TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE

TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE = Sodium phosphate, tribasic = TSP = Trisodium Orthophosphate =Tertiary Sodium Phosphate = Phosphoric acid, trisodium salt

EC / List no.: 231-509-8
CAS no.: 7601-54-9
Mol. formula: H3O4P.3Na

TSP (Trisodium Phosphate): Builder, Cleaning Agent, Degreaser, Food Additive, Lubricant, Phosphate Salts, Phosphates, Stain Remover
7601-54-9


Trisodium Phosphate (TSP) is a colorless crystalline powder. It is soluble in water and has stain-removing properties.

Trisodium Phosphate is commonly used in cleaning agents and detergents, water softeners, textiles, papers, photography, paint removers, food additives, dietary supplements, and as an emulsifier.


Synonyms:

TSP
Trisodium Monophosphate
Sodium Phosphate, Tribasic

Product information
Formula: Na3PO4
Molecular weight: 163.94
CAS No. 7601-54-9
EINCS No. 231-509-8
EEC classification: E339(iii)
Appearance: White crystalline 
Shelf life: 24 months in original package, under dry and cool storage conditions.

Synonyms:
Sodium tertiary phosphate
Trisodium Phosphate (Anhydrous)
Sodium phosphate, tribasic
Trisodium Phosphate
Trisodium Phosphate Hexahydrate
Tribasic sodium orthophosphate
Phosphoric acid, trisodium salt
Tertiary Sodium Phosphate
Phosphoric acid, trisodium salt, dodecahydrate
Trisodium Orthophosphate
Sodium Orthophosphate, Tertiary
Sodium orthophosphate
Tribasic sodium phosphate
Trisodium orthophosphate, dodecahydrate
Tsp

Trisodium phosphate is an inorganic compound with major uses as a cleaner, lubricant, food additive, stain remover, and degreaser. 
As a cleaner, Trisodium phosphate is sufficiently basic to saponify grease and oils and is excellent at cleaning anything from textiles to stone. Trisodium phosphate is largely used as an antioxidant when used as a food additive.

Trisodium phosphate (TSP) is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Na3PO4. It is a white, granular or crystalline solid, highly soluble in water, producing an alkaline solution. TSP is used as a cleaning agent, builder, lubricant, food additive, stain remover, and degreaser.[7]


Trisodium phosphate has a variety of applications but is primarily used as a cleaning agent, food additive, stain remover and degreaser.

Trisodium phosphate is a white, granular or crystalline solid, highly soluble in water producing an alkaline solution.

USAGE IN DYEING PROCESS:
Trisodium Phosphate (TSP) is used as a source of alkalinity in fiber-reactive dyeing processes for both cotton and cotton blends. Usage of Trisodium Phosphate makes the dyeing process less sensitive to pH swings that might otherwise occur. This can lead to increase in production rates in dyeing processes


USES IN FOOD INDUSTRY: 
Process cheese- emulsifier, buffer.
Milk and dairy products- pH adjustment, buffer.
Starter culture- nutrient, bacteria inhibitor.


Compatibility: Trisodium phosphate is incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, and magnesium metal and is corrosive to some metals.


This white crystalline inorganic compound is highly soluble in water and produces an alkaline solution. 
Trisodium phosphates are typically found in various commercial and industrial cleaning agents, lubricant, food additives, laundry and carpeting stain removers, and automotive, commercial and industrial degreasers. 
The primary method of synthesis of trisodium phosphates is via the neutralization of phosphoric acid with sodium hydroxides, most commonly sodium carbonate. 
Carbonate alone only produces disodium phosphate. 
Its utility as a cleaning agent derives from its ability to saponify grease and oils, particularly when combined with surfactants. 
It was the basis for innumerable cleaning products throughout the 20th century, but its popularity waned in the 1960s once it was discovered that it was a prime cause of the eutrophication of lakes and rivers once it became part of local water tables. 
Today, TSP is typically used for cleaning surfaces that have been exposed to mineral spirits as a solvent in order to remove the hydrocarbon residue, and can be safely combined with chlorine bleach without generating a hazardous reaction.

INDUSTRIES :
HI&I
Hard Surface Cleaning & Disinfection
Lubricants


Production
Trisodium phosphate is produced by neutralization of phosphoric acid using sodium carbonate, which produces disodium hydrogen phosphate. The disodium hydrogen phosphate is reacted with sodium hydroxide to form trisodium phosphate and water.

Na2CO3 + H3PO4 → Na2HPO4 + CO2 + H2O
Na2HPO4 + NaOH → Na3PO4 + H2O


Uses
Cleaning
Trisodium phosphate was at one time extensively used in formulations for a variety of consumer-grade soaps and detergents, and the most common use for trisodium phosphate has been in cleaning agents. The pH of a 1% solution is 12 (i.e., very basic), and the solution is sufficiently alkaline to saponify grease and oils. In combination with surfactants, TSP is an excellent agent for cleaning everything from laundry to concrete driveways. This versatility and low manufacturing price made TSP the basis for a plethora of cleaning products sold in the mid-20th century.
Uses: Heavy duty cleaner; boiler water compounds; detergent; metal cleaner; textiles; manufacture of paper; laundering; tanning; photographic developers; paint removers; industrial cleaners, power washing.


TSP is still sold and used as a cleaning agent, but since the late 1960s, its use has diminished in the United States and many other parts of the world because, like many phosphate-based cleaners, it is known to cause extensive eutrophication of lakes and rivers once it enters a water system.[8] Substitutes are generally not as effective.[9]

TSP is commonly used after cleaning a surface with mineral spirits to remove hydrocarbon residues and may be used with household chlorine bleach in the same solution without hazardous reactions.[citation needed] This mixture is particularly effective for removing mildew, but is less effective at removing mold.[citation needed]

Although it is still the active ingredient in some toilet bowl-cleaning tablets, TSP is generally not recommended for cleaning bathrooms because it can stain metal fixtures and can damage grout.[10]

Flux
In the U.S., trisodium phosphate is an approved flux for use in hard soldering joints in medical-grade copper plumbing. The flux is applied as a concentrated water solution and dissolves copper oxides at the temperature used in copper brazing. Residues are water-soluble and can be rinsed out before plumbing is put into service.

TSP is used as an ingredient in fluxes designed to deoxygenate nonferrous metals for casting. It can be used in ceramic production to lower the flow point of glazes.

Painting enhancement
TSP is still in common use for the cleaning, degreasing, and deglossing of walls prior to painting. TSP breaks the gloss of oil-based paints and opens the pores of latex-based paint, providing a surface better suited for the adhesion of the subsequent layer.[11][unreliable source?]

Food additive
Sodium phosphates including monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, and trisodium phosphate are approved as food additives in the EU. They are commonly used as acidity regulators and have the collective E number E339.[12] The United States Food and Drug Administration lists sodium phosphates as generally recognized as safe.[13][14]
Trisodium phosphate is used to prolong shelf-life, and in some cases, to improve the texture of food or enhance the flavor. It's in a lot of processed foods, baked goods and cheeses,


Exercise performance enhancement
Trisodium phosphate has gained a following as a nutritional supplement that can improve certain parameters of exercise performance.[15] The basis of this belief is the fact that phosphate is required for the energy-producing Krebs cycle central to aerobic metabolism. Phosphates are available from a number of other sources that are much milder than TSP. While TSP is not toxic per se, it is severely irritating to gastric mucosa unless used as part of a buffered solution.

Regulation
In the Western world, phosphate usage has declined owing to ecological problems with the damage to lakes and rivers through eutrophication.

Substitutes
See also: Cleaning products and the environment
By the end of the 20th century, many products that formerly contained TSP were manufactured with TSP substitutes, which consist mainly of sodium carbonate along with various admixtures of nonionic surfactants and a limited percentage of sodium phosphates.

Products sold as TSP substitutes, containing soda ash and zeolites, are promoted as direct substitutes. However, sodium carbonate is not as strongly basic as trisodium phosphate, making it less effective in demanding applications.[citation needed] Zeolites, which are clay based, are added to laundry detergents as water softening agents and are essentially non-polluting; however, zeolites do not dissolve and can deposit a fine, powdery residue in the wash tub.[citation needed] Cleaning products labeled as TSP may contain other ingredients, with perhaps less than 50% trisodium phosphate.


Trisodium Phosphate is used in shampoos, cuticle softeners, bubble baths, and bath salts for its water-softening and cleaning actions.

Sodium Phosphate, especially Trisodium Phosphate (TSP) is an effective cleaning agent and is used in a variety of applications. Trisodium Phosphate can be found as an additive in food, in household cleaners and detergents. Sodium Phosphate and Disodium Phosphate may be used in some laxatives, especially those used to cleanse the bowel before diagnostic procedures such as colonoscopies.

Tri-Sodium Phosphate, or TSP, is a cleaning compound typically used to prepare surfaces, such as concrete decks and swimming pools, for painting

The major use for trisodium phosphate is in cleaning agents. In combination with surfactants, TSP is an excellent agent for cleaning everything from laundry to concrete driveways. TSP is commonly used after cleaning with mineral spirits in order to remove hydrocarbon residues. TSP may be used with household chlorine bleach in the same solution without hazardous reactions.[4] This mixture is particularly good for removing mildew. TSP is also used as a flux for use in hard soldering joints in medical grade copper plumbing. The flux is applied as a concentrated water solution and dissolves copper oxides at the temperature used in copper brazing. Residues are fully water soluble and can be rinsed out of plumbing before it is put in service. TSP can be used in ceramic production to lower the flow point of glazes. Another use is the cleaning, degreasing and deglossing of walls prior to painting.


IUPAC name: Trisodium phosphate
Other names: Sodium phosphate tribasic, trisodium orthophosphate, sodium phosphate
Identifiers
CAS Number    
7601-54-9 check
10101-89-0 (dodecahydrate) 

EC Number: 231-509-8
E number: E339

Properties
Chemical formula: Na3PO4
Molar mass    163.939 g·mol−1
Density: 2.536 g/cm3 (17.5 °C, anhydrous)
1.62 g/cm3 (20 °C, dodecahydrate)[2][3][4]

Melting point: 
1,583 °C (2,881 °F; 1,856 K) (anhydrous)
73.4 °C (164.1 °F; 346.5 K) (dodecahydrate)

Boiling point: 
100 °C (212 °F; 373 K) (dodecahydrate) decomposes

Solubility in water    
anhydrous:
5.4 g/100 mL (0 °C)
12 g/100 mL (20 °C)[5]
14.5 g/100 mL (25 °C)
23.3 g/100 mL (40 °C)
94.6 g/100 mL (100 °C)

dodecahydrate: 28.3 g/100 mL (20 °C)

Solubility: insoluble in ethanol, CS2[4]
Basicity (pKb)    2.23


What is Trisodium Phosphate?
An inorganic chemical compound (Na₃PO₄), TSP is a white granular or crystalline substance that can be mixed with water to create an alkaline solution. Once diluted, TSP is a highly effective cleanser, degreaser, and stain remover.


Trisodium phosphate (TSP) is an alkaline cleaning agent that has been used as a household cleaner for many years. 
It works by disrupting the bacterial cell membrane and causing the contents to leak out, though the exact mechanism is not fully elucidated (Oyarzabal, 2005). 
Trisodium phosphate solutions are approved for treatment of beef carcasses in the US Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR 182.1778; FDA 2003). 
Research has shown that spray-washing with trisodium phosphate (TSP) reduced contamination of beef brisket, and that it may inhibit bacterial attachment, thereby allowing easier bacterial cell removal by washing (Cabedo et al. 1996; Gorman et al. 1995; 1997). 
A 10% TSP solution has also been trialled for use as an antimicrobial treatment applied to beef trimmings before grinding. 
Microbial reductions were less than 1 log but there was improved colour stability of ground beef (Pohlman et al. 2002). 
Dickson et al. (1994) applied 8-12% TSP solutions at 55°C to artificially contaminated meat pieces and recorded reductions of Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and E. coli O157:H7 ranging from 0.8-1.2 log. 
Disposal of TSP in effluent is an environmental consideration as it will aggravate eutrophication in ponds and lakes. 
Eutrophication is the development of excess organic material, e.g. algae blooms, following nutrient (nitrogen or phosphorus) overload.


Trisodium phosphate Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Description
Trisodium phosphate (TSP) is an inorganic salt used as industrial detergents, metal treatment and in toilet floor cleaners. TSP is pure cleaning power. Used as a water softener; for the treatment of boiler water; as a paint remover; in photographic developers; for tanning leather; for manufacturing paper; for clarifying sugar.
Also, it is a common laboratory reagent. Use to dissolve dirt, grease, and mildew from siding, decks, masonry, boats, campers. To prepare surfaces before painting or staining wash with TSP. Trisodium phosphate is an approved food additive in the U.S., European Union and other countries of the world. It may be added to foods and beverages or smoothies and green drinks. The primary function of trisodium phosphate is acidity regulation. It is commonly present in dry, extruded cereals. Together with other phosphates, it modifies cereal color, aids the cereal's flow through the extruder and provides phosphorus fortification. It is also commonly present in cheese sauces as an emulsifier. Trisodium phosphate is a strong chemical and can cause severe eye damage and can burn unprotected skin. Poisoning occurs if you swallow, breathe in, or spill large amounts of this substance on your skin.

Chemical Properties
Trisodium phosphate (anhydrous) is a white, granular or crystalline solid, highly soluble in water and produces a strong alkaline solution. On exposure to heat, trisodium phosphate decomposes and produces toxic and corrosive fumes including phosphorous oxides.
The major use for trisodium phosphate is as a cleaning agent, food additive, stain remover, and degreaser. Trisodium phosphate of commercial grade is often partially hydrated and ranges from anhydrous trisodium phosphate, Na3PO4, to the dodecahydrate, Na3PO4 · 12H2O. Most often found in white powder form, it is also called trisodium orthophosphate or just plain sodium phosphate. Trisodium phosphate reacts violently with water and acids to liberate heat. Trisodium phosphate is corrosive and in the presence of water attacks many metals.
Trisodium phosphate is an approved flux for use in hard soldering joints in medical grade copper plumbing. The flux is applied as a concentrated water solution and dissolves copper oxides at the temperature used in copper brazing. Residues are fully water soluble and can be rinsed out of plumbing before it is put in service. Also, trisodium phosphate is still in vast use for the cleaning, degreasing, and deglossing of walls prior to painting. In fact, application of trisodium phosphate breaks the gloss of oil-based paints and opens the pores of latex-based paint providing a surface better suited for the adhesion of the subsequent layer of paint.

Physical properties
The dodecahydrate is a white or colorless hexagonal crystal; density 1.62 g/cm3; melts around 75°C on rapid heating; partially loses water of crystallization at 100°C; retains the last water molecule even at moderate ignition; soluble in water, about 28 g/100 mL at 20°C; the solution is strongly alkaline; the pH of a 0.1M solution 11.5; insoluble in alcohol.

Uses
Trisodium phosphate (TSP) is a cleaning agent, lubricant, food additive, stain remover and degreaser. It is an alkaline cleaning agent that has been used as a household cleaner for many years, but ecological problems have largely ended that practice, at least in the western world. Substitutes are not as effective, but the raw chemical can be bought in bulk to add to other detergents. It works by disrupting the bacterial cell membrane and causing the contents to leak out, though the exact mechanism is not fully elucidated (Oyarzabal, 2005). Trisodium phosphate solutions are approved for treatment of beef carcasses in the US Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR 182.1778; FDA 2003).
By the end of the 20th century, many products that formerly contained TSP were manufactured with TSP substitutes, which consist mainly of sodium carbonate along with various admixtures of nonionic surfactants and a limited percentage of sodium phosphates. TSP is commonly used after cleaning with mineral spirits in order to remove hydrocarbon residues. TSP may be used with household chlorine bleach in the same solution without hazardous reactions. This mixture is particularly good for removing mildew, but is ineffective at permanently removing mold.

Uses
sodium phosphate helps maintain product pH.

Uses
Trisodium Phosphate is an emulsifier and buffer that is strongly alkaline, with a ph of 12. it is moderately soluble in water, with a solubility of 14 g/100 ml at 25°c. it functions as an emulsifier in processed cheese to improve texture. it maintains viscosity and pre- vents phase separation in evaporated milk and is also found in cereals. it is also termed trisodium orthophosphate, sodium phosphate tribasic, and trisodium monophosphate.

Preparation
Trisodium phosphate may be prepared in two steps, first by adding a little excess of sodium carbonate to phosphoric acid and then boiling the solution to expel carbon dioxide. Sodium hydroxide is then added to the solution:
Na2CO3+ H3PO4→Na2HPO4+ CO2+ H2O
Na2HPO4+ NaOH →Na3PO4+ H2O
Alternatively, trisodium phosphate may be prepared by complete neutralization of phosphoric acid with sodium hydroxide, followed by evaporation and crystallization:
H3PO4+ 3NaOH →Na3PO4+ 3H2O

Hazard
Toxic by ingestion, irritant to tissue.

Industrial uses
Different salts of phosphoric and polyphosphoric acids are used in flotation. From this fairly large family of reagents, sodium phosphate is the preferred species. Trisodium phosphate is a white, crystalline substance highly soluble in water. Neutralizing phosphoric acid with soda ash produces trisodium phosphate.
Mono- and disodium phosphates are rarely used.

Safety Profile
Moderately toxic by intravenous route. Mutation data reported. A strong, caustic material. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Na2O and POx. See also PHOSPHATES.
Trisodium phosphate Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials
Industrial soda ash Sodium phosphate monobasic twelve Sodium fluorosilicate phosphoric acid by wet process

Preparation Products
Ethylenebis(nitrilodimethylene)tetraphosphonic acid potassium ω-hydroperfluroheptylate industrial wool-scouring powder FERRIC PHOSPHATE TETRAHYDRATE HEXOKINASE triethylene tetraamine hexamethylene phosphoric acid polyferric phophat sulfate Chorionic Gonadotropin PERLITE BEADS GRADE 5


Trisodium phosphate [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Phosphate de trisodium [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
sodium orthophosphate
sodium phosphate
sodiumphosphate
SX01TZO3QZ
TC9490000
Trinatriumphosphat [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
UNII:SX01TZO3QZ
Antisal 4
Dri-Tri
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:37583
natrium phosphate
Phosphoric acid, sodiumsalt (1:?)
Sodium orthohosphate
Sodium orthophosphate; Trisodium phosphate
sodium phosphate, tri-
sodium phosphate, tribasic
Sodium phosphate, tribasic-
tech.
tribasic sodium orthophosphate
tribasic sodium phosphate
Trisodium Ortho Phosphate
TRISODIUM ORTHOPHOSPHATE
tri-sodium phosphate
Tri-Sodium Phosphate(TSP)
Tromete
TSP
UNII-SX01TZO3QZ
磷酸钠 [Chinese]


Review: Trisodium Phosphate (TSP) Treatment for Decontamination of Poultry
Show all authors
R. Capita, C. Alonso-Calleja, M.C. García-Fernández
First Published February 1, 2002 Review Article


Abstract
Use of trisodium phosphate (TSP) treatment for reducing levels of bacteria in poultry is discussed with reference to: health and economic consequences of poultry contamination, causes or routes of contamination, possibilities for reduction of microbial loads, mechanisms of action of TSP, sensory properties and quality of TSP-treated poultry, antimicrobial effectiveness, influences on shelf-life, and worldwide authorization of this process, with special reference to the situation in the European Union. A summary of the main results of microbial reductions on poultry following TSP treatment is shown for Salmonella, coliforms/Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, Pseudomonas, total counts, Listeria, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus. The main results on microbial reductions assessed in foodstuffs other than poultry (beef, fruit, fish and shellfish) are also shown.

•    TSPA
•    TSPC
•    TRI-SODIUM ORTHOPHOSPHATE
•    antisal4
•    dri-tri
•    emulsiphos440/660
•    nutrifosstp
•    oakite
•    orthophosphatetrisodique
•    sodiumorthophosphate,tertiary
•    sodiumphosphate(na3po4)
•    Sodiumphosphate,ACS,98.0-102.0%(Assay)
•    sodiumphosphate,anhydrous
•    Sodiumphosphatetribasicanhy
•    sodiumtertiaryphosphate
•    tertiarysodiumphosphate
•    tribasicsodiumorthophosphate
•    tribasicsodiumphosphate
•    trinatriumphosphat
•    trisodiumphosphate(anhydrous)
•    trisodiumphosphate,industrial
•    tromete
•    Sodium phosphate, tribasic, anhydrous, pure
•    Phosphoric acid trisodium
•    Sodium phosphate(V)
•    Sodium phosphate tri
•    Trisodium Phosphate(Anhydride)
•    Sodium phosphate, tribasic,pure,anhydrous
•    Sodium phosphate, tribasictri-Sodium phosphate
•    Trisodium phosphate
•    Tribasic SodiuM Phosphate, Anhydrous, NF
•    SodiuM phosphate, tribasic, anhydrous, pure 1KG
•    TisodiuM Phosphate
•    ATSP
•    ANTI-THBS1(N-TERMINAL) antibody produced in rabbit
•    THBS1
•    TSP1
•    THBS
•    Sodium phosphate, anhydrous, technical
•    BUFFER SOLUTION, PH 2.5
•    BUFFER SOLUTION, PH 6.5
•    BUFFER SOLUTION, PH 3.0
•    BUFFER SOLUTION, PH 9.5
•    BUFFER SOLUTION, PH 9.0
•    BUFFER SOLUTION, PH 8.5
•    Phosphoric acid, sodium salt (1:3)
•    Sdoium phsophate tribasic anhydrous
•    Sodium phosphate three
•    Buffer solution HPCE pH 8.0
•    Sodium phosphate buffer solution
•    tribasic
•    clrisodium phosphate anhydrous
•    BUFFER SOLUTION, PH 8.0
•    BUFFER SOLUTION, PH 7.0
•    BUFFER SOLUTION, PH 7.5
•    DPD PHOSPHATE BUFFER
•    SODIUM PHOSPHATE BUFFER
•    SODIUM PHOSPHATE


Phosphoric acid, sodium salt (1:3)
Trisodium orthophosphate
trisodium orthophosphate
CAS names: Phosphoric acid, sodium salt (1:3)

IUPAC names
Agent T148
Fosfato trisódico
Phosphoric acid, trisodium salt
Trisodium phosphate
Sodium orthophosphate
SODIUM PHOSPHATE
sodium phosphate
tri-sodium phosphate
Tribasic sodium orthophosphate
TRISODIUM ORTHOPHOSPHATE
Trisodium orthophosphate
trisodium orthophosphate
Trisodium orthophosphate
trisodium orthophosphate
Trisodium orthophosphate 12-hydrate
Trisodium orthophosphate dodecahydrate
Trisodium phosphate dodecahydrate
Trisodium Phosphate, Tribasic Sodium Phosphate
trisodium;phosphate
trisodiumphosphate
TSP


Trade names
Agent T148
Fosforan sodu
PHOSPRIL
PRAYPHOS TSP 12 TG
PRAYPHOS TSP 6 TG
PRAYPHOS TSP TG
TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE
Trisodium Phosphate
Trisodium phosphate
TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE CRYSTALLINE
TSP

photographic developers; Removing boiler scale, Softening water; detergent mixture; Wet finishing - pH value adjustment; Aluminium work pieces - Polishing, Burnishing; Clarifying sugar, Fermentation - Nutrient; Complementary feeding stuff for livestock breeding - Mineral enrichment

TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE is used for washing surfaces prior to painting, especially exterior surfaces. Liquid bleach is often added to TSP if there is mildew on the surfaces. 
TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE and bleach act in concert to both kill the mildew and remove its characteristic stains. 
TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE may be used on inside surfaces also, but try to mask all surfaces except the one you want to clean. 
TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE can damage many metal and painted surfaces, and can stain woods. TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE is not recommended for use on glass, either, since it will leave a filmy residue.
TSP can also be used as a masonry cleaner. 
However, if efflorescence or mortar staining are severe, you may need to resort to a more powerful but dangerous product, muriatic acid.
TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE and TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE-bleach solutions may be applied with a sponge or brush, or can be sprayed on.

A colourless crystalline compound, Na3PO4, soluble in water and insoluble in ethanol. It is known both as the decahydrate (octagonal; r.d. 2.54) and the dodecahydrate (trigonal; r.d. 1.62) The dodecahydrate loses water at about 76°C and the decahydrate melts at 100°C. 
Trisodium phosphate may be prepared by boiling sodium carbonate with the stoichiometric amount of phosphoric acid and subsequently adding sodium hydroxide to the disodium salt thus formed. 
It is useful as an additive for high-pressure boiler feed water (for removal of calcium and magnesium as phosphates), in emulsifiers, as a water-softening agent, and as a component in detergents and cleaning agents. Sodium phosphate labelled with the radioactive isotope 32P is used in the study of the role of phosphate in biological processes and is also used (intravenously) in the treatment of polycythaemia. 


TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE
Sodium phosphate
7601-54-9
Sodium orthophosphate
Phosphoric acid, trisodium salt
Tromete
Trisodium orthophosphate
Tribasic sodium phosphate
Sodium phosphate, anhydrous
Phosphoric acid trisodium salt
Trinatriumphosphat
Tertiary sodium phosphate
sodiumphosphate
Sodium orthophosphate, tribasic
UNII-SX01TZO3QZ
trisodium;phosphate
Trisodium phosphate anhydrous
sodium monophosphate
Tri-Sodium Phosphate
SX01TZO3QZ
Phosphoric acid, sodium salt (1:3)
CHEBI:37583
Sodium orthohosphate
MFCD00003510
Oakite
Nutrifos STP
Caswell No. 898
Sodium phosphate (VAN)
Emulsiphos 440/660
Trinatriumphosphat [German]
Sodium phosphate, tribasic; Sodium tertiary phosphate; Tribasic sodium orthophosphate; Tribasic sodium phosphate; Trisodium orthophosphate
Sodium phosphate, tribasic, pure, anhydrous
Sodium orthophosphate, tertiary
CCRIS 7086
HSDB 583
EINECS 231-509-8
Phosphoric acid, sodium salt (2:3)
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 076406
NSC 215202
Trisodium phosphate solution
sodium phophate
EINECS 265-604-0
EINECS 268-603-3
Sodium phosphate, 96%
Trisodium Ortho Phosphate
ACMC-1BEI5
Phosphoric acid, C14-18 and C16-18-unsatd. alkyl esters, sodium salts
3Na.PO4
(C14-C18) and (C16-C18)Unsaturated alkyl alcohol, phosphoric acid sodium salt
EC 231-509-8
68130-75-6
Monosodium phosphate disodium phosphate double salt
DTXSID2035223
Sodium phosphate, tribasic (NF)
Phosphoric acid, sodiumsalt (1:?)
Sodium phosphate, AR, >=95.5%
Trisodium trihydrogen bis(phosphate)
5356AF
AKOS028109702
Sodium phosphate tribasic, p.a., 97%
BP-30114
AK01050748
FT-0650556
D09000
Sodium phosphate, SAJ first grade, >=97.0%


Improving slaughter and processing technologies
J.A. Byrd, S.R. McKee, in Food Safety Control in the Poultry Industry, 2005
Trisodium phosphate
Trisodium phosphate (TSP) is an alkaline detergent that has been approved by USDA for use as a spray-application or carcass-dip at concentrations of 8–12% (21 CFR 182.1778). 
The treatment temperature should be maintained at 4555 0 F to ensure efficacy. 
As an antimicrobial, TSP removes attached bacteria from carcass surfaces by means of its surfactant properties and high alkalinity (pH about 12.0). 
In addition, TSP kills bacteria by disrupting the cell membrane and causing leakage of cellular material (Giese, 1993). 
Slavik et al. (1994) found that Campylobacter levels were significantly reduced when poultry carcasses were dipped in a 10% TSP solution after chilling. 
In another study, TSP (8%) was shown to be an effective means of reducing levels of S, Typhimurium on chicken skin (Tamblyn et al., 1997). 
A 1.48 log-reduction was reported when the bacterial cells were loosely attached and a 1.60 log-reduction when attachment was firmer. 
Spray pressure and application time have been shown to influence the efficacy of TSP treatment. 
Li et al. (1997) determined the efficacy of spray application, using a 10% TSP solution at pressures of 207, 345 and 827 pKa, respectively. 
It was concluded that a pressure of 827 pKa and a contact time of 30 sec were most effective and reduced S. Typhimurium by 1.82 log units per carcass.
Although, TSP is effective in reducing microbial counts from poultry, there are some concerns about using the compound. 
In particular, the high pH can cause problems when the spray-application method is used prior to carcasses entering the chiller. 
The resultant increase in the alkalinity of the chill-water to pH 9.5–10.5 decreases the antimicrobial activity of added chlorine. 
Following treatment, any attempt to remove residual TSP by spray-washing the carcasses would only add to treatment cost and complexity. 
In addition, large amounts of phosphate in the wastewater represent an environmental issue. 
Finally, like many chemical treatments, the compatibility of phosphate compounds with processing equipment must be considered. 
Over time, phosphates can be corrosive to metal equipment, although less so than substances such as chlorine.


New developments in decontaminating raw meat
C. James, in Meat Processing, 2002
13.4.4 Polyphosphates
Trisodium phosphate (TSP) was developed in the US for the control of salmonella on poultry. 
TSP (Na3PO4) possibly works by removing a thin layer of fat from the carcass surface and in doing so removing the microorganisms attached to the surface (Giese, 1992), it then causes rupture of the bacterial cell membrane. Ruptured cells are not protected and succumb to the ionic strength and high pH of the medium.
There are conflicting reports on the sensitivities of Gram-positive and Gramnegative bacteria to polyphosphates. 
It has been reported that Gram-positive bacteria are generally more sensitive to polyphosphates than are Gram-negative bacteria (Lee et al., 1994), but TSP has been reported to be more active against Gram-negative bacteria, such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. (Corry and Mead, 1996). 
There are conflicting reports on its effectiveness on reducing microorganisms on red meat tissues (Dickson et al., 1994; Gorman et al., 1995).

Control of Pathogens Using Inorganic Phosphates
Among the inorganic phosphates, trisodium phosphate (TSP) is a well-recognised antimicrobial used in poultry processing facilities. 
Trisodium phosphate is formed by neutralizing phosphoric acid with sodium hydroxide as follows: Na2HPO4 + NaOH → Na3PO4 + H2O. 
Low reactivity of Na+ and PO43− ions which are produced due to the dissociation of TSP when mixed with water causes extremely low by-product formation. 
This inorganic phosphate is an alkaline sanitizer and is used between pH 10–12. 
Gram negative bacteria such as Campylobacter and Salmonella are more susceptible to alkaline sanitizers including TSP at this pH range than Gram positive bacteria due to the presence of the thin peptidoglycan layer (Capita et al., 2002; Dickson et al., 1994). 
TSP is known for its surfactant properties which aid in preventing Campylobacter and Salmonella attachment to poultry. 
In addition TSP has the ability to remove some fat from the meat which indirectly aids in the removal of bacteria attached to the fat on the meat (Sarjit and Dykes, 2015). It is also able to remove the protective lipid layer on the meat enabling it to reach the entrapped pathogens thereby reducing the prevalence of these pathogens on meat (Capita et al., 2002).
TSP is regarded as safe for use on poultry at concentrations between 8% and 12% without hampering the organoleptic qualities of meat. 
At these concentrations, TSP has the ability to disrupt Salmonella spp. cell membranes due to the high pH resulting in the detachment of Salmonella cells from poultry and its associated surfaces through sequestration of metal ions (Sampathkumar et al., 2003). 
Effectiveness of TSP on both Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. on poultry has been studied as indicated in Table 1. 
The occurrence of carryover of residues in the immersion chillers may alter the pH of TSP in water reducing its effect in reducing the numbers of pathogens in the chillers. To overcome this, air chilling may be used instead of immersion chilling (Buncic and Sofos, 2012).

Microbial decontamination of poultry carcasses
C. Zweifel, R. Stephan, in Microbial Decontamination in the Food Industry, 2012

3.5.7 Phosphate-based compounds
The use of trisodium phosphate (TSP, Na3PO4) for the decontamination of poultry is well documented (Capita et al., 2002). 
Important factors are the high pH and the ionic strength causing bacterial cell autolysis, but mechanisms are not entirely understood. 
The majority of the evaluated studies were performed under laboratory conditions. 
Li et al. (1997) and Yang et al. (1998) used pilot-scale spraying equipment, but inoculated carcasses were investigated (Table 3.5). 
Great ranges of results were found in the study by Li et al. (1997). 
Increasing the TSP concentration from 5 to 10% distinctly enhanced the reductions. 
Different exposure times and application pressures also influenced the results. 
In commercial processing plants, reprocessing with TSP yielded Campylobacter reductions on naturally contaminated carcasses that were about 1.2 log CFU/ml higher than after reprocessing without chemicals (Berrang et al., 2007). 
Bashor et al. (2004) reported that addition of ASC to carcass washers increased Campylobacter reductions by 1 log (log CFU/ml) above that seen with chlorine spraying. 
Other surveys evaluating the efficacy of TSP for reducing Campylobacter and Salmonella under industrial conditions were performed by Coppen et al. (1998) and Salvat et al. (1997).

Laboratory studies mainly investigated immersion treatments and yielded reductions of Campylobacter and Salmonella by 0.2−1.9 and 0.6−3.8 orders of magnitude (log reductions), respectively (Table 3.5). Arritt et al. (2002) and Del Río et al. (2007) found reductions by > 1.5 log CFU/g, whereas water controls achieved 0.2−0.3 log CFU/g reductions. 
Compared with immersion in water, Özdemir et al. (2006) reported reductions of C. jejuni inoculated on breast skin samples by 1.7c2.4 log CFU/g after immersion in TSP. 
Increasing application temperatures and/or pressures influenced the reductions obtained (Slavik et al., 1994; Wang et al., 1997). 
Furthermore, immersion (25 °C, 30 min) in sodium acid pyrophosphate, monosodium phosphate, sodium hexametaphosphate, and sodium tripolyphosphate reduced Salmonella inoculated on breast skin by 0.8−1.1 log CFU/cm2 (Hwang and Beuchat, 1995).

An important factor to consider when evaluating the bactericidal efficacy of TSP and other phosphate applications is the high pH values resulting in carcass rinses, which can interfere with the recovery of bacteria (Bourassa et al., 2004, 2005; Lillard, 1994a; Rathgeber and Waldroup, 1995). 
Lillard (1994a) initially reported reductions of S. Typhimurium by about 2 logs, but when residual TSP was washed off and pH was neutralized, S. Typhimurium was recovered even at low inoculation levels. 
Similarly, Salmonella recovery was reduced in the study of Bourassa et al. (2004), but no difference in prevalence was found between control and TSP-treated carcasses after pH adjustment (Bourassa et al., 2005).


Chemical decontamination strategies for meat
G.R. Acuff, in Improving the Safety of Fresh Meat, 2005
17.3.2 Trisodium phosphate (TSP)
Mendonca et al. (1994) reported that high pH solutions, such as TSP (ca. 13), have an antimicrobial effect that is apparently due to disruption of cell membranes and an increase in DNA water solubility. 
TSP has been used for beef carcass decontamination, and treatments also have been patented for use in poultry decontamination (Bender and Brotsky, 1992). 
Dickson et al. (1994) applied TSP solutions at 55 °C and obtained reductions of S. Typhimurium, L. monocytogenes, and E. coli O157:H7 ranging from 0.8–1.2 log10/cm2 on lean beef muscle and from 1.2–2.5 log10/cm2 on adipose tissue. 
When the temperature of the TSP solution was increased from 25 to 55 °C greater reductions of the pathogenic bacteria occurred; however, increasing TSP concentration (from 8 to 12%) was not reported to significantly affect bacterial reduction. 
Kim and Slavik (1994) also evaluated the effect of 10% TSP on E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium attached to beef surfaces. They reported greater reduction of E. coli O157:H7 on fat and fascia surfaces (1.4 and 0.9 log cycles, respectively) than S. Typhimurium (0.9 and 0.5, respectively). 
Reductions of > 3.0 log cycles on pre-rigor beef tissue surfaces inoculated with S. Typhimurium and enterohemorrhagic E. coli strains were reported after sprays of 10% TSP by Cutter and Rivera-Betancourt (2000).


Modern brewery sanitation
D. Loeffler, in Brewing: New Technologies, 2006
Chlorine
Most liquid products derive the active chlorine from sodium hypochlorite (bleach) while powdered products generally use chlorinated trisodium phosphate (TSP) or sodium chloroisocyanurate. 
Chlorine reacts negatively with beer and may cause protein haze, head retention problems, or, worse, the formation of ortho-chloro-phenolics. 
Chlorine based products must never be used in the presence of carbon dioxide as poisonous chlorine gas is released. 
Chlorine's antimicrobial activity increases as its pH decreases; however, a pH environment of 9 or higher should always be maintained in order to minimize the danger of corrosion. 
While inexpensive and offering a broad antimicrobial spectrum, chlorine is more and more being phased out due to its incompatibility with beer, its corrosivity and its wastewater problems (AOX, COD, THM, etc.). 
Chlorine's activity is based on irreversible oxidative action on the cells, in which both the cell structure as well as enzymatic proteins and nucleic acids are so strongly changed that the microorganism is destroyed and cell regeneration is arrested.

Biofilms in fish processing
K.T. Rajkowski, in Biofilms in the Food and Beverage Industries, 2009
19.4.5 Seafood finishing processes
Seafood arrives at the processing plant with biofilm on their outer skin, which may transfer to equipment during processing. 
Trisodium phosphate was shown to inactivate attached Salmonella and L. monocytogenes on catfish; however, the skin mucus slightly decreased the antimicrobial effect (Kim and Marshall, 2002). 
Some finfish varieties lend themselves to further processing by heat, i.e. canning of salmon and tuna. 
Although this thermal processing step does not physically remove biofilms, the bacteria are inactivated.
Canned salted anchovies and sardines are traditional foods in the Mediterranean area.
During harvesting, the biofilms that formed in the fish boxes were reported to contain Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus, and cross contamination of the fish occurred. 
In order to control these pathogens, a salt ripening period of 90 days was shown to provide a safe fish product (Arkoudelos et al., 2003). 
Another process that is used particularly for salmon is cold or hot smoking (Heinitz and Johnson 1998). 
Listeria monocytogenes is a problem in these smoked packaged products, and the packaging process was identified as an area in the plant where contamination for the hot or cold smoked product occurs due to biofilm formation on the fresh salmon. 
Controls for this pathogen during processing are similar to other food plants. 
HACCP requires thorough cleaning and sanitizing in the finfish industry (Lupin, 2003).

BY-PRODUCTS | Hides and Skins
H.W. Ockerman, L. Basu, in Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences, 2004
Deliming
The deliming process consists of a washing step in which ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) or ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and sometimes trisodium phosphate (Na3PO4) or sulfuric acid (H2SO4) are added to convert the remaining lime into water-soluble compounds. 
Ammonium chloride penetrates faster than sulfate and results in softer leather. 
Ammonium sulfate is used for most shoe-upper leather since it will produce firmer leather with more temper. 
These deliming operations lower the pH to 8–9; the alkaline swelling of the hide is reduced and the pH is appropriate for the enzymatic bates.


Modified atmosphere packaging and the safety of poultry meat
P.N. Skandamis, ... G.-J.E. Nychas, in Food Safety Control in the Poultry Industry, 2005
Chemical agents
Many substances, including chlorine (Kraft et al., 1982), short-chain organic acids (Zeitoun and Debevere, 1992), trisodium phosphate (Ismail et al., 2001), herbs (Ismail et al., 2001), electrolysed water (Fabrizio et al., 2002; Park et al., 2002) and bacteriocins have been recommended as means of reducing the microbial load on the surfaces of poultry carcasses. 
Although their antimicrobial properties are described in the literature, only a few (mainly organic acids) have been applied in practical situations, and even fewer have been evaluated in combination with other preservation methods, such as MAP. Importantly, lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, citric acid and sorbates have been classed in the USA as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) (available at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~rdb/opa-gras.html) and hence have attracted interest as possible decontamination agents for poultry carcasses. 
The following paragraphs review studies dealing with the combined effects of these chemical agents and MAP storage of poultry.
It has been reported that proper selection of CO2 concentrations to combine with sorbates (2.5–5.0%) may reduce required levels of the latter by 50% and still succeed in inhibiting or inactivating pathogens, such as S. Enteritidis and Staph. aureus, on various foods, including fresh chicken thighs (Elliot and Gray, 1981; Elliot et al., 1982; Gray et al., 1984). 
Later, Elliot et al. (1985) found that a combination of potassium sorbate (up to 2.5%) and 100% CO2, even at an abuse temperature of 10 °C, resulted in a doubling of product shelf-life, in comparison with the effect of either factor alone. Zeitoun and Debevere (1992) demonstrated that decontamination of fresh chicken legs with a sodium lactate/ lactic acid buffer (pH 3.0) at concentrations of 2–10%, followed by packaging under 90% CO2 + 10% O2 and storage at 6 °C, yielded a substantial increase in shelf-life of 13 days, in comparison with untreated samples, also stored under MAP. Based on this work, the same researchers studied the effects of 10% sodium lactate/lactic acid buffer on the spoilage association of chicken legs stored under conditions identical to those of the first study, and they also monitored changes in the Enterobacteriaceae during storage (Zeitoun et al.,1994). 
It was concluded that the greatest inhibition of microbes was achieved by combining the buffered lactic acid with MAP storage. 
After six days of aerobic storage at 6 °C, the Enterobacteriaceae consisted mainly of E. coli, followed by the psychrotrophic organisms, H. alvei, Cit. freundii and En. cloacae. 
The beneficial effect of immersion in 10% buffered lactic acid on the shelf-life of MA-packaged chicken was further established with the use of a lower CO2 concentration, i.e. 70% CO2 + 5% O2 + 25%N2 and storage at 4 °C or 7 °C (Sawaya et al., 1995b). 
Changes in the spoilage association and two other spoilage indices were monitored: extract release volume (ERV) (Egan et al., 1981) and concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA). 
The combination of buffered lactic acid with MAP extended shelf-life by > 36 and 35 days respectively at 4 °C and 7 °C, compared with only 22 and 13, respectively, for MAP alone. 

A delay in reducing ERV and increasing FFA correlated well with the shelf-life of the product under different storage conditions. 
In another study, pre-cooking injection of chicken legs with sodium lactate and another commercial antimicrobial, in combination with a low temperature (3.5 °C), significantly delayed growth of Gram-positive organisms and extended the lag phase of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica in a mixture of 44% CO2 + 56% N2 (Barakat and Harris, 1999).
A comparative evaluation of lactic acid (1%), acetic acid (1 and 2%) and potassium sorbate (0–2.5%) as decontamination agents suggested that acetic acid would be the most effective compound for extending the shelf-life of chicken carcasses, followed by lactic acid and potassium sorbate (Tessi et al., 1993). 
Based on these findings, Jiménez et al. (1999) investigated the combined effect of immersion in 1% acetic acid with packaging in 70% CO2 + 30% N2 and storage of chicken breasts at 4 °C. 
Acetic acid treatment of chicken breasts kept total viable counts (TVC) and populations of pseudomonads, lactic acid bacteria and enterobacteria approximately 2–2.5 log units lower than in untreated samples. Moreover, sensory evaluation showed that decontaminated samples maintained a pleasant, but slightly acidic smell until the end of storage (21 days). In contrast, untreated samples developed strong off-odours early on in the storage period.
With regard to bacteriocins, nisin has been combined successfully with MAP to extend the shelf-life of poultry products (Cosby et al., 1999). 
Addition of nisin at levels above 50 μg per ml, in combination with 20–50 mM EDTA, kept TVC from broiler ‘drummettes’ packaged in 20% CO2 + 80% O2 approximately 2 log cfu per g lower than untreated samples, after 18 days of storage at 4 °C (Cosby et al., 1999). Likewise, a combination of sakakin K with MAP exerted a strong anti-Listeria effect, when used for chicken breasts (Hugas et al., 1998).
Indeed, addition of sakakin K (400 AU per g) or 106 cfu per cm2 of sakakin- producing L. sakei to chicken breasts packaged in 80% O2 + 20% CO2 suppressed the growth of L. innocua at 7 °C, compared to aerobic storage or MAP alone (Hugas et al., 1998). Similar results with sakakin K have been reported for other meat products (Schillinger et al., 1991).
Finally, based on a recommendation of the USDA for processors to use water containing 20 ppm available chlorine in continuous chillers (USDA, 1978), a study by Kraft et al. (1982) demonstrated a two-day increase in shelf-life for whole and cut-up chickens dipped in a 20 ppm chlorine solution and stored at 5 °C. The chlorine treatment significantly suppressed growth of microbial populations; however, the shelf-life of chlorine-treated chicken was shorter than that of untreated samples stored under vacuum in a high-barrier film.


TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE 
Prepared at the 19th JECFA (1975), published in NMRS 55B (1976) and in FNP 52 (1992). 
Metals and arsenic specifications revised at the 59th JECFA (2002).
 A group MTDI of 70 mg/kg bw, as phosphorus from all food sources, was established at the 26th JECFA (1982). 

SYNONYMS: Tribasic sodium phosphate, sodium phosphate; INS No. 339(iii) 

DEFINITION 
Chemical names:  Trisodium orthophosphate, trisodium phosphate, trisodium monophosphate 
C.A.S. number 7601-54-9 
Chemical formula Anhydrous: Na3PO4 Hydrated: Na3PO4 · xH2O 
Formula weight Anhydrous: 163.94 
Assay Anhydrous, hemihydrate and monohydrate: Not less than 97.0% calculated on the dried basis 
Dodecahydrate: Not less than 92.0% calculated on the ignited basis 

DESCRIPTION 
White odourless crystals, granules or a crystalline powder; hydrated forms available include hemi- and monohydrates, hexahydrate, octahydrate, decahydrate and dodecahydrate; the dodecahydrate contains 1/4 mol of sodium hydroxide. 

FUNCTIONAL USES: Buffer, sequestrant, emulsion stabilizer 


CHARACTERISTICS 
IDENTIFICATION 
Solubility:  Freely soluble in water; insoluble in ethanol 
pH : 11.5 - 12.5 (1 in 100 soln) 


Test for sodium To 5 ml of a 1 in 20 solution of the sample add 1 ml of acetic acid TS and 1 ml of uranyl zinc acetate TS. 
A yellow crystalline precipitate is formed within a few min. 
Test for phosphate To 5 ml of a 1 in 100 solution of the sample add 1 ml of concentrated nitric acid and 5 ml of ammonium molybdate TS and warm. 
A bright canary-yellow precipitate is obtained. 
Test for orthophosphate Dissolve 0.1 g of the sample in 10 ml water, acidify slightly with dilute acetic acid TS, and add 1 ml of silver nitrate TS. 
A yellow precipitate is formed. PURITY Loss on ignition (Vol. 4) 
Anhydrous: Not more than 2% (120o , 2 h, then 800o , 30 min) 
Monohydrate: Not more than 11% (120o , 2 h, then 800o , 30 min) 
Dodecahydrate: 45-58% (120o , 2 h, then 800o , 30 min) 

Water insoluble substances (Vol. 4) Not more than 0.2% 
Fluoride (Vol. 4) Not more than 50 mg/kg (Method I or III) 
Arsenic (Vol. 4) Not more than 3 mg/kg (Method II) 
Lead (Vol. 4) Not more than 4 mg/kg 

Determine using an atomic absorption technique appropriate to the specified level. 

The selection of sample size and method of sample preparation may be based on the principles of the method described in Volume 4, “Instrumental Methods.” 


METHOD OF ASSAY Dissolve an accurately weighed quantity of the sample, equivalent to between 5.5 and 6 g of anhydrous Na3PO4, in 40 ml of water in a 400-ml beaker, and add 100 ml of 1 N hydrochloric acid. 
Pass a stream of carbon dioxide-free air, in fine bubbles, through the solution for 30 min to expel carbon dioxide, covering the beaker loosely to prevent loss by spraying. 
Wash the cover and sides of the beaker with a few ml of water, and place the electrodes of a suitable pH meter in the solution. 
Titrate the solution with 1 N sodium hydroxide to the inflection point occurring at about pH 4, then calculate the volume (A) of 1 N hydrochloric acid consumed.
Protect the solution from absorbing carbon dioxide from the air, and continue the titration with 1 N sodium hydroxide until the inflection point occurring at about pH 8.8 is reached.

Calculate the volume (B) of 1 N sodium hydroxide consumed in the titration. 
When (A) is equal to, greater than, 2(B), each ml of the volume (B) of 1 N sodium hydroxide is equivalent to 163.9 mg of Na3PO4. 
When (A) is less than 2(B), each ml of the volume (A) - (B) of 1 N sodium hydroxide is equivalent to 163.9 mg of Na3PO4.


Agent T148
Fosforan sodu
Fosforan sodu
PHOSPRIL
PRAYPHOS TSP 12 TG
PRAYPHOS TSP 6 TG
PRAYPHOS TSP TG
TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE
TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE CRYSTALLINE
TSP
Trisodium Phosphate
Trisodium phosphate


 Trisodium orthophosphate
 tri-Sodium phosphate anhydrous
 Trisodium orthophosphate
 trisodium orthophosphate
 Trisodium phosphate (TSP) - dodechydrate form
 trisodium orthophosphate / trisodium phosphate / 7601-54-9 / 231-509-8
 Trisodium orthophosphate-dodecahydrate form
 Composition 9
 Trisodium orthophosphate
 Trisodium phosphate (TSP) - dodechydrate form
 Trisodium phosphate
 Trisodium phosphate
 Agent T148
 trisodium orthophosphate
 Sodium phosphate tribasic dodecahydrate
 Standard Composition
 Trisodium phosphate (TSP)
 trisodium phosphate dodecahydrate
 trisodium phosphate hexahydrate
 trisodium phosphate decahydrate
 trisodium phosphate octahydrate
 trisodium phosphate hemihydrate
 trisodium orthophosphate - crystallic
 trisodium orthophosphate - flake
 Trisodium phosphate (TSP) - anhydrous form
 Trisodium phospate
 Trisodium phosphate (TSP) - anhydrous form
 Trisodium phosphate (TSP) - decahydrate form
 Trisodium phosphate (TSP) - duodechydrate form
Composition(s) generated upon use 
 tri-Sodium phosphate 1-hydrate
 tri-Sodium phosphate 12-hydrate

Validated by Experts, Validated by Users, Non-Validated, Removed by Users
Trisodium phosphate [ACD/IUPAC Name] [Wiki]
Phosphate de trisodium [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
sodium orthophosphate
sodium phosphate
sodiumphosphate
SX01TZO3QZ
TC9490000
Trinatriumphosphat [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
UNII:SX01TZO3QZ
Antisal 4
Dri-Tri
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:37583
natrium phosphate
Phosphoric acid, sodiumsalt (1:?)
Sodium orthohosphate
Sodium orthophosphate; Trisodium phosphate
sodium phosphate, tri-
sodium phosphate, tribasic
Sodium phosphate, tribasic-
tech.
tribasic sodium orthophosphate
tribasic sodium phosphate
Trisodium Ortho Phosphate
TRISODIUM ORTHOPHOSPHATE
tri-sodium phosphate
Tri-Sodium Phosphate(TSP)
Tromete
TSP
UNII-SX01TZO3QZ
磷酸钠 [Chinese]

Synonyms     Sources
Na3PO4    IUPAC
phosphoric acid trisodium salt    
sodium orthophosphate    
sodium phosphate    
sodium phosphate, tribasic    
tertiäres Natriumphosphat(V) Deutsch    ChEBI
tertiary sodium phosphate    
tribasic sodium orthophosphate    
tribasic sodium phosphate    
Trinatriumphosphat Deutsch

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