ACETIC ACID


Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound best recognized for giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. 
It is one of the simplest carboxylic acids (the second-simplest, after formic acid) and has the chemical formula CH3COOH. 
In its pure, water-free state, called glacial acetic acid, it is a colorless, hygroscopic liquid that freezes below 16.7°C (62°F) to a colorless crystalline solid. 
It is corrosive, and its vapor irritates the eyes, produces a burning sensation in the nose, and can lead to a sore throat and lung congestion. 
The term acetate is used when referring to the carboxylate anion (CH3COO-) or any of the salts or esters of acetic acid.

This acid is an important chemical reagent and industrial chemical useful for the production of various synthetic fibers and other polymeric materials. 
These polymers include polyethylene terephthalate, used mainly in soft drink bottles; cellulose acetate, used mainly for photographic film; and polyvinyl acetate, for wood glue. 
In households, diluted acetic acid is often used in descaling agents. The food industry uses it (under the food additive code E260) as an acidity regulator.


Acetic acid (CH3COOH) is the common name for ethanoic acid. It is an organic chemical compound that has a distinctive pungent odor and sour flavor, recognizable as the scent and flavor of vinegar. Vinegar is about 3-9% acetic acid.


How Glacial Acetic Acid Is Different
Acetic acid that contains a very low amount of water (less than 1%) is called anhydrous (water-free) acetic acid or glacial acetic acid. The reason it's called glacial is because it solidifies into solid acetic acid crystals just cooler than room temperature at 16.7 °C, which ice. Removing the water from acetic acid lowers its melting point by 0.2 °C.

Glacial acetic acid may be prepared by dripping acetic acid solution over a "stalactite" of solid acetic acid (which could be considered to be frozen). Like a water glacier contains purified water, even if it's floating in the salty sea, pure acetic acid sticks to the glacial acetic acid, while impurities run off with the liquid.


Caution: Although acetic acid is considered a weak acid, safe enough to drink in vinegar, glacial acetic acid is corrosive and can injure skin on contact.

More Acetic Acid Facts
Acetic acid is one of the carboxylic acids. It is the second simplest carboxylic acid, after formic acid. The main uses of acetic acid are in vinegar and to make cellulose acetate and polyvinyl acetate. Acetic acid is used as a food additive (E260), where it is added for flavor and to regular acidity. It's an important reagent in chemistry, too. Worldwide, around 6.5 metric tons of acetic acid are used per year, of which approximately 1.5 metric tons per year are produced by recycling. Most acetic acid is prepared using petrochemical feedstock.

Acetic Acid and Ethanoic Acid Naming
The IUPAC name for the chemical is ethanoic acid, a name formed using the convention of dropping the final "e" in the alkane name of the longest carbon chain in the acid (ethane) and adding the "-oic acid" ending.


Even though the formal name is ethanoic acid, most people refer to the chemical as acetic acid. In fact, the usual abbreviation for the reagent is AcOH, partly to avoid confusion with EtOH, a common abbreviation for ethanol. The common name "acetic acid" comes from the Latin word acetum, which means vinegar.


ACETIC ACID, GLACIAL
A clear, colorless organic acid with a distinctive pungent odor, used as a solvent. Also called Methane Carboxylic Acid|Ethanoic Acid. Uses include the manufacture of photographic films and stop bath and sometimes in the production of the plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The term "glacial acetic acid" is now taken to refer to pure acetic acid (ethanoic acid) in any physical state. CAS 64-19-7

ACETIC ACID    
Glacial acetic acid
Ethanoic acid
Ethylic acid
Methanecarboxylic acid    May 2010
CAS #: 64-19-7
UN #: 2789
EC Number: 200-580-7


Systematic name: 
Acetic acid
Ethanoic acid

Other names    
Methanecarboxylic acid
Acetyl hydroxide (AcOH)
Hydrogen acetate (HAc)

CAS number: 64-19-7

Other names: Ethanoic acid; Ethylic acid; Glacial acetic acid; Methanecarboxylic acid; Vinegar acid; CH3COOH; Acetasol; Acide acetique; Acido acetico; Azijnzuur; Essigsaeure; Octowy kwas; Acetic acid, glacial; Kyselina octova; UN 2789; Aci-jel; Shotgun; Ethanoic acid monomer; NSC 132953

Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound best recognized for giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. Pure water-free acetic acid (glacial acetic acid) is a colorless hygroscopic liquid and freezes below 16.7 °C (62 °F) to a colourless crystalline solid. Acetic acid is corrosive, and its vapour is irritating to eyes and nose, although it is a weak acid based on its ability to dissociate in aqueous solutions.

Acetic acid is one of the simplest carboxylic acids (the second-simplest, next to formic acid). It is an important chemical reagent and industrial chemical that is used in the production of polyethylene terephthalate mainly used in soft drink bottles; cellulose acetate, mainly for photographic film; and polyvinyl acetate for wood glue, as well as many synthetic fibres and fabrics. In households diluted acetic acid is often used in descaling agents. In the food industry acetic acid is used under the food additive code E260 as an acidity regulator.

The global demand of acetic acid is around 6.5 million tonnes per year (Mt/a), of which approximately 1.5 Mt/a is met by recycling; the remainder is manufactured from petrochemical feedstocks or from biological sources.

Acetic acid is a mildly corrosive monocarboxylic acid. Otherwise known as ethanoic acid, methanecarboxylic acid, hydrogen acetate or ethylic acid, this organic compound is used in chemical manufacturing, as a food additive, and in petroleum production. The molecular formula of acetic acid is C2H4O2 or CH3COOH, where –COOH defines the presence of the single carboxyl group.

CAS Number: 64-19-7

Synonyms: hydrogen acetate, ethanoic acid, glacial acetic acid

When undiluted, acetic acid is sometimes referred to as ‘glacial’, meaning water-free, and is the main component of vinegar apart from water, therefore is known for it’s very distinctive sour taste and smell. As it’s highly corrosive, acetic acid is commonly used for descaling, pH adjustment and as a counterirritant. Available in a variety of strengths and sizes, the most common being 92% and 99.5%.

CATEGORIES: ALL PRODUCTS, MINING


Acetic Acid is a corrosive, flammable, liquid organic compound with the chemical formula C2H4O2. Its CAS number is 64-19-7. After formic acid, acetic acid is the second simplest carboxylic acid. The acetyl group, which is derived from acetic acid, is fundamental to the biochemistry of virtually all life forms.

Production

Acetic acid is produced naturally when excreted by certain bacteria such as Acetobacter genus and Clostridium acetobutylicum. These bacteria are found in foodstuffs, water, and soil. Acetic acid is also produced naturally when fruits and other foods spoil.

Industrially, acetic acid is produced both synthetically and by bacterial fermentation. Approximately 75% of acetic acid used in the chemical industry is made by the carbonylation of methanol. The biologic method accounts for only 10% of world production, but is important for the manufacture of vinegar because many food purity laws require vinegar used in food to be of biological origin.

Most acetic acid is made by methanol carbonylation, where methanol and carbon monoxide react to produce acetic acid. The compound is miscible with ethanol, ethyl ether, acetone, and benzene, and is soluble in carbon tetrachloride and carbon disulfide.

CAS: 64-19-7


Acetic acid (glacial acetic acid, ethanoic acid, methane carboxylic acid) is a weak, colorless, caustic, and flammable acid which has a sour taste and a strong smell. Every year, several million tons of acetic acid are produced (in 2014 about 12.1 million tons; 16.3 million tons estimated for 2018) because it is an important industrial feedstock for the manufacturing of many products .

Acetic acid is converted into derivatives  which can in turn be used as raw material for the production of e.g. vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) or benzene-1,4-discarbocylic acid (purified terephthalic acid or PTA) which is primarily used for the manufacturing of polyethylene terephthalate (PET).

Acetic acid is one of the simplest carboxylic acids. It is a weak acid, in that it is only a partially dissociated acid in an aqueous solution. Pure acetic acid (glacial acetic acid) is a colorless liquid, very corrosive

Acetic acid is a weak organic acid. It is the primary component in vinegar, responsible for its sharp taste and aroma characteristic that in imparts on other products. Acetic acid is liquid, transparent and viscous at ambient temperature while a solid. The acid is colorless and somewhat glassy.1

This acid is widely used in the food industry as a preservative and antimicrobial agent, inhibiting both bacteria and fungi.

Acetic acid is a colorless liquid compound found in vinegar. It's used in antibiotics, antiseptics, and disinfectants. It's also involved in some paper printing processes.

200-580-7 [EINECS]
64-19-7 [RN]
Acetic acid [ACD/Index Name] [ACD/IUPAC Name] [Wiki]
Acid, Acetic
Acide acétique [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Acido acetico [Italian]
AcOH [Formula]
ättiksyra [Swedish]
azido azetikoa [Basque]
azijnzuur [Dutch]
CH3CO2H [Formula]
CH3COOH [Formula]
Essigsäure [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Ethanoic acid
etikkahappo [Finnish]
Glacial acetic acid
HOAc [Formula]
kwas octowy [Polish]
Kyselina octova [Czech]
MFCD00036152 [MDL number]
MFCD00198163 [MDL number]
QV1 [WLN]
109945-04-2 [RN]
1112-02-3 [RN]
120416-14-0 [RN]
147416-04-4 [RN]
149748-09-4 [RN]
159037-04-4 [RN]
2-Mercapto-5-chlor-benzoxazol-7-sulfonsure, Kaliumsalz
55511-07-4 [RN]
AA
Acetic acid (glacial) 100%
Acetic acid 1 mol/L
Acetic acid 100%
Acetic acid 1000 µg/mL in Acetonitrile
Acetic acid 30%
Acetic acid 96%
Acetic acid 99-100%
Acetic Acid Glacial HPLC Grade
Acetic acid LC/MS Grade
Acetic acid, 0.1N Standardized Solution
Acetic acid, 1% v/v aqueous solution
Acetic acid, 1.0N Standardized Solution
Acetic acid, 4% v/v aqueous solution
Acetic Acid, Glacial 99%
Acetic acid, Glacial USP grade
Acetic Acid, GlenDry, anhydrous
Acetic Acid, GlenPure, analytical grade
Acetic Acid-d4
Acetic-2,2,2-d3 Acid
acetol
Essigsaeure
Ethylic acid
Glacial Acetic
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:15366
MeCO2H [Formula]
MeCOOH [Formula]
Methane carboxylic acid solution, Methylformic acid solution
Methanecarboxylic acid
Methanecarboxylic Acid, Acetic Acid
methyl carboxylic acid
MFCD00036287 [MDL number]
Pyroacetic acid
STR00276
Vinegar

Acetic acid (CH3COOH) is mainly used in the chemical industry for the production of VAM (vinyl acetate monomer) and PET (polyethylene terephthalate) but is also used as a preservative and as a food additive (E260). Its quality as well as its content in an aqueous solution can be determined using refractometry.

Acetasol; Acetic acid, glacial; Aceticum acidum; Aci-Jel; Acide acetique; Acido acetico; Azijnzuur; BRN 0506007; CCRIS 5952; Caswell No. 003; EINECS 200-580-7; EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 044001; Essigsaeure; Ethanoic Acid; Ethanoic acid monomer; Ethylic acid; FEMA No. 2006; Glacial acetic acid; HSDB 40; Kyselina octova; Methanecarboxylic acid; NSC 132953; Octowy kwas; Orlex; Pyroligneous acid; UNII-Q40Q9N063P; Vinegar acid; Vosol

CAS Number: 64-19-7


Molecular Formula: C​2H4O2

The acid most commonly associated with vinegar. Acetic acid is a two-carbon carboxylic acid. Its formula is: CH3COOH. It is the most commercially important organic acid and is used in the manufacture of a broad range of chemical products, such as plastics and insecticides.


Acetic acid is a product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed) Acetic acid otic (for the ear) is an antibiotic that treats infections caused by bacteria or fungus.

Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound best recognized for giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. It is one of the simplest carboxylic acids and has the chemical formula CH3COOH.

This acid is an important chemical reagent and industrial chemical useful for the production of various synthetic fibers and other polymeric materials. These polymers include polyethylene terephthalate, used mainly in soft drink bottles; cellulose acetate, used mainly for photographic film; and polyvinyl acetate, for wood glue. In households, diluted acetic acid is often used in descaling agents. The food industry uses it (under the food additive code E260) as an acidity regulator.


Synonyms     
ACETIC ACID    
Acetic acid    
acide acétique 
AcOH    
CH3‒COOH    IUPAC
CH3CO2H    
E 260    
E-260    
E260    
Essigsäure Deutsch    
Ethanoic acid    KEGG COMPOUND
ethoic acid    
Ethylic acid    ChemIDplus
HOAc    
INS No. 260    
MeCO2H    
MeCOOH    
Methanecarboxylic acid    ChemIDplus

Nomenclature
The trivial name acetic acid is the most commonly used and officially preferred name by the IUPAC. This name derives from acetum, the Latin word for vinegar. The synonym ethanoic acid is a systematic name that is sometimes used in introductions to chemical nomenclature.

Glacial acetic acid is a trivial name for water-free acetic acid. Similar to the German name Eisessig (literally, ice-vinegar), the name comes from the ice-like crystals that form slightly below room temperature at 16.7°C (about 62°F).

The most common and official abbreviation for acetic acid is AcOH or HOAc where Ac stands for the acetyl group CH3−C(=O)−;. In the context of acid-base reactions the abbreviation HAc is often used where Ac instead stands for the acetate anion (CH3COO−), although this use is regarded by many as misleading. In either case, the Ac is not to be confused with the abbreviation for the chemical element actinium.

Acetic acid has the empirical formula CH2O and the molecular formula C2H4O2. The latter is often written as CH3-COOH, CH3COOH, or CH3CO2H to better reflect its structure. The ion resulting from loss of H+ from acetic acid is the acetate anion. The name acetate can also refer to a salt containing this anion or an ester of acetic acid.


Vinegar is as old as civilization itself, perhaps older. Acetic acid-producing bacteria are present throughout the world, and any culture practicing the brewing of beer or wine inevitably discovered vinegar as the natural result of these alcoholic beverages being exposed to air.

The use of acetic acid in chemistry extends into antiquity. In the 3rd century BC, the Greek philosopher Theophrastos described how vinegar acted on metals to produce pigments useful in art, including white lead ( lead carbonate) and verdigris, a green mixture of copper salts including copper(II) acetate. Ancient Romans boiled soured wine in lead pots to produce a highly sweet syrup called sapa. Sapa was rich in lead acetate, a sweet substance also called sugar of lead or sugar of Saturn, which contributed to lead poisoning among the Roman aristocracy. The 8th century Persian alchemist Jabir Ibn Hayyan (Geber) concentrated acetic acid from vinegar through distillation.

In the Renaissance, glacial acetic acid was prepared through the dry distillation of metal acetates. The 16th century German alchemist Andreas Libavius described such a procedure, and he compared the glacial acetic acid produced by this means to vinegar. The presence of water in vinegar has such a profound effect on acetic acid's properties that for centuries many chemists believed that glacial acetic acid and the acid found in vinegar were two different substances. The French chemist Pierre Adet proved them to be identical.

In 1847 the German chemist Hermann Kolbe synthesised acetic acid from inorganic materials for the first time. This reaction sequence consisted of chlorination of carbon disulfide to carbon tetrachloride, followed by pyrolysis to tetrachloroethylene and aqueous chlorination to trichloroacetic acid, and concluded with electrolytic reduction to acetic acid.

By 1910 most glacial acetic acid was obtained from the "pyroligneous liquor" from distillation of wood. The acetic acid was isolated from this by treatment with milk of lime, and the resultant calcium acetate was then acidified with sulfuric acid to recover acetic acid. At this time Germany was producing 10,000 tons of glacial acetic acid, around 30% of which was used for the manufacture of indigo dye.

Chemical properties
Acidity
The hydrogen (H) atom in the carboxyl group (−COOH) in carboxylic acids such as acetic acid can be given off as an H+ ion (proton), giving them their acidic character. Acetic acid is a weak, effectively monoprotic acid in aqueous solution, with a pKa value of 4.8. A 1.0  M solution (about the concentration of domestic vinegar) has a pH of 2.4, indicating that merely 0.4% of the acetic acid molecules are dissociated.


Cyclic dimer
Cyclic dimer of acetic acid; dashed lines represent hydrogen bonds.
Enlarge
Cyclic dimer of acetic acid; dashed lines represent hydrogen bonds.
The crystal structure of acetic acid shows that the molecules pair up into dimers connected by hydrogen bonds. The dimers can also be detected in the vapour at 120 °C. They probably also occur in the liquid phase of pure acetic acid, but are rapidly disrupted if any water is present. This dimerisation behaviour is shared by other lower carboxylic acids.

Solvent
Liquid acetic acid is a hydrophilic ( polar) protic solvent, similar to ethanol and water. With a moderate dielectric constant of 6.2, it can dissolve not only polar compounds such as inorganic salts and sugars, but also non-polar compounds such as oils and elements such as sulfur and iodine. It readily mixes with many other polar and non-polar solvents such as water, chloroform, and hexane. This dissolving property and miscibility of acetic acid makes it a widely used industrial chemical.

Chemical reactions
Acetic acid is corrosive to many metals including iron, magnesium, and zinc, forming hydrogen gas and metal salts called acetates. Aluminium, when exposed to oxygen, forms a thin layer of aluminium oxide on its surface which is relatively resistant, so that aluminium tanks can be used to transport acetic acid. Metal acetates can also be prepared from acetic acid and an appropriate base, as in the popular " baking soda + vinegar" reaction. With the notable exception of chromium(II) acetate, almost all acetates are soluble in water.

Mg( s) + 2 CH3COOH( aq) → (CH3COO)2Mg(aq) + H2(g)
NaHCO3(s) + CH3COOH(aq) → CH3COONa(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O( l)
Two typical organic reactions of acetic acid
Acetic acid undergoes the typical chemical reactions of a carboxylic acid, notably the formation of ethanol by reduction, and formation of derivatives such as acetyl chloride via nucleophilic acyl substitution. Other substitution derivatives include acetic anhydride; this anhydride is produced by loss of water from two molecules of acetic acid. Esters of acetic acid can likewise be formed via Fischer esterification, and amides can also be formed. When heated above 440 °C, acetic acid decomposes to produce carbon dioxide and methane, or to produce ketene and water.


Biochemistry
The acetyl group, derived from acetic acid, is fundamental to the biochemistry of virtually all forms of life. When bound to coenzyme A it is central to the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. However, the concentration of free acetic acid in cells is kept at a low level to avoid disrupting the control of the pH of the cell contents. Unlike some longer-chain carboxylic acids (the fatty acids), acetic acid does not occur in natural triglycerides. However, the artificial triglyceride triacetin (glycerin triacetate) is a common food additive, and is found in cosmetics and topical medicines.

Acetic acid is produced and excreted by certain bacteria, notably the Acetobacter genus and Clostridium acetobutylicum. These bacteria are found universally in foodstuffs, water, and soil, and acetic acid is produced naturally as fruits and some other foods spoil. Acetic acid is also a component of the vaginal lubrication of humans and other primates, where it appears to serve as a mild antibacterial agent.

Acetic acid is produced both synthetically and by bacterial fermentation. Today, the biological route accounts for only about 10% of world production, but it remains important for vinegar production, as many of the world food purity laws stipulate that vinegar used in foods must be of biological origin. About 75% of acetic acid made for use in the chemical industry is made by methanol carbonylation, explained below. Alternative methods account for the rest.

Total worldwide production of virgin acetic acid is estimated at 5 Mt/a (million tonnes per year), approximately half of which is produced in the United States. European production stands at approximately 1 Mt/a and is declining, and 0.7 Mt/a is produced in Japan. Another 1.5 Mt are recycled each year, bringing the total world market to 6.5 Mt/a. The two biggest producers of virgin acetic acid are Celanese and BP Chemicals. Other major producers include Millennium Chemicals, Sterling Chemicals, Samsung, Eastman, and Svensk Etanolkemi.


Methanol carbonylation
Most virgin acetic acid is produced by methanol carbonylation. In this process, methanol and carbon monoxide react to produce acetic acid according to the chemical equation:

CH3OH + CO → CH3COOH
The process involves iodomethane as an intermediate, and occurs in three steps. A catalyst, usually a metal complex, is needed for the carbonylation (step 2).

(1) CH3OH + HI → CH3I + H2O
(2) CH3I + CO → CH3COI
(3) CH3COI + H2O → CH3COOH + HI
By altering the process conditions, acetic anhydride may also be produced on the same plant. Because both methanol and carbon monoxide are commodity raw materials, methanol carbonylation long appeared to be an attractive method for acetic acid production. Henry Drefyus at British Celanese developed a methanol carbonylation pilot plant as early as 1925. However, a lack of practical materials that could contain the corrosive reaction mixture at the high pressures needed (200 atm or more) discouraged commercialisation of these routes for some time. The first commercial methanol carbonylation process, which used a cobalt catalyst, was developed by German chemical company BASF in 1963. In 1968, a rhodium-based catalyst (cis−[Rh(CO)2I2]−) was discovered that could operate efficiently at lower pressure with almost no by-products. The first plant using this catalyst was built by US chemical company Monsanto in 1970, and rhodium-catalysed methanol carbonylation became the dominant method of acetic acid production (see Monsanto process). In the late 1990s, the chemicals company BP Chemicals commercialised the Cativa catalyst ([Ir(CO)2I2]−), which is promoted by ruthenium. This iridium-catalysed process is greener and more efficient and has largely supplanted the Monsanto process, often in the same production plants.


Acetaldehyde oxidation
Prior to the commercialisation of the Monsanto process, most acetic acid was produced by oxidation of acetaldehyde. This remains the second most important manufacturing method, although it is uncompetitive with methanol carbonylation. The acetaldehyde may be produced via oxidation of butane or light naphtha, or by hydration of ethylene.

When butane or light naphtha is heated with air in the presence of various metal ions, including those of manganese, cobalt and chromium, peroxides form and then decompose to produce acetic acid according to the chemical equation

2 C4H10 + 5 O2 → 4 CH3COOH + 2 H2O
Typically, the reaction is run at a combination of temperature and pressure designed to be as hot as possible while still keeping the butane a liquid. Typical reaction conditions are 150 °C and 55 atm. Several side products may also form, including butanone, ethyl acetate, formic acid, and propionic acid. These side products are also commercially valuable, and the reaction conditions may be altered to produce more of them if this is economically useful. However, the separation of acetic acid from these by-products adds to the cost of the process.

Under similar conditions and using similar catalysts as are used for butane oxidation, acetaldehyde can be oxidised by the oxygen in air to produce acetic acid

2 CH3CHO + O2 → 2 CH3COOH
Using modern catalysts, this reaction can have an acetic acid yield greater than 95%. The major side products are ethyl acetate, formic acid, and formaldehyde, all of which have lower boiling points than acetic acid and are readily separated by distillation.


Ethylene oxidation

Fermentation
Oxidative fermentation
For most of human history, acetic acid, in the form of vinegar, has been made by bacteria of the genus Acetobacter. Given sufficient oxygen, these bacteria can produce vinegar from a variety of alcoholic foodstuffs. Commonly used feeds include apple cider, wine, and fermented grain, malt, rice, or potato mashes. The overall chemical reaction facilitated by these bacteria is

C2H5OH + O2 → CH3COOH + H2O
A dilute alcohol solution inoculated with Acetobacter and kept in a warm, airy place will become vinegar over the course of a few months. Industrial vinegar-making methods accelerate this process by improving the supply of oxygen to the bacteria.

The first batches of vinegar produced by fermentation probably followed errors in the winemaking process. If must is fermented at too high a temperature, acetobacter will overwhelm the yeast naturally occurring on the grapes. As the demand for vinegar for culinary, medical, and sanitary purposes increased, vintners quickly learned to use other organic materials to produce vinegar in the hot summer months before the grapes were ripe and ready for processing into wine. This method was slow, however, and not always successful, as the vintners did not understand the process.

One of the first modern commercial processes was the "fast method" or "German method", first practised in Germany in 1823. In this process, fermentation takes place in a tower packed with wood shavings or charcoal. The alcohol-containing feed is trickled into the top of the tower, and fresh air supplied from the bottom by either natural or forced convection. The improved air supply in this process cut the time to prepare vinegar from months to weeks.

Most vinegar today is made in submerged tank culture, first described in 1949 by Otto Hromatka and Heinrich Ebner. In this method, alcohol is fermented to vinegar in a continuously stirred tank, and oxygen is supplied by bubbling air through the solution. Using this method, vinegar of 15% acetic acid can be prepared in only 2–3 days.

Anaerobic fermentation
Some species of anaerobic bacteria, including several members of the genus Clostridium, can convert sugars to acetic acid directly, without using ethanol as an intermediate. The overall chemical reaction conducted by these bacteria may be represented as:

C6H12O6 → 3 CH3COOH
More interestingly from the point of view of an industrial chemist, many of these acetogenic bacteria can produce acetic acid from one-carbon compounds, including methanol, carbon monoxide, or a mixture of carbon dioxide and hydrogen:

2 CO2 + 4 H2 → CH3COOH + 2 H2O
This ability of Clostridium to utilise sugars directly, or to produce acetic acid from less costly inputs, means that these bacteria could potentially produce acetic acid more efficiently than ethanol-oxidisers like Acetobacter. However, Clostridium bacteria are less acid-tolerant than Acetobacter. Even the most acid-tolerant Clostridium strains can produce vinegar of only a few per cent acetic acid, compared to some Acetobacter strains that can produce vinegar of up to 20% acetic acid. At present, it remains more cost-effective to produce vinegar using Acetobacter than to produce it using Clostridium and then concentrating it. As a result, although acetogenic bacteria have been known since 1940, their industrial use remains confined to a few niche applications.

Applications
2.5-litre bottle of acetic acid in a laboratory.
Enlarge
2.5- litre bottle of acetic acid in a laboratory.
Acetic acid is a chemical reagent for the production of many chemical compounds. The largest single use of acetic acid is in the production of vinyl acetate monomer, closely followed by acetic anhydride and ester production. The volume of acetic acid used in vinegar is comparatively small.


Vinyl acetate monomer
The major use of acetic acid is for the production of vinyl acetate monomer (VAM). This application consumes approximately 40% to 45% of the world's production of acetic acid. The reaction is of ethylene and acetic acid with oxygen over a palladium catalyst.

2 H3C-COOH + 2 C2H4 + O2 → 2 H3C-CO-O-CH=CH2 + 2 H2O
Vinyl acetate can be polymerised to polyvinyl acetate or to other polymers, which are applied in paints and adhesives.


Acetic anhydride
The condensation product of two molecules of acetic acid is acetic anhydride. The worldwide production of acetic anhydride is a major application, and uses approximately 25% to 30% of the global production of acetic acid. Acetic anhydride may be produced directly by methanol carbonylation bypassing the acid, and Cativa plants can be adapted for anhydride production.

Condensation of acetic acid to acetic anhydride

Acetic anhydride is a strong acetylation agent. As such, its major application is for cellulose acetate, a synthetic textile also used for photographic film. Acetic anhydride is also a reagent for the production of aspirin, heroin, and other compounds.

Vinegar
In the form of vinegar, acetic acid solutions (typically 5% to 18% acetic acid, with the percentage usually calculated by mass) are used directly as a condiment, and also in the pickling of vegetables and other foodstuffs. Table vinegar tends to be more dilute (5% to 8% acetic acid), while commercial food pickling generally employs more concentrated solutions. The amount of acetic acid used as vinegar on a worldwide scale is not large, but historically, this is by far the oldest and most well-known application.


Use as solvent
Glacial acetic acid is an excellent polar protic solvent, as noted above. It is frequently used as a solvent for recrystallisation to purify organic compounds. Pure molten acetic acid is used as a solvent in the production of terephthalic acid (TPA), the raw material for polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Although currently accounting for 5%–10% of acetic acid use worldwide, this specific application is expected to grow significantly in the next decade, as PET production increases.

Acetic acid is often used as a solvent for reactions involving carbocations, such as Friedel-Crafts alkylation. For example, one stage in the commercial manufacture of synthetic camphor involves a Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement of camphene to isobornyl acetate; here acetic acid acts both as a solvent and as a nucleophile to trap the rearranged carbocation. Acetic acid is the solvent of choice when reducing an aryl nitro-group to an aniline using palladium-on-carbon.

Glacial acetic acid is used in analytical chemistry for the estimation of weakly alkaline substances such as organic amides. Glacial acetic acid is a much weaker base than water, so the amide behaves as a strong base in this medium. It then can be titrated using a solution in glacial acetic acid of a very strong acid, such as perchloric acid.


Other applications
Dilute solutions of acetic acids are also used for their mild acidity. Examples in the household environment include the use in a stop bath during the development of photographic films, and in descaling agents to remove limescale from taps and kettles. The acidity is also used for treating the sting of the box jellyfish by disabling the stinging cells of the jellyfish, preventing serious injury or death if applied immediately, and for treating outer ear infections in people in preparations such as Vosol. Equivalently, acetic acid is used as a spray-on preservative for livestock silage, to discourage bacterial and fungal growth.

Several organic or inorganic salts are produced from acetic acid, including:

Sodium acetate—used in the textile industry and as a food preservative ( E262).
Copper(II) acetate—used as a pigment and a fungicide.
Aluminium acetate and iron(II) acetate—used as mordants for dyes.
Palladium(II) acetate—used as a catalyst for organic coupling reactions such as the Heck reaction.
Substituted acetic acids produced include:

Monochloroacetic acid (MCA), dichloroacetic acid (considered a by-product), and trichloroacetic acid. MCA is used in the manufacture of indigo dye.
Bromoacetic acid, which is esterified to produce the reagent ethyl bromoacetate.
Trifluoroacetic acid, which is a common reagent in organic synthesis.
Amounts of acetic acid used in these other applications together (apart from TPA) account for another 5%–10% of acetic acid use worldwide. These applications are, however, not expected to grow as much as TPA production.


Safety
Concentrated acetic acid is corrosive and must therefore be handled with appropriate care, since it can cause skin burns, permanent eye damage, and irritation to the mucous membranes. These burns or blisters may not appear until several hours after exposure. Latex gloves offer no protection, so specially resistant gloves, such as those made of nitrile rubber, should be worn when handling the compound. Concentrated acetic acid can be ignited with some difficulty in the laboratory. It becomes a flammable risk if the ambient temperature exceeds 39 °C (102 °F), and can form explosive mixtures with air above this temperature ( explosive limits: 5.4%–16%).

Solutions at more than 25% acetic acid are handled in a fume hood because of the pungent, corrosive vapour. Dilute acetic acid, in the form of vinegar, is harmless. However, ingestion of stronger solutions is dangerous to human and animal life. It can cause severe damage to the digestive system, and a potentially lethal change in the acidity of the blood.

Medical Definition of acetic acid: a colorless pungent liquid acid C2H4O2 that is the chief acid of vinegar and that is used especially in synthesis (as of plastics) and occasionally in medicine as an astringent and styptic

Acetic acid is primarily used as a raw material for the manufacture of vinyl acetate (VAM). It is used as a reaction promoter in terephthalic acid production and is also a raw material for cellulose acetate, acetate esters, acetic anhydride, chloroacetic acid and a wide range of industrial synthesis.

Acetic acid structure is that of a simple carboxylic acid and consists of a methyl group attached to a carboxyl group. Acetic acid or ethanoic acid is a protic solvent; it is able to donate protons in the form of hydrons (positively charged hydrogen atoms). This characteristic means it is a member of the Brønsted acid group where protons are donated to acceptor molecules known as Brønsted bases. The donated hydrogen is dissociated from the carboxyl group. Vinegar is a solution of acetic acid and water where approximately 0.4% of acetic acid molecules give up their H+ atoms leading to an acidic solution of approximately 2.4 pH. In comparison with the world’s strongest acid – carborane acid (H(CHB11Cl11)) – with a pH value of -18, acetic acid is mildly acidic in comparison.

It should be made clear that it is not the presence of a single hydrogen atom that changes the pH of a solution. Neutral solutions (neither acid nor alkaline) contain a balanced number of hydronium ions (H30+) and hydroxyl ions (OH–). Two molecules of water (H20) are formed when a hydronium and hydroxyl ion bind and the positive and negative charges are canceled out.  When acetic acid is added to water, it splits into a negatively charged acetate ion (CH3COO–) and H+. It is, therefore, possible to understand the alternative name of acetic acid – hydrogen acetate. A small percentage of positively charged hydrogen ions bind to the water molecules and turn them into H30+. This means there are more hydronium ions and, therefore, create a positively charged (or acidic) solution. The pH of a solution is, therefore, dependent upon the balance of hydronium and hydroxyl and not the number of hydrogen ions, although these will affect this balance. A pH value is also only given to a solution. A solution always contains water; even modern superacids such as carborane are dissolved in concentrated aqueous solutions of other acids. Even glacial acetic acid has a small quantity of water.

The following image shows the dissociation of acetic acid to acetate in water. To the left are a single acetic acid molecule and a single water molecule. Acetic acid passes on a hydrogen ion to the water molecule to produce a hydronium ion. We say that the water molecule is protonated or has had a proton (hydron) donated to it.


As a solvent, liquid acetic acid dissolves polar (hydrophilic) compounds such as salts and sugars and non-polar compounds which include fats and oils. This means it has many uses in industrial chemical production but has also gained a reputation as a weight-loss supplement as it affects fat and sugar metabolism. More information pertaining to acetic acid uses will be discussed later on in this article. In crystalline form, two acetic acid molecules join together with hydrogen bonds to form a dimer. When water is added, these bonds are broken and the crystalline form dissolves.

Acetic Acid Formula
The acetic acid formula is a simple one and the result of a methyl group and a carboxyl group. Methyl groups are one of the most common organic compounds on the planet but are rarely found as single entities. They are composed of three hydrogen atoms and one carbon atom (CH3). As carbon has four electrons, the free electron usually bonds with other molecules by way of a covalent bond. The simplest carbon molecule is methane (CH4), well known for its contribution to global warming. With a free electron, methane reacts with ozone (O3) to produce carbon dioxide and water in the following reaction: (3)CH4 + (4)O3 = (3)CO2 + (6)H2O. 


In the case of acetic acid, the free electron binds with a carboxyl group (CO2H, -COOH or -C(=O)OH) which is a single carbon atom bonded to a hydroxyl group (-OH) and double-bonded to an oxygen atom. The below image shows a carboxyl group where R represents the rest of the molecule to which the carboxyl group is attached; the letter R is sometimes replaced by a wiggly line. In the case of acetic acid, the R represents the methyl group. Some prefer to describe the carboxyl group as a combination of a carbonyl group (C=0, where = indicates the double bond) and a hydroxyl group (O-H). Carboxylic acids are found in amino acids and essential to every living organism.


There is a general molecular formula for all carboxylic acids, namely CnH2n+1COOH. This means that every carboxylic acid features twice as many hydrogen atoms as carbon atoms once the carboxyl group is removed; a formula that fits in perfectly with that of acetic acid – C2H4O2. When you remove the carboxyl group from this acetic acid formula, you are left with one carbon and two hydrogen atoms.

The molar mass of acetic acid is 60.052 grams per mole (g/mol). Molar mass is the total mass of an element or compound (atomic mass) measured in atomic mass units or ‘amu’, divided by its amount in moles (mol). A single mole is based upon the Avogadro number 6.02214076×1023 as this number means that comparison between moles and Daltons, another scientific unit of atomic mass, is simpler.

Glacial acetic acid is a solution of acetic acid in a very small amount of water – less that 1%. The word glacial refers to its crystal-like solid form at room temperature. Another name for glacial acetic acid is anhydrous acetic acid. This form is a weak acid but a corrosive poison, causing blistering and burns. As there is very little water with which to dissociate, glacial acetic acid will pass on its protons to the water in the skin or mucous membranes.

Finding the right buffer agent for an acid such as acetic acid requires knowledge of the pH, Ka or pKa of the acid. The pH, Ka and pKa are all related to one another. Acetic acid has a Ka of 1.8 x 10-5 or an easier to calculate pKa value of 4.756. The pH measures the number of hydrogen ions (H+) in any solution that contains water and ranges from 0 (acidic) to 14 (base). The lower the pH, the higher the concentration of hydrogen ions. The Ka and pKa relate to acids and relate to the acid dissociation constant which shows how likely the acid is to give up its protons. A high Ka tells us that an acid is strong and will react to any chemical added to it. The pKa is the opposite – the smaller the number, the stronger the acid. This is because the pKa is a negative logarithm of the Ka.

However, concentrated acetic acid can have a lower pH than a strong acid. Thanks to the pKa which is a constant value, we can make calculations without having to think about concentrations. The pKa of acetic acid is 4.756 and this tells us how likely it is to give up its protons in a solution. Bases are measured according to how likely they are to remove protons from a solution.

The boiling point of acetic acid is between 244 and 246°F (118 and 119°C) and its melting point lies between 61 and 62°F (16 and 17°C) or just under room temperature. Acetic acid’s density is 1.049 g cm−3 in a liquid state, and 1.27 g cm−3 in a solid state.

The most commonly recognized form of acetic acid is vinegar which contains 5-20% acetic acid. How great the dilution is (and therefore the acid’s strength) is referred to as its grain strength. You can easily calculate this by multiplying the concentration by 10. Vinegar containing 5% acetic acid will have a grain strength of 50.

Uses of Acetic Acid
Acetic acid uses are many and varied. This acid is used in goods manufacturing, in food processing, in the cleaning industry, in medicine, and as a health supplement. Acetic acid is also a biochemical essential in acetyl group form where it is fundamental to the construction of amino acids and therefore impossible to exist without. Let’s have a look at a few of these acetic acid uses in more detail.

Acetic Acid in Goods Manufacturing
Acetic acid is an important chemical reagent used to produce acetate, adhesives, glues, and synthetic fabrics. Acetic acid is also used in electroplating where a metal coating is deposited onto an object by placing it in a solution that contains a specific metal salt. The solution needs to be conductive and acids that donate hydrogen ions create ideal conditions. Furthermore, electroplating can only occur within a solution and metal salts only dissolve in solutions with a low (acidic) pH value.

Acetic acid is a raw material used for the production of cellulose acetate, acetic anhydride (plastics) and chloroacetic acid used in the production of dyes and pesticides as well as certain drugs.

Acetic Acid in Food Processing
Acetic acid used in food processing to regulate the acidity or alkalinity levels of foods. The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) categorizes acetic acid as a general-purpose food additive which is safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing practices. In Europe, E-number regulations apply to all food additives. Acetic acid has been given code E260 and is considered a safe ingredient that controls bacterial colonization and can be used without limitation. This is not a new finding. It is said that the ancient Babylonians used vinegar as a food preservative.

Vinegar is used to produce salad dressings, condiments that include mustard, ketchup, and mayonnaise, and in sauces and pickles.

Acetic Acid for Cleaning
Acetic acid has been used as a cleaning product and deodorizer for centuries if not millennia; sponges of vinegar were placed in expensive filigree rings worn by the rich whenever they stepped through filthy and stinking eighteenth-century streets. The deodorizing properties of vinegar have also been taken advantage of for generations. Sailors used vinegar to scrub the decks of the ships they worked and lived on. The principles of microbial control may not have been understood at the time but the fresh-smelling, clean and illness-preventing characteristics of this organic solution were definitely well known.

Adding an alkaline product to acid causes a bubbling, fizzing reaction. Some traditional cleaners believe this effect produces a deeper clean to stable surfaces. For example, scrubbing the back yard with alkaline caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) and then using a vinegar mix on top of this will set off a reaction that certainly looks as if it has a deep-cleaning action; however, this does very little to increase the hygienic effect but rather buffers or works against the alkaline cleaning power of the caustic soda with the acidic properties of vinegar.

Today, many dedicated fans of white vinegar advertise the ecological benefits of using diluted acetic acid to clean bathrooms, wash clothes, remove odors, and make food preparation surfaces both clean and safe. Acetic acid also removes rust and lime scale deposits.

Acetic Acid in Medicine
Acetic acid or vinegar has probably been used in medicine since before the written word. Should you have suffered from an open wound on the island of Kos in the fourth century before Christ, you may have been prescribed a daily vinegar wash by Hippocrates. If you had a sore throat, he might also have asked you to mix honey and vinegar to make Oxymel, an ancient Greek cough medicine; if you had served in Europe during the First World War, you may only have had access to vinegar keep clean and remain free of infection.

Today, acetic acid solutions are used in laboratory blood testing processes as a slide wash. They remove bacterial biofilms in wounds and the digestive system, and have often been used for outer ear infections and so avoid the use of antibiotics. Ingestion of vinegar increases acetate levels in the colon and promotes calcium uptake with lower blood pressure and higher bone density as a result. Studies are looking into the use of acetate as an antitumor medication.

Acetic Acid as a Health Supplement
Acetic acid is a popular health supplement and consumed in the form of vinegar, most commonly apple cider vinegar. When bound to coenzyme A, the acetyl group of acetic acid is central to carbohydrate and fat metabolism.

Much study has been done regarding the link between vinegar consumption and lower blood glucose levels. Where high glycemic index foods are consumed after the ingestion of two to three tablespoons of apple cider vinegar, their glycemic values have been shown to be up to 35% lower. For diabetics, this could mean lower post-prandial blood glucose peaks and better glycemic control and for non-diabetics a lower risk of developing insulin resistance. Substitution of regular cucumber with a pickled cucumber showed a 30% reduction in total meal glycemic index value.

The following image shows the effect of low and high glycemic index (GI) foods on blood glucose levels. High GI foods cause a rapid peak in blood glucose levels that increase insulin production which enables the cells to metabolize glucose. This means that the blood glucose level quickly dips, causing hunger. Low GI foods cause a gentler rise in blood sugar and do not force the pancreas to produce such large quantities of insulin. The result is a gentle curve that remains stable and does not dip, increasing satiety levels after a meal. When a high GI food and low GI food are eaten at the same time they partially cancel each other out, creating a plateau effect. Vinegar is known to have the same effect as a very low GI food.


Cleaning Uses
Because acetic acid kills fungus and microbes, it is great for general disinfecting and combating mold and mildew. It can be found in several conventional and green cleaning products, such as mold and mildew cleaners, floor cleaners, window cleaners, surface cleaners, cleaning and dusting sprays, and roof cleaners, in the form of vinegar or as an ingredient by itself.

Other Uses
Acetic acid is used in several industries, such as the chemical (acidifier and neutralizer), agricultural (e.g., herbicide to control weeds), canning (e.g., flavoring for pickles), textile and dye (e.g., nylon production, dye catalyst), food (preservative for livestock grains and hay), cosmetics (bleaching agent), and manufacturing industries (e.g., production of lacquers).

Product Brands Containing Acetic Acid
To see if certain products contain acetic acid, try searching the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Household Products Database, the Environmental Working Group's (EWG) Guide to Healthy Cleaning, the Good Guide, or the EWG's Skin Deep Cosmetic Database. Remember, if using the general term "acetic acid" doesn't generate a lot of results, try entering one of its synonyms.

Regulation
When acetic acid is used in personal care products, food, or drugs it is monitored by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). For other uses, such as pesticides and cleaning products, it is monitored by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The last periodic registration review of acetic acid by the EPA (Case #4001) began in 2008.

Health and Safety
According to the FDA, acetic acid and its sodium salt, sodium diacetate, are GRAS or "generally recognized as safe." The EPA notes there is no need for concern. However, citric acid does have some safety and health concerns, especially for those working with the chemical, as noted in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's (NIOSH) International Chemical Safety Card (ICSC) on acetic acid.

Warning
Breathing in acetic acid can cause respiratory symptoms, such as coughing, difficulty breathing, and sore throat as well as nervous system issues, such as headache and dizziness. Contact with the eyes can result in burns, vision loss, pain, and redness, and skin contact can cause pain, redness, burns, and blisters. Also, ingesting citric acid may result in a sore throat, burning sensation, abdominal pain. vomiting, shock, or collapse. Due to these concerns, NIOSH suggests preventive measures for those working with acetic acid such as protecting the skin and eyes and providing appropriate ventilation and breathing protection.

Environmental Effects
According to the EPA, acetic acid is a chemical compound naturally present in all living organisms. It is also biodegradable and readily breaks down into carbon dioxide and water. However, in the 2008 "Acetic Acid and Salts Final Work Plan (FWP) for Registration Review" by the EPA, the EPA noted that an ecological risk assessment is still needed, including its effect on endangered species, when used as a weed controller.


cal Role(s):    protic solvent
A polar solvent that is capable of acting as a hydron (proton) donor.
Bronsted acid
A molecular entity capable of donating a hydron to an acceptor (Bronsted base).
(via oxoacid )
Biological Role(s):    food acidity regulator
A food additive that is used to change or otherwise control the acidity or alkalinity of foods. They may be acids, bases, neutralising agents or buffering agents.
Daphnia magna metabolite
A Daphnia metabolite produced by the species Daphnia magna.
antimicrobial food preservative
A food preservative which prevents decomposition of food by preventing the growth of fungi or bacteria. In European countries, E-numbers for permitted food preservatives are from E200 to E299, divided into sorbates (E200-209), benzoates (E210-219), sulfites (E220-229), phenols and formates (E230-239), nitrates (E240-259), acetates (E260-269), lactates (E270-279), propionates (E280-289) and others (E290-299).
Application(s):    food acidity regulator
A food additive that is used to change or otherwise control the acidity or alkalinity of foods. They may be acids, bases, neutralising agents or buffering agents.
protic solvent
A polar solvent that is capable of acting as a hydron (proton) donor.
antimicrobial food preservative
A food preservative which prevents decomposition of food by preventing the growth of fungi or bacteria. In European countries, E-numbers for permitted food preservatives are from E200 to E299, divided into sorbates (E200-209), benzoates (E210-219), sulfites (E220-229), phenols and formates (E230-239), nitrates (E240-259), acetates (E260-269), lactates (E270-279), propionates (E280-289) and others (E290-299).
View more via  Ontology
 Ontology 
Outgoing    acetic acid  has role Daphnia magna metabolite (:83056)
acetic acid  has role antimicrobial food preservative (:65256)
acetic acid  has role food acidity regulator (:64049)
acetic acid  has role protic solvent (:48356)
acetic acid  is a monocarboxylic acid (:25384)
acetic acid  is conjugate acid of acetate (:30089)
Incoming    (1-hydroxycyclohexyl)acetic acid (:37276) has functional parent acetic acid 
(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)acetic acid (:60702) has functional parent acetic acid 
(2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-en-1-yl)acetic acid (:28045) has functional parent acetic acid 
(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl)acetic acid (:952) has functional parent acetic acid 
(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid (:28478) has functional parent acetic acid 
(2S)-({(5Z)-5-[(5-ethylfuran-2-yl)methylidene]-4-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1,3-thiazol-2-yl}amino)(4-fluorophenyl)acetic acid (:46520) has functional parent acetic acid 
(2S)-[(2S,3S,4S,5S)-1,3,4,5-tetrahydroxy-4-(hydroxymethyl)piperidin-2-yl](L-tyrosylamino)acetic acid (:40208) has functional parent acetic acid 
(3-amino-2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetic acid (:45890) has functional parent acetic acid 
(3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid (:47106) has functional parent acetic acid 
(3-{(1R)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-[({(2S)-1-[(2S)-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)butanoyl]piperidin-2-yl}carbonyl)oxy]propyl}phenoxy)acetic acid (:40833) has functional parent acetic acid 
(3Z)-hex-3-en-1-yl acetate (:61316) has functional parent acetic acid 
(4-oxo-3-{[5-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl]methyl}-3,4-dihydrophthalazin-1-yl)acetic acid (:46609) has functional parent acetic acid 
(5-fluoro-2-{[(4,5,7-trifluoro-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)methyl]carbamoyl}phenoxy)acetic acid (:43373) has functional parent acetic acid 
1-O-palmityl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (:75936) has functional parent acetic acid 
1-alkyl-2-acetylglycerol (:75882) has functional parent acetic acid 
1-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (:79280) has functional parent acetic acid 
1-methyl-4-imidazoleacetic acid (:1606) has functional parent acetic acid 
1-palmitoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (:75219) has functional parent acetic acid 
1-palmityl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (:79277) has functional parent acetic acid 
1-stearoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (:75220) has functional parent acetic acid 
2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (:78045) has functional parent acetic acid 
2-thienylacetic acid (:45807) has functional parent acetic acid 
2H-imidazol-4-ylacetic acid (:43615) has functional parent acetic acid 
3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (:17445) has functional parent acetic acid 
3-methylphenylacetic acid (:88356) has functional parent acetic acid 
4-chlorophenylacetic acid (:30749) has functional parent acetic acid 
4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (:18101) has functional parent acetic acid 
6-{[1-(benzylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl]amino}-3-(carboxymethoxy)thieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene-2-carboxylic acid (:40145) has functional parent acetic acid 
N-acetyl-amino acid (:21575) has functional parent acetic acid 
N-phenylacetamide (:28884) has functional parent acetic acid 
O-acetylcarnitine (:73024) has functional parent acetic acid 
[(1S)-4-hydroxy-2,2,3-trimethylcyclopent-3-enyl]acetic acid (:64899) has functional parent acetic acid 
[(2S,4S)-2-[(1R)-1-amino-2-hydroxyethyl]-4-(1H-imidazol-4-ylmethyl)-5-oxoimidazolidin-1-yl]acetic acid (:41707) has functional parent acetic acid 
[(2S,4S)-2-[(1R)-1-amino-2-hydroxyethyl]-4-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-5-oxoimidazolidin-1-yl]acetic acid (:41749) has functional parent acetic acid 
[(2S,4S)-2-[(1R)-1-amino-2-sulfanylethyl]-4-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-5-oxoimidazolidin-1-yl]acetic acid (:41383) has functional parent acetic acid 
[5-fluoro-1-(4-isopropylbenzylidene)-2-methylinden-3-yl]acetic acid (:59660) has functional parent acetic acid 
acetamidine (:38478) has functional parent acetic acid 
acetate ester (:47622) has functional parent acetic acid 
acetimidic acid (:49028) has functional parent acetic acid 
acetyl chloride (:37580) has functional parent acetic acid 
acetyl-CoA (:15351) has functional parent acetic acid 
arsenoacetic acid (:22634) has functional parent acetic acid 
biphenyl-4-ylacetic acid (:31597) has functional parent acetic acid 
bis(4-chlorophenyl)acetic acid (:28139) has functional parent acetic acid 
chloroacetic acid (:27869) has functional parent acetic acid 
cyanoacetic acid (:51889) has functional parent acetic acid 
cyclohexylacetic acid (:37277) has functional parent acetic acid 
dibromoacetic acid (:90124) has functional parent acetic acid 
dichloroacetic acid (:36386) has functional parent acetic acid 
diflorasone diacetate (:31483) has functional parent acetic acid 
difluoroacetic acid (:23716) has functional parent acetic acid 
diphenylacetic acid (:41967) has functional parent acetic acid 
etacrynic acid (:4876) has functional parent acetic acid 
glycolic acid (:17497) has functional parent acetic acid 
haloacetic acid (:16277) has functional parent acetic acid 
hydroxy(phenyl)2-thienylacetic acid (:64444) has functional parent acetic acid 
ibufenac (:76158) has functional parent acetic acid 
imidazol-1-ylacetic acid (:70801) has functional parent acetic acid 
imidazol-2-ylacetic acid (:70806) has functional parent acetic acid 
imidazol-4-ylacetic acid (:16974) has functional parent acetic acid 
imidazol-5-ylacetic acid (:70804) has functional parent acetic acid 
indole-1-acetic acid (:72814) has functional parent acetic acid 
indole-3-acetic acids (:24803) has functional parent acetic acid 
lonazolac (:76164) has functional parent acetic acid 
magnesium acetate (:62964) has functional parent acetic acid 
mandelic acid (:35825) has functional parent acetic acid 
methoxyacetic acid (:132098) has functional parent acetic acid 
naphthylacetic acid (:35629) has functional parent acetic acid 
phenylacetic acid (:30745) has functional parent acetic acid 
phosphonoacetic acid (:15732) has functional parent acetic acid 
phosphonoacetohydroxamic acid (:44692) has functional parent acetic acid 
pirinixic acid (:32509) has functional parent acetic acid 
sulfoacetic acid (:50519) has functional parent acetic acid 
sulindac (:9352) has functional parent acetic acid 
triacetin (:9661) has functional parent acetic acid 
trichloroacetic acid (:30956) has functional parent acetic acid 
trifluoroacetic acid (:45892) has functional parent acetic acid 
uracil-6-ylacetic acid (:46371) has functional parent acetic acid 
zomepirac (:35859) has functional parent acetic acid 
{(2R)-2-[(1S)-1-aminoethyl]-2-hydroxy-4-methylidene-5-oxoimidazolidin-1-yl}acetic acid (:41608) has functional parent acetic acid 
{(2R)-2-[(1S,2R)-1-amino-2-hydroxypropyl]-2-hydroxy-4,5-dioxoimidazolidin-1-yl}acetic acid (:41360) has functional parent acetic acid 
{4-[(carboxymethoxy)carbonyl]-3,3-dioxido-1-oxonaphtho[1,2-d]-1,2-thiazol-2(1H)-yl}acetic acid (:43485) has functional parent acetic acid 
{[5-(3-{[1-(benzylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl]amino}phenyl)-4-bromo-2-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)thiophen-3-yl]oxy}acetic acid (:47182) has functional parent acetic acid 
{[5-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]thio}acetic acid (:43741) has functional parent acetic acid 
acetate (:30089) is conjugate base of acetic acid 
acetyl group (:40574) is substituent group from acetic acid 
acetyloxy group (:48076) is substituent group from acetic acid 
carboxymethyl group (:41402) is substituent group from acetic acid 
methylenecarbonyl group (:43923) is substituent group from acetic acid 


OILFIELD USAGE

acetic acid
1. n. [Well Completions, Drilling Fluids, Well Workover and Intervention]

An organic acid used in oil- and gas-well stimulation treatments. Less corrosive than the commonly used hydrochloric acid, acetic acid treatments can be more easily inhibited or retarded for treatments of long duration. This is necessary particularly in applications requiring the protection of exotic alloys or in high-temperature wells. In most cases, acetic acid is used in conjunction with hydrochloric acid and other acid additives. It can also be used as a chelating agent.

See: inhibit,  retarder


In type 2 diabetes, the level of sugar in the blood rises because the cells of the body are no longer sensitive enough to insulin, or because the pancreas produces insufficient insulin. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research in Bad Nauheim have now discovered that FFA2 and FFA3 receptors inhibit insulin secretion. These receptors are activated by acetic acid, which is formed by the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas, among others. This enables the pancreas to prevent the production of too much insulin, and the corresponding excessive drop in blood sugar levels. As acetate is primarily formed in the presence of normal or high blood sugar, acetate receptor inhibitors do not boost insulin production when blood sugar is low. This fact may help prevent dangerous hypoglycaemia in the treatment of diabetes.

original
Mouse pancreas with islets of Langerhans dyed green. Cell nuclei are dyed blue.

© MPI for Heart and Lung Research

The primary cause of type 2 diabetes was long held to be a reduced sensitivity of the body cells to insulin. In recent years, however, it has become clear that already in the early stages of type 2 diabetes insulin secretion is also impaired.

Insulin is produced in pancreatic cells and ensures that body cells can absorb glucose from the blood, thereby reducing blood sugar levels. One trigger for the secretion of insulin is the increase in blood glucose after a meal. Other substances apart from glucose can also function as inhibitors or boosters by acting on the receptors responsible for regulating insulin secretion.

The scientists have now identified receptors in the insulin-producing cells of mice and humans, which can inhibit the secretion of insulin. "When a cell absorbs glucose, it produces acetic acid. This activates the FFA2 and FFA3 receptors and thus inhibits insulin production", says Cong Tang from the Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research. By contrast, mouse cells without FFA2 and FFA3 receptors secrete more insulin. It seems that the function of the receptors is to prevent too much insulin being produced following an increase in glucose concentrations.

The scientists hope that these findings will lead to new treatment options for diabetes patients. Their next goal is to investigate the development of substances to block the acetate receptors. "The fact that acetate is primarily formed in high-sugar environments makes acetate receptor inhibitors a really attractive focus for research. This means that these substances would take effect only in patients with elevated blood sugar, but not in healthy subjects or well managed type 2 diabetes", explains Stefan Offermanns, Director of the Department of Pharmacology at the Max Planck Institute.

Acetic acid is a commodity chemical with the global demand of approximately 15 million tons per year with several applications in the chemical and food industry. The production of acetic acid can be widely categorized into chemical and fermentative routes, with the chemical route being the predominant one in the current industrial practice. In this chapter, we have reviewed the most recent developments in acetic acid production and applications over past two decades, including process intensification and catalysis by keeping the main emphasis on process sustainability. Acetic acid is used in several industrial sectors such as chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, polymer and paints, food and beverages. Furthermore, acetic acid has several applications in food industry and is traditionally known as vinegar. In addition, it is an acidulant, which is used to give a characteristic flavor profile to food. It can be used for microbial decontamination of meat and as a mild descaling agent in the food industry. More recently, acetic acid is reported to be used as an antimicrobial edible food coating agent. The diversified food culture has a significant demand in the development of such kind of innovation and acetic acid can be an efficient solution.

Acetic acid produced via fermentation route is mainly utilized in the food industry in the form of vinegar. Use of vinegar is more diversified these days, with more innovative ways to adjust and suit the current lifestyle and food culture. The different concentrations of acetic acid are used to sharpen the taste of food with a longer shelf life period and as a food preservative. Some new applications have also come such as edible and non-edible antimicrobial coating [5, 6].

This chapter reviews the current commercial processes for the synthesis of acetic acid to meet an ever-increasing global demand. The chapter also gives insight into the pros and cons associated with the process available and then how should we design a sustainable strategy to develop a simple commercial process. Further, the state of art to produce vinegar is discussed with exploitation as a multiapplication tool in the modern food industry.


Applications of Acetic Acid to Well Completion, Stimulation and Reconditioning 
F.N. Harris
J Pet Technol 13 (07): 637–639.
Paper Number: SPE-63-PA
https://doi.org/10.2118/63-PA

Abstract
Acetic acid has been used successfully many times in the past few months, in various treating mixtures and in a number of different applications. It has been used as

a perforating fluid,

a retarded acid without viscosity,

a treatment for removal of carbonate scale in the presence of chromium-plated pump parts,

a stimulation treatment in the presence of aluminum metal at elevated temperatures,

a "kill" fluid for wells,

a weak aqueous solution for carrying surfactants to remove emulsions and water blocks in the presence of water-sensitive clays,

a first-stage treating fluid ahead of hydrochloric acid for a greater drainage pattern and

a transitory true gel or emulsion for placement of temporary bridging agents.

Introduction
Only in recent months has acetic acid been widely used as an aid in overcoming many of the problems encountered in well completion, stimulation and reconditioning. Even though this acid has been used in the past for well stimulation, factors such as economics, handling and the lack of technical data have limited its uses over the past few years. Acetic acid does not present many of the operational difficulties often associated with the more conventionally used hydrochloric acid. The corrosive action of acetic-acid mixtures can be greatly minimized even at temperatures in excess of 240F. With proper inhibition, acid-pipe contact time can now be extended for days. The mixtures currently being used have not caused electrolytic corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement or stress cracking of metals.

Chemical Characteristics of Acetic Acid
Unlike hydrochloric acid, acetic acid can be effectively inhibited against almost all types of steel at elevated temperatures for extended periods of time. Table 1 shows laboratory data of corrosion rates on the most common tubular goods. In these tests, the time exposure of steel to acid has been extended to days without damaging or weakening the pipe. The type of corrosion caused by acetic acid differs from that caused by hydrochloric acid, the latter tending to "pit corrode" tubular goods with extended times. This action becomes accelerated with increasing temperatures. By comparison, acetic acid at equivalent test conditions of time, temperature and pressure will have a slight uniform removal of steel from pipe. Without pronounced pit-type corrosion, no serious damage was incurred to laboratory test samples even when the acid was allowed to spend completely. This also has been born out in field applications. A special inhibitor is always added to the acid to allow it to be stored within the casing or tubing for many hours, when operations require it, so that live acid will be present when it is needed. Corrosion tests and stress-cracking evaluations have been made on heat- treated high-alloy steels, as well as on lightweight aluminum alloys and chromium plating. No damaging effect has been noted on these samples, which were tested for four hours under simulated well conditions between 1,000 and 5,000 psi in a temperature medium up to 250F. Acetic acid is inherently slower-reacting than hydrochloric acid. In its action on carbonates, acetic-acid reaction rates are influenced greatly with pressure. While temperature does exert an influence on rate of reaction, the rate is not accelerated so much as in the case of hydrochloric acid. Fig. 1 reveals a distinct lowering of the reaction rates of acetic acid at approximately 50 per cent spent, at static test conditions of 1,000 psi.

JPT

P. 637^

Keywords:flowline corrosion, Well Intervention, riser corrosion, concentration, materials and corrosion, Subsurface Corrosion, Upstream Oil & Gas, well completion, downhole intervention, production enhancement
Subjects:Acidizing, Drilling fluid management & disposal, Drilling Fluids and Materials, Materials and corrosion, Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, Subsurface corrosion (tubing, casing, completion equipment, conductor), Well Integrity, Well Intervention, Well Operations, Optimization and Stimulation


Product description
Acetic Acid is a raw material used for the production of many downstream products. 
For applications in drugs, foods, or feeds, ATAMAN CHEMICALS provides glacial acetic acid in grades appropriate for these regulated uses.
Applications/uses
Adhesives/sealants-B&C
Agriculture intermediates
Apparel
Architectural coatings
Automotive protective coatings
Building materials
Commerical printing inks
Construction chemicals
Decorative interiors
Fertilizer
Food ingredients
Food preservatives
Formulators
Hard surface care
 
Industrial cleaners
Institutional cleaners
Intermediates
Oil or gas processing
Other-food chemicals
Other-transportation
Packaging components non food contact
Paints & coatings
Pharmaceutical chemicals
Process additives
Refining
Specialty chemicals
Starting material
Water treatment industrial


Glacial acetic acid is a trivial name for water-free acetic acid. Similar to the German name Eisessig (literally, ice-vinegar), the name comes from the ice-like crystals that form slightly below room temperature at 16.7°C (about 62°F).

The most common and official abbreviation for acetic acid is AcOH or HOAc where Ac stands for the acetyl group CH3−C(=O)−;. In the context of acid-base reactions the abbreviation HAc is often used where Ac instead stands for the acetate anion (CH3COO−), although this use is regarded by many as misleading. In either case, the Ac is not to be confused with the abbreviation for the chemical element actinium.

Acetic acid has the empirical formula CH2O and the molecular formula C2H4O2. The latter is often written as CH3-COOH, CH3COOH, or CH3CO2H to better reflect its structure. The ion resulting from loss of H+ from acetic acid is the acetate anion. The name acetate can also refer to a salt containing this anion or an ester of acetic acid.


Acetic Acid
Acetic Acid is a colorless, liquid organic compound with a distinctive odor, sour taste, and smell. It is one of the simplest carboxylic acids. Acetic acid is a significant chemical reagent and industrial chemical used in the production of soft drink bottles, polyvinyl acetate for wood glue, and many synthetic fibers and fabrics, as well as a host of household, food, and other applications that are essential to everyday life.


Useful in: dairy, savory vegetable, savory meat, savory others, fruity red, fruity yellow, fruity tropical, fruity others, sweet others, alcoholics.


Acetic acid offered in bulk, totes, and drums 
ATAMAN CHEMICALS offers several dilution strengths of acetic acid in bulk, drum, tote and pail shipments. 
Acetic acid, CAS # 64.19.7, is primarily used as a raw material for vinyl acetate (VAM) and as a reaction promoter in terephthalic acid production.  
The product also serves as a raw material for cellulose acetate, acetate esters, acetic anhydride, chloroacetic acid and a wide range of industrial synthesis. 
ATAMAN CHEMICALS provides glacial acetic acid in Tech, Food/Kosher, USP and Reagent grades for regulated applications such as drugs, foods, cleaners, feed, oil & gas, and chemical manufacturing.

 

 

Grades
Acetic acid 56%
Acetic Acid 60%
Acetic acid 80%
Acetic acid 99% glacial
Acetic acid 99% glacial food grade kosher
Acetic acid 99% glacial USP
 

Characteristics
Clear colorless liquid
Pungent vinegar color
Soluble in water
Sizes available
Bulk – Rail car & tank truck
Totes
Drums
Applications
Acetic anhydride
Acidulant
Antibiotics
Body wash
Buffer
Conditioners
Cosmetics
Dyestuffs
Electroplating
Ethanol
Ethyl acetate
Flavors
Food sauces
Hair colorants
Hair conditioner
Herbicides
Liquid hand soap
Monchloroacetic acid
N Butyl acetate
Oil field service chemicals
Oil well acidizing
Pharmaceuticals
Photographic
Pigments
PTA
Rubber
Sec butyl acetate
Secondary oil recovery
Shampoo
Shower gels
Sorbic acid
Textile finishes
Vinyl acetate
Vitamins


Acetic Acid Formula and Characteristics
Acetic or ethanoic acid is a weak carboxylic acid. The chief acetic acid formula is C2H4O2. The acetic acid formula represents two carbons, four hydrogens and two oxygens. Another way of expressing the acetic acid formula is CH3COOH. This better demonstrates its carboxyl group (-COOH). Acetic acid forms when ethanol is combined with oxygen in the air, yielding ethanoic (acetic) acid and water. This is called the oxidation of ethanol.

Ethanoic acid has no color, but it has a sharp, strong odor very much like vinegar. Keep in mind this is a flammable chemical, with a flashpoint of 39 degrees Celsius or 104 degrees Fahrenheit. Its boiling point is 118 degrees Celsius. Acetic acid is designated as a volatile organic compound.

Acetic acid with chemical formula CH3COOH is a monocarboxylic acid with one “COOH” group. It’s an anhydrous, clear, colourless liquid having a pungent smell. The uses of this very common and mostly used chemical reagent are many and varied. Acetic acid, also known as Ethanoic acid or Methanecarboxylicacid is used in many industrial processes for the manufacture of substrates.

Acidity and Use as a Solvent
Acetic acid has an acidic character because the hydrogen center in the carboxyl group (-COOH) separates via ionization to release a proton:


CH3CO2H → CH3CO2− + H+

This makes acetic acid a monoprotic acid with a pKa value of 4.76 in aqueous solution. The concentration of the solution greatly affects the dissociation to form the hydrogen ion and the conjugate base, acetate (CH3COO−). At a concentration comparable to that in vinegar (1.0 M), the pH is around 2.4 and only around 0.4 percent of the acetic acid molecules are dissociated. However, in very dilute solutions, over 90 percent of the acid dissociates.

Acetic acid is a versatile acidic solvent. As a solvent, acetic acid is a hydrophilic protic solvent, much like water or ethanol. Acetic acid dissolves both polar and nonpolar compounds and is miscible in both polar (water) and nonpolar (hexane, chloroform) solvents. However, acetic acid is not fully miscible with higher alkanes, such as octane.

Importance in Biochemistry
Acetic acid ionizes to form acetate at physiological pH. The acetyl group is essential to all life. Acetic acid bacteria (e.g., Acetobacter and Clostridium acetobutlicum) produce acetic acid. Fruits produce acetic acid as they ripen. In humans and other primates, acetic acid is a component of vaginal lubrication, where it acts as an antibacterial agent. When the acetyl group binds to coenzyme A, the holoenzyme is used in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates.

Acetic Acid in Medicine
Acetic acid, even at 1 percent concentration, is an effective antiseptic, used to kill Enterococci, Streptococci, Staphylococci, and Pseudomonas. Dilute acetic acid may be used to control skin infections of antibiotic bacteria, particularly Pseudomonas. The injection of acetic acid into tumors has been a cancer treatment since the early 19th century.1 The application of dilute acetic acid is a safe and effective treatment for otitis externa.2 Acetic acid is also used as a quick cervical cancer screening test.3 Acetic acid swabbed onto the cervix turns white in one minute if cancer is present.

Glacial acetic acid is the water free acetic acid. Its use depend on the strength of the acid. A reputed chemical supplier can give you a clear idea on its uses and strength.

Chemical propertries

Acidic character
When dissolved in water, acetic acid undergoes dissociation to form hydrogen (H+) ion. It indicates its acidic nature by turning blue litmus to red. However, it is a weak acid because it does not dissociate completely in aqueous solution.

Reaction with sodium bicarbonate
Acetic acid reacts with sodium bicarbonate to produce carbon dioxide.

Most common Acetic Acid Uses are:-

As a solvent for many industrial processes
For the manufacture of
Various dye stuffs and perfumes.
Rayon fibre
synthetic fibres and textiles
inks and dyes
soft drinks bottles
rubbers and plactics
pesticides
wood glues
For testing blood in clinical laboratory
Used in film industry
for the treatment of outer ear infections from the growth of fungus and bacteria
Used as food additive
The word ‘acetic’ comes from the Latin word ‘acetum’ which means ‘vinegar’. People commonly know the dilute form of acetic acid “Vinegar”. In addition to the use of it as a common food preservative it has various other uses like Medicinal uses, household cleaning, health and hygiene and food flavouring.

ABOUT ACETIC ACID
Acetic acid which is also known as Ethanoic acid is a colorless organic acid with chemicals formula C2H4O2 is liquid with strong and distinctive pungent and sour smell. Acetic acid got its name from a word “Acetum”, which is a Latin word for vinegar. Because of its presence in vinegar, it’s most well known, as the pungent and sour smell is because of acetic acid in vinegar.

 

CHARACTERISTICS OF ACETIC ACID
Acetic acid is a weak acid.
Glacial Ethanoic acid is very much corrosive to metals.
Boiling point: 118.1 degree Celsius.
Melting point: 16.6 degree Celsius.
Acetic acid is miscible with water.
Acidity: 4.76 pKa, basicity 9.24 pKb, and viscosity 1.22 mPa s.
At STP it has the liquid state.
Sour in taste and have a pungent smell.
Freezes in its purest form. That is why it is also known as glacial acetic acid.
 

PH AND MOLARITY OF ACETIC ACID:
Ph of acids is dependent upon molarity and normality of the acid.

So, for 1.0 M or for 1N of acetic acid its pH value will be around 2.4.

Molarity and Normality of Acetic acid are 17.4.

COMMON USES OF ACETIC ACID:
Acetic acid is a chemical reagent is widely used for chemical compounds production.

The widespread use of acetic acid is in the Vinyl Acetate Monomer production, followed by ester and acetic anhydride production.

Acetic acid is used as a solvent mainly as a solvent for inks, paints, and coatings.

Acetic acid is used as a coagulant in manufacturing rubber and is also used in manufacturing many dyestuffs and perfumes.

Food industry: Used a table vinegar and as a preservative.

Medical industry: Acetic acid injection is used to treat cancer and is also used in antiseptic creams. It is also used in the treatment of otitis externa.

 

How acetic acid is made or production of acetic acid:

Acetic/Ethanoic acid is manufactured in industries through synthetically fermentation and bacterial fermentation. Around 75% of acetic acid which is made for use in chemical industries is made through methanol carbonylation which is a process in which carbon monoxide along with methanol reacts to produce acetic acid. Iodomethane is involved as an intermediate in this process. This process appears in three steps:

CH3OH + HI → CH3I + H2O
CH3I + CO → CH3COI
CH3COI + H2O → CH3COOH + HI

Hazards and safety?

Hazards:

Health hazard: Acetic acid is corrosive for skin and therefore should be handled with care. Acetic acid causes skin burns, tissue destruction or eye damage when it comes with contact to eyes or skin. Inhalation of Acetic acid also causes injury or can lead to death in case of large amount inhaled.

Fire hazard: Acetic acid is a combustible element so it may burn and form explosives materials with air.

Safety:

Acetic acid should be stored in a clean well-ventilated area and in a tightly sealed container.

Acetic acid should be kept away from heat and sources of heat.

Water should not be added to this chemical.

Following protective gears should be worn when handling acetic acid: Gloves, Splash Goggles, Synthetic apron.

It should be ensured that there are nearby eye-wash stations.

20 Uses of Acetic Acid (CH3COOH)
October 15, 2020485
Acetic acid is a simple organic acid with a carboxylic group attached to a methyl group. It is known as ethanoic acid, ethylic acid, or glacial acetic acid. Due to the presence of the carboxylic group it is acidic in nature. It is the main constituent of vinegar. It is very sour to taste and has a pungent smell. In this article, we discuss the uses of acetic acid in industry, chemical synthesis, medicine, and house-hold. You can read our articles on acid, bases and salts, and uses of acids for more information.

Uses of acetic acid in industries
Acetic acid is used in the manufacture of starting materials for paints and adhesives.
Acetic acid is used in the manufacture of precursors for paints and adhesives.

Used in the synthesis of dyes and inks.
Used in the synthesis of fragrances.
It is used in the rubber and plastic industry. It is used as solvents and starting material for many important polymers in the rubber and plastic industry like PVA, PET, etc.
Used as a starting material for constituents of paints and adhesives
Used in the food processing industry as an additive and food preservative in cheese and sauces.
Uses of acetic acid in chemical synthesis
Photographic films are made of cellulose acetate. It is a cellulose derivative of acetic acid. 
Photographic films are made of cellulose acetate. It is a cellulose derivative of acetic acid.

Used in the synthesis of cellulose acetate. Cellulose acetate is used in photographic films and textiles. Before the invention of cellulose acetate films photography films used to be made of nitrate, which had many safety issues.
Used as a solvent in the synthesis of terephthalic acid. The process is called the Amoco process. p-xylene is oxidized into terephthalic acid. Terephthalic acid is used in the synthesis of PET, which is widely used in the manufacture of plastic bottles.
Widely used in the synthesis of esters by reaction with various alcohols. Acetic acid ester derivatives are widely used as food additives.
Used in the synthesis of vinylene acetate monomer. This monomer can then polymerized to form poly(vinyl acetate) also commonly known as PVA. PVA has wide applications from medicine (due to its biocompatibility to nanotechnology (as stabilizing agents) to paper manufacturing.
Used as a solvent in many organic catalytic reactions. You can read this article title “Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Aromatic Aldehydes by Imidazolium Dichromate in Aqueous Acetic Acid Medium” to learn more.
Uses of acetic acid in medicine
Acetic acid is used in a technique called chromoendoscopy which is an alternative to traditional endoscopy. 
Read this article with DOI: 10.1186/1471-230X-10-97 for more information.
Acetic acid is used for visual inspection of cervical cancers and lesions. It is also used in cervical cancer screening. 
Acetic acid is used in the treatment of otitis externa.
Acetic acid is also sometimes used to treat bacterial and fungal infections.
In laboratory trials on mice, it has been shown that acetic acid can alleviate the inflammatory response in mice.
House-hold uses of acetic acid
Vinegar is used for seasoning of salads. House-hold vinegar contains around 4% of acetic acid.
Vinegar is used for seasoning of salads. House-hold vinegar contains around 4% of acetic acid.

Acetic acid is the major constituent of vinegar.
Vinegar is used in the pickling of vegetables
Used in salads for seasoning
Used in the baking process. It reacts with baking soda to release carbon dioxide gas which makes the food item fluffy.
Used as an anti-fungal agent. You can read this article “An Evaluation of Antifungal Agents for the Treatment of Fungal Contamination in Indoor Air Environments” to learn more about the antifungal properties of acetic acid.
Caution
Acetic acid is a weak acid, but it can be corrosive in it’s concentrated form. It is better to be safe while handling acetic acid. It is harmful for the eyes and skin. The vapors also can be quite harmful if inhaled. Since it is a colorless liquid, the concentration cannot be determined with the naked eye. It is better to use your nitrile gloves and lab coats while handling acetic acid.

Are glacial acetic acid, acetic acid, and vinegar the same?
Vinegar is the diluted form of acetic acid for household use. Glacial acetic acid is the anhydrous form of acetic acid.

Research
Acetic acid is known to lower blood pressure and control blood sugar. In this article “The role of acetic acid on glucose uptake and blood flow rates in the skeletal muscle in humans with impaired glucose tolerance” authors have tried to study the impact of acetic acid on the human body.

Acetic Acid is a synthetic carboxylic acid with antibacterial and antifungal properties. Although its mechanism of action is not fully known, undissociated acetic acid may enhance lipid solubility allowing increased fatty acid accumulation on the cell membrane or in other cell wall structures. Acetic acid, as a weak acid, can inhibit carbohydrate metabolism resulting in subsequent death of the organism.

Ethanoic acid (Acetic acid) CH3COOH : Ethanoic acid is most commonly known as acetic acid. Its dilute solution in water (5-8%) is known as vinegar, which is used for preserving food-sausage, pickles etc.

Physical properties :
(i)   Ethanoic acid is vinegar smelling liquid. The lower carboxylic acids are liquids whereas higher ones are solids.
(ii)  Ethanoic acid is sour in taste. Other lower carboxylic acids are also sour in taste.
(iii) Ethanoic acid has boiling point 391 K. Carboxylic acids have higher boiling points than corresponding alcohols, aldehydes and ketones.
(iv) Acetic acid is soluble in water, i.e., it is miscible with water in all proportions. The lower carboxylic acids are soluble in water but solubility in water decreases with increase in molecular weight.
(v)  Acetic acid freezes at 290 K. Thus, in cold weather crystallization of acetic acid may take place that is why pure acetic acid is called glacial acetic acid.

Acetic acid is a simple monocarboxylic acid containing two carbons. It has a role as a protic solvent, a food acidity regulator, an antimicrobial food preservative and a Daphnia magna metabolite. It is a conjugate acid of an acetate.

Acetic acid, glacial appears as a clear colorless liquid with a strong odor of vinegar. Flash point 104°F. Density 8.8 lb / gal. Corrosive to metals and tissue. Used to make other chemicals, as a food additive, and in petroleum production.

Uses of Ethanoic acid :
(i)   Acetic Acid is used for making vinegar
(ii)  Acetic Acid is used as a laboratory reagent
(iii) Acetic Acid is used for preparation of white lead [2PbCO3.Pb(OH)2] which is used in white paints.
(iv) Acetic Acid is used for coagulation of rubber from latex and casein (protein) from milk
(v)  Acetic Acid is used in preparation of acetone, ethyl acetate, acetic anhydride, aspirin which is used in medicines.
(vi) Acetic Acid is used in preparation of cellulose acetate which is used for making photographic film.
(vii) Acetic Acid esters are used in artificial flavours in perfumes.
(viii) Acetic Acid 5% solution is bactericidal (destroys bacteria)
(ix) Acetic Acid compound basic copper acetate (verdigris) is used as green pigment.
(x) Aluminium acetate and chromium acetate are used as mordants in dyeing and waterproofing of fabrics.


acetic acid

ethanoic acid

64-19-7

Ethylic acid

Acetic acid, glacial

Glacial acetic acid

Methanecarboxylic acid

Acetic acid glacial

Vinegar acid

Acetasol

Essigsaeure

Acide acetique

Aci-jel

Azijnzuur

Vinegar

Acido acetico

Kyselina octova

Octowy kwas

Pyroligneous acid

HOAc

Azijnzuur [Dutch]

Ethanoic acid monomer

acetyl alcohol

Essigsaeure [German]

ethoic acid

Caswell No. 003

Otic Tridesilon

Octowy kwas [Polish]

Otic Domeboro

Acetic acid (natural)

Acide acetique [French]

Acido acetico [Italian]

Kyselina octova [Czech]

AcOH

Carboxylic acids, C2-3

Acetic acid, water solutions

FEMA No. 2006

FEMA Number 2006

acetic acid-

ethanoate

UN2789

UN2790

MeCOOH

HSDB 40

EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 044001

NSC 132953

UNII-Q40Q9N063P

BRN 0506007

CCRIS 5952

AI3-02394

methane carboxylic acid

CH3COOH

CH3-COOH

EINECS 200-580-7

CH3CO2H

MFCD00036152

10.Methanecarboxylic acid

CHEMBL539

68475-71-8

CHEBI:15366

Q40Q9N063P

Ethanoat

Shotgun

Acetic acid, diluted

Acetic acid, of a concentration of more than 10 per cent, by weight, of acetic acid

Acetic acid [JAN]

NSC-132953

NSC-406306

C2:0

Perchloric acid solution

Orlex

Vosol

E 260

E-260

WLN: QV1

Acetic acid solution, not less than 50% but more than 80% acid, by mass [UN2790] [Corrosive]

Acetic acid solution, with more than 10% and less than 50% acid, by mass [UN2790] [Corrosive]

Acetic acid, glacial or acetic acid solution, >80% acid, by mass [UN2789] [Corrosive]

Acetic acid, >=99.7%

Acetic acid, aqueous solution

Acetic acid, 99.5%, pure

Acetic acid, 99+%, extra pure

Aceticum acidum

Acetic acid, 99.6%, for analysis

Acetic acid, 99.8%, for analysis

Acetic acid, 25%, solution in water

Acetic acid, 50%, solution in water

Acetic acid, 99.8%, for biochemistry

Acetic acid, ACS reagent, >=99.7%

ACY

Acetic acid, 80% vol., solution in water

NSC-111201

NSC-112209

NSC-115870

NSC-127175

Acetic acid 0.25% in plastic container

Ethylate

acetic aicd

acetic-acid

Glacial acetate

acetic cid

actic acid

Aceticacidglacial

acetic -acid

Methanecarboxylate

Acetic acid, glacial [USP:JAN]

Nat. Acetic Acid

Acetasol (TN)

Acetic acid, glacial [USAN:JAN]

Acetic Acid Natural

Vinegar (Salt/Mix)

Acetic acid, propionic acid distillate

MeCO2H

Undiluted Acetic Acid

Oxytocin identification

3,3'-(1,4-phenylene)dipropiolic acid

HOOCCH3

PubChem22173

Acetic Acid (Recovered)

Acetic acid LC/MS Grade

Acetic acid, ACS reagent

DSSTox_CID_4394

Acetic Acid Solution, 1N

bmse000191

bmse000817

bmse000857

Otic Domeboro (Salt/Mix)

EC 200-580-7

Acetic acid (JP17/NF)

ACMC-1B1E4

DSSTox_RID_77386

NCIOpen2_000659

NCIOpen2_000682

DSSTox_GSID_24394

Acetic acid, glacial (USP)

Buffer Solution, pH 4.64

4-02-00-00094 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)

Glacial acetic acid (JP17)

KSC491S8N

UN 2790 (Salt/Mix)

INS No. 260

GTPL1058

INS NO.260

Acetic Acid Glacial HPLC Grade

Acetic acid solution, for HPLC

Acetic acid, analytical standard

Acetic acid, Glacial USP grade

DTXSID5024394

[C]C(O)=O

CTK3J1986

KS-00000XBD

Acetic acid, puriss., >=80%

INS-260

Acetic acid, 99.8%, anhydrous

Acetic acid, AR, >=99.8%

Acetic acid, LR, >=99.5%

Acetic Acid, Glacial Reagent ACS

DTXSID901022438

Acetic acid solution, 1 N, 1 M

Acetic acid, extra pure, 99.8%

Acetic acid, 99.5-100.0%

Acetic acid, Glacial, ACS Reagent

STR00276

ZINC5224164

Acetic acid, puriss., 99-100%

Tox21_301453

Acetic acid, glacial, >=99.85%

ANW-41557

ANW-44008

BDBM50074329

LMFA01010002

NSC132953

NSC406306

STL264240

TCLP extraction fluid 2 (Salt/Mix)

Acetic acid, 1% v/v aqueous solution

Acetic acid, 4% v/v aqueous solution

Acetic acid, 99.7+%, ACS reagent

Acetic acid, Environmental Grade Plus

Acetic acid, for HPLC, >=99.8%

AKOS000268789

Buffer Solution (Acetate), pH 4.01

DB03166

LS-1541

LS-2535

MCULE-8295936189

Sodium acetate, anhydrous or trihydrate

UN 2789

Acetic acid, >=99.5%, FCC, FG

Acetic acid, natural, >=99.5%, FG

Acetic acid, ReagentPlus(R), >=99%

CAS-64-19-7

Acetic acid, USP, 99.5-100.5%

NCGC00255303-01

4843-45-2

Acetic acid, 0.1N Standardized Solution

Acetic acid, 1.0N Standardized Solution

Acetic acid, SAJ first grade, >=99.0%


Acetic acid (CH3COOH), also called ethanoic acid, the most important of the carboxylic acids. A dilute (approximately 5 percent by volume) solution of acetic acid produced by fermentation and oxidation of natural carbohydrates is called vinegar; a salt, ester, or acylal of acetic acid is called acetate. Industrially, acetic acid is used in the preparation of metal acetates, used in some printing processes; vinyl acetate, employed in the production of plastics; cellulose acetate, used in making photographic films and textiles; and volatile organic esters (such as ethyl and butyl acetates), widely used as solvents for resins, paints, and lacquers. Biologically, acetic acid is an important metabolic intermediate, and it occurs naturally in body fluids and in plant juices.


Acetic acid can prevent the precipitation of iron(III) at high acetic acid concentrations at low temperatures.

Uses & Benefits
One of the most common ways consumers may come into contact with acetic acid is in the form of household vinegar, which is naturally made from fermentable sources such as wine, potatoes, apples, grapes, berries and grains. Vinegar is a clear solution generally containing about 5 percent acetic acid and 95 percent water.  Vinegar is used as a food ingredient and can also be an ingredient in personal care products, household cleaners, pet shampoos and many other products for the home:

Food Preparation: Vinegar is a common food ingredient, often used as a brine in pickling liquids, vinaigrettes, marinades and other salad dressings.  Vinegar also can be used in food preparation to help control Salmonella contamination in meat and poultry products.
Cleaning: Vinegar can be used throughout the home as a window cleaner, to clean automatic coffee makers and dishes, as a rinsing agent for dishwashers, and to clean bathroom tile and grout. Vinegar can also be used to clean food-related tools and equipment because it generally does not leave behind a harmful residue and requires less rinsing.
Gardening: In concentrations of 10 to 20 percent, acetic acid can be used as a weed killer on gardens and lawns. When used as an herbicide, the acetic acid can kill weeds that have emerged from the soil, but does not affect the roots of the weed, so they can regrow.
When acetic acid is at 99.5 percent concentration, it is referred to as glacial acetic acid. Glacial acetic acid has a variety of uses, including as a raw material and solvent in the production of other chemical products.  

Industrial applications for glacial acetic acid include:   

Vinyl Acetate, cellulose fibers and plastics: Acetic acid is used to make many chemicals, including vinyl acetate, acetic anhydride and acetate esters.
Vinyl acetate is used to make polyvinyl acetate, a polymer used in paints, adhesives, plastics and textile finishes.
Acetic anhydride is used in the manufacture of cellulose acetate fibers and plastics used for photographic film, clothing and coatings.
Acetic acid is also used in the chemical reaction to produce purified terephthalic acid (PTA), which is used to manufacture the PET plastic resin used in synthetic fibers, food containers, beverage bottles and plastic films.
Solvents: Acetic acid is a hydrophilic solvent, similar to ethanol. It dissolves compounds such as oils, sulfur and iodine and mixes with water, chloroform and hexane.
Acidizing oil and gas: Acetic acid can help reduce metal corrosion and scale build-up in oil and gas well applications. It is also used in oil well stimulation to improve flow and increase production of oil and gas.
Pharmaceuticals and vitamins: The pharmaceutical industry uses acetic acid in the manufacture of vitamins, antibiotics, hormones and other products.
Food Processing: Acetic acid is commonly used as a cleaning and disinfecting product in food processing plants.
Other uses: Salts of acetic acid and various rubber and photographic chemicals are made from acetic acid. Acetic acid and its sodium salt are commonly used as a food preservative. 
Uses & BenefitsSafety InformationAnswering Questions
Back to Top
Safety Information
Consumer Exposure

Food-grade vinegar used as a multipurpose food additive is generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Like with any other acid, consumption of excess vinegar can worsen symptoms of upper gastrointestinal tract inflammatory conditions such as heartburn or indigestion, and excessive consumption of vinegar can damage tooth enamel.

Occupational Exposure

Occupational exposure to glacial acetic acid, the purest form of acetic acid, can occur through inhalation and skin or eye contact. Acetic acid is corrosive to skin and eyes. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set standards for exposure to acetic acid. Acetic acid has an OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 10 parts per million (ppm) over an 8-hour work shift. Symptoms of exposure to acetic acid vapors at that level can include eye, nose and throat irritation. At 100 ppm, marked lung irritation and possible damage to lungs, eyes and skin might result. Exposure to acetic acid can also cause pharyngeal edema and chronic bronchitis.   In general, exposure to acetic acid in concentrations above those in commercial products and preparations should be avoided, as skin and eye irritation can occur even at relatively highly diluted acid solutions.

What is the difference between acetic acid, glacial acetic acid and vinegar?
Acetic acid in its pure form (99.5 percent concentration) is also known as glacial acetic acid. Glacial acetic acid has numerous industrial uses. Vinegar contains 4 to 8 percent acetic acid, and is made from the fermentation of fruit or grain juices/liquids.

Is acetic acid hazardous to the environment?
According to the information considered under the Ecological Risk Classification of Organic Substances Approach, acetic acid is identified as having a low ecological hazard potential.

How likely am I to be exposed to acetic acid?
Consumer exposure to acetic acid is usually limited to vinegar, which is a solution containing 5 percent acetic acid and not hazardous in that form. Occupational exposure to glacial acetic acid can be hazardous, and precautions should be taken to limit exposure through inhalation, and skin and eye contact.

Can vinegar be used as a household disinfectant?
Vinegar can be used to clean some household surfaces and glass as its acidic properties can help dissolve dirt, grease and grime.  However, there is a difference between cleaning and disinfecting. Vinegar is not an EPA-registered household disinfectant and may not be as effective for killing pathogens.

Can vinegar be used as an antimicrobial to kill the novel coronavirus?
EPA does not review the effectiveness of common household ingredients like vinegar, and cannot verify how well it will work to kill the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19.

Overview
Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is a clear colourless liquid which has a pungent, vinegar-like odour. When it is pure (100% acetic acid) it is referred to as glacial acetic acid.

Uses of acetic acid
Acetic acid is the main component of vinegar, which contains 4 to 18% acetic acid. It is used as a food preservative and food additive (known as E260). Large quantities of acetic acid are used to make products such as ink for textile printing, dyes, photographic chemicals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, rubber and plastics. It is also used in some household cleaning products to remove lime scale.

How acetic acid gets into the environment
Acetic acid can enter the environment from discharge and emissions from industries. The burning of plastics or rubber, and exhaust fumes from vehicles may also release acetic acid into the environment. When released into soil it evaporates into the air where it is broken down naturally by sunlight. Levels of acetic acid in the environment would be expected to be low.

Exposure to acetic acid
Humans naturally produce small amounts of acetic acid. It plays an important role in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates in the body. Acetic acid is naturally present in some unprocessed foods including fruit and is present in some foods as an additive. There may also be exposure from the use of household products that contain acetic acid. Exposure to low levels of acetic acid in the environment, as part of a normal diet and from the correct use of household product would not be expected to cause adverse health effects.

Exposure to higher levels of acetic acid is more likely to occur in an occupational setting. However safe levels are enforced to protect employees who may be exposed to acetic acid at work. Such levels are below those that are thought to cause harmful effects.

How exposure to acetic acid could affect your health
The presence of acetic acid in the environment does not always lead to exposure. In order for it to cause any adverse health effects, you must come into contact with it. You may be exposed to acetic acid by breathing or ingesting it, or by skin contact with it. Following exposure to any chemical, the adverse health effects by which you may encounter depend on several factors, including the amount to which you are exposed (dose), the way you are exposed, the duration of exposure, the form of the chemical and if you were exposed to any other chemicals.

Low level exposure to acetic acid from the diet or from the correct use of household products that contain acetic acid would not be expected to cause adverse health effects.

Exposure to dilute solutions of acetic acid may cause irritation. Inhalation of acetic acid vapours may cause irritation of the eyes nose and throat and cough.

Exposure to more concentrated solutions of acetic acid (>25%) can cause corrosive damage.

Breathing vapours with high levels of acetic acid can cause irritation of eyes, nose and throat, cough, chest tightness, headache, fever and confusion. In serious cases damage to the airways, a fast heart rate and eye damage can occur. An accumulation of fluid in the lungs may occur and may take up 36 hours to develop.

Ingestion of higher concentrations causes immediate burning of the mouth and throat, breathing difficulty, drooling, difficulty swallowing, stomach pain and vomiting (there may be blood in the vomit).

Skin contact with strong acetic acid can cause pain, burns and ulcers. Eye contact causes pain, twitching of the eyelids, watering eyes, inflammation, sensitivity to light and burns.

Acetic acid and cancer
Acetic acid is not considered to be a cancer causing chemical.

Vulnerable people
People with breathing problems such as asthma may be more susceptible to the effects of inhaling acetic acid. This is because higher levels of acetic acid can cause irritation of airways leading to chest tightness, wheezing and breathlessness.

Pregnancy and the unborn child
Low level exposure to acetic acid from the diet or from the correct use of household products that contain acetic acid would not be expected to harm the unborn child.

There is limited information about overexposure to acetic acid during pregnancy. The irritant or corrosive tends to occur at the point of contact, for example, irritation to the skin or eyes. The absorption of acids into the body is generally low and therefore they do not cause effects in other parts of the body. Therefore, acetic acid is unlikely to have a direct effect on the unborn child. However, if the exposure acetic acid causes the mother to become unwell this may affect the health of the unborn child.

Children
If children breathe, ingest or touch acetic acid they will have similar effects to those seen in adults. They are not expected to be more sensitive to the effects of acetic acid.

Household cleaning products that contain acetic acid should be stored in an appropriate container and kept out of the reach of children.

What to do if you are exposed to acetic acid
Exposure to levels of acetic acid as found in household vinegar are not expected to cause harm.

If exposed to more concentrated acetic acid:

you should remove yourself from the source of exposure
if you have got acetic acid on your skin, remove soiled clothing (not over the head), wash the affected area with lukewarm water and soap for at least 10 to 15 minutes and seek medical advice
if you have got acetic acid in your eyes, remove contact lenses, irrigate the affected eye with lukewarm water for at least 10 to 15 minutes and seek medical advice
if you have inhaled or ingested acetic acid, seek medical advice

...% acto rūgštis (lt)
200–580–7 (it)
Acetic acid (no)
Acid acetic (ro)
acid acetic…% (ro)
Acide acétique (fr)
acide acétique à …% (fr)
acido acetico ... % (it)
Acto rūgštis (lt)
Azijnzuur (nl)
azijnzuur ... % (nl)
Aċidu aċetiku (mt)
Ecetsav (hu)
ecetsav …% (hu)
Eddikesyre (da)
eddikesyre ... % (da)
eddiksyre ... % (no)
Essigsäure (de)
Essigsäure ... % (de)
Etaanhape (äädikhape) …% (et)
Etikkahappo (fi)
Etikkahappo... % (fi)
Etiķskābe (lv)
Kwas octowy (pl)
kwas octowy ... % (pl)
Kyselina octová (cs)
Kyselina octová (sk)
kyselina octová ... % (sk)
Ocetna kislina (sl)
ocetna kislina...% (sl)
Octena kiselina (hr)
octena kiselina ... % (hr)
octová kyselina ...% (cs)
Ácido acético (es)
Ácido acético (pt)
ácido acético ... % (es)
ácido acético ... % (pt)
Ättiksyra (sv)
ättiksyra ... % (sv)
Äädikhape (et)
Οξικό οξύ (el)
οξικό οξύ ... % (el)
Оцетна киселина (bg)
оцетна киселина.. % (bg)
…% etiķskābe (lv)

CAS names
Acetic acid
Other
IUPAC names
acetic

ACETIC ACID
Acetic Acid
Acetic acid
acetic acid
Acetic Acid
Acetic acid
acetic acid
Acetic acid (synthetic)
acetic acid ... %
acetic acid 100 %
acetic acid 60%
Acetic Acid 80%
acetic acid 99 %
acetic acid 99,8%
Acetic Acid [for General Organic Chemistry]
ACETIC ACID GLACIAL
Acetic acid glacial
Acetic acid glacial
acetic acid … %
acetic acid …%
Acetic acid, ethanoic acid
Acetic acid, Ethanoic acid,Glacial acetic acid
Acetic acid, glacial
acetic acid, of a concentration of more than 10 per cent, by weight, of acetic acid
acetic acid...%
Acetid acid
ACIDE ACETIQUE
Acide ethanoique
acido acetico
actic acid
Essigsäure
Essigsäure
Ethanoic Acid 
Ethanoic acid
ethanoic acid
Ethanoic acid,Glacial acetic acid
etic acid … %
Glacial acetic acid, Ethanoic acid
octová kyselina
Reaction mass of water and 9-(2-carboxyphenyl)-3,6-bis(diethylamino)xanthylium acetate
ácido etanoico

Trade names
A-UT6581(K1)PTA
Acetic Acid
Acetic acid
acetic acid
Acetic acid (7CI, 8CI, 9CI)
Acetic Acid 80%
Acetic Acid Glacial
Acetic acid, 100%
Acetic acid, glacial
Aci-Jel
Acide acétique dilué
Albrite Acetic Acid 80%
CHINT: Acetic acid
Dilute acetic acid
ECO2200-A-BLACK(T)
ECO2200-B
ED2800-A-BLACK(E)
Essigsaeure
Essigsäure
Ethanoic acid
ethanoic acid
Ethanoic acid monomer
Ethylic acid
ethylic acid
Glacial acetic acid
GLACIAL ACETIC ACID GMP
Ijs azijnzuur
Industrial acetic acid
Lenzing Acetic acid 100%
methane carboxylic acid
Methanecarboxylic acid
Phase I REACH Kandidat
SI6020Z
SI6037Z
SI6050Z
SI6070Z
SI6350Z
Spirit vinegar
Technical acetic acid
UT6581(K1)PTA-1000
UT6581(K1)PTA-1999
UT6581(K1)PTB
UT6581-A-10GY6.5/3
UT6581-A-N.1.5
UT6581-A-RAL9006(H)
UT6581-B
Vinegar acid


 

Bu internet sitesinde sizlere daha iyi hizmet sunulabilmesi için çerezler kullanılmaktadır. Çerezler hakkında detaylı bilgi almak için Kişisel Verilerin Korunması Kanunu mevzuat metnini inceleyebilirsiniz.