been medically cleared, adequately trained and fitted for the respirator face piece.

Clinical significance
Isopropyl alcohol is well known to cause ocular surface irritation, epithelial keratitis and occasional corneal abrasion. 
Most commonly, Propyl alcohol comes into contact with the eye surface during Goldmann applanation tonometry. 
Tonometer tips are frequently cleaned with a wipe saturated in 70% Propyl alcohol or soaked for at least 5 minutes in a 70% solution (the method recommended by the US Center for Disease Control) and applied to the corneal surface. 

If this is done before the alcohol has completely dried, a familiar round epithelial defect, a burning sensation or frank eye pain may ensue. 
Another potential route of ocular injury includes pre-surgical preparation of the peri-ocular skin with alcohol wipes. 
Occupational exposures to Propyl alcohol vapors have been reported to cause eye irritation but no significant injury.

Propyl alcohol is twice as potent as ethanol in terms of CNS depression. 
Altered mental status, when it occurs, typically manifests within 2 hours of ingestion. 
Hypotension may occur due to diuresis, peripheral vasodilation, and myocardial depression. 

In addition to an osmolal gap, ketonemia or ketonuria may occur. 
Propyl alcohol is metabolized to acetone by alcohol dehydrogenase without the production of significant metabolic acidosis but may lead to hypoglycemia in young children, as was described for ethanol. 
Gastritis is common after ingestion. 

Patient care is supportive. 
The risks and benefits of hemodialysis may be considered for comatose patients with blood isopropanol levels exceeding 500 mg/dl.

Safety
Propyl alcohol vapor is denser than air and is flammable, with a flammability range of between 2 and 12.7% in air. 
Propyl alcohol should be kept away from heat and open flame.
Distillation of Propyl alcohol over magnesium has been reported to form peroxides, which may explode upon concentration.
Propyl alcohol causes eye irritation and is a potential allergen.
Wearing protective gloves is recommended.

Propyl alcohol is a structural isomer of propanol and has the molecular formula of C3H8O, CAS: 67-63-0.  
Propyl alcohol is a clear, colourless liquid and has a distinctive strong alcohol or acetone-like odour.  
Propyl alcohol is highly flammable, with a flashpoint of around 11 – 13° C.  
Propyl alcohol is soluble in most solvents, including water.

Production of Propyl alcohol:
Propyl alcohol is chemically manufactured by combining water and propene through indirect hydration or direct hydration.  
The indirect hydration method is a reaction between propene and sulphuric acid to create sulphate esters.  
Propyl alcohol then undergoes hydrolysis.  
This method can use a low quality propene because of the mixture with sulphuric acid.  

The direct method manufactures the product by reacting propene and water in with an acid catalyst.  
The propene for this method needs to be of a high quality.  
In both the above methods, the mixture of water and by-products need to go through a distillation process to separate out the iso propanol.

Uses of Propyl alcohol:
The largest use of Propyl alcohol is as a solvent, cleaning product and a chemical intermediate.  
Propyl alcohol can be found in paints, thinners for wood furnishings, inks, cosmetics, toiletries, household cleaning products, specialist cleaning products and room sprays.  
Propyl alcohol can also be used as an anti-freeze and plays an important part in making the water component of petrol more soluble so that it doesn’t freeze.  
Propyl alcohol can also be used as a biological specimen.

TYPICAL SPECIFICATIONS of Propyl alcohol:
MARKET: Solvents, Featured Stocked Products
CLASS: Alcohols
MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 60.10
APPEARANCE: Clear colorless liquid
DENSITY: 0.8 g/cm3
ASSAY: ≥99.5 %
BOILING POINT: 96.5 - 98 °C
MELTING POINT: -127 °C
FLASH POINT: 15 °C

Toxicology of Propyl alcohol:
Propyl alcohol, via its metabolites, is somewhat more toxic than ethanol, but considerably less toxic than ethylene glycol or methanol. 
Death from ingestion or absorption of even relatively large quantities is rare. 
Both Propyl alcohol and its metabolite, acetone, act as central nervous system (CNS) depressants.
Poisoning can occur from ingestion, inhalation, or skin absorption. 

Symptoms of Propyl alcohol poisoning include flushing, headache, dizziness, CNS depression, nausea, vomiting, anesthesia, hypothermia, low blood pressure, shock, respiratory depression, and coma.
Overdoses may cause a fruity odor on the breath as a result of its metabolism to acetone.
Propyl alcohol does not cause an anion gap acidosis, but it produces an osmolal gap between the calculated and measured osmolalities of serum, as do the other alcohols.

Propyl alcohol is oxidized to form acetone by alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver and has a biological half-life in humans between 2.5 and 8.0 hours.
Unlike methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning, the metabolites of isopropyl alcohol are considerably less toxic, and treatment is largely supportive. 
Furthermore, there is no indication for the use of fomepizole, an alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor, unless co-ingestion with methanol or ethylene glycol is suspected.
In forensic pathology, people who have died as a result of diabetic ketoacidosis usually have blood concentrations of isopropyl alcohol of tens of mg/dL, while those by fatal Propyl alcohol ingestion usually have blood concentrations of hundreds of mg/dL.

Preferred IUPAC name
Propan-1-ol

Other names
n-Propyl alcohol
n-Propanol
n-PrOH
Ethyl carbinol
1-Hydroxypropane
Propionic alcohol
Propionyl alcohol
Propionylol
Propyl alcohol
Propylic alcohol
Propylol

1-propanol
propanol
Propan-1-ol
Propyl alcohol
n-propanol
71-23-8
n-Propyl alcohol
ethylcarbinol
1-hydroxypropane
optal
osmosol extra
Policosanol
Propylic alcohol
Propanol-1
1-Propyl alcohol
n-Propan-1-ol
Propanolen
Propanole
Alcohol, propyl
Propanoli
Ethyl carbinol
Alcool propilico
Alcool propylique
n-Propyl alkohol
Propylowy alkohol
1-PROPONOL
propane-1-ol
propylalcohol
142583-61-7
NSC 30300
n-PrOH
UNII-96F264O9SV
Propylan-propyl alcohol
MFCD00002941
CHEBI:28831
96F264O9SV
UN 1274
1-Propanol, anhydrous
Albacol
POL
Propanole [German]
Propanolen [Dutch]
Propanol, 1-
Propanoli [Italian]
Propyl alcohol, normal
Caswell No. 709A
FEMA Number 2928
Propyl alcohol (natural)
1 Propanol
Alcool propilico [Italian]
Alcool propylique [French]
n-Propyl alkohol [German]
Propylowy alkohol [Polish]
FEMA No. 2928
CCRIS 3202
HSDB 115
EINECS 200-746-9
UN1274
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 047502
BRN 1098242
Hydroxypropane
ethyl methanol
n-propylalcohol
normal propanol
n-Propylalkohol
AI3-16115
3-propanol
nPrOH
HOPr
PrOH
normal propyl alcohol
N-Propanol ACS grade
n-C3H7OH
1-Propanol, HPLC Grade
DSSTox_CID_1739
bmse000446
1-Propanol, >=99%
EC 200-746-9
DSSTox_RID_76299
DSSTox_GSID_21739
WLN: Q3
4-01-00-01413 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
62309-51-7
CHEMBL14687
1-Propanol, analytical standard
1-Propanol, JIS special grade
1-Propanol, >=99%, FG
1-Propanol, LR, >=99%
DTXSID2021739
1-Propanol, >=99.80%
BDBM36153
Propyl Alcohol (Fragrance Grade)
1-Propanol, anhydrous, 99.7%
1-Propanol, p.a., 99.5%
ZINC895969
1-Propanol, AR, >=99.5%
AMY11110
NSC30300
Tox21_302440
1-Propanol, Spectrophotometric Grade
LMFA05000101
n-Propanol or propyl alcohol, normal
NSC-30300
STL264225
1-Propanol, natural, >=98%, FG
Hydroxypropyl cellulose-SL (HPC-SL)
1-Propanol, >=99% (GC), purum
AKOS000249219
1-Propanol, for HPLC, >=99.5%
1-Propanol, for HPLC, >=99.9%
DB03175
MCULE-6252105126
1-Propanol, ACS reagent, >=99.5%
1-Propanol, HPLC grade, >=99.5%
CAS-71-23-8
1-Propanol, purum, >=99.0% (GC)
NCGC00255163-01
1-Propanol 100 microg/mL in Acetonitrile
1-Propanol, SAJ first grade, >=99.0%
Propyl Alcohol (Normal) Reagent Grade ACS
FT-0608280
FT-0608281
FT-0627482
P0491
1-Propanol, UV HPLC spectroscopic, 99.0%
C05979
Q14985
A837125
J-505102
1-Propanol, for inorganic trace analysis, >=99.8%
1-Propanol, B&J Brand (product of Burdick & Jackson)
F0001-1829
Z955123580
1-Propanol, puriss. p.a., Reag. Ph. Eur., >=99.5% (GC)
1-Propanol, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
n-Propanol or propyl alcohol, normal [UN1274] [Flammable liquid]
1-Propanol, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Materia
5VQ
71-31-8
albacol
alcohol, propyl
alcool propilico
alcool propylique
ethyl carbinol
ethyl carbinol (natural)
hydroxypropane
1-hydroxypropane
optal
osmosol extra
propan-1-ol
N-propan-1-ol
propane-1-ol
propanol
1-propanol
N-propanol
nat.propanol
propanol natural
N-propanol natural
propanol synthetic
propanol-1
1-propyl alcohol
N-propyl alcohol
propyl alcohol natural
N-propyl alcohol natural
N-propyl alkohol
N-propylalkohol
propylic alcohol
propylowy alkohol

Regulatory process names:
1-Propanol
1-propanol
n-Propanol
n-propanol
n-PROPANOL (PROPYL ALCOHOL, NORMAL)
Propan-1-ol
Propan-1-ol
propan-1-ol
propan-1-ol; n-propanol

Translated names:
1-пропанол (bg)
alkohol propylowy (pl)
n-propanol (cs)
n-propanol (da)
n-Propanol (de)
n-propanol (es)
n-propanol (fr)
n-propanol (hr)
n-propanol (hu)
n-propanol (mt)
n-propanol (nl)
n-propanol (no)
n-propanol (pl)
n-propanol (pt)
n-propanol (ro)
n-propanol (sl)
n-propanol (sv)
n-propanoli (fi)
n-propanolis (lt)
n-propanolo (it)
n-propanols (lv)
n-propanool (et)
n-προπανόλη (el)
n-пропанол (bg)
Propaan-1-ol (nl)
propaan-1-ol (nl)
Propaan-1-ool (et)
propaan-1-ool (et)
propan-1-ol (cs)
propan-1-ol (da)
Propan-1-ol (de)
Propan-1-ol (es)
propan-1-ol (es)
Propan-1-ol (hr)
propan-1-ol (hr)
Propan-1-ol (mt)
propan-1-ol (mt)
Propan-1-ol (no)
propan-1-ol (no)
Propan-1-ol (pl)
propan-1-ol (pl)
Propan-1-ol (pt)
propan-1-ol (pt)
Propan-1-ol (ro)
propan-1-ol (ro)
Propan-1-ol (sl)
propan-1-ol (sl)
Propan-1-ol (sv)
propan-1-ol (sv)
propan-1-ol;n-propanol (fr)
Propan-1-oli (fi)
Propan-1-olis (lt)
propan-1-olis (lt)
Propan-1-olo (it)
propan-1-olo (it)
Propane-1-ol (fr)
propanol (sk)
Propán-1-ol (hu)
propán-1-ol (hu)
propán-1-ol (sk)
Propān-1-ols (lv)
propān-1-ols (lv)
Προπαν-1-όλη (el)
προπαν-1-όλη (el)
Пропан-1-ол (bg)

CAS names:
1-Propanol

IUPAC names:
1-Propanol
1-propanolo
2propan-1-ol
n-Propanol
n-propanol
n-Propanol
n-propanol
N-propyl alcohol
n-Propyl Alcohol
n-Propyl alcohol, 1-Propanol
propan- 1-olo
PROPAN-1-OL
Propan-1-ol
propan-1-ol
Propan-1-ol
propan-1-ol
Propan-1-ol (n-Propanol)
propan-1-ol; n-propanol
propan-1-oln-propanol
Propanol
Propanol
PROPYL ALCOHOL
Propyl alcohol
Tyzor NPZ

Trade names:
1-Hydroxypropan
1-Hydroxypropane
1-Propanol
1-Propanol (9CI)
Ethylcarbinol
n-Propanol
n-propanol
n-Propyl alcohol
Propan-1-ol
propan-1-ol
Propanol
Propanol-1
Propyl alcohol (8CI)
Propylalkohol
Propylol

Other identifiers:
603-003-00-0
71-23-8
 

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