STPP = Sodium tripolyphosphate = Pentasodium triphosphate= Pentasodium tripolyphosphate = E451

EC / List no.: 231-838-7
CAS no.: 7758-29-4
Mol. formula: H5O10P3.5Na

Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) is a solid inorganic compound used in a large variety of household cleaning products, mainly as a builder, but also in human foodstuffs, animal feeds, industrial cleaning processes and ceramics manufacture. 
STPP is widely used in regular and compact laundry detergents (powder, liquid, gel, tablets), automatic dishwashing detergents (powder, liquid, gel, tablets), toilet cleaners, and surface cleaners, and provides a number of functions including sequestration of “water hardness” enabling surfactants to function effectively, pH buffering, dirt emulsification and prevention of deposition, hydrolysis of grease, and dissolving-dispersing dirt particles

STPP is a useful component of several types of detergent compositions, to which it contributes sequestering, deflocculating, and alkaline buffering action. 
As Sodium tripolyphosphate is somewhat hygroscopic, material from a partly empty container should be transferred to one which can be sealed against atmospheric moisture. 
Although not considered dangerous to handle, STPP should not be allowed to contact the skin for a prolonged period. 

STPP is used as a preservative for poultry, meat, and seafood. STPP is also added, along with other sodium polyphosphates, to processed cheeses as an emulsifier. 
The polyphosphates are negatively charged chains of phosphorus and oxygen that attract water molecules. 
When added to the cheese, they remove calcium from casein matrix and also bind themselves to the casein while bringing moisture with them. 
The effect is that the polyphosphates loosen the protein matrix helping keep the mixture emulsified and ensure even melting. 
This applies to other uses such as force-meats: STPP will help prevent the poultry, fish, or meat from becoming greasy and falling apart during heating.

Sodium tripolyphosphate, also known as pentasodium triphosphate, pentasodium tripolyphosphate or sodium triphosphate, is used in a wide range of applications in the manufacture of cleaning products and food preservatives as well as in water treatment facilities.

Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) is the most widely used builder and, in conjunction with surfactants, allows modern detergents to perform efficiently in all washing conditions, allowing the use of other essential ingredients to be minimised.
STTP also plays a number of other roles in detergents including maintaining alkalinity during washing (assists the removal of fatty soils), protection the washing machine against corrosion, helping to suspend dirt in the wash water and prevent it redeposing on fabrics.

Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) — is widely used as a component for the production of synthetic detergents, water treatment, as well as in the ceramic, paint, varnish and other industries

Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) is an alkaline salt that will raise the pH of meats and seafood, enough to increase their water-holding capacity. 

Sodium tripolyphosphate is a solid, inorganic compound present in the form of slightly hygroscopic granules. 
The stable form of STPP is the hexahydrated salt.

The anhydrous salt exists in two crystalline forms called Phase 1 and Phase 2. 
The amount of each phase in a product depends on the calcination temperature in the production process.
Bulk densities range from 0.45 to 1.15 g/cm3. 
Depending on the use of STPP, products of different bulk densities, percentage of hydrated forms, percentage of Phase 1/Phase 2 forms, are commercialised. 

Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) is an inorganic compound, component of many domestic and industrial products because of its chelating, emulsifying and preservative properties.

Sodium tripolyphosphate Na5P3O10 (STPP) is a condensed phosphate that plays an essential role, mostly in the synthetic detergent sector. 
It is the main component of detergents in laundering and dishwashing (industrial, institutional, and domestic). 
STPP applied as a filling material and supplemented with surfactants acts as a very efficient detergent.

Sodium tripolyphosphate has been applied as a dispersing agent in ceramic processing and can also be used as an inexpensive plasticizer in cement-based materials (Goberis et al. 2005; Ltifi et al. 2011; Tan et al. 2014). 
STPP finds applications in the food industry as an additive to meat products, as an additive to seafood, and as a conservation agent of foodstuffs, for example, fruit juice or milk. 
With an increase in STPP applications in industry, there is also an increase in demand for it, and the global sodium tripolyphosphate market is expected to increase up to 8.1 billion USD in 2022. 
About 70% of the total demand for STPP has been recorded in Asia–Pacific, European, and Latin American countries

Other Names
Pentasodium triphosphate
Sodium Tripolyphosphate - 
Sodium Triphosphate
Stpp, Pentasodium Triphosphate
Triphosphoric acid, pentasodium salt
Metaphosphoric acid (H3P3O9), trisodium salt

Use Applications
In household cleaning products, sodium tripolyphosphate is used most widely as builder. 
In conjunction with surfactants, it allows detergents to perform efficiently in all washing conditions. 
It is widely used in laundry detergents, dishwasher detergents, industrial and institutional detergents. 
Household cleaning applications are estimated by industry to account for 90-95% of STPP use in Europe.

STPP fulfils several important functions in detergents:
•Sodium tripolyphosphate inhibits the effects of calcium and magnesium salts present in hard water and in soils by sequestering these ions.
•Sodium tripolyphosphate re-dissolves calcium and magnesium compounds present in the washing machine from previous washes.
•Sodium tripolyphosphate prevents the deposit of calcium and magnesium incrustations on the washing machine’s heating elements.
•Sodium tripolyphosphate avoids re-deposition of dirt and incrustations on fabrics
•Sodium tripolyphosphate stabilises alkalinity at the correct level throughout the washing process.
•Sodium tripolyphosphate helps break up large particles of dirt into smaller ones, which can be washed out.
•Sodium tripolyphosphate hydrolyses grease and oils, facilitating their removal in the washing process
•Sodium tripolyphosphate helps the efficient manufacture, storage and use of detergents by stabilising their physical properties.
•Sodium tripolyphosphate facilitates dissolving of detergents.

The STPP content of P-containing household cleaning products is given in the human health assessment part
In addition, STPP has other uses as : industrial cleaning processes, food additive (food processing, baking, food additive …), animal feeds and ceramics manufacture. 
These uses are relatively minor compared to household and are outside the scope of HERA and therefore will not be considered in this risk assessment.

Major production of STPP is used in manufacture of commercial detergents where it serves as a water softener. In food, STPP is a preservative for seafood, meats, poultry, and animal feeds. It is also used as an emulsifier and to retain moisture. Other uses include ceramics, leather tanning , anticaking, setting retarders, flame retardants, paper, anticorrosion pigments, textiles, rubber manufacture, fermentation, antifreeze.

manufacture, fermentation, antifreeze.
Ceramic Industry
Chemical Industry
Food Ingredients
Leather Treatment

As consumer demand for detergent performance grows, so do expectations for low environmental impact detergent options. 
At the same time, environmental regulations are becoming more stringent in many countries, making it necessary for formulators to produce detergents that reduce potential negative impacts on wastewater and water ways, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 
Sodium Tripolyphosphate (STPP) is a traditional multipurpose ingredient in powder detergents. 
Because it contains phosphate, STPP can cause eutrophication and algae bloom if wastewater from washing machines merges into water bodies without the right treatment. 
If alternative detergent ingredients can be found to reduce the amount of STPP, aquatic environments should benefit. 
However, in order to be accepted by consumers, these alternatives need to have similar or improved wash performance, and not impose increased costs on detergents. 
Enzymes are a viable solution to this puzzle. 
New enzyme solutions have already been developed that open the door to cost-neutral opportunities for formulators to replace or supplement traditional chemicals with small amounts of enzymes. 
Enzymes are used for deep cleaning, stain removal, whiteness, and fabric and colour care. 
They are efficient at both low and high wash temperatures. 
By using enzymes it is possible to reduce the amount of other detergent ingredients, and to reduce the wash temperature without compromising performance

Sodium tripolyphosphate, STPP, is a chemical often used to soak seafood so that it will appear more firm and glossy. 
Sodium tripolyphosphate is also known as pentasodium salt or triphosphoric acid. 
STPP is also an ingredient in detergents and soaps. 
Most gel, liquid, tablet, and powder forms of both laundry and dishwasher detergent contain STPP. 
As a food, it is generally regarded as safe, but large ingested amounts of the product can be toxic.

Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) with formula Na5P3O10, is the sodium salt of triphosphoric acid. 

Sodium tripolyphosphat is a water soluble, white, odourless powder or granules material. 
STPP is most commonly used as a builder in detergent and cleaning formulations as it enhances their cleaning power. 

Sodium tripolyphosphat also acts as a water softener. 
Sodium tripolyphosphate acts as a Sequestrant for alkaline metals, scale control, corrosion control, softening, lead control, red and black water control.


Uses for sodium tripolyphosphate

It is used as a builder in soaps and detergents, improving their cleansing ability.

STPP is a solid inorganic compound used in a large variety of household cleaning products, mainly as a builder, but also in industrial cleaning processes and ceramics manufacture. 
STPP is widely used in regular and compact laundry detergents and automatic dishwashing detergents (in powder, liquid, gel and/or tablet form), toilet cleaners, surface cleaners, and coffee urn cleaners. 
Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) also provides a number of chemical functions including: sequestration of "water hardness", enabling surfactants to function effectively; pH buffering; dirt emulsification and prevention of deposition; hydrolysis of grease; and dissolving-dispersing dirt particles

Properties of sodium tripolyphosphate: 

CAS No: 7758-29-4
EINECS No: 231-838-7
Other Names: Sodium tripolyphosphate; STPP; STP; sodium triphosphate; TPP; Pentasodium triphosphate;
Appearance: White 
Formula: Na5P3O10
Molar Mass: 367.86 g mol/1
Melting point: 622 oC
Solubility: soluble in water 145 g/L @25C
pH: 9.5 - 10.3 (10% solution)

Health & Safety
R-phrase(s): R36/37/38 Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin.
S-phrase(s): S26 In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. S36 Wear suitable protective clothing

Sodium tripolyphosphate is used in a variety of cleaning products. 
Sodium tripolyphosphate improves the ability of various ingredients in the detergent to penetrate the fibers of clothes (as well as other surfaces and materials to be cleaned) more deeply, and aids in foaming and bubbling. 
Therefore, most chemical plants that make sodium tripolyphosphate list "detergents" as the primary area of use for this chemical.

Sodium tripolyphosphate, also known as pentasodium triphosphate, pentasodium tripolyphosphate or sodium triphosphate, is used in a wide range of applications in the manufacture of cleaning products and food preservatives as well as in water treatment facilities.

Sodium tripolyphosphate is a sodium salt of triphosphoric acid. STPP is manufactured in chemical laboratories by mixing disodium phosphate and monosodium phosphate.

A Powerful Cleaning Agent
Sodium tripolyphosphate is used in a variety of cleaning products. 
Sodium tripolyphosphate improves the ability of various ingredients in the detergent to penetrate the fibers of clothes (as well as other surfaces and materials to be cleaned) more deeply, and aids in foaming and bubbling. Therefore, most chemical plants that make sodium tripolyphosphate list "detergents" as the primary area of use for this chemical.

Food Additive
Sodium tripolyphosphate also gives a fresh appearance to meat and seafood while slowing down spoilage. 
Sodium tripolyphosphate helps to preserve the natural color of meat and fish and improves their texture. 
This is done by improving the water-holding capacity of animal products and consequently slowing down their drying

Tanning Agent for Leather
Sodium tripolyphosphate is listed as a tanning agent for leather. 
Interestingly, Sodium tripolyphosphate is also used as an oil contamination resistance agent in paper production. 
So, STPP can both help manufacturers apply the right color to a medium as well as keep unwanted color away.

Other Uses
Other uses of sodium tripolyphosphate include petroleum refining, metallurgy, mine applications and water treatment. 
The last application is made possible by its pH buffering ability, meaning that it can "soften" acidic water by neutralizing its acidity. 
This quality is one of the reasons it is added to detergents.

STPP (phosphates) fulfil several important functions in detergents : - counteract the effects of calcium and magnesium salts present in hard water and in soils, thus allowing surfactants to function correctly. 
Phosphates prevent these ions combining with surfactants and rendering these inactive. 
They also condense to increase the surface activity of surfactants. 
Phosphates thus enable the detergent to actually wash correctly. - prevent the deposit of calcium and magnesium incrustations on fabrics and on the washing machine’s heating elements - stabilise alkalinity at the correct level throughout the washing process thus giving good soil removal and enabling the other components of the detergents to function effectively - "anti-redeposition" properties. 
Phosphates help break up large particles of dirt into smaller ones, which can be washed out, and they help prevent fine dirt particles from combining and thus keep them in suspension in the wash water. 
Phosphates also help emulsify oily materials. 
Deposits on fabrics trap dirt and provide a breeding ground for bacteria. 
In addition, they cause washed fabrics to become harsh, grey, and to wear out more quickly - help the efficient manufacture, storage and use of detergents by stabilising detergents' physical properties. - facilitate dissolving of detergents. 
Phosphates are highly soluble, and so facilitate and accelerate the dissolution of the detergent in the wash water, ensuring optimal performance. 
This is particularly important in tablet formulations, where the tablets must remain hard to handle, but dissolve very rapidly on contact with the wash water in order to disperse the concentrated surfactants they contain. - redissolve calcium and magnesium compounds present in the washing machine from previous washes, thus reactivating any remaining detergents and improving detergent performance. 
No other single chemical offers all, or even most, of these different properties, so that P-free detergents systematically contain a number of “ new” chemicals as well as necessitating a complete change and reinforcement of other elements of the formulation.

Sodium tripolyphosphate Chemical Properties,Uses and Production

detergent builders
Sodium tripolyphosphate is a kind of excellent detergent additives, the largest amount of detergent in the production process is set, its role has four aspects:
1. the effect of heavy metal ion chelate: heavy metal ions in the process of washing water, can combine detergent molecules to form insoluble metal salt,reduce the washing ability, even complete loss of function. Therefore, it is necessary to add chelating agent, which can make water containing heavy metal ions into harmless substancesin the detergent. Sodium tripolyphosphate has strong chelation for heavy metal ions, sealing them and eliminating the adverse effects on the washing. In addition, it can capture dirt contained various metals in washing process, playing the role of dissociation of dirt, used as soap synergist and preventing bar soap grease precipitation and bloom.
2. The dirt on his gum, emulsifying and dispersing effect: Dirt often contain body fluids (mainly protein and fat like substances), also contains the sand from the outside world, dust etc.. Sodium tripolyphosphate has the expansion, solubilization on dirt protein, and the effect of the glue solution; emulsification of fat promotes; has dispersing effect on solid dirt, strong emulsification of lubricating oil and fat, can be used to adjust the pH value of buffer liquid soap.
3. prevent caking of detergent: Synthetic detergent powder is hygroscopic, such as stored in high humidity areas, it is necessary to caking phenomenon. Using detergent agglomerates is inconvenient. While the water absorption of sodium tripolyphosphate formed the hexahydrate, with characteristics of dry. When there is extensive use of detergent formulations, it can serve to prevent caking phenomenon caused by moisture absorption, keeping dry granular of the synthetic detergent.
4. It has a larger buffer alkaline washing solution, pH value is maintained at about 9.4, which is conducive to the removal of acidic dirt.

Chemical Properties
Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) is a white powder, soluble in water, its water solution is alkaline. Sodium tripolyphosphate is a crystalline inorganic salt that can exist in two anhydrous crystalline forms (phase I and phase II) or a hydrous form (Na5P3O10 . 6H2O). 
STPP is used in a large variety of household cleaning products, mainly as a builder, but also in human foodstuffs, animal feeds, industrial cleaning processes and ceramics manufacture.

1. Sodium tripolyphosphate is used for meat processing, synthetic detergent formulations, textile dyeing, also used as dispersing agent, solvent etc.

2. Sodium tripolyphosphate is used as soft water, also used in confectionery industry.

3. Sodium tripolyphosphate is used as power stations, locomotive vehicle, boiler and a fertilizer plant cooling water treatment, water softener. 
It has strong ability to Ca2+ collaterals, per 100g to complex 19.5g calcium , and because SHMP chelation and adsorption dispersion destroyed the normal process of calcium phosphate crystal growth, it prevents the formation of calcium phosphate scale. Dosage is 0.5 mg/L, prevent that scaling rate is up to 95%~100%.

4. Modifier; emulsifier; buffer; chelating agent; stabilizer. Mainly for canned ham tenderization; canned broad beans in the Yuba softening. Can also be used as soft water, pH regulator and thickening agent.

5. Sodium tripolyphosphate is used for synergist for soap and preventing bar soap grease precipitation and bloom. Sodium tripolyphosphate has strong emulsification of lubricating oil and fat. 
It can be used for adjusting the value of pH of buffer liquid soap and Industrial water softener. 
Pre tanning agent. Dyeing auxiliaries. Paint, kaolin, magnesium oxide, calcium carbonate, such as industrial in the preparation of suspensions of dispersant. 
Drilling mud dispersant. In paper industry used as anti oil agents.

6. Sodium tripolyphosphate is used for detergents. As additives, synergist for soap and preventing bar soap crystallization and bloom, industrial water soft water, pre tanning agent, dyeing auxiliaries, well digging mud control agent, paper with oil on preventing agent, paint, kaolin, magnesium oxide, calcium carbonate, such as hanging floating fluid treatment effective dispersant. Food grade sodium tripolyphosphate as a variety of meat products, food improver, the clarification of the beverage additives.

7. Sodium tripolyphosphate is Quality improver to improve food complexed metal ions, pH value, increasing ionic strength, thereby improving food focus and water holding capacity. 

Provision of China can be used for dairy products, fish products, poultry products, ice cream and instant noodles, maximum dose is 5.0g/kg; in canned, maximum use juice (taste) beverages and vegetable protein beverage is 1.0g/kg. 

methods of production

1. recrystallization
The industrial sodium tripolyphosphate dissolved in 60~70℃, water solution prepared from 17% to 22%, and filtered to remove the insoluble impurities; and then concentrated by vacuum, cooling crystallization, separation, drying to obtain the product.
Hot phosphoric acid in two steps
In neutralization tank with the consumption of soda ash and food grade phosphoric acid with 50%~60% solution, neutralizing liquid into the intermediate storage tank, pump sent to the spray drying tower for spray drying; powder sent to rotary polymerization furnace, heating to 540~580 ℃ and dehydration polymerization, in air cooling collapse into powder. In aqueous solution of anhydrous ethanol, precipitates six water.
5Na2CO3 +6H3PO4→4Na2HPO4 +2NaH2PO4 +5CO2+5H2O
4Na2HPO4 +2NaH2PO4→2Na5P3O10 +4H2O

2. Two-step thermal process of phosphoric acid will place(55%~60%) phosphate solution via measuring the neutralization tank, heating and the agitator is started under stirring slowly, adding soda ash for neutralization reaction, neutralization tank to maintain 2 molecular hydrogen phosphate disodium on 1 molecular sodium dihydrogen phosphate ratio. The mixed liquid and the high groove into the spray, drying tower, drying and after drying of orthophosphate dry from the tower bottom discharge sent to rotary polymerization furnace, carried away by a gas stove a few dry by the cyclone dust collector to be recycled.
Dry phosphate Is in the furnace and at temperature of 350 to 450℃ polymerization reaction generated sodium tripolyphosphate, after cooling, crushing of refined sodium tripolyphosphate.
5Na2CO3 +6H3PO4→4Na2HPO4 +2NaH2PO4 +5CO2+5H2O
4Na2HPO4 +2NaH2PO4→2Na5P3O10 +4H2O
Wet process phosphoric acid one step will rock phosphate and sulfate reaction of phosphoric acid and soda ash used in removing fluoride can remove the fluosilicic acid, in the desulfurization tank with barium carbonate to remove sulfate, in order to reduce the sodium sulfate content in phosphoric acid.
Then using sodium carbonate for neutralization. 
After filtration to a large number of iron, aluminum and other impurities. 
The fine tuning, filtering, income of containing a certain proportion of hydrogen phosphate, sodium and sodium dihydrogen phosphate solution in the evaporator concentrate to comply with requirements of the polymeric material spraying. The slurry sprayed into the rotary polymerization furnace, by hot air spray drying and aggregation. After cooling, crushing, sieving of sodium tripolyphosphate product.

3. Hydrogen phosphate disodium salt and sodium dihydrogen phosphate are mixed and heated to 110℃ dehydration and continue heating to 540~580℃, dehydration and stable particle type; as heating to 620 ℃, melting cooling to 550 ℃, then cooled in the air, is disintegrated into the powder type. Ethanol in water solution to get six water.

4. Sodium dihydrogen phosphate method will put dihydrogen phosphate adding polymerizer, heating to 700 ℃, dehydrated 15~30min. Then it is quenched in cold water and processing.

Phosphoric anhydride method
After yellow phosphorus is fused heating tank, enters the combustion furnace, oxided of phosphorus and precipitation. Cools, remove phosphoric anhydride (P2O5). Phosphoric anhydride and sodium carbonate according to 1: 0.8 (mol) cool in a blender mixing into graphite crucible. In 750 to 800 ℃ for indirect heating, dehydration after polymerization to get six partial sodium phosphate melt. Put it into the intraday quench cooling, and get the glass and transparent sodium hexametaphosphate.

Chemical Properties
white or colourless crystals, granules or powder

Sodium tripolyphosphate is a binder, stabilizer, and sequestrant that is mildly alkaline, with a pH of 10, and moderately soluble in water, with a solubility of 15g in 100ml of water at 25°C. It is used to improve the whipping properties of egg-containing angel food cake mix and meringues. It reduces gelling of juices and canned ham and tenderizes canned peas and lima beans. It is a moisture binder in cured pork and protects against discoloration and reduces shrinkage in sausage products. In algin desserts, it functions as a calcium sequestrant. Sodium tripolyphosphate is also termed pentasodium tripolyphosphate and sodium triphosphate.
Sodium tripolyphosphate

Purification Methods
Purify it by repeated precipitation from aqueous solution by slow addition of MeOH and dried in air. Also a solution of anhydrous sodium tripolyphosphate (840g) in water (3.8L) is filtered, MeOH (1.4L) is added with vigorous stirring to precipitate Na5P3O10.6H2O. The precipitate is collected on a filter, air dried by suction, then left to dry in air overnight. It is crystallised twice more in this way, using a 13% aqueous solution (w/w), and leaching the crystals with 200mL portions of water [Watters et al. J Am Chem Soc 78 4855 1956]. Similarly, EtOH can be added to precipitate the salt from a filtered 12-15% aqueous solution, the final solution containing ca 25% EtOH (v/v). Air drying should be at a relative humidity of 40-60%. Heat and vacuum drying should be avoided. [Quimby J Phys Chem 58 603 1954, Klement in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I p 547 1963.]

Sodium tripolyphosphate Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials
Phosphate rock powder Barium carbonate Industrial sodium tripolyphosphate Hexafluorosilicic acid Phosphoric acid ROCK PHOSPHATE Ammonium nitrate Agitator Dust settling pocket Pentasodium triphosphate hexhydrate GRAPHITE, FUSION CRUCIBLE, DRILLPOINT, UNPURIFIED, VOLUME 7.88CC phosphoric acid by wet process Sodium hydroxide White phosphorus 2 DIESEL FUEL Desulfurization Phosphorus Phosphorus pentoxide Sulfuric acid Sodium carbonate

Preparation Products
Synthetic detergent Detergent,industrial Detergent Tableware cleaner Cleaning agent

Pentasodium triphosphate
pentasodium triphosphate
Pentasodium tripolyphosphate
CAS names
Triphosphoric acid, sodium salt (1:5)

IUPAC names
diphosphono hydrogen phosphate
pentasodium [oxido(phosphonatooxy)phosphoryl] phosphate
pentasodium bis(phosphonatooxy)phosphinate
pentasodium bis(phosphonooxy)phosphinate

Pentasodium triphosphate
Pentasodium tripolyphosphate, Sodium tripolyphosphate pentabasic, Sodium triphosphate pentabasic

pentasodium;[oxido(phosphonatooxy)phosphoryl] phosphate

Sodium Tri Polyphosphate
Sodium Tri polyphosphate
Sodium Tri Polyphosphate, STPP
Sodium tripoliphosphate
Sodium Tripolyphosphate
Sodium tripolyphosphate
Sodium tripolyphosphate
sodium tripolyphosphate
sodium tripolyphosphate ( STPP )
Triphosphoric acid, pentasodium salt

Trade names
Natriumtripolyphosphate S 500
PentaSodium TriPhosphate
Polypray - different commercial grades
sodium triphosphate
Sodium TriPolyPhosphate
Sodium tripolyphosphate
sodium tripolyphosphate anhydrous
Sodium TriPolyPhosphate Phase I Premoistured
Sodium tripolyphosphate, food grade
Sodium tripolyphosphate, technical grade
triphosphoric acid, pentasodium salt
tripolyfosfát sodný

Sodium tripolyphosphate is used in water softening, heavy-duty fabric washing, automatic dish washing, drilling fluid cleaning and liquid cattle feed supplements. 
Sodium tripolyphosphate is also used as a peptizing, emulsifying, dispersing agent and as a hydrogen peroxide solution stabilizer. 
It acts as a preservative for seafood, meats, poultry, and animal feeds. 
It finds application as a polyanion crosslinker in polysaccharide based drug delivery. 
Further, it is used as a sealant for leaking farm ponds and a calcium and magnesium chelating agent. 
In addition to this, it is used in ceramics, leather tanning, flame retardants, paper pulping, paper coatings, textile processing, ore flotation, anticorrosion pigments and rubber production.

Hygroscopic. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents and strong acids. Avoid moisture.

Due to its physico-chemical properties, STPP is not distributed or transported to the atmosphere, and thus is not expected to end up in soil via atmospheric deposition. 
Because it is very water-soluble, it is not significantly transferred to sewage sludge, and therefore to soil by sludge spreading. 
No environmental risk related to STPP use in detergents is indicated in soil or air. 
As an ingredient of household cleaning products, STPP present in domestic waste waters is mainly discharged to the aquatic compartment, directly, via waste water treatment plants, via septic tanks, infiltration or other autonomous waste water systems. 
As STPP is an inorganic substance, biodegradation studies are not applicable. 
However, STPP can be hydrolysed, finally to orthophosphate, which can be assimilated by algae and/or by micro-organisms. 
STPP thus ends up being assimilated into the natural phosphorus cycle. 
Reliable published studies confirm biochemical understanding, showing that STPP is progressively hydrolysed by biochemical activity in contact with waste waters (in sewerage pipes and within sewage works) and also in the natural aquatic environment. 
This information enabled the calculation of “worst case” PEC (Predicted Environmental Concentrations) using the EUSES model and the HERA detergent scenario. 
A default regional release of 10 % was applied instead of the 7 % regional release indicated in the HERA detergent scenario. 

Reliable acute aquatic ecotoxicity studies are available which show that STPP is not toxic to aquatic organisms: all EC/LC50 are above 100 mg/l (daphnia, fish, algae). 
Because of this, and because of the only temporary presence of STPP in the aquatic environment (due to hydrolysis), no studies have been carried out to date concerning the chronic effects of STPP on these aquatic organisms. 
PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentrations) were therefore calculated for the aquatic environment and sediments on the basis of the acute aquatic ecotoxicity results.

HERA Targeted Risk Assessment of Sodium Tripolyphosphate (STPP) – June 2003 DRAFT PEC/PNEC ratio >1 were obtained for STPP in the local water and sediment compartments (2.5 and 3.18 respectively). 
STPP has been used for many years. 
It is an authorised food and drug additive. 
It did not show any acute toxicity effect to the aquatic organisms tested. 
It is anticipated that the PEC/PNEC ratios >1 obtained for the local water and sediment scenarios are the consequence of the use of the 1,000 Assessment Factor in the calculation. 
To refine the aquatic PNEC of STPP, CEEP (Centre Européen d’Etudes des Polyphosphates) has planned acute toxicity tests on Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia, as well as a chronic toxicity test on the most sensitive species if necessary. 
Concerning the possible environmental impact of STPP-based orthophosphate (PO4 3-), a preliminary risk characterisation based on simplified but conservative assumptions was conducted. 
A PEC/PNEC ratio < 1 was obtained for the local water compartment, indicating that orthophosphate resulting from the hydrolysis of STPP does not present a risk for the aquatic environment. 
The eutrophication of surface waters due to nutrient enrichment is not addressed in this document because a PNEC cannot be defined for such effects, which depend on many factors varying spatially and temporally (temperature, light, concentrations of phosphates and of other nutrients, activity of grazer population …).

Sodium tripolyphosphate is produced from phosphate rock. 
Two STPP manufacturing routes are currently used : the thermal route and the wet route.
The thermal route uses high temperature reducing conditions and produces phosphorus vapour from phosphate rocks. 
The phosphorus is then burnt in air to form phosphoric acid.
No STPP for detergent applications is produced by the thermal route.
In the wet process, phosphoric acid is produced by “attacking” phosphate rock with sulphuric acid.
Most imports to Western Europe are in the form of crude phosphoric acid. 
Phosphoric acid is further purified to prepare high purity phosphoric acid.
STPP is prepared from purified phosphoric acid by neutralisation with sodium hydroxide forming sodium hydrogen phosphates. 
Sodium hydrogen phosphates are heated to 500-550 °C to produce STPP. 500-550 °C
NaH2PO4 + 2Na2HPO4 → Na5P3O10 + 2H2O
The amount of STPP which was used in household cleaning products in Europe in 2000, is estimated to be about 300 000 tonnes (communication from AISE). 
STPP consumption in household detergents varies considerably between different countries in Europe.
It should be pointed out that in some countries the STPP use in detergents is almost exclusively concentrated on automatic dishwashing products while in other countries the use in laundry detergents is the overwhelming application.

With the growth of synthetic detergent formulations in the late 1940s, sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) emerged as the predominant choice among detergent builder materials. Detergent builders improve a detergent's cleaning properties by increasing the removal of soil and preventing or minimizing its redeposition during the wash cycle.

But water eutrophication problems in the late 1960s focused environmental attention on the discharge of phosphates from various sources as a principal contributor to the phenomenon. This led to limits or bans on the use of phosphates in detergents by the late 1970s.

Since then, STPP has been removed from all household laundry detergents in the US, excepting regional and private label products. 
Though slowly losing share to zeolites in the industrial and institutional cleaner segment, STPP still maintains a large presence in dishwashing, more or less successfully competing on price against the zeolites. In these applications, STPP has an acknowledged cost-performance advantage over substitutes.

Food-grade STPP continues to do comparatively well with the continuing growth of processed foods - about 1.5%/year. 
In processed foods, STPP provides a variety of useful functions as a curing accelerator, sequestrant, leveling aid or emulsifier, depending on the application.


It appears that the dramatic decline of STPP in the detergent business has ended. 
Where still used in detergents - dishwashing powders and industrial and institutional cleaners - there are no phosphate bans and none are anticipated. With the exception of food, STPP's applications are mature, and little or no growth for these sectors is likely 

Sodium Tripolyphosphate (STPP) in dog food
Sodium Tripolyphosphate (also called STPP or E451) is added to dog foods as a preservative and to help moist foods to retain moisture so that they appear fresher for longer.

Although STPP is generally recognised as safe, it has been listed by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health as a possible neurotoxin and is widely recognised as a mild skin irritant. 
We therefore recommend steering clear of foods containing STPP, especially if your dog is prone to skin problems.

SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE or STPP is an inorganic compound. 
It is the sodium salt of the polyphosphate which is the conjugate base of triphosphoric acid. 
Sodium tripolyphosphate is produced by heating a stoichiometric mixture of disodium phosphate, Na2HPO4 and monosodium phosphate, NaH2PO4 under carefully controlled conditions.

STPP is a very efficient and cost-effective builder. 
As SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE is water soluble, and the hardness removal is by chelation, the process is very fast even at low temperatures. 
Irrespective of these advantages, many countries have stopped using STPP in detergents as it causes environmental problems. 
Phosphates, being essential nutrients, cause excessive fertilization in stagnant waters and slow-flowing rivers, which leads to excessive growth of algae. 
These problems can be avoided by employing a wastewater treatment system that removes the phosphorus.

Laundry Cleaning of Textiles
James Burckett St. Laurent, ... Lieva van Langenhove, in Handbook for Cleaning/Decontamination of Surfaces, 2007
5.4. Builders
Historically, builders [32,33] such as sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) provided a wide range of benefits in detergent formulations including sequestration of calcium and magnesium, provision of alkalinity, transition metal ion complexation, metal oxide colloid stabilisation and provision of substantial surface charge for peptisation and suspension of other soils. 
Builders, as we think of them today, are usually less multifunctional than STPP and are principally materials that bind and neutralise the negative effects of hardness (calcium and magnesium) ions present in the water or in soils. 
As mentioned above, these ions are detrimental because they insolubilise anionic surfactants such as soap (forming soap curd), LAS and AS. 
However, hardness ions also have other detrimental effects. 

They can bind to stains or soils (which often have a negatively charged surface) and prevent their removal; this effect is especially strong on particulate/clay strains. 
Hardness ions can also flocculate soil that is present in the wash solution, and cause its deposition on fabrics. 
The divalent nature of hardness ions is considered to give rise to “bridging” mechanisms.
Thus, the beneficial effect of builders can still in principle be fairly broad in phosphate-free detergents, and includes improvement of the removal of strain belonging to several stain classes (particulates, blood, grass, beverages), and improvement on whiteness maintenance.
The builders can neutralise hardness via a variety of mechanisms. 

Sequestering builders (such as sodium tripolyphosphate, STPP or nitrilotriacetic acid) form soluble complexes with the hardness ions. 
Precipitating builders (such as fatty acids) are soluble materials that form insoluble Ca/Mg salts. 
Finally, ion exchange builders (such as zeolites) are insoluble materials that can bind hardness ions by ion exchange.
The historical builder of choice is STPP. 
It not only provides fast and effective binding of both Ca and Mg ions, but it is also an excellent dispersion/suspension agent for insoluble soils. 
It is also inexpensive and easy to formulate in granular products. 
However, its use is limited or banned in most developed countries because of concerns about its role in the eutrophication of surface water.

The primary replacements for STPP in granular detergents are zeolites. 
These materials are insoluble sodium aluminosilicates, which act by exchanging their sodium with calcium ions. 
They are safe and inexpensive materials, but they suffer from several drawbacks: they bind calcium only, their binding action is quite slow, and they can form visible deposits on fabrics. 
A possible improvement could come in the future from a reduction of zeolite particle size. 
More commonly, these issues are dealt with by adding a second builder, such as citrate or polymers such as polyacrylates, which provide additional soil suspension properties.
Two other builders used in granular formulations are layered silicates (ion exchange builder used in some European granules) and sodium carbonate. 
Both provide alkalinity in addition to builder functionality; the attractiveness of carbonate is somewhat reduced by its slow action and its tendency to produce fabric encrustation.
STPP and zeolites have also been used in liquid formulations. 
However, due to their insolubility in the matrix they need to be incorporated as solids in a “structured” liquid matrix – one capable of suspending them. 
The other common builders used in liquid detergents are citrate and fatty acids, which are soluble and can be more easily processed in heavy-duty liquid detergents.
Citrate is a sequestering builder which is becoming more popular, thanks to good availability and spotless environmental credentials; however, its calcium- and magnesium-binding constants are quite low.

As for fatty acids, the saturated C12–16 materials are most often used; they are versatile materials that can also act as suds suppressors and (in soft water) as surfactants. 
Their main drawback is the low weight efficiency, since two fatty acid molecules are needed to complex one hardness ion.

While builders remain a significant detergent ingredient on a weight percentage basis, the recent trends in detergent design are to reduce builder levels and to increase the use of hardness tolerant surfactants and specific soil dispersing/suspending polymers.

Sodium tripolyphosphate
Pentasodium triphosphate
Sodium triphosphate
Triphosphoric acid, pentasodium salt
Triphosphoric acid, sodium salt (1:5)
Rhodiaphos LV
Thermphos N
Empiphos stp-D
Thermphos SPR
Thermphos L 50
pentasodium;[oxido(phosphonatooxy)phosphoryl] phosphate
Caswell No. 799
Sodium tripolyphosphate, for analysis
Sodium tripolyphosphate, 85%, pure, tech.
Natriumtripolyphosphat [German]
Sodium phosphate (Na5P3O10)
HSDB 1099
Sodium tripolyphosphate, anhydrous
Sodium triphosphate (Na5P3O10)
EINECS 231-838-7
Sodium tripolyphosphate (Na5P3O10)
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 076404
S 400
EC 231-838-7
Sodium tripolyphosphate anhydrous
Sodium tripolyphosphate, technical grade, 85%
Sodium triphosphate pentabasic, purum p.a., >=98.0% (T)
Sodium triphosphate pentabasic, Vetec(TM) reagent grade, 98%
Sodium tripolyphosphate, SAJ first grade, 56.0-61.0% P2O5 basis

Sodium triphosphate (STP), also sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), or tripolyphosphate (TPP) is an inorganic compound with formula Na5P3O10. It is the sodium salt of the polyphosphate penta-anion, which is the conjugate base of triphosphoric acid. It is produced on a large scale as a component of many domestic and industrial products, especially detergents. 
Environmental problems associated with eutrophication are attributed to its widespread use.

Preparation and properties
Sodium tripolyphosphate is produced by heating a stoichiometric mixture of disodium phosphate, Na2HPO4, and monosodium phosphate, NaH2PO4, under carefully controlled conditions.

2 Na2HPO4 + NaH2PO4 → Na5P3O10 + 2 H2O
In this way, approximately 2 million tons are produced annually.

STPP is a colourless salt, which exists both in anhydrous form and as the hexahydrate. The anion can be described as the pentanionic chain [O3POP(O)2OPO3]5−.
Many related di-, tri-, and polyphosphates are known including the cyclic triphosphate P3O93−. It binds strongly to metal cations as both a bidentate and tridentate chelating agent.

Chelation of a metal cation by triphosphate.

The majority of STPP is consumed as a component of commercial detergents. It serves as a "builder," industrial jargon for a water softener. 
In hard water (water that contains high concentrations of Mg2+ and Ca2+), detergents are deactivated. Being a highly charged chelating agent, TPP5− binds to dications tightly and prevents them from interfering with the sulfonate detergent.[3]

STPP is a preservative for seafood, meats, poultry, and animal feeds. It is common in food production as E number E451. 
In foods, STPP is used as an emulsifier and to retain moisture. 
Many governments regulate the quantities allowed in foods, as it can substantially increase the sale weight of seafood in particular. 
The United States Food and Drug Administration lists STPP as "GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe)."

Other uses (hundreds of thousands of tons/year) include ceramics (decrease the viscosity of glazes up to a certain limit), leather tanning (as masking agent and synthetic tanning agent - SYNTAN), anticaking agents, setting retarders, flame retardants, paper, anticorrosion pigments, textiles, rubber manufacture, fermentation, antifreeze."
TPP is used as a polyanion crosslinker in polysaccharide based drug delivery. Toothpaste.

Health effects
High serum phosphate concentration has been identified as a predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality. 
Whilst phosphate is present in the body and food in organic forms, inorganic forms of phosphate such as sodium triphosphate are readily adsorbed and can result in elevated phosphate levels in serum.
Salts of polyphosphate anions are moderately irritating to skin and mucous membranes because they are mildly alkaline.

Environmental effects
Because it is very water-soluble, STPP is not significantly removed by waste water treatment. 
STPP hydrolyses to phosphate, which is be assimilated into the natural phosphorus cycle. 
Detergents containing phosphorus contribute to the eutrophication of many fresh waters.

IUPAC name
Pentasodium triphosphate

sodium tripolyphosphate, polygon, STPP

CAS Number: 7758-29-4 

Chemical formula: Na5P3O10
Molar mass: 367.864 g/mol
Appearance: white powder
Density: 2.52 g/cm3
Melting point: 622 °C (1,152 °F; 895 K)
Solubility in water: 14.5 g/100 mL (25 °C)

Sodium tripolyphosphate is widely used in household as well as industrial cleaning process. 
Detergent builder is the major contributor of the overall STTP consumption. 
Increasing household detergent consumption along with rise in laundry technologies will drive the demand in the forecast period. Household cleaning applications account for more than 80% of the total industry.

High application scope in ceramics, leather tanning and textile industries will positively influence the sodium tripolyphosphate market. 
Increasing consumption as dispersing agent in ceramic processing accompanied by growing uses in cement-based materials will propel the industry growth. The product supports in reduction of glazes to certain limit in ceramic industry. Rising range of applications including paints, paper, toothpaste, flame retardant and rubber has enhanced the product penetration. It is used as oil-resistant agent in paper and pigment dispersant in paints.

Rising demand for compact and regular detergents along with increasing consumption in surface cleaners and toilet cleaners are the factors influencing the price trends. 
Technological advancements in washing machines and automatic dish washers has enhanced the product development. 
High pH buffering, prevention from deposition and high dissolving properties are the factors influencing the sodium tripolyphosphate market in this segment.

Sodium tripolyphosphate market is segmented on the basis of formulation as liquid, powder, tablets and gels. 
Dry powder dominates the overall industry in this segment. 
Technological advancement in machinery along with cleaning application developments has resulted in innovative products including pellets large crystal.

Increasing demand for water treatment will trigger the sodium tripolyphosphate market. 
Extensive usage in water softeners owing to its sequestration of water hardness property encouraged the product innovations. 
Water hardness maintenance is the vital part of the laundry industry.

STTP comprises for over 35% in laundry detergents and more than 5% in household washing detergents. 
Government and institutional regulations acclaim STPP content must be less than 2%, owing to the rising consumer health concerns. 

Asia Pacific sodium tripolyphosphate market is estimated to witness high gains in the forecast period. 
Rising food and detergent industry expansion in region will drive the demand. 
Increasing production facilities coupled with heavy manufacturer investments in the emerging economies will propel the industry growth.

China sodium tripolyphosphate market will observe significant growth in estimated timeframe with large presence of production plants, owing to abundant resource availability. China is one of the leading contributors accounting for more than 40% of the global STPP market.

CAS: 7758-29-4
Sodium Tripolyphosphate is a white powder and is soluble in water. It is a surfactant and is a good emulsifier to lubricants and fat.

Sodium Tripolyphosphate is used for water softening, leather making, as a deflocculating agent, food additive, and texturizer.

STTP is a builder and it is required to Reduce water hardness (from calcium and magnesium ions which reduce surfactant
efficiency and encrust fabric surfaces);
STTP creates and stabilises alkalinity providing conditions for optimal soil removal;
STTP facilitates solubilisation of all detergent components;
STTP aids dispersion of dirt and help to prevent its re-deposition;
STTP adsorbs surfactants.

Builders like STTP also provide the skeleton for holding together the powder grains in a detergent

Phosphates are usually key ingredients in detergent formulations ranging from liquids to free-flowing powdery material to hard cakes. 
Their functional properties, which contribute to the over-all detergency by controlling the alkalinity, lowering the critical micelle concentration, sequestering metal ions, and decreasing soil redeposition, are generally considered to be the reason for their wide use. 
Another important but less recognized reason is their versatile role in improving the handling properties and lowering the cost of the finished products.


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