TRIACETIN

Triacetin is a triglyceride obtained by acetylation of the three hydroxy groups of glycerol. 
Triacetin has fungistatic properties (based on release of acetic acid) and has been used in the topical treatment of minor dermatophyte infections. 
Triacetin has a role as a plant metabolite, a solvent, a fuel additive, an adjuvant, a food additive carrier, a food emulsifier, a food humectant and an antifungal drug. 
It derives from acetic acid.

Triacetin, triacetate ester of glycerol, is a clear, combustible and oily liquid with a bitter taste and a fatty odor. 
It is slightly soluble in water but soluble in alcohol and ether. 
It has properties of both glycerol and acetate. 
Diacetin (CAS RN: 25395-31-7) and nonoacetin (CAS RN: 26446-35-5) are glycerin diacetate and glycerin monoacetate respectively. 
Triacetin is found in some food like butter as it is used as a food additive for the solvency of flavourings for the function of humectant. 
It is used in perfumery and cosmetics for these applications. 
It is used as an antifungal agent in external medicine for topical treatment of superficial fungal infections of the skin. 
Triacetin is applied to cigarette filter as a plasticizer. 
It is used as a gelatinizing agent in explosives.


Chemical composition: Glyceryl triacetate
CAS reg. no.: 102-76-1


EC / List no.: 203-051-9
CAS no.: 102-76-1
Mol. formula: C9H14O6


Enzactin; Fungacetin; Glycerin triacetate; Triacetylglycerol;
Glycerol triacetate; Glyceryl triacetate; Glyped; Kesscoflex TRA; Triacetine; Vanay; Glycerol triacetate tributyrin; Triacetyl glycerine; Propane-1,2,3-triyl triacetate;

Product description
Triacetin is a clear, colourless acetate ester used for example in the manufacture of cigarette filters. 
Triacetin is also used for plasticising NBR and cellulose derivatives.

Storage stability
Under suitable conditions, Triacetin can be stored for one year.
Triacetin can be stored in a stainless steel tank (V4A; material no. 1.4571 [AISI 316Ti]).

Solubility
Triacetin is readily soluble in aromatic hydrocarbons and most organic solvents. 
It is insoluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons, mineral oils, and vegetable and animal oils. 
Solubility in water is low.

A triglyceride obtained by acetylation of the three hydroxy groups of glycerol. 
It has fungistatic properties (based on release of acetic acid) and has been used in the topical treatment of minor dermatophyte infections.

General properties
The major features of Triacetin are :
• excellent suitability for the solidification of acetyl cellulose fibres for the manufacture of cigarette filters
• very good dissolving power for a number of organic substances
• good plasticising effect for various plastics such as celluloseacetates or celluloseacetobutyrates
• good plasticising effect for cellulose-based paints
• good compatibility with natural and synthetic rubber
• good light resistance

Applications
Triacetin is used for the solidification of acetyl cellulose fibres in the manufacture of cigarette filters. 
The water content must be kept constant to achieve constant solidification.
Triacetin is also used as a support for flavourings and essences in the food industry and as a plasticiser for chewing gum.
In technical applications, Triacetin is used for example as a core sand binder in the metal foundry sector. 
Another application is inks and printing inks. 
Triacetin is used as a highlyeffective plasticiser for cellulose-based plastics. 

Synonym: 1,2,3-Triacetoxypropane, 1,2,3-Triacetylglycerol, Glyceryl triacetate

CAS Number 102-76-1 
Linear Formula (CH3COOCH2)2CHOCOCH3 
Molecular Weight 218.20  
FEMA Number 2007  
Beilstein/REAXYS Number 1792353  
EC Number 203-051-9  
MDL number MFCD00008716  
PubChem Substance ID 329830433  
E Number 
E 1518


Triacetin is a triester of glycerin and acetic acid that occurs naturally in papaya.
It is mainly used as a synthetic flavoring agent in ice-creams, nonalcoholic beverages and baked goods


Triacetin is a triester of glycerin and acetic acid. 
It has been used for over 75 years for a wide range of uses, including cosmetic biocide (most often as a fungicide), plasticizer, solvent in cosmetic formulas, food additive (as a flavoring agent and adjuvant), and as a binder for combustible material in solid-rocket propellants. 
It is also known as glyceryl triacetate, glycerol triacetate, glycerin triacetate, glycerine triacetate, triacetyl glycerine, acetin-tri, 1,2,3-triacetoxypropane, 1,2,3-propanetriol triacetate, 1,2,3-propanetriyl triacetate, and acetic-1,2,3-prepanetriyl ester. 
Common trade names include Enzactin, Fungacetin, Glyped, Kesscoflex TRA, and Vanay. 
It is a colorless, oily liquid that, although is most often synthesized, can be found naturally in cod-liver oil, butter, and other fats. 
Reflecting its chemical nature and its widespread use as a Food and Drug Administration generally recognized as safe (FDA, GRAS) food additive, there is no U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Integrated Risk Information System (U.S. EPA, IRIS) record on triacetin, and no threshold limit values have been established to protect occupationally exposed workers to the compound. 
The only limitation on triacetin is Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) requirements set by the FDA

Other names: 1,2,3-Propanetriol, triacetate; Acetin, tri-; Enzactin; Fungacetin; Glycerin triacetate; Glycerol triacetate; Glyceryl triacetate; Glyped; Kesscoflex TRA; Triacetine; Vanay; Kodaflex triacetin; Triacetyl glycerine; Triacetyl glycerin; Triacetyl glycerol; 1,2,3-Propanetriol, 1,2,3-triacetate; NSC 4796; Glycerol, acetylated; 2-(Acetyloxy)-1-[(acetyloxy)methyl]ethyl acetate


Triacetin (glyceryl triacetate) is used as an ingredient in many food and cosmetic products. 
Its high solvency power and low volatility make triacetin a good solvent and fixative for many flavors and fragrances. 
One of its main uses is as a plasticizer in chewing gum. 
The United States Food and Drug Administration affirmed triacetin as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use in human food. 
It is also generally recognized as safe in animal feeds, as a pesticide adjuvant, and in food packaging. 
Triacetin, Kosher, Food Grade, meets all Food Chemicals Codex (FCC) specifications and is manufactured under good manufacturing practices (GMP). 
All kosher products produced by Eastman are manufactured under rabbinical supervision in full accordance with Jewish dietary law.

Triacetin is used as a plasticizer, fixative in perfumery and cosmetics, specialty solvent, a carbon dioxide removal agent, in medicines for its antifungal properties, a fuel additive, and in cigarettes.


Triacetin is used as a plasticizer for cellulosic resins and is compatible in all proportions with cellulose acetate, nitrocellulose, and ethyl cellulose. 
Triacetin is useful for imparting plasticity and flow to laminating resins, particularly at low temperatures, and is also used as a plasticizer for vinylidene polymers and copolymers. 
It serves as an ingredient in inks for printing on plastics, and as a plasticizer in nail polish. 

Applications/uses
Adhesives/sealants-B&C
Ag chem solvents
General industrial coatings
Graphic arts
Paints & coatings

Glycerol triacetate
Triacetin
EC Inventory
Triacetin
Other
triacetin


CAS names
1,2,3-Propanetriol, 1,2,3-triacetate


IUPAC names
1,2,3-Triacetoxypropane, 1,2,3-Triacetylglycerol, Glyceryl triacetate
1,3-bis(acetyloxy)propan-2-yl acetate
1,3-diacetyloxypropan-2-yl acetate
2,3-diacetyloxypropyl acetate
propane-1,2,3-triyl triacetate
Triacetin
triacetin

Trade names
1,2,3-Propanetriol triacetate
acetine tp lxs 51035
Edenor GTA
Glyceryl triacetate
PALMESTER
TRIACETIN
Triacetin
triacetin
Triacetin FCC
Triacetin H
Triacetin P
Triacetin PH EP
Triacetin PH USP
Triacetin S


triacetin

102-76-1

Glyceryl triacetate

Glycerol triacetate

Glycerin triacetate

Enzactin

Triacetine

Triacetylglycerol

Fungacetin

Glyped

Triacetyl glycerine

Vanay

Kesscoflex TRA

Kodaflex triacetin

1,2,3-Propanetriol, triacetate

1,2,3-triacetoxypropane

Acetin, tri-

1,2,3-Propanetriol, 1,2,3-triacetate

Triacetina

Triacetinum

propane-1,2,3-triyl triacetate

1,2,3-Propanetriol triacetate

Triacetyl glycerin

Triacetyl glycerol

1,2,3-Propanetriyl triacetate

1,2,3-Triacetylglycerol

Triacetin [INN]

FEMA No. 2007

FEMA Number 2007

Triacetine [INN-French]

Triacetinum [INN-Latin]

Triacetina [INN-Spanish]

NSC 4796

UNII-XHX3C3X673

Triacetin, 99%

HSDB 585

C9H14O6

Triacetin (USP/INN)

Acetic, 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester

ENZACTIN (TN)

EINECS 203-051-9

MFCD00008716

1,2,3-triacetyl-glycerol

TRIACETIN (GLYCEROL TRIACETATE)

2-(Acetyloxy)-1-[(acetyloxy)methyl]ethyl acetate

BRN 1792353

2,3-diacetyloxypropyl acetate

1,2,3-triacetyl-sn-glycerol

AI3-00661

CHEBI:9661

XHX3C3X673

Glycerol triacetate (Triacetin)

E1518

NSC-4796

NCGC00091612-04

Triacetin (1,2,3-Propanetriol triacetate)

DSSTox_CID_6691

DSSTox_RID_78184

DSSTox_GSID_26691

CAS-102-76-1

2-acetyloxy-1-(acetyloxymethyl)ethyl acetate

Estol 1581

Triacetin [USP:INN:BAN]

Enzacetin

Euzactin

Fungacet

Motisil

Blekin

tri-acetin

CCRIS 9355

Triacetin, CP

Triacetin, FCC

Triacetin, USP

3-Triacetoxypropane

Glycerine triacetate

Spectrum_000881

Spectrum2_000939

Spectrum3_001368

Spectrum4_000362

Spectrum5_001376

ACMC-1C1GI

EC 203-051-9

Triacetin 102-76-1

Triacetin, >=99.5%

SCHEMBL3870

BSPBio_002896

Glycerol triacetate tributyrin

KBioGR_000823

KBioSS_001361

4-02-00-00253 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)

KSC176O0H

MLS002152946

1,3-Propanetriol, triacetate

DivK1c_000740

Glyceryl triacetate, >=99%

SPECTRUM1500585

Triacetin, analytical standard

SPBio_000878

Triacetin, 99%, FCC, FG

1,2,3-propanediol triethanoate

CHEMBL1489254

DTXSID3026691

CTK0H6703

FEMA 2007

HMS502E22

KBio1_000740

KBio2_001361

KBio2_003929

KBio2_006497

KBio3_002116

KS-00000YQB

EBD5636

NSC4796

NINDS_000740

HMS1921G05

HMS2092O09

HMS2232I22

Pharmakon1600-01500585

Triacetin, >=99%, natural, FG

HY-B0896

ZINC1530705

Tox21_111155

Tox21_201745

Tox21_300111

WLN: 1VO1YOV1 & 1OV1

ANW-14741

CCG-39680

LMGL03012615

NSC757364

s4581

SBB060703

Triacetin, 8CI, BAN, INN, USAN

1,2,3-Propanetriol triacetate, 9CI

AKOS009028851

Tox21_111155_1

Glyceryl triacetate, >=99.0% (GC)

LS-2356

MCULE-6622854116

NSC-757364

1,3-bis(acetyloxy)propan-2-yl acetate

IDI1_000740

NCGC00091612-01

NCGC00091612-02

NCGC00091612-03

NCGC00091612-05

NCGC00091612-06

NCGC00091612-07

NCGC00091612-09

NCGC00254207-01

NCGC00259294-01

S168

SMR001224538

SBI-0051540.P002

FT-0626753

G0086

ST51046833

EN300-19216

D00384

E 1518

Q83253

AB00052112_06

SR-05000002079

J-000781

SR-05000002079-1

2-(Acetyloxy)-1-[(acetyloxy)methyl]ethyl acetate #

Z1258578263

Triacetin, GTA F.G (1,2,3-PROPANETRIOL TRIACETATE)

Triacetin, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard

Triacetin, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material

1,2,3-Propanetriol triacetate; 1,2,3-Triacetoxypropane; 1,2,3-Triacetylglycerol; Glycerol triacetate

1,2,3-Propanetriol triacetate; Glycerol Triacetate, USP Grade(1.03000); TRIACETINE; Glycerol triacetate; Glyceryl triacetate; propane-1,2,3-triyl triacetate


A triglyceride that is used as an antifungal agent.


IUPAC name
1,3-Diacetyloxypropan-2-yl acetate
Other names
Glycerol triacetate[2]
Identifiers
CAS Number    
102-76-1 check


Triacetin was first prepared in 1854 by the French chemist Marcellin Berthelot.

Uses
It is an artificial chemical compound, commonly used as a food additive, for instance as a solvent in flavourings, and for its humectant function, with E number E1518 and Australian approval code A1518. 
It is used as an excipient in pharmaceutical products, where it is used as a humectant, a plasticizer, and as a solvent.

The plasticizing capabilities of triacetin have been utilized in the synthesis of a biodegradable phospholipid gel system for the dissemination of the cancer drug paclitaxel (PTX).
In the study, triacetin was combined with PTX, ethanol, a phospholipid and a medium chain triglyceride to form a gel-drug complex. 
This complex was then injected directly into the cancer cells of glioma-bearing mice. 
The gel slowly degraded and facilitated sustained release of PTX into the targeted glioma cells.

Additionally, preliminary research also suggests that triacetin can be used to directly treat glioblastoma.
The study found that triacetin is a viable mediator for acetate supplementation, a therapy that inhibits glioblastoma cell growth.

Triacetin can also be used as a fuel additive as an antiknock agent which can reduce engine knocking in gasoline, and to improve cold and viscosity properties of biodiesel.

It has been considered as a possible source of food energy in artificial food regeneration systems on long space missions. 
It is believed to be safe to get over half of one's dietary energy from triacetin.

Synthesis
Triacetin was prepared in the 19th century by boiling together glycerol and acetic acid, and distilling the product.
Its synthesis from acetic anhydride and glycerol is simple and inexpensive.

3 (CH3CO)2O + 2 C3H5(OH)3 → 2 C3H5(OCOCH3)3 + 3 H2O

This synthesis has been conducted with catalytic sodium hydroxide and microwave irradiation to give a 99% yield of triacetin.
It has also been conducted with a cobalt(II) Salen complex catalyst supported by silicon dioxide and heated to 50 °C for 55 minutes to give a 99% yield of triacetin.[1

The triglyceride 1,2,3-triacetoxypropane is more generally known as triacetin, glycerin triacetate or 1,2,3-triacetylglycerol. 
It is the triester of glycerol and acetylating agents, such as acetic acid and acetic anhydride.
It is a colorless, viscous and odorless liquid at standard temperature and pressure (STP) with a high boiling point and a low melting point. 
It has a mild, sweet taste in concentrations lower than 500 ppm, but may appear bitter at higher concentrations.
It is one of the glycerine acetate compounds.

Triacetin is a triglyceride obtained by acetylation of the three hydroxy groups of glycerol. 
It has fungistatic properties (based on release of acetic acid) and has been used in the topical treatment of minor dermatophyte infections. 
It has a role as a plant metabolite, a solvent, a fuel additive, an adjuvant, a food additive carrier, a food emulsifier, a food humectant and an antifungal drug. 
It derives from an acetic acid.


Product description
Triacetin is a clear, colourless acetate ester used for example in the manufacture of cigarette filters. 
Triacetin is also used for plasticising NBR and cellulose derivatives.

Storage stability: Under suitable conditions, Triacetin can be stored for one year.
Triacetin can be stored in a stainless steel tank (V4A; material no. 1.4571 [AISI 316Ti]).

Solubility
Triacetin is readily soluble in aromatic hydrocarbons and most organic solvents. 
It is insoluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons, mineral oils, and vegetable and animal oils. 
Solubility in water is low.

General properties
The major features of Triacetin are :
• excellent suitability for the solidification of acetyl cellulose fibres for the manufacture of cigarette filters
• very good dissolving power for a number of organic substances
• good plasticising effect for various plastics such as celluloseacetates or celluloseacetobutyrates
• good plasticising effect for cellulose-based paints
• good compatibility with natural and synthetic rubber
• good light resistance

Applications
Triacetin is used for the solidification of acetyl cellulose fibres in the manufacture of cigarette filters. 
The water content must be kept constant to achieve constant solidification.
Triacetin is also used as a support for flavourings and essences in the food industry and as a plasticiser for chewing gum.
In technical applications, Triacetin is used for example as a core sand binder in the metal foundry sector. 
Another application is inks and printing inks. 
Triacetin is used as a highlyeffective plasticiser for cellulose-based plastics. 

Uses
It is an artificial chemical compound, commonly used as a food additive, for instance as a solvent in flavourings, and for its humectant function, with E number E1518 and Australian approval code A1518.
It is used as an excipient in pharmaceutical products, where it is used as a humectant, a plasticizer, and as a solvent.

The plasticizing capabilities of triacetin have been utilized in the synthesis of a biodegradable phospholipid gel system for the dissemination of the cancer drug paclitaxel.
In the study, triacetin was combined with PTX, ethanol, a phospholipid and a medium chain triglyceride to form a gel-drug complex. 
This complex was then injected directly into the cancer cells of glioma-bearing mice. 
The gel slowly degraded and facilitated sustained release of PTX into the targeted glioma cells.

Additionally, preliminary research also suggests that triacetin can be used to directly treat glioblastoma. 
The study found that triacetin is a viable mediator for acetate supplementation, a therapy that inhibits glioblastoma cell growth.

Triacetin can also be used as a fuel additive as an antiknock agent which can reduce engine knocking in gasoline, and to improve cold and viscosity properties of biodiesel.

It has been considered as a possible source of food energy in artificial food regeneration systems on long space missions. 
It is believed to be safe to get over half of one's dietary energy from triacetin.

Synthesis
The synthesis of triacetin from acetic anhydride and glycerol is simple and inexpensive.

3 (CH3CO)2O + 2 C3H5(OH)3 → 2 C3H5(OCOCH3)3 + 3 H2O
This synthesis has been conducted with catalytic sodium hydroxide and microwave irradiation to give a 99% yield of triacetin.
It has also been conducted with a cobalt(II) Salen complex catalyst supported by silicon dioxide and heated to 50 °C for 55 minutes to give a 99% yield of triacetin

IUPAC name
1,3-Diacetyloxypropan-2-yl acetate

Glycerol triacetate

CAS Number    
102-76-1 
    

Properties
Chemical formula: C9H14O6
Molar mass: 218.205 g·mol−1
Appearance: Oily liquid
Density: 1.155 g/cm3
Melting point: −78 °C (−108 °F; 195 K)at 760 mmHg
Boiling point: 259 °C (498 °F; 532 K) at 760 mmHg
Solubility in water: 6.1 g/100 mL
Solubility: Miscible in EtOH
Soluble in C6H6, (C2H5)2O, acetone
Vapor pressure: 0.051 Pa (11.09 °C)
0.267 Pa (25.12 °C)
2.08 Pa (45.05 °C)
ln(P/Pa)=22.819-4493/T(K)-807000/T(K)²
Refractive index (nD)    1.4301 (20 °C) 1.4294 (24.5 °C)
Viscosity: 23 cP (20 °C)


triacetin
102-76-1
Glyceryl triacetate
Glycerol triacetate
Glycerin triacetate
Enzactin
Triacetine
Triacetylglycerol
Fungacetin
Glyped
Triacetyl glycerine
Vanay
Kesscoflex TRA
Kodaflex triacetin
1,2,3-Propanetriol, triacetate
1,2,3-triacetoxypropane
Acetin, tri-
Triacetina
Triacetinum
1,2,3-Propanetriol, 1,2,3-triacetate
propane-1,2,3-triyl triacetate
1,2,3-Propanetriol triacetate
Triacetyl glycerin
Triacetyl glycerol
1,2,3-Propanetriyl triacetate
1,2,3-Triacetylglycerol
Triacetin [INN]
Triacetine [INN-French]
Triacetinum [INN-Latin]
Triacetina [INN-Spanish]
Triacetin, 99%
HSDB 585
C9H14O6
Triacetin (USP/INN)
Acetic, 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester
ENZACTIN (TN)
EINECS 203-051-9
1,2,3-triacetyl-glycerol
TRIACETIN (GLYCEROL TRIACETATE)
2-(Acetyloxy)-1-[(acetyloxy)methyl]ethyl acetate
BRN 1792353
2,3-diacetyloxypropyl acetate
1,2,3-triacetyl-sn-glycerol
Glycerol triacetate (Triacetin)
E1518
Triacetin (1,2,3-Propanetriol triacetate)
CAS-102-76-1
2-acetyloxy-1-(acetyloxymethyl)ethyl acetate
Estol 1581
Triacetin [USP:INN:BAN]
Enzacetin
Euzactin
Fungacet
Motisil
Blekin
tri-acetin
3-Triacetoxypropane
Glycerine triacetate
Glycerol triacetate tributyrin
1,3-Propanetriol, triacetateSPBio_000878
Triacetin, 99%, FCC, FG
1,2,3-propanediol triethanoate
Triacetin, 8CI, BAN, INN, USAN
1,2,3-Propanetriol triacetate, 9CI
Glyceryl triacetate, >=99.0% (GC)
1,3-bis(acetyloxy)propan-2-yl acetate
E 1518
2-(Acetyloxy)-1-[(acetyloxy)methyl]ethyl acetate #
1,2,3-Propanetriol triacetate; 1,2,3-Triacetoxypropane; 1,2,3-Triacetylglycerol; Glycerol triacetate
1,2,3-Propanetriol triacetate; Glycerol Triacetate, USP Grade(1.03000); TRIACETINE; Glycerol triacetate; Glyceryl triacetate; propane-1,2,3-triyl triacetate


Triacetin [INN] [USP] [Wiki]
1,2,3-Propanetriol triacetate
1,2,3-Propanetriol, triacetate [ACD/Index Name]
1,2,3-Propanetriyl triacetate [ACD/IUPAC Name]
1,2,3-Propantriyl-triacetat [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
1,2,3-Triacetoxypropane
1,2,3-triacetylglycerol
102-76-1 [RN]
1792353
1VO1YOV1&1OV1 [WLN]
2007
203-051-9 [EINECS]
836
AK3675000
glycerol triacetate
Glyceryl triacetate
MFCD00008716 [MDL number]
Propane-1,2,3-triyl triacetate
Triacétate de 1,2,3-propanetriyle [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
triacetina [Spanish] [INN]
triacétine [French] [INN]
triacetinum [Latin] [INN]
XHX3C3X673
триацетин [Russian] [INN]
ثلاثي أسيتين [Arabic] [INN]
三醋汀 [Chinese] [INN]
[2-acetoxy-1-(acetoxymethyl)ethyl] acetate
1,2,3-PROPANETRIOL ACETATE
1,2,3-Propanetriol triacetate, 9CI
1,2,3-Propanetriol, 1,2,3-triacetate
1,3-bis(acetyloxy)propan-2-yl acetate
1,3-diacetyloxypropan-2-yl acetate
1,3-diacetyloxypropan-2-yl ethanoate
159510-46-0 [RN]
2-(acetyloxy)-1-[(acetyloxy)methyl]ethyl acetate
2,3-diacetoxypropyl acetate
2,3-diacetyloxypropyl acetate
2-acetyloxy-1-(acetyloxymethyl)ethyl acetate
4-02-00-00253 (Beilstein Handbook Reference) [Beilstein]
acetic acid [2-acetoxy-1-(acetoxymethyl)ethyl] ester
Acetic, 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester
Acetin, tri-
Blekin
BSPBio_002896
carbonic acid [4-[[2-[[(4-ethoxycarbonyloxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-oxomethyl]amino]ethylamino]-oxomethyl]-2-methoxyphenyl] ethyl ester
E 1518
E1518
E-1518
EINECS 203-051-9
Enzacetin
ENZACTIN [Trade name]
Enzactin (TN)
Estol 1581
Euzactin
FEMA 2007
Fungacet
Fungacetin
Glycerin triacetate
Glycerol triacetate (Triacetin)
glycerol triacetate 99%
Glycerol triacetate tributyrin
glycerol triacetate, 99%
glycerol tri-acetate???usp, bp, p eur.???97.0-100.5%
Glyceryl triacetate;Glyceryl triacetate;1,2,3-Triacetoxypropane
Glyped
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:9661
IDI1_000740
InChI=1/C9H14O6/c1-6(10)13-4-9(15-8(3)12)5-14-7(2)11/h9H,4-5H2,1-3H
Kesscoflex TRA
Kodaflex triacetin
Motisil
NCGC00091612-02
NCGC00091612-03
NCGC00091612-04
Pharmakon1600-01500585
SPECTRUM1500585
Spectrum5_001376
Tri-Acetin
TRIACETIN (GLYCEROL TRIACETATE)
Triacetin (USP)
Triacetin (usp/inn)
Triacetin [inn]
triacetin 99%
Triacetin USP FCC EP Kosher Tech
triacetin, ??? 98.0%
Triacetin, 8CI, BAN, INN, USAN
triacetin, 99%
triacetin, cp
Triacetin, GTA F.G (1,2,3-PROPANETRIOL TRIACETATE)
triacetin; triacetina; triacetine; triacetinum
Triacetina
Triacetina [INN-Spanish]
Triacetin-d5
Triacetine
triacétine
Triacetine [INN-French]
Triacetinum
Triacetinum [INN-Latin]
Triacetyl glycerin
Triacetyl glycerine
Triacetyl glycerol
triacetylglycerol
UNII:XHX3C3X673
UNII-XHX3C3X673
VANAY
WLN: 1VO1YOV1 & 1OV1
триацетин
ثلاثي أسيتين
三乙酸甘油酯 [Chinese]
三乙酸甘油酯
三醋汀

oles Classification 

Chemical Role(s):    solvent
A liquid that can dissolve other substances (solutes) without any change in their chemical composition.

fuel additive
Any additive that enhances the efficiency of fuel.

food emulsifier
A food additive used to form or maintain a uniform emulsion of two (or more) phases in a food.

Biological Role(s):    plant metabolite
Any eukaryotic metabolite produced during a metabolic reaction in plants, the kingdom that include flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms.

antifungal drug
Any antifungal agent used to prevent or treat fungal infections in humans or animals.

food additive carrier
A food additive that is used to dilute, disperse or dissolve a food additive or nutrient without altering its function. 
Carriers are used to facilitate the handling or use of the food additive or nutrient.

food emulsifier
A food additive used to form or maintain a uniform emulsion of two (or more) phases in a food.

food humectant
A humectant that is used as a food additive to prevent foodstuffs from drying out.

Application(s):    solvent
A liquid that can dissolve other substances (solutes) without any change in their chemical composition.

adjuvant
Any pharmacological or immunological agent that modifies the effect of other agents such as drugs or vaccines while having few if any direct effects when given by itself.

antifungal drug
Any antifungal agent used to prevent or treat fungal infections in humans or animals.

food additive carrier
A food additive that is used to dilute, disperse or dissolve a food additive or nutrient without altering its function. 
Carriers are used to facilitate the handling or use of the food additive or nutrient.

food emulsifier
A food additive used to form or maintain a uniform emulsion of two (or more) phases in a food.

food humectant
A humectant that is used as a food additive to prevent foodstuffs from drying out.

triacetin has functional parent acetic acid 
triacetin has role adjuvant 
triacetin has role antifungal drug 
triacetin has role food additive carrier 
triacetin has role food emulsifier 
triacetin has role food humectant 
triacetin has role fuel additive 
triacetin has role plant metabolite 
triacetin has role solvent 
triacetin is a triglyceride 

IUPAC Name 
propane-1,2,3-triyl triacetate

triacetin    
triacetina Español    
triacetine Français    
triacetinum LINGUA 

Synonyms     Sources
1,2,3-Propanetriol triacetate    
1,2,3-Propanetriyl triacetate    
1,2,3-triacetoxypropane    
1,2,3-triacetylglycerol    
2-(Acetyloxy)-1-[(acetyloxy)methyl]ethyl acetate    
E 1518    
E-1518    
E1518    
glycerin triacetate    
Glycerol triacetate    
Glyceryl triacetate    
triacetin    
Triacetyl glycerin    
Triacetyl glycerine    
Triacetylglycerol    

Brand Name     
Enzactin

Triacetin, also known as Glyceryl Triacetate, is reported to function as a cosmetic biocide, plasticizer, and solvent in cosmetic formulations, at concentrations ranging from 0.8% to 4.0%. 
It is a commonly used carrier for flavors and fragrances. 
Triacetin was affirmed as a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) human food ingredient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 
Triacetin was not toxic to animals in acute oral or dermal exposures, nor was it toxic in short-term inhalation or parenteral studies, and subchronic feeding and inhalation studies. 
Triacetin was, at most, slightly irritating to guinea pig skin. 
However, in one study, it caused erythema, slight edema, alopecia, and desquamation, and did cause some irritation in rabbit eyes. 
Triacetin was not sensitizing in guinea pigs. 
Triacetin was not an irritant or a sensitizer in a clinical maximization study, and only very mild reactions were seen in a Duhring-chamber test using a 50% dilution. 
In humans, Triacetin reportedly has caused ocular irritation but no injury. 
Triacetin was not mutagenic. 
Although there were no available reproductive and developmental toxicity data, Triacetin was quickly metabolized to glycerol and acetic acid and these chemicals were not developmental toxins. 
Reports of 1,2-glyceryl diesters, which may be present in Triacetin, affecting cell growth and proliferation raised the possibility of hyperplasia and/or tumor promotion. 
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded, however, that the effects of 1,2-glyceryl diesters on cell growth and proliferation require longer ester chains on the glycerin backbone than are present when acetic acid is esterified with glycerin, as in Triacetin. 
On the basis of the available information, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that Triacetin is safe as used in cosmetic formulations.

CHEMISTRY Definition and Structure Triacetin (CAS no. 102-76-1) is the triester of glycerin and acetic acid that conforms to the formula (Pepe, Wenninger, and McEwen 2002): 
HC CH2O CH2O CCH3 CCH3 O CCH3 O O O 
Triacetin is also known as Glyceryl Triacetate (Pepe, Wenninger, and McEwen 2002; National Academy of Science [NAS] 1996; United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc. [USP] 1995; Unichema Chemie B.V. 1994; Lewis 1993a; Budavari 1989); Glycerol Triacetate (Unichema Chemie B.V. 1994; Lide 1993; Lewis 1993a); Glycerin Triacetate (Unichema Chemie B.V. 1994); Glycerine Triacetate (Lewis 1993a); Triacetyl Glycerine (Unichema Chemie, B.V. 1994; Budavari 1989); Acetin, Tri-; 1,2,3-Triacetoxypropane (Unichema Chemie B.V. 1994); 1,2,3-Propanetriol Triacetate (Pepe, Wenninger, and McEwen 2002; USP 1995; Unichema Chemie B.V. 1994; Lewis 1993a; Budavari 1989); 1,2,3-Propanetriyl Triacetate (ChemID 1998); and Acetic, 1,2,3-Propanetriyl Ester (Pepe, Wenninger, and McEwen 2002; Unichema Chemie B.V. 1994). Physical and Chemical Properties Physical and chemical properties are described in Table 1. 
Published data on the ultraviolet radiation absorbance of Triacetin were not found.

This report reviews the safety of Triacetin, an ingredient that is reported to function as a cosmetic biocide, plasticizer, and solvent in cosmetic formulations


Triacetin is derived by the action of acetic acid on glycerol, with vacuum distillation used as the method of purification (Lewis 1993b). 
It can also be prepared by esterification of glycerin with acetic anhydride (Gennaro 1990), by the acetylation of glycerol, by the reaction of oxygen with a liquid-phase mixture of allyl acetate and acetic acid using bromide as a catalyst (Budavari 1989), and from glycerin and acetic anhydride 


Impurities Triacetin contains trace moisture and acetic acid (Unichema Chemie B.V. 1994). 
Food-grade Triacetin must be at least 98.5% C9H14O6, and it must not contain >5 mg/kg heavy metals (as Pb) or>0.2% water (NAS 1996). 
USP-grade Triacetin must contain not less than 97.0% and not greater than 100.5% C9H14O6, calculated on the anhydrous basis (USP 1994). 
USE Cosmetic Triacetin is reported to function as a cosmetic biocide, plasticizer, and solvent in cosmetic formulations (Pepe, Wenninger, and McEwen 2002). 
It is a commonly used carrier for flavors and fragrances. 
 
According to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) in Japan, Triacetin is not restricted in any manner in cosmetic formulations (MHLW 2001). 
Triacetin does not appear in Annex II (list of substances that must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products) or Annex III (list of substances that cosmetic products must not contain except subject to the restrictions and conditions laid down) of the Cosmetics Directive of the European Union (European Commission 2003)


Noncosmetic Triacetin is a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) ingredient (21 CFR 184.1901) by the FDA. 
It is used in foods as a flavoring agent and adjuvant, formulation aid, humectant, and solvent and vehicle; it has no limitations other than good manufacturing practice. 
In its determination that Triacetin was a GRAS ingredient (FDA 1983, 1989), FDA relied upon an evaluation on glycerin and glycerides prepared by the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) that included safety-test data on Triacetin. 
This FASEB evaluation found that Triacetin was without toxic effects in long-term feeding studies in rats that used doses that were higher than those to which consumers would be exposed (FASEB 1975). In addition, FDA contracted with a laborartory to perform a mutagenic evaluation of Triacetin, the results of which demonstrated no mutagenic activity (Litton Bionetics, Inc. 1976). 
Triacetin is used in pharmaceuticals as a hydrophilic plasticizer in polymeric coatings of capsules, tablets, beads, and granules, with typical concentrations of 10% to 35% w/w (Unichema International 1996). 
Triacetin is used as an antifungal drug for treatment of superficial fungus infections of the skin (Gennaro 1990). 
However, data are inadequate to establish general recognition of the safety or effectiveness of Triacetin as an over-thecounter topical antifungal drug (21 CFR 310.545). 
Triacetin has been used with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to form a gel used for preinduction cervical softening (Graves et al. 1985; Noah et al. 1985).

According to Yalkowsky and Roseman (1979), Triacetin stabilized PGE. 
Triacetin had wide use in foundry applications as a curing agent for phenol resins used in the manufacture of sand molds. 
It is used as a cellulose acetate plasticizer in the manufacture of cigarette filters, a tobacco humidifier, a plasticizer for cellulose nitrate, and a solvent for basic dyes and in the manufacture of celluloid and photographic films, as well as in the paint, lacquer, and varnish industries. 
Triacetin is also used in removal of carbon dioxide from natural gas (Lewis 1993b). 
According to Budavari (1989), technical Triacetin (a mixture of mono-, di-, and small quantities of Triacetin) is used as a solvent for basic dyes, particularly induline dyes, and tannin in dyeing. GENERAL BIOLOGY Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion In an in vitro study by Stoughton (1970), the penetration of Triacetin into the corium of human skin was determined by topical application of Triacetin to the epidermis (which was later separated from the corium), and then measuring the antimicrobial activity. 
Using leg skin, a plastic cylinder was attached to the epidermis, and 0.01 cc Triacetin was applied for 20 to 24 h. 
The skin was then washed and the epidermis removed. Six-millimeter punches of the corium were taken and implanted on the culture medium, with the epidermal side in contact with the medium. When inhibition of growth around the corium occurred, the radius of inhibition was measured. 
There was no average inhibition of positive responses with Triacetin cream. 
The researchers speculated that an antimicrobial agent may penetrate into the corium and not diffuse into the surrounding medium when assayed, and that this might give a false-negative report of its ability to penetrate the epidermis. von Oettingen (1960) stated that Triacetin is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, but no experimental details were provided. 
Pharmacological Effects In a series of studies, the use of Triacetin in total parenteral nutrition was examined. 
Six female mongrel dogs were used to determine the effect of Triacetin on serum phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium metabolism. 
A 5% v/v aqueous solution of Triacetin was infused intravenously at a rate of 47 µmol/kg/min for 3 h. 
Arterial blood was sampled at 15 to 30-min intervals, and urine was collected during infusion. 
No significant changes in total serum calcium or phosphorus concentrations were observed; however, serum magnesium concentrations were statistically significantly decreased 90 min after the initiation of dosing and remained decreased until the end of the study. 

During Triacetin infusion, the plasma acetate concentration increased from 0.13 to 1.32 mmol/L at 30 min; the concentration gradually declined to ∼1 mmol/L during the last hour of the study. No change was observed in the fractional excretion of calcium, magnesium, or phosphorus. 

The authors speculated that the decrease in serum magnesium was probably because of cellular uptake rather than accelerated excretion. 

Baseline blood pH was not significantly altered. 
Bailey, Haymond, and Miles (1991) also used groups of female mongrel dogs to study the metabolic effects of isocaloric and hypercaloric infusions of 5% v/v aqueous Triacetin. 
A primed, continuous infusion of ∼5 µmol/kg (0.3 µCi/kg/min) [ 13C]-acetoacetate and ∼1.0 µCi/kg (0.01 µCi/kg/min) [3H]- glucose was continued for 6 h. 
Three hours after the start of the isotope infusion, dosing with Triacetin was started. 
Six animals were infused at a rate of 47 µmol/kg/min and seven were infused at a rate of 70 µmol/kg/min Triacetin for 3 h. 
Blood and breath samples were taken at 15 to 30-min intervals. 
A group of four animals was infused with 70 µmol/kg/min glycerol and used as the control for the hypercaloric infusion. 
During isocaloric infusion of Triacetin, plasma acetate and free fatty acid concentrations were significantly increased at 30 and 60 min, respectively, and remained elevated. 
During hypercaloric infusion, plasma acetate concentration increased progressively throughout the study, whereas the plasma free fatty acid concentration did not change. 
Plasma pyruvate and lactate concentrations were significantly decreased after 30 and 90 min, respectively, and throughout the study with both isocaloric and hypercaloric infusion. 
The plasma insulin concentrations were modestly increased during both infusions. 
Plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased during isocaloric Triacetin infusion; a slight but significant increase was observed with hypercaloric infusion. Glucose clearance decreased significantly in both groups during the last hour of Triacetin infusion. 
Plasma ketone body concentrations increased significantly by 60 min, and they remained elevated with isocaloric infusion and increased progressively with hypercaloric infusion of Triacetin; the increased concentrations were due to increased ketone body production. 
During the last hour of infusion, resting energy expenditure was significantly increased with isocaloric Triacetin (Bailey, Haymond, and Miles 1991). 
In a study examining the effect of Triacetin on nitrogen balance, whole-body kinetics, and muscle and liver fractional protein synthetic rates, Bailey, Barker, and Karlstad (1992) infused male Sprague-Dawley rats with isovolemic, isocaloric, and isonitrogenous parenteral diets. 
Thirty percent of the nonprotein energy of the diets was lipid energy, and for groups of 6, 10, and 6 animals, the lipid energy was composed of 0%, 50%, and 90% Triacetin, respectively. 
No difference was observed in the plasma acetate concentration of animals that received Triacetin compared to those that did not. 
The liver weight was significantly decreased in the animals given Triacetin. 
Protein concentration in the liver and rectus muscle was similar for all three groups. 
Cumulative nitrogen balance was positive for all animals, and no significant difference in nitrogen balance was observed on days 6 and 7. 
Lipid composition had very little effect on plasma leucine kinetics. 
Also, fractional protein synthetic rates in the rectus muscle and liver were similar for all animals. 

Further work by Bailey, Miles, and Haymond (1993) reported the effect of a 5% v/v aqueous solution of Triacetin on leucine metabolism using female mongrel dogs. 
A primed, continuous infusion of L-[1-14C]-leucine was continued for 6 h. 
Three hours after the start of the isotope infusion, administration of Triacetin was started. 
Six animals were infused at a rate of 47 µmol/kg/min and seven were infused at a rate of 70 µmol/kg/min Triacetin for 3 h. 
Blood and breath samples were taken at 15 to 30-min intervals. 

A group of four animals was infused with 70 µmol/kg/min glycerol and a group of five animals was infused with saline; both were used as control groups. 
During the last hour of dosing, plasma acetate concentrations increased from 0.13 to 0.99 and from 0.10 to 11.8 for the animals infused with 47 and 70 µmol/kg/min Triacetin, respectively. Plasma glucose concentration decreased slightly but significantly for the animals given 47 µmol/kg/min Triacetin. 
Plasma leucine concentration decreased significantly in the animals given 70µmol/kg/min Triacetin. 
Plasmaα-ketoisocaproate concentration and specific activity increased with both doses. 14CO2 excretion was increased with the low dose and decreased with the high dose of Triacetin. 
The conclusion of this series of studies was that due to the water solubility, minimal effect on mineral metabolism, improved nitrogen balance, lack of toxicity, and favorable effects on protein metabolism, Triacetin warranted further study as a parenteral nutrient. 

Bleiberg et al. (1993) used mongrel dogs to determine the systemic, hindlimb, gut, hepatic, and renal uptake of acetate during infusion of a 5% v/v aqueous solution of Triacetin. 
A primed, continuous infusion of [1-14C]-acetate was continued for 7 h with 10 animals. 
Three hours after the start of the tracer infusion, the animals were infused with Triacetin at a rate of 47 µmol/kg/min for 4 h. 
Blood and breath samples were taken at 15-min intervals for the last 30 min. 
Steady-state conditions were achieved in plasma acetate concentrations and specific activity and in expired 14CO2. 
Plasma acetate concentrations were ≈1180, ≈935, ≈817, ≈752, and ≈473 µmol/L in the aorta, renal vein, portal vein, femoral vein, and hepatic vein, respectively. 
The acetate turnover rate during Triacetin infusion was 2214 µmol/min; systemic acetate turnover accounted for 68% of Triacetin-derived acetate. 
The researchers concluded that the majority of triacetin undergoes intravascular hydrolysis, and the majority of the resulting acetate is oxidized. 
Lynch, Miles, and Bailey (1994) determined the metabolic effect of Triacetin on intestinal mucosa cells and plasma substrates in a 30-day feeding study in which male Sprague-Dawley rats were given a diet that contained Triacetin. Groups of eight animals were fed a diet in which 30% of the energy was supplied as lipids, and Triacetin composed either 0 or 95% of the lipids (long-chain triglyceride [LCT] or Triacetin group, respectively); the remainder of the lipid was a long-chain triglyceride. (In the Triacetin-containing feed, Triacetin composed 19% of the diet by weight.) 
A control group of eight animals was fed chow that supplied 5% of the energy as LCTs. 
Body weights and feed consumption were measured throughout the study. 
At study termination, animals of the LCT group weighed more than the animals of the Triacetin or control groups. 
Feed consumption was not statistically significantly different between the Triacetin and LCT groups; however, during week 2 for the Triacetin group and weeks 2 to 4 for the LCT group, feed consumption was significantly greater than that of controls. No significant differences in lactate, ketone body, or glucose concentration were observed among the groups. Plasma pyruvate concentration in the Triacetin group was significantly decreased compared to the LCT group, and plasma free fatty acids were significantly decreased and the plasma triglyceride concentration was significantly increased in the Triacetin group compared to animals of the control and LCT groups. 
Total intestinal DNA, RNA, protein, and protein: DNA ratio were measured. 
No significant difference in mucosal protein concentration was observed in the jejunum and colon. 
Jejunal and colonic DNA content was significantly increased (and therefore protein: DNA ratio decreased), whereas jejunal RNA was significantly decreased in animals fed Triacetin. 
No significant differences in crypt depth or mean villus height were observed (Lynch, Miles, and Bailey 1994). 
Lynch and Bailey (1995) fed groups of eight male SpragueDawley rats the diets described in the preceding paragraph for 30 days, and the effect on total adiposity, fat distribution, and body composition was determined. 
At study termination, animals of the LCT group weighed more than the animals in the Triacetin or control groups. 
Feed consumption was not significantly different between the Triacetin and LCT groups; however, the controls ate less than animals of the test groups. 
Also, energy intake was not significantly different between animals of the Triacetin and LCT groups, but it was significantly less in animals of the control group during weeks 2 to 4. 
Animals of the Triacetin group had the least adipose tissue mass (measured in three depots) compared to the other groups; animals in the LCT group had the greatest adipose tissue mass. 
Triacetin decreased adipocyte size, but total fat cell number did not differ among the groups. 

ANIMAL TOXICOLOGY 

Table 3 summarizes the acute toxicity findings as a function of the route of administration and animals used. 
Acute Oral Toxicity Gast (1963) stated that the oral LD50 of Triacetin for male and female mice was 1.8 and 1.1 g/kg, respectively, although study details were not provided. 
The acute oral toxicity of Triacetin was determined using a group of 10 mice (Lawrence, Malik, and Autian 1974). 
The animals were given a single dose and observed for 7 days. The calculated oral LD50 for mice was 8.0 ml/kg. 
Groups of five mice and five rats were used to determine the acute oral toxicity of Triacetin (Anstadt 1976). 
The dose ranges tested were 1.6 to 25.6 and 0.8 to 12.8 g/kg for mice and rats, respectively. 
The approximate LD50 was 3.2 to 6.4 g/kg for mice and 6.4 to 12.8 g/kg for rats. 
Additional oral LD50 values were 3.2 to 6.1 g/kg for mice, 3.0 and >2.0 g/kg for rats, and >2.0 g/kg for rabbits. 
Groups of eight Long-Evans rats were given as a continuous nasogastric infusion 462 kJ/kg of a diet containing either 16% or 32% Triacetin (Robertson et al. 1992). 
No adverse effects, such as diarrhea or change in normal activity, were observed. 

Acute Dermal Toxicity The acute dermal LD50 of Triacetin was determined using groups of five albino rabbits (Food and Drug Research Laboratories, Inc. 1976). A dose of 5 g/kg was applied to intact and abraded skin. The animals were observed for 7 days after dosing. 
None of the animals died. The dermal LD50 of Triacetin for rabbits was >5 g/kg. 
Additional dermal LD50 values were >20 ml/kg for guinea pigs and >2 g/kg for rabbits. 

Acute Inhalation Toxicity

Triacetin, also known as Glyceryl Triacetate, is reported to function as a cosmetic biocide, plasticizer, and solvent in cosmetic formulations. 
In 1998, it was reported to FDA that Triacetin was used in a total of 13 cosmetic formulations. 
Industry reported that it was used at concentrations of 0.8% to 4%. Triacetin was affirmed as a GRAS human food ingredient by FDA. 
The acute dermal LD50 of Triacetin was >5 g/kg for rabbits and >20 ml/kg for guinea pigs. 
The oral LD50 for mice has been reported as 1.8 and 1.1 g/kg for males and females, respectively, and as 3.2 to 6.4 g/kg; it has been calculated as 8.0 ml/kg. 

For rats, the oral LD50 was 6.4 to 12.8 g/kg. The inhalation LC50 was >1.721 mg/L for rats. 
The SC LD50 was 2.3 cc/kg for mice and 2.8 cc/kg for rats. For mice, the IV LD50 values of 25% and 50% emulsions of Triacetin were 1.6 g/kg and 1.2 ml/kg, respectively. 
For rabbits, the IV LD50 of Triacetin was 0.75, and for dogs, it was 1.5 to 2.0 ml/kg. 
The IP LD50 for Triacetin in mice was determined to be 1.7 and 1.4 g/kg for males and females, respectively, and 0.8 to 1.6 g/kg; it was also calculated as 1.52 ml/kg for mice. 
The IP LD50 for rats was 2.1 g/kg; in another study, it ranged from 0.8 to 1.6 g/kg. 
The IM lethal dose was 1.5 cc/kg for guinea pigs. 
In short-term feeding studies, Triacetin affected weight gain. 
Triacetin was not toxic in short-term studies when administered via inhalation or parenterally or in subchronic studies when administered via feed or inhalation. 
Triacetin was, at most, slightly irritating to guinea pig skin. However, in one study, it caused erythema, slight edema, alopecia, and desquamation. 
Triacetin was not sensitizing in guinea pigs; however, test concentrations were not stated. 
Triacetin caused some irritation in rabbit eyes. 
Triacetin, with and without metabolic activation, was not mutagenic in the Ames assay or a suspension test. 
It was also not mutagenic in an in vivo assay using Drosophila. 
Triacetin (test concentrations not provided) was not an irritant or a sensitizer in a clinical maximization study, and only very mild reactions were seen in a Duhring-chamber test using a 50% dilution. 
In humans, commercial Triacetin has caused ocular irritation but no injury. 
DISCUSSION 
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel reviewed the safety of Triacetin for use as a cosmetic ingredient. 
The Expert Panel considered the FDA affirmation of glycerides, including Triacetin, as a GRAS human food ingredients to be supportive of the overall safety of this ingredient. 
The Expert Panel did recognize that reproductive and developmental toxicity data on Triacetin are absent from the report. 
Because Triacetin is thought to be hydrolyzed to glycerol and acetic acid and these chemicals are not developmental toxins, the Expert Panel concluded that the use of Triacetin in cosmetics does not present a risk of reproductive or developmental toxicity. 
The Expert Panel also noted that there are reports indicating that 1,2-glyceryl diesters (also known as 1,2-diacylglycerols) can affect cell growth and proliferation, raising the possibility of hyperplasia and/or tumor promotion. 
This was an issue for discussion because, although Triacetin is a glyceryl triester, it is recognized that there would be some small amounts of glyceryl diesters present, some of which could be 1,2-glyceryl diesters. 
The Panel concluded, however, that the effects of 1,2-glyceryl diesters on cell growth and proliferation require ester chains longer than two carbon atoms on the glycerin backbone. 
Thus, any glyceryl 1,2-diacetyl esters present in Triacetin would be inactive in hyperplasia and tumor promotion. 

CONCLUSION 
On the basis of the animal and clinical data included in this report, the CIR Expert Panel concludes that Triacetin is safe as used in cosmetic formulations.

Triacetin, also known as Glyceryl Triacetate, is a cosmetic biocide, plasticizer, and solvent in cosmetic formulations, at concentrations ranging from 0.8% to 4.0%. 
It is a commonly used carrier for flavors and fragrances. 
Triacetin was affirmed as a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) human food ingredient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 
It is used as an inactive ingredient additive in some drug formulations. 
It has been used as a plasticizer in the tests of acrylic polymer films for drug delivery. 
Triacetin is not toxic to animals. 
However, in one study, it caused erythema, slight edema, alopecia, and desquamation, and did cause some irritation in rabbit eyes. 
Concentration of triacetin in consumer products is in the range of about 0.005-2 % for cosmetics, and has been reported to be as high as 15-33 % for one specific antifungal drug.


Inactive Ingredients
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Triacetin
Excipient (pharmacologically inactive substance)

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on June 19, 2020.

What is it?
Triacetin (C9H14O6), also known as glyceryl triacetate, is pharmaceutical excipient used in manufacturing of capsules and tablets, and has been used as a humectant, plasticizer, and solvent. 
It is a liquid, and has been approved by the FDA as a food additive. 
Triacetin is a water-soluble short-chain triglyceride that may also have a role as a parenteral nutrient according to animal studies.
It is also used in the perfume and cosmetic industries.


Triacetin is listed on the FDA Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS) List. 
According to the FDA, triacetin has been found to be non-toxic in long-term feeding tests in rats at levels that were several orders of magnitude greater than those to which consumers are exposed.
Additionally, in a toxicology report from 2002, triacetin and a group of related triglycerides did not represent a hazard to human health based on the anticipated daily intake of 7.8 mg/day/adult, and other available data. 
One case of skin toxicity (allergic contact eczema) due to industrial use in cigarette filter production has been reported.

There is no evidence in the available information on triacetin that demonstrates or suggests reasonable grounds to suspect a hazard to the public when they are used at levels that are now current or that might reasonably be expected in the future


TRIACETIN    ICSC: 1203
Glyceryl triacetate
1,2,3 Propanetriol triacetate
Triacetyl glycerine    
CAS #: 102-76-1    
EC Number: 203-051-9

Applications
Glycerol triacetate is used as a food additive and as a solvent in flavorings. 
It acts as an excipient in pharmaceutical products where it is used as a humectant and a plasticizer. 
It is also used as a fuel additive, as an antiknock agent, adhesives and sealant chemicals, fillers, intermediates and process regulators.

Notes
Heat sensitive. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.


Triacetin (Glycerol triacetate, Glyceryl triacetate, Glycerin triacetate, 1,2,3-Triacetoxypropane) is a triglyceride that is used as an antifungal agent.


Triacetin, also known as Glyceryl Triacetate, is reported to function as a cosmetic biocide, plasticizer, and solvent in cosmetic formulations, at concentrations ranging from 0.8% to 4.0%. 
It is a commonly used carrier for flavors and fragrances. 
Triacetin was affirmed as a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) human food ingredient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 
Triacetin was not toxic to animals in acute oral or dermal exposures, nor was it toxic in short-term inhalation or parenteral studies, and subchronic feeding and inhalation studies. 
Triacetin was, at most, slightly irritating to guinea pig skin. 

However, in one study, it caused erythema, slight edema, alopecia, and desquamation, and did cause some irritation in rabbit eyes. 
Triacetin was not sensitizing in guinea pigs. Triacetin was not an irritant or a sensitizer in a clinical maximization study, and only very mild reactions were seen in a Duhring-chamber test using a 50% dilution. 
In humans, Triacetin reportedly has caused ocular irritation but no injury. 
Triacetin was not mutagenic. 
Although there were no available reproductive and developmental toxicity data, Triacetin was quickly metabolized to glycerol and acetic acid and these chemicals were not developmental toxins.

Reports of 1,2-glyceryl diesters, which may be present in Triacetin, affecting cell growth and proliferation raised the possibility of hyperplasia and/or tumor promotion. 
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded, however, that the effects of 1,2-glyceryl diesters on cell growth and proliferation require longer ester chains on the glycerin backbone than are present when acetic acid is esterified with glycerin, as in Triacetin. 
On the basis of the available information, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that Triacetin is safe as used in cosmetic formulations.

Kollisolv GTA

Kollisolv GTA is as a hydrophilic plasticizer in both, aqueous and solvent based polymeric coating of capsules, tablets and granules. 
Also used as a solubilizer and solvent as well as a humectant.

Kollisolv GTA is mainly used as a solvent and as a solubilizer in pharmaceutical applications. 
It can be used in solution, liquid-suspension and lipid-based drug delivery system technologies.
As versatile water or oil miscible solvent it is suitable for formulation of emulsions & creams, gels and foams. 
Moreover, Kollisolv® GTA can be used as solvent or polymer film plasticizer for transdermal patches. 
As liquid plasticizer is also suitable for softgel capsule formulations. For solid oral dosage forms it can be used as plasticizer in film coating of tablets. 
In semi-solid formulations it is also used regularly as a humectant. 
Kollisolv GTA (Triacetin) is a clear, colorless, slightly viscous oily liquid that is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations. 
Triacetin is a trimester of glycerol and acetic acid.

Chemical name:    Triacetin
Former product name: Speziol GTA
CAS-No:    102-76-2
Raw material origin: Kollisolv GTA is based on vegetable and synthetic origin.
Regulatory status: Ph. Eur., USP/NF: Triacetin


TRIACETIN®
Triacetin is a clear, colorless acetate ester used for plasticising synthetic rubber and cellulose derivatives.

Triacetin is readily soluble in aromatic hydrocarbons and most organic solvents. 
It is insoluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons, mineral oils, and vegetable and animal oils. 
It has low solubility in water.

Properties and Benefits

Excellent suitability for the solidification of acetyl cellulose fibers 
Very good dissolving power for a number of organic substances 
Good plasticizing effect for various plastics and cellulose-based paints
Good compatibility with natural and synthetic rubber 
Good light resistance
Areas of Applications

Metal industry
Metal processing
Packaging industry
Carrier for fragrances
Cosmetics
Flavor and fragrances
Manufacturing of fragrances
Manufacturing of flavors
Chemical synthesis
Catalysis and Chemicals Processing
Manufacturing of plastics
Polymeres
Polymer auxiliaries
Plasticizers for polymers
Pigments and optical brighteners
Manufacturing of dyestuffs
Dyestuffs
Synonyms

Acetin TP LXS 51035
Glycerinetriacetate
Glyceroltriacetate

Process for the continuous production of triacetin
Abstract
A process for the continuous production of triacetin consisting essentially of 
continuously charging liquid glycerol into a first liquid reaction area through which acetic acid vapors and water vapors flow, said liquid reaction area being divided into a number of separate individual areas through which liquid glycerol and liquid acetin reaction products flow in one direction and gaseous acetic acid and water flow in a countercurrent direction, 
continuously charging acetic acid vapor to a separate individual area where said liquid mixture has an OH number of less than 600, 
continuously separating a liquid mixture of acetins and water having an OH number of less than 600, 
continuously passing said liquid mixture into a second liquid reaction area, 
continuously adding thereto liquid acetic acid anhydride in an amount sufficient to react with water dissolved in said liquid mixture to form acetic acid and to react with monoacetin and diacetin present to form triacetin and continuously recovering triacetin


Triacetate market.
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July 15, 2019 08:05 ET | Source: Reports and Data
New York, July 15, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- High demand for tobacco industry and plasticizers, product launches, increasing strategic developments such as partnerships and agreements are key factors contributing to high CAGR of Triacetin market during forecast period.

According to the current analysis of Reports and Data, the global Triacetin/Glyceral Triacetate market was valued at USD 255.6 Million in 2018 and is expected to reach USD 362.1 Million by year 2026, at a CAGR of 4.4%. 
Triacetin, also known as Glyceral triacetate, is a trimester of glycerol and acetic acid. 
It is an artificial chemical compound used in the varied application including tobacco industry, food additive, pharmaceutical products, fuel additive, humectant, and plasticizer and as a solvent. It is also known as triglyceride and 1, 2, 3-triacetoxypropane. 
The demand for the product is likely to be affected due to the raw material price variation / unstable costs. 
These raw materials include Ethly Acetate, Glycerol, Amyl Acetate, Acetic Acid Glacial and Dehydrolyzing Agent. 
Recently, on April 2018, FDA has approved the use of triacetin in the food industry as a flavouring agent and adjuvant and has been listed on the FDA Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS) List.

The excellent properties of triacetin, such as its compatibility with natural and synthetic rubber and resistance to light, have increased its demand from the chemical industry.  
Due to the recently FDA approval to be used as food additives and even its high demand for plasticizer and humectant, so there’s an expansion of food and pharmaceutical sectors. 
The increasing use of triacetin in tobacco, food & beverages, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and other industries is driving the growth of the Triacetin/Glyceral Triacetate market across the globe. 


Further key findings from the report suggest

According to British American Tobacco, there are an estimated one billion adult smokers worldwide. 
Growing consumption of cigarettes across the globe is driving the growth of the tobacco industry
In the pharmaceutical industry, triacetin is widely used as an antifungal agent and as a plasticizer for manufacturing capsules and capsule coatings. 
Drug development in the pharmaceutical industry and the benefits of medical, chemical, and biological research has propelled the growth of the pharmaceutical industry across the globe Triacetin market is fastest growing at a CAGR of 0% in Asia Pacific due the growing number of population and increased demand for triacetin for use in various end-use industries. 

Continuous R&D activities and increasing investments in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic sectors by various governments and leading market players for the development of new products are also driving the growth of the triacetin market in the Asia Pacific region

Emulsifier is the second leading Product segment because triacetin is used as a flavour enhancer to enhance flavours as an emulsifier to promote emulsification, and is used in various food applications, including baked foods, dairy products, and others. 
It is widely used for its texturing, moisturizing, emulsifying, and stabilizing properties
Tobacco industry segment has the highest CAGR of 4.8% and is the largest segment with a market size of 58.6% because major product of the tobacco industry is cigarettes, and triacetin is used as a plasticizer in cellulose acetate filters or cigarette filter rods. 
For example, China is the leading producer of tobacco, producing more than 3 million tons of tobacco leaf annually. 
According to a study, the market size of the tobacco industry is around USD 800 billion. 
This industry plays a vital role in the economies of many countries
Europe is the second largest region with a share of 27.9% owing to new products being developed by food & beverages and pharmaceutical industries, which in turn fuels the growth of the Triacetin/Glyceral Triacetate market in this region
Food grade segment is second largest segment value at USD 56.8 million due to food grade triacetin is used in various applications in the food & beverage industry, such as in baked foods, dairy products, confectionaries, and others in bubble gums or chewing gums. 
It is also used as a food additive in hard candy
North America is growing at a CAGR of 4.2% in the global Triacetin/Glyceral Triacetate market million owing to increasing need of capsules and tablets which is likely to drive the growth of the market


Grade 

Tobacco
Food
Industrial
Product Type 

Plasticizer
Emulsifier
Solvent
Humectant
Others
End User 

Tobacco
Food & Beverage
Pharmaceutical
Cosmetic
Others

Triacetin, also known as enzactin or e 1518, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as triacylglycerols. 
These are glycerides consisting of three fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages. 
Thus, triacetin is considered to be a triradylglycerol lipid molecule. 
Triacetin is a very hydrophobic molecule, practically insoluble (in water), and relatively neutral.

1,2,3-Propanetriol triacetate    
1,2,3-Propanetriol triacetate, 9ci    
1,2,3-Propanetriol triacetate, 9CI
1,2,3-Propanetriol triacetic acid    
1,2,3-Propanetriol, 1,2,3-triacetate    
1,2,3-Propanetriol, triacetate    
1,2,3-Propanetriyl triacetate    
1,2,3-Propanetriyl triacetic acid    
1,2,3-Triacetoxypropane    
1,2,3-Triacetylglycerol


What Is It?
Triacetin, an oil, is the triester of Glycerol and Acetic Acid. 
In cosmetics and personal-care products, it is used in makeup as well as in nail polish and nail enamel removers.

Why is it used in cosmetics and personal care products?
Triacetin helps cleanse the skin or prevent odor by destroying or inhibiting the growth of microorganisms. 
It is also a plasticizer and commonly used carrier for flavors and fragrances.


Triacetin, or Glyceryl Triacetate, is a naturally occurring oil found in cod-liver oil, butter and other fats. 
Triacetin can also be synthesized for use in cosmetic products, as well as in foods and coatings of pharmaceutical capsules and tablets.


Triacetin
CAS: 102-76-1
Triacetin is a colorless liquid with a slight fatty odor and bitter taste. 
It contains humectant properties.
Triacetin is used as a plasticizer, fixative in perfumery and cosmetics, specialty solvent, a carbon dioxide removal agent, in medicines for its antifungal properties, a fuel additive, and in cigarettes.

ALSO KNOWN AS
1,2,3-triacetoxypropane; glycerin triacetate; glycerol triacetate; 1,3-Diacetyloxypropan-2-yl acetate

Application :
1. component of casting liquor used as a plasticizer and solvent ;
2. food additive as humectant ;
3. plasticizer applied to the cigarette filter ;
4. flavor and essence fixative and lubricate in cosmetics ;
5. excipient in pharmaceutical products as a humectant, a plasticzer and a solvent ;
6. fuel additive as an antiknock agent which can reduce engine knocking in gasoline ;
7. fuel additive to improve cold flow and viscosity properties of biodiesel .

Triacetin, also known as enzactin or e 1518, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as triacylglycerols. 
These are glycerides consisting of three fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages. 
Thus, triacetin is considered to be a triradylglycerol lipid molecule. 
Triacetin is a very hydrophobic molecule, practically insoluble (in water), and relatively neutral.


1,2,3-Propanetriol triacetate    ChEBI
1,2,3-Propanetriyl triacetate    ChEBI
1,2,3-Triacetoxypropane    ChEBI
1,2,3-Triacetylglycerol    ChEBI
2-(Acetyloxy)-1-[(acetyloxy)methyl]ethyl acetate    ChEBI
e 1518

Triacetin


Triacetin
Chemical name    1,3-diacetyloxypropan-2-yl acetate
Chemical formula    C9H14O6
Molecular mass    218.21 g/mol
CAS number    102-76-1
Density    1.1562 g/cm3
Melting point    3 °C
Boiling point    258-260 °C
SMILES    CC(=O)OCC(COC(=O)C)OC(=O)C


The triglyceride 1,2,3-triacetoxypropane is more generally known as triacetin and glycerin triacetate. 
It is the triester of glycerol and acetic acid.


 

How to ensure accurate weighing results every day?
It is an artificial chemical compound, commonly used as a food additive, for instance as a solvent in flavourings, and for its humectant function, with E number E1518 and Australian approval code A1518. 
Triacetin is also a component of casting liquor with TG.

Triacetin can also be used as a fuel additive as an antiknock agent which can reduce engine knocking in gasoline, and to improve cold and viscosity properties of biodiesel.

In a 1994 report released by five top cigarette companies, triacetin was listed as one of the 599 cigarette additives.
The triacetin is applied to the filter as a plasticizer.

Because it is in some sense the simplest possible fat, it is being considered a possible source of food energy in artificial food regeneration systems on long space missions. 
It is believed to be safe to get over half of one's dietary energy from triacetin.


Triacetin as a Secondary PVC Plasticizer

The use of biobased plasticizers with low toxicity and good compatibility with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has become more attractive in the recent years in contrast with phthalate derivatives. 
In this study, a glycerol derivative plasticizer (triacetin—TAG) was tested as a secondary plasticizer for PVC. 
Triacetin was added to PVC formulations from 10 up to 20 phr. 
The increase of the plasticizer content had a great influence on the properties of PVC samples. 
The good miscibility and therefore the efficient plasticization action of the Triacetin were supported by DMA results, since narrow peaks of tan (δ) curves and reduction of the Tg values for the samples were observed. 
The ensuing PVC demonstrated good rheological properties and thermal stability up to 200 °C. 
Finally, the presence of TAG reduces the hardness of materials and does not increase their density.


In technical applications triacetin is applied as a highly effective plasticizer for coatings and adhesives, as an additive for special hardeners or also for the production of cigarette filters on the basis of cellulose acetate (filter tow). 
Other fields of application include solvent in foundry, ink and printing ink industry.

Triacetin complies with the European Pharmacopoeia and is approved in the EU as a food additive E 1518. 
In the food and perfume industry, among other applications, it is used as a solvent and solubilizer for fragrances and flavors, or as a plasticizer for chewing gum. 
It has antimicrobial properties and because of its hygroscopic effect it is used as a humectant in the chocolate and pastry industry.

In technical applications triacetin is applied as a highly effective plasticizer for coatings and adhesives, as an additive for special hardeners or also for the production of cigarette filters on the basis of cellulose acetate (filter tow). 
Other fields of application include solvent in foundry, ink and printing ink industry.

Nowadays important increasing has been observed in the using of food additives. 
Food additives are defined as substances used to effect the properties of foods in the desired way. 
These features include flavor, storage life, appearance and texture. 
Food additives is added to foods in order to prevent spoilage of foods during the preparation of foods, increase nutritional value, taste and structure. 
Although in the past, natural additives have been used, in nowadays artificial additives have been used which accelerate production and reduce the cost. 
To use of food in order to mask bad quality food or to avoid faulty product acquisition, to misrepresent food, to improper food production and to deceive the consumer, to decrease the nutritive value of the product, to use more than the technical amount to create the desired effect, food additives are illegal forms of application. 
When food additives are used illegally, toxic and allergic reactions can be seen among people. 
It is significant that food additives may cause damage to cells and accumulate over time and therefore threaten human health. 
Because mutagenic, clastogenic, aneugenic effects of several including food additives are researched by in vitro and in vivo test systems.

Many researches have found a positive correlation between the risk of cancer and the mutagenic effects of these food additives. 
Triacetin (glyceryl triacetate, glicerol triacetate) (GTA) is a liquid soluble in water, biodegradable in activated sludge and is capable of forming a homogeneous mixture of alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons and diethyl ether. 
Triacetin is used as flavor solver. 
It is commercially produced from acetic acid and glycerol. 
Triacetin has no adverse health effects expected from inhalation. When ingested in large doses, it may cause a gastro-intestinal upset. 
No adverse effects expected on skin contact. No adverse effects expected on eye contact. 
However, it may cause irritation, redness, and pain. 
Triacetin is adequately used in chewing gums and all other nutrients. 
There is only limitation in tahini halva


glycerin triacetate
1,2,3-triacetoxypropane
E-1518
E1518
E 1518
Triacetyl glycerin
Triacetyl glycerine
Glycerol triacetate
Glyceryl triacetate
2-(Acetyloxy)-1-[(acetyloxy)methyl]ethyl acetate
1,2,3-Propanetriyl triacetate
Triacetylglycerol
1,2,3-Propanetriol triacetate
1,2,3-triacetylglycerol


On the basis of type, food grade triacetin market is segmented into plasticizer, solvent and humectant.
Based on application, the food grade triacetin market is segmented into tobacco, food and beverage, pharmaceutical, cosmetics and chemicals.

Plasticizer
Emulsifier
Solvent
Humectant
Others

Tobacco
Food & Beverage
Pharmaceutical
Cosmetic
Others


Triacetin is used not only in the food industry as flavorings carrier but also for the production of coatings and adhesives, as plasticizers.


Triacetin as a Secondary PVC Plasticizer  [2019]
Gama, Nuno; Santos, Ricardo; Godinho, Bruno; Silva, Rui; et al.
The use of biobased plasticizers with low toxicity and good compatibility with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has become more attractive in the recent years in contrast with phthalate derivatives. 
In this study, a glycerol derivative plasticizer (triacetin—TAG) was tested as a secondary plasticizer for PVC. 
TAG was added to PVC formulations from 10 up to 20 phr. The increase of the plasticizer content had a great influence on the properties of PVC samples. 
The good miscibility and therefore the efficient plasticization action of the TAG were supported by DMA results, since narrow peaks of tan (δ) curves and reduction of the Tg values for the samples were observed. 
The ensuing PVC demonstrated good rheological properties and thermal stability up to 200 °C. 
Finally, the presence of TAG reduces the hardness of materials and does not increase their density.


Triacetin is a non-phthalate plasticizer for waterborne adhesives which provides excellent Tg suppression in vinyl acetate homo- and copolymer emulsions, reliability of supply and good compatibility with natural and synthetic rubber. 
Triacetin is also a readily biodegradable and clear odorless liquid non-phthalate plasticizer.

For the filters producers it is important not only to work with first quality acetate tow, but also to pay attention to another important chemical product: triacetine
Triacetine, chemical name glycerol triacetate, is a plasticizer.
Triacetine plasticizes all the types of cellulose esters. 
It is accepted by American “F&D” as non-toxic plasticizer also for the food industry.

Triacetine is used as main plasticizer for cigarette filters but not only. 
It has a great value in the pharmaceutical as solvent for anticeptics and fungicide.
It is used in the foundry industry as binder for the preparation of the sand moulds and cores. 
It is used as solvent in the production of perfumes.

Recently, triacetine has also been used from the adhesive producers as replacement to the phatalates that were legally forbidden.
Finally, triacetine also found applications in the dying and food fields.

Triacetin is a clear, colourless acetate ester used for plasticising NBR and cellulose derivatives.  
Triacetin is readily soluble in aromatic hydrocarbons and most organic solvents. 
It is insoluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons, mineral oils, and vegetable and animal oils. 
Solubility in water is low.


Uses
As a plasticizer and fragrance fixative, ink solvent, also used in medicine and dye synthesis.
As a chromatographic fixative, solvent, toughener and fragrance fixative.

Humectants; carrier solvents; plasticizers; it can absorb carbon dioxide from the natural gas.
In the production of cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and dyes, plasticizers for cigarette filter rods, and so on.
Applied in cosmetics, casting, medicine, dyes and other industries. This product is non-toxic, non-irritating.
As the substrate for the determination of lipase, perfume fixative, solvent, gas chromatographic fixative (maximum temperature of 85 ℃, solvent: methanol, chloroform), separation of gas and aldehyde analysis.

Production
It can be derived from the esterification of glycerol and acetic acid. 
After preheating glycerol to 50-60 ° C, add acetic acid, benzene and sulfuric acid. 
Heat and stir for refluxing dehydration, and recycle the benzene. 
Then add acetic anhydride for heating of 4h. 
After cooling, the mixture was neutralized with 5% sodium carbonate to pH 7, and the crude layer was dried and the crude oil was dried with calcium chloride. 
Distill under reduced pressure, collect the 128-131 ° C (0.93 kPa) fraction, namely glycerol triacetate.

Content analysis
Accurately weigh about 1g of the sample, put it into a suitable pressure bottle, add 25 mL of 1mol / L. potassium hydroxide solution and 15 mL of isopropyl alcohol, add stopper, wrap with cloth and put it in a canvas bag. 
Put it into the water bath of 98 ℃ ± 2 ℃ for 1h, and the water level in the water bath should be slightly higher than the bottle level. 
Take the bottle out from the bag, cool it to room temperature in the air, unfold the cloth and stopper to release the residual pressure in the bottle, and then remove the cloth. 
Add 6 to 8 drops of phenolphthalein test solution (TS-167), apply 0.5mol / L sulfuric acid for titration of excess alkali until the pink could just disappeared. At the same time, perform a blank test. 
Each mL of 0.5mol / L sulfuric acid is equivalent to 36.37 mg of glyceryl triacetate (C9H14O6).

Toxicity
ADI is not subject to special provisions (FAO / WHO, 2001).

GR.AS (FDA, § 182.1901, 2000).
LD50 3000mg / kg (rat, oral).

Description
§ 184.1901(a) Triacetin (C8H14O6), also known as 1,2,3-propanetriol triacetate or glyceryl triacetate, is the triester of glycerin and acetic acid. 
Triacetin can be prepared by heating glycerin with acetic anhydride alone or in the presence of finely divided potassium hydrogen sulfate. 
It can also be prepared by the reaction of oxygen with a liquid-phase mixture of allyl acetate and acetic acid using a bromide salt as a catalyst.

Chemical Properties
Triacetin has a very faint, fruity odor. It has a mild, sweet taste that is bitter above 0.05%.

Chemical Properties
Colorless liquid; slight fatty odor; bitter taste. Slightly soluble in water; very soluble in alcohol, ether, and other organic solvents. Combustible.

Chemical Properties
Triacetin is a colorless, viscous liquid with a slightly fatty odor.

Originator
Enzactin,Ayerst,US,1957

Occurrence
Reported found in papaya.

Uses
Triacetin, a component of cigarette filters, induced a contact dermatitis in a worker at a cigarette manufacturers.

Uses
Triacetin is a colorless, oily liquid of slight fatty odor and bitter taste. 
It is soluble with water and is miscible with alcohol and ether. 
It functions in foods as a humectant and solvent.

Uses
As fixative in perfumery; solvent in manufacture of celluloid, photographic films. 
Technical triacetin (a mixture of mono-, di-, and small quantities of triacetin) as a solvent for basic dyes, particularly indulines, and tannin in dyeing.

Definition
ChEBI: A triglyceride obtained by acetylation of the three hydroxy groups of glycerol. 
It has fungistatic properties (based on release of acetic acid) and has been used in the topical treatment of minor dermatophyte infections.

Production Methods
Triacetin is prepared by the esterification of glycerin with acetic anhydride.
Preparation
By direct reaction of glycerol with acetic acid in the presence of Twitchell’s reagent, or in benzene solution of glycerol and boiling acetic acid in the presence of a cationic resin (Zeo-Karb H) pretreated with dilute H2SO4.

Manufacturing Process
200 grams of allyl acetate, 450 grams of glacial acetic acid and 3.71 grams of cobaltous bromide were charged to the reactor and the mixture was heated to 100°C. 
Pure oxygen was then introduced into the reactor below the surface of the liquid reaction mixture at the rate of 0.5 standard cubic feet per hour. 
Initially, all of the oxygen was consumed, but after a period of time oxygen introduced into the mixture passed through unchanged. 
During the course of the reaction, a small quantity of gaseous hydrogen bromide (a total of 1.9 grams) was introduced into the reaction zone, along with the oxygen. 
The reaction was allowed to continue for 6 hours following which the reaction mixture was distilled. 
Essentially complete conversion of the allyl acetate took place. 
A yield of 116 grams of glycerol triacetate was obtained, this being accomplished by distilling the glycerol triacetate overhead from the reaction mixture, at an absolute pressure of approximately 13 mm of mercury.

Therapeutic Function
Topical antifungal
Taste threshold values
Sweet and creamy with an oily mouthfeel.

Pharmaceutical Applications
Triacetin is mainly used as a hydrophilic plasticizer in both aqueous and solvent-based polymeric coating of capsules, tablets, beads, and granules; typical concentrations used are 10–35% w/w.
Triacetin is used in cosmetics, perfumery, and foods as a solvent and as a fixative in the formulation of perfumes and flavors.

Contact allergens
Triacetin is a component of cigarette filters, which induced a contact dermatitis in a worker at a cigarette manufactory.

Clinical Use
Glyceryl triacetate (Enzactin, Fungacetin) is a colorless, oilyliquid with a slight odor and a bitter taste. 
The compound issoluble in water and miscible with alcohol and most organicsolvents.
The activity of triacetin is a result of the acetic acid releasedby hydrolysis of the compound by esterases presentin the skin. 
Acid release is a self-limiting process becausethe esterases are inhibited below pH 4.

Safety Profile
Poison by ingestion. Moderately toxic by intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, and intravenous routes. 
An eye irritant. 
Combustible when exposed to heat, flame, or powerful oxidizers. 
To fight fire, use alcohol foam, water, CO2, dry chemical. 
When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

Safety
Triacetin is used in oral pharmaceutical formulations and is generally regarded as a relatively nontoxic and nonirritant material at the levels employed as an excipient.
LD50 (dog, IV): 1.5 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, IP): 1.4 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, IV): 1.6 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, oral): 1.1 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, SC): 2.3 g/kg
LD50 (rabbit, IV): 0.75 g/kg
LD50 (rat, IP): 2.1 g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 3 g/kg
LD50 (rat, SC): 2.8 g/kg
storage

Triacetin is stable and should be stored in a well-closed, nonmetallic container, in a cool, dry place.
Incompatibilities

Triacetin is incompatible with metals and may react with oxidizing agents. 
Triacetin may destroy rayon fabric.

Regulatory Status
GRAS listed. Accepted in Europe as a food additive in certain applications. 
Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (oral capsules and tablets and gels). 
Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.

Triacetin Preparation Products And Raw materials
Raw materials
Glycerol Dehydrolyzing agent Amyl acetate Ethyl acetate Acetic acid Allyl acetate Oxygen


Pharmaceutical and food sector are the major drivers to the global triacetin market. 
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has permitted the use of triacetin in the food industry as food additive. 
Flavoring several food products is done as the product’s property is that it acts like a solvent. 
It also acts as an excipient in medicinal products, where it is used as a plasticizer and humectant. 
The product is known for its low volatility and high solvency power. It is used in the production of nail polish as well. 
Triacetin’s demand is sure to increase due to the rising use of nail polish in the beauty and cosmetic industry. 
Besides, it is also used in the processing methods of metals and metal extraction. 
For many copolymers and vinylidene polymers, nitrocellulose, ethyl cellulose and cellulose acetate, triacetin is being used as a plasticizer.
 

Triacetin is produced in a batch-wise contained reaction of glycerol, acetic anhydride and acetic acid. 
The demand for the product is likely to be affected due to the raw material price variation / unstable costs. 
These raw materials include Ethly Acetate, Glycerol, Amyl Acetate, Acetic Acid Glacial and Dehydrolyzing Agent.
 

In the Middle East and Latin America, market dynamics are fortunate and favorable for triacetin’s market growth. 
Europe and North America have numerous large scale food and pharmaceutical manufacturers. 
Demand for capsules and tablets has been significantly increasing around the globe since the last few decades. 
This is likely to drive the usage of the product in a positive way during the forecast period. 
These factors mentioned are expected to affect the universal triacetin market positively. 
Thus, the progressively developing economies of Europe and North America are also projected to deliver stimulus to the global triacetin market.
 

Some of the segments of the triacetin market are pharmaceutical, food additive, cosmetics, metal processing, plasticizer and others. 
These segments are classified on the bases of their application. One of triacetin’s main use is as a plasticizer in chewing gum. 
The product is known for offering superior suitability for the solidification process of cellulose fibers. 
It also offers a brilliant plasticizing effect for several plastics and paints which are cellulose based. 
In the cosmetic industry, nail polish contains the use of triacetin as plasticizing agent. 
The product is used in the manufacturing of Cellulose Acetate, which in turn, is used in the manufacturing of cigarette filters. 
Owing to the rise in the consumption of cigarettes in recent years, demand for triacetin is likely to increase as it is used in the making of cellulose acetate. 
Triacetin is also suitable for imparting plasticity and flow to laminating resins, particularly at low temperatures

 

Asia Pacific is a probable growing area for triacetin market in the coming few years. 
Brazil, India and China are the developing countries with rising population, disposable income and purchasing power which will increase the use of Triacetin. 
To increase the triacetin market share, producers and manufacturers focus on the developing economies rather than the developed ones. 
The manufacturing of triacetin is largely spread in the countries such as Germany, Japan, China and the United States.
 


Triacetin is the triester of glycerol. 
It is a colorless, viscous and odorless liquid at room temperature. 
Triacetin is used in food and cosmetic products. 
It’s high solvency power and high volatility make it a good solvent and fixative for flavors and fragrances.


Applications

Solvent for flavors & fragrance (FEMA Number : 2007)
Cosmetic fixative
Food additive (E1518)
Plasticizer in chewing gu
Plasticizer for cigarette filter tips
Ink coating, cellulose nitrate, cellulose acetate, ethyl cellulose and cellulose acetate butyrate plasticizer and solvent
Plasticizer and curing agent in foundry resins

Triacetin(Glycerol triacetate) also known as glyceryl triacetate, is pharmaceutical excipient used in manufacturing of capsules and tablets, and has been used as a humectant, plasticizer, and solvent. 
It is a liquid, and has been approved by the FDA as a food additive. 
Triacetin is a water-soluble short-chain triglyceride that may also have a role as a parenteral nutrient according to animal studies.
It is also used in the perfume and cosmetic industries.

Uses:
It is an artificial chemical compound, commonly used as a food additive, for instance as a solvent in flavourings, and for its humectant function, with E number E1518 and Australian approval code A1518. 
Triacetin is also a component of casting liquor with TG and as an excipient in pharmaceutical products, where it is used as a humectant, a plasticizer, and as a solvent.
Triacetin can also be used as a fuel additive as an antiknock agent which can reduce engine knocking in gasoline, and to improve cold and viscosity properties of biodiesel.
In a 1994 report released by five top cigarette companies, triacetin was listed as one of the 599 cigarette additives. 
The triacetin is applied to the filter as a plasticizer.
It has been considered as a possible source of food energy in artificial food regeneration systems on long space missions. 
It is believed to be safe to get over half of one’s dietary energy from triacetin.

Triacetin, Food Grade is a glyceryl triacetate, supplied by ATAMAN
Acts as a plasticizer. 
It is a clear liquid, free of suspended matter with a slight odor. 
Its high solvency power and low volatility makes it a good solvent and fixative for many flavors and fragrances. 
Used in chewing gum and other food contact related plastic compound


Triacetin (C8 H14O6, CAS Reg. No. 102-76-1), also known as 1,2,3,-propanetriol triacetate or glyceryl triacetate, is the triester of glycerin and acetic acid. 
Triacetin can be prepared by heating glycerin with acetic anhydride alone or in the presence of finely divided potassium hydrogen sulfate. 
It can also be prepared by the reaction of oxygen with a liquid-phase mixture of allyl acetate and acetic acid using a bromide salt as a catalyst.

Applications:    
1 .Tobacco industry (as plasticizer for cigarette filter rods)
2. Flavour and essences (as fixer)
3. Dairy goods (as emulsifier)
4 Food additive (such as in hard candy, butter and beverage)
5. Chewing gum (as plasticizer)
6. Adhesives (as non-phthalate plasticizer for waterborne adhesives)
7. Bakes goods (as stabilizer agent)
8. Cosmetics (as humectants) and nail polish (as plasticizer)
9. Pharmaceutical (as antifungal agent) and capsule coatings (as plasticizer)
10. Animal Feed
11. As pesticide adjuvant

Triacetin, USP is used as a humectant excipient

Triacetin, FCC is widely used as humectant, emlusifier, binder in food production

Triacetin, CP is also known as a glycerin triacetate. 
It finds uses as a solvent, food additive and humectant. 
It is also added to fuel to act as an anti knocking agent


(Chemical name)
1, 2, 3-Propanetriol, triacetate
1, 2, 3-Propanetriyl, triacetate
1, 2, 3-Triacetoxypropane
Acetic acid, glycerol triester
Acetic, 1, 2, 3-Propanetriyl ester
Acetin, TriGlycerin triacetate
Glycerol triacetate
Glycerol, triester with acetic acid
Glyceryl triacetate
Propane-1, 2, 3-triyl triacetate
Triacetin
Triacetyl glycerin
Triacetyl glycerine
Triacetyl glycerol
(Trade name)
ENZACTIN
"ESTROBOND" B Plasticizer
FEMA NUMBER 2007
FUNGACETIN
GLYPED
KESSCOFLEX TRA
KODAFLEX TRIACETIN
VANAY


Since triacetin has a variety of applications including as a plasticizer for cigarette filters and cellulose nitrate, solvent for the manufacture of celluloid, photographic films, fungicide in cosmetics, fixative in perfumery, component in binders for solid rocket fuels and a general purpose food additive, release of triacetin to the environment may occur at the production sites, specific industrial sites and consumers depending on the conditions of use in Japan

The triglyceride 1,2,3-triacetoxypropane is more generally known as triacetin and glycerin triacetate. 
It is the triester of glycerol and acetylating agents, such as acetic acid and acetic anhydride. 
It is a colorless, viscous and odorless liquid. 
It is an artificial chemical compound, commonly used as a food additive, for instance as a solvent in flavourings, and for its humectant function, with E number E1518 and Australian approval code A1518.


Triacetin E1518 can be used in Food, Beverage, Pharmaceutical, Health & Personal care products, Agriculture/Animal Feed/Poultry.  
Food grade Triacetin E1518 used in manufacturing of capsules and tablets, used as a humectant, plasticizer, and solvent, used in Tobacco industry, Dairy food, hard candy, butter and beverage, Chewing gum, Bakes food.

Triacetin E1518 uses as follows:

In Food
Triacetin E1518 can be used as humectant, emlusifier, binder in food such as in baked goods, beverages, chewing gum, flavoring agents, dairy desserts, cheese, processed fruit, dried vegetables, confectionery.

In Beverage
Triacetin E1518 can be used as emulsifier, flavor enhancer in beverage.

In Pharmaceutical
Triacetin E1518can be used as an excipient in pharmaceutical products, where it is used as a humectant, a plasticizer, and as a solvent in Pharmaceutical.

In Health and Personal care
Triacetin E1518, an oil, is the triester of Glycerol and Acetic Acid. 
In cosmetics and personal-care products, it is used in makeup as well as in nail polish and nail enamel removers. 
Triacetin helps cleanse the skin or prevent odor by destroying or inhibiting the growth of microorganisms. 
It is also a plasticizer and commonly used carrier for flavors and fragrances.

In Agriculture/Animal Feed/Poultry feed
Triacetin E1518 can be used as feed ingredients in agriculture/animal feed/poultry feed.

Other use
1.Used as core sand binder in metal foundry sector.

2.Used as solvent in printing inks.

3.Used as a highly effective plasticizer for cellulose-based plastics.

4.Used as solvent in building wall coating.

TRIACETIN
TRIACETIN (C2:0)
Triacetyl glycerin
FEMA 2007
GLYCEROL TRIACETATE
GLYCERYL TRIACETATE
GLYCERIN TRIACETATE
1,3-Diacetyloxypropan-2-yl acetate
propane-1,2,3-triyl triethanoate
triacetate
Glyceryl triacetate,1,2,3-Triacetoxypropane, 1,2,3-Triacetylglycerol, Glycerol triacetate, Triacetin
Triacetin, 99%, extra pure, Ph Eur, USP, BP
Triacetin, 99%, reagent grade
Triacetin,1,2,3-Triacetoxypropane, 1,2,3-Triacetylglycerol, Glyceryl triacetate
Triacetin (1 g)
Glyceryl Triacetate (Triacetin)
Triacetin, 99% 1LT
Triacetin, 99% 2.5LT
Three acetic acidglycerol ester
Glycerol triacetate, 99%, 99%
Triacetin 0.25
Glycerol triacetate GTC
GLYCERYL TRIACETATE >= 99.0% (GC)
2,3-diacetyloxypropyl acetate
carbonic acid [4-[[2-[[(4-ethoxycarbonyloxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-oxomethyl]amino]ethylamino]-oxomethyl]-2-methoxyphenyl] ethyl ester
1,2,3-propanedioltriacetate
1,2,3-propanedioltriethanoate
2-(Acetyloxy)-1-[(acetyloxy)methyl]ethyl acetate
Acetin, tri-
Enzactin
femanumber2007
Fungacetin
Glycerol triacetate tributyrin
Glyped
Kesscoflex TRA
kesscoflextra
Kodaflex triacetin
kodaflextriacetin
tri-aceti
Triacetine
Triacetyl glycerine
Triacetyl glycerol
triacetylglycerine
Triacetylglycerol
Vanay
GLYCEROL MONO ACETATE BULK
TRIACETIN (BULK)
TRIACETIN (TOTES)
TRIACETIN FCC (KOSHER)
TRIACETIN TOBACCO GRADE
TRIACETIN USP
TRIACETIN, 99% (EASTMAN TRIACETIN)
GLYCEROL TRIACETATE BIOSYNTH
TRIACETIN 98.5+% FCC
TRIACETIN, 99+%
Triacetin FCC, Kosher Grade
GlycerolTriacetateForBiochemistry(Triacetin)
1,2,3-TRIACETYLGLYCEROL

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