ACIDITY REGULATORS

Acidity regulators, or pH control agents, are food additives used to change or maintain pH (acidity or basicity). 
Acidity regulators can be organic or mineral acids, bases, neutralizing agents, or buffering agents. 
Acidity regulators include the following acids and their sodium salts: sorbic acid, acetic acid, benzoic acid, and propionic acid.
Acidity regulators are indicated by their E number, such as E260 (acetic acid), or simply listed as "food acid".
Acidity regulators differ from acidulants, which are often acidic but are added to confer sour flavors. 
Acidity regulators are not intended to stabilize the food, although that can be a collateral benefit.
Food acidity regulators form an integral part of the global food additives industry as these provide an acidic medium, and flavor to food and beverage items.

The function of acidity regulators, preservatives, and antioxidants is to protect the food, respectively, through pH reduction/adjustment, inhibition of microbial growth, and inactivation of free radicals or metals. 
Acidity regulators help to preserve the original taste and color of the food and contribute to its healthiness through the pH control as a guarantee for preventing the development of dangerous microorganisms. 
Acidity regulators slow down or prevent the growth of bacteria, molds, and yeasts in food, avoiding its degradation or toxin development. 
Acidity regulators are substances able to prolong the shelf life of foods by protecting them against deterioration caused by oxidation, such as fat rancidity and colour changes.
Acidity regulators regulate the acidity of the food and help to increase shelf life. 
Acidity regulators also prevent the microbial activity and play a major role in food preservation.


1-) ACETIC ACID

Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound best recognized for giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. 
It is one of the simplest carboxylic acids (the second-simplest, after formic acid) and has the chemical formula CH3COOH. 
In its pure, water-free state, called glacial acetic acid, it is a colorless, hygroscopic liquid that freezes below 16.7°C (62°F) to a colorless crystalline solid. 
It is corrosive, and its vapor irritates the eyes, produces a burning sensation in the nose, and can lead to a sore throat and lung congestion. 
The term acetate is used when referring to the carboxylate anion (CH3COO-) or any of the salts or esters of acetic acid.

This acid is an important chemical reagent and industrial chemical useful for the production of various synthetic fibers and other polymeric materials. 
These polymers include polyethylene terephthalate, used mainly in soft drink bottles; cellulose acetate, used mainly for photographic film; and polyvinyl acetate, for wood glue. 
In households, diluted acetic acid is often used in descaling agents. The food industry uses it (under the food additive code E260) as an acidity regulator.


Acetic acid (CH3COOH) is the common name for ethanoic acid. It is an organic chemical compound that has a distinctive pungent odor and sour flavor, recognizable as the scent and flavor of vinegar. Vinegar is about 3-9% acetic acid.


How Glacial Acetic Acid Is Different
Acetic acid that contains a very low amount of water (less than 1%) is called anhydrous (water-free) acetic acid or glacial acetic acid. The reason it's called glacial is because it solidifies into solid acetic acid crystals just cooler than room temperature at 16.7 °C, which ice. Removing the water from acetic acid lowers its melting point by 0.2 °C.

Glacial acetic acid may be prepared by dripping acetic acid solution over a "stalactite" of solid acetic acid (which could be considered to be frozen). Like a water glacier contains purified water, even if it's floating in the salty sea, pure acetic acid sticks to the glacial acetic acid, while impurities run off with the liquid.


Caution: Although acetic acid is considered a weak acid, safe enough to drink in vinegar, glacial acetic acid is corrosive and can injure skin on contact.

More Acetic Acid Facts
Acetic acid is one of the carboxylic acids. It is the second simplest carboxylic acid, after formic acid. The main uses of acetic acid are in vinegar and to make cellulose acetate and polyvinyl acetate. Acetic acid is used as a food additive (E260), where it is added for flavor and to regular acidity. It's an important reagent in chemistry, too. Worldwide, around 6.5 metric tons of acetic acid are used per year, of which approximately 1.5 metric tons per year are produced by recycling. Most acetic acid is prepared using petrochemical feedstock.

Acetic Acid and Ethanoic Acid Naming
The IUPAC name for the chemical is ethanoic acid, a name formed using the convention of dropping the final "e" in the alkane name of the longest carbon chain in the acid (ethane) and adding the "-oic acid" ending.


Even though the formal name is ethanoic acid, most people refer to the chemical as acetic acid. In fact, the usual abbreviation for the reagent is AcOH, partly to avoid confusion with EtOH, a common abbreviation for ethanol. The common name "acetic acid" comes from the Latin word acetum, which means vinegar.


ACETIC ACID, GLACIAL
A clear, colorless organic acid with a distinctive pungent odor, used as a solvent. Also called Methane Carboxylic Acid|Ethanoic Acid. Uses include the manufacture of photographic films and stop bath and sometimes in the production of the plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The term "glacial acetic acid" is now taken to refer to pure acetic acid (ethanoic acid) in any physical state. CAS 64-19-7

ACETIC ACID    
Glacial acetic acid
Ethanoic acid
Ethylic acid
Methanecarboxylic acid    May 2010
CAS #: 64-19-7
UN #: 2789
EC Number: 200-580-7


Systematic name: 
Acetic acid
Ethanoic acid

Other names    
Methanecarboxylic acid
Acetyl hydroxide (AcOH)
Hydrogen acetate (HAc)

CAS number: 64-19-7

Other names: Ethanoic acid; Ethylic acid; Glacial acetic acid; Methanecarboxylic acid; Vinegar acid; CH3COOH; Acetasol; Acide acetique; Acido acetico; Azijnzuur; Essigsaeure; Octowy kwas; Acetic acid, glacial; Kyselina octova; UN 2789; Aci-jel; Shotgun; Ethanoic acid monomer; NSC 132953

Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound best recognized for giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. Pure water-free acetic acid (glacial acetic acid) is a colorless hygroscopic liquid and freezes below 16.7 °C (62 °F) to a colourless crystalline solid. Acetic acid is corrosive, and its vapour is irritating to eyes and nose, although it is a weak acid based on its ability to dissociate in aqueous solutions.

Acetic acid is one of the simplest carboxylic acids (the second-simplest, next to formic acid). It is an important chemical reagent and industrial chemical that is used in the production of polyethylene terephthalate mainly used in soft drink bottles; cellulose acetate, mainly for photographic film; and polyvinyl acetate for wood glue, as well as many synthetic fibres and fabrics. In households diluted acetic acid is often used in descaling agents. In the food industry acetic acid is used under the food additive code E260 as an acidity regulator.

The global demand of acetic acid is around 6.5 million tonnes per year (Mt/a), of which approximately 1.5 Mt/a is met by recycling; the remainder is manufactured from petrochemical feedstocks or from biological sources.

Acetic acid is a mildly corrosive monocarboxylic acid. Otherwise known as ethanoic acid, methanecarboxylic acid, hydrogen acetate or ethylic acid, this organic compound is used in chemical manufacturing, as a food additive, and in petroleum production. The molecular formula of acetic acid is C2H4O2 or CH3COOH, where –COOH defines the presence of the single carboxyl group.

CAS Number: 64-19-7

Synonyms: hydrogen acetate, ethanoic acid, glacial acetic acid

When undiluted, acetic acid is sometimes referred to as ‘glacial’, meaning water-free, and is the main component of vinegar apart from water, therefore is known for it’s very distinctive sour taste and smell. As it’s highly corrosive, acetic acid is commonly used for descaling, pH adjustment and as a counterirritant. Available in a variety of strengths and sizes, the most common being 92% and 99.5%.

CATEGORIES: ALL PRODUCTS, MINING


Acetic Acid is a corrosive, flammable, liquid organic compound with the chemical formula C2H4O2. Its CAS number is 64-19-7. After formic acid, acetic acid is the second simplest carboxylic acid. The acetyl group, which is derived from acetic acid, is fundamental to the biochemistry of virtually all life forms.

Production

Acetic acid is produced naturally when excreted by certain bacteria such as Acetobacter genus and Clostridium acetobutylicum. These bacteria are found in foodstuffs, water, and soil. Acetic acid is also produced naturally when fruits and other foods spoil.

Industrially, acetic acid is produced both synthetically and by bacterial fermentation. Approximately 75% of acetic acid used in the chemical industry is made by the carbonylation of methanol. The biologic method accounts for only 10% of world production, but is important for the manufacture of vinegar because many food purity laws require vinegar used in food to be of biological origin.

Most acetic acid is made by methanol carbonylation, where methanol and carbon monoxide react to produce acetic acid. The compound is miscible with ethanol, ethyl ether, acetone, and benzene, and is soluble in carbon tetrachloride and carbon disulfide.

CAS: 64-19-7


Acetic acid (glacial acetic acid, ethanoic acid, methane carboxylic acid) is a weak, colorless, caustic, and flammable acid which has a sour taste and a strong smell. Every year, several million tons of acetic acid are produced (in 2014 about 12.1 million tons; 16.3 million tons estimated for 2018) because it is an important industrial feedstock for the manufacturing of many products .

Acetic acid is converted into derivatives  which can in turn be used as raw material for the production of e.g. vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) or benzene-1,4-discarbocylic acid (purified terephthalic acid or PTA) which is primarily used for the manufacturing of polyethylene terephthalate (PET).

Acetic acid is one of the simplest carboxylic acids. It is a weak acid, in that it is only a partially dissociated acid in an aqueous solution. Pure acetic acid (glacial acetic acid) is a colorless liquid, very corrosive

Acetic acid is a weak organic acid. It is the primary component in vinegar, responsible for its sharp taste and aroma characteristic that in imparts on other products. Acetic acid is liquid, transparent and viscous at ambient temperature while a solid. The acid is colorless and somewhat glassy.1

This acid is widely used in the food industry as a preservative and antimicrobial agent, inhibiting both bacteria and fungi.

Acetic acid is a colorless liquid compound found in vinegar. It's used in antibiotics, antiseptics, and disinfectants. It's also involved in some paper printing processes.

200-580-7 [EINECS]
64-19-7 [RN]
Acetic acid [ACD/Index Name] [ACD/IUPAC Name] [Wiki]
Acid, Acetic
Acide acétique [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Acido acetico [Italian]
AcOH [Formula]
ättiksyra [Swedish]
azido azetikoa [Basque]
azijnzuur [Dutch]
CH3CO2H [Formula]
CH3COOH [Formula]
Essigsäure [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Ethanoic acid
etikkahappo [Finnish]
Glacial acetic acid
HOAc [Formula]
kwas octowy [Polish]
Kyselina octova [Czech]
MFCD00036152 [MDL number]
MFCD00198163 [MDL number]
QV1 [WLN]
109945-04-2 [RN]
1112-02-3 [RN]
120416-14-0 [RN]
147416-04-4 [RN]
149748-09-4 [RN]
159037-04-4 [RN]
2-Mercapto-5-chlor-benzoxazol-7-sulfonsure, Kaliumsalz
55511-07-4 [RN]
AA
Acetic acid (glacial) 100%
Acetic acid 1 mol/L
Acetic acid 100%
Acetic acid 1000 µg/mL in Acetonitrile
Acetic acid 30%
Acetic acid 96%
Acetic acid 99-100%
Acetic Acid Glacial HPLC Grade
Acetic acid LC/MS Grade
Acetic acid, 0.1N Standardized Solution
Acetic acid, 1% v/v aqueous solution
Acetic acid, 1.0N Standardized Solution
Acetic acid, 4% v/v aqueous solution
Acetic Acid, Glacial 99%
Acetic acid, Glacial USP grade
Acetic Acid, GlenDry, anhydrous
Acetic Acid, GlenPure, analytical grade
Acetic Acid-d4
Acetic-2,2,2-d3 Acid
acetol
Essigsaeure
Ethylic acid
Glacial Acetic
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:15366
MeCO2H [Formula]
MeCOOH [Formula]
Methane carboxylic acid solution, Methylformic acid solution
Methanecarboxylic acid
Methanecarboxylic Acid, Acetic Acid
methyl carboxylic acid
MFCD00036287 [MDL number]
Pyroacetic acid
STR00276
Vinegar

Acetic acid (CH3COOH) is mainly used in the chemical industry for the production of VAM (vinyl acetate monomer) and PET (polyethylene terephthalate) but is also used as a preservative and as a food additive (E260). Its quality as well as its content in an aqueous solution can be determined using refractometry.

Acetasol; Acetic acid, glacial; Aceticum acidum; Aci-Jel; Acide acetique; Acido acetico; Azijnzuur; BRN 0506007; CCRIS 5952; Caswell No. 003; EINECS 200-580-7; EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 044001; Essigsaeure; Ethanoic Acid; Ethanoic acid monomer; Ethylic acid; FEMA No. 2006; Glacial acetic acid; HSDB 40; Kyselina octova; Methanecarboxylic acid; NSC 132953; Octowy kwas; Orlex; Pyroligneous acid; UNII-Q40Q9N063P; Vinegar acid; Vosol

CAS Number: 64-19-7


Molecular Formula: C​2H4O2

The acid most commonly associated with vinegar. Acetic acid is a two-carbon carboxylic acid. Its formula is: CH3COOH. It is the most commercially important organic acid and is used in the manufacture of a broad range of chemical products, such as plastics and insecticides.


Acetic acid is a product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed) Acetic acid otic (for the ear) is an antibiotic that treats infections caused by bacteria or fungus.

Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound best recognized for giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. It is one of the simplest carboxylic acids and has the chemical formula CH3COOH.

This acid is an important chemical reagent and industrial chemical useful for the production of various synthetic fibers and other polymeric materials. These polymers include polyethylene terephthalate, used mainly in soft drink bottles; cellulose acetate, used mainly for photographic film; and polyvinyl acetate, for wood glue. In households, diluted acetic acid is often used in descaling agents. The food industry uses it (under the food additive code E260) as an acidity regulator.


Synonyms     
ACETIC ACID    
Acetic acid    
acide acétique 
AcOH    
CH3‒COOH    IUPAC
CH3CO2H    
E 260    
E-260    
E260    
Essigsäure Deutsch    
Ethanoic acid    KEGG COMPOUND
ethoic acid    
Ethylic acid    ChemIDplus
HOAc    
INS No. 260    
MeCO2H    
MeCOOH    
Methanecarboxylic acid    ChemIDplus

Nomenclature
The trivial name acetic acid is the most commonly used and officially preferred name by the IUPAC. This name derives from acetum, the Latin word for vinegar. The synonym ethanoic acid is a systematic name that is sometimes used in introductions to chemical nomenclature.

Glacial acetic acid is a trivial name for water-free acetic acid. Similar to the German name Eisessig (literally, ice-vinegar), the name comes from the ice-like crystals that form slightly below room temperature at 16.7°C (about 62°F).

The most common and official abbreviation for acetic acid is AcOH or HOAc where Ac stands for the acetyl group CH3−C(=O)−;. In the context of acid-base reactions the abbreviation HAc is often used where Ac instead stands for the acetate anion (CH3COO−), although this use is regarded by many as misleading. In either case, the Ac is not to be confused with the abbreviation for the chemical element actinium.

Acetic acid has the empirical formula CH2O and the molecular formula C2H4O2. The latter is often written as CH3-COOH, CH3COOH, or CH3CO2H to better reflect its structure. The ion resulting from loss of H+ from acetic acid is the acetate anion. The name acetate can also refer to a salt containing this anion or an ester of acetic acid.


Vinegar is as old as civilization itself, perhaps older. Acetic acid-producing bacteria are present throughout the world, and any culture practicing the brewing of beer or wine inevitably discovered vinegar as the natural result of these alcoholic beverages being exposed to air.

The use of acetic acid in chemistry extends into antiquity. In the 3rd century BC, the Greek philosopher Theophrastos described how vinegar acted on metals to produce pigments useful in art, including white lead ( lead carbonate) and verdigris, a green mixture of copper salts including copper(II) acetate. Ancient Romans boiled soured wine in lead pots to produce a highly sweet syrup called sapa. Sapa was rich in lead acetate, a sweet substance also called sugar of lead or sugar of Saturn, which contributed to lead poisoning among the Roman aristocracy. The 8th century Persian alchemist Jabir Ibn Hayyan (Geber) concentrated acetic acid from vinegar through distillation.

In the Renaissance, glacial acetic acid was prepared through the dry distillation of metal acetates. The 16th century German alchemist Andreas Libavius described such a procedure, and he compared the glacial acetic acid produced by this means to vinegar. The presence of water in vinegar has such a profound effect on acetic acid's properties that for centuries many chemists believed that glacial acetic acid and the acid found in vinegar were two different substances. The French chemist Pierre Adet proved them to be identical.

In 1847 the German chemist Hermann Kolbe synthesised acetic acid from inorganic materials for the first time. This reaction sequence consisted of chlorination of carbon disulfide to carbon tetrachloride, followed by pyrolysis to tetrachloroethylene and aqueous chlorination to trichloroacetic acid, and concluded with electrolytic reduction to acetic acid.

By 1910 most glacial acetic acid was obtained from the "pyroligneous liquor" from distillation of wood. The acetic acid was isolated from this by treatment with milk of lime, and the resultant calcium acetate was then acidified with sulfuric acid to recover acetic acid. At this time Germany was producing 10,000 tons of glacial acetic acid, around 30% of which was used for the manufacture of indigo dye.

Chemical properties
Acidity
The hydrogen (H) atom in the carboxyl group (−COOH) in carboxylic acids such as acetic acid can be given off as an H+ ion (proton), giving them their acidic character. Acetic acid is a weak, effectively monoprotic acid in aqueous solution, with a pKa value of 4.8. A 1.0  M solution (about the concentration of domestic vinegar) has a pH of 2.4, indicating that merely 0.4% of the acetic acid molecules are dissociated.


Cyclic dimer
Cyclic dimer of acetic acid; dashed lines represent hydrogen bonds.
Enlarge
Cyclic dimer of acetic acid; dashed lines represent hydrogen bonds.
The crystal structure of acetic acid shows that the molecules pair up into dimers connected by hydrogen bonds. The dimers can also be detected in the vapour at 120 °C. They probably also occur in the liquid phase of pure acetic acid, but are rapidly disrupted if any water is present. This dimerisation behaviour is shared by other lower carboxylic acids.

Solvent
Liquid acetic acid is a hydrophilic ( polar) protic solvent, similar to ethanol and water. With a moderate dielectric constant of 6.2, it can dissolve not only polar compounds such as inorganic salts and sugars, but also non-polar compounds such as oils and elements such as sulfur and iodine. It readily mixes with many other polar and non-polar solvents such as water, chloroform, and hexane. This dissolving property and miscibility of acetic acid makes it a widely used industrial chemical.

Chemical reactions
Acetic acid is corrosive to many metals including iron, magnesium, and zinc, forming hydrogen gas and metal salts called acetates. Aluminium, when exposed to oxygen, forms a thin layer of aluminium oxide on its surface which is relatively resistant, so that aluminium tanks can be used to transport acetic acid. Metal acetates can also be prepared from acetic acid and an appropriate base, as in the popular " baking soda + vinegar" reaction. With the notable exception of chromium(II) acetate, almost all acetates are soluble in water.

Mg( s) + 2 CH3COOH( aq) → (CH3COO)2Mg(aq) + H2(g)
NaHCO3(s) + CH3COOH(aq) → CH3COONa(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O( l)
Two typical organic reactions of acetic acid
Acetic acid undergoes the typical chemical reactions of a carboxylic acid, notably the formation of ethanol by reduction, and formation of derivatives such as acetyl chloride via nucleophilic acyl substitution. Other substitution derivatives include acetic anhydride; this anhydride is produced by loss of water from two molecules of acetic acid. Esters of acetic acid can likewise be formed via Fischer esterification, and amides can also be formed. When heated above 440 °C, acetic acid decomposes to produce carbon dioxide and methane, or to produce ketene and water.


Biochemistry
The acetyl group, derived from acetic acid, is fundamental to the biochemistry of virtually all forms of life. When bound to coenzyme A it is central to the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. However, the concentration of free acetic acid in cells is kept at a low level to avoid disrupting the control of the pH of the cell contents. Unlike some longer-chain carboxylic acids (the fatty acids), acetic acid does not occur in natural triglycerides. However, the artificial triglyceride triacetin (glycerin triacetate) is a common food additive, and is found in cosmetics and topical medicines.

Acetic acid is produced and excreted by certain bacteria, notably the Acetobacter genus and Clostridium acetobutylicum. These bacteria are found universally in foodstuffs, water, and soil, and acetic acid is produced naturally as fruits and some other foods spoil. Acetic acid is also a component of the vaginal lubrication of humans and other primates, where it appears to serve as a mild antibacterial agent.

Acetic acid is produced both synthetically and by bacterial fermentation. Today, the biological route accounts for only about 10% of world production, but it remains important for vinegar production, as many of the world food purity laws stipulate that vinegar used in foods must be of biological origin. About 75% of acetic acid made for use in the chemical industry is made by methanol carbonylation, explained below. Alternative methods account for the rest.

Total worldwide production of virgin acetic acid is estimated at 5 Mt/a (million tonnes per year), approximately half of which is produced in the United States. European production stands at approximately 1 Mt/a and is declining, and 0.7 Mt/a is produced in Japan. Another 1.5 Mt are recycled each year, bringing the total world market to 6.5 Mt/a. The two biggest producers of virgin acetic acid are Celanese and BP Chemicals. Other major producers include Millennium Chemicals, Sterling Chemicals, Samsung, Eastman, and Svensk Etanolkemi.


Methanol carbonylation
Most virgin acetic acid is produced by methanol carbonylation. In this process, methanol and carbon monoxide react to produce acetic acid according to the chemical equation:

CH3OH + CO → CH3COOH
The process involves iodomethane as an intermediate, and occurs in three steps. A catalyst, usually a metal complex, is needed for the carbonylation (step 2).

(1) CH3OH + HI → CH3I + H2O
(2) CH3I + CO → CH3COI
(3) CH3COI + H2O → CH3COOH + HI
By altering the process conditions, acetic anhydride may also be produced on the same plant. Because both methanol and carbon monoxide are commodity raw materials, methanol carbonylation long appeared to be an attractive method for acetic acid production. Henry Drefyus at British Celanese developed a methanol carbonylation pilot plant as early as 1925. However, a lack of practical materials that could contain the corrosive reaction mixture at the high pressures needed (200 atm or more) discouraged commercialisation of these routes for some time. The first commercial methanol carbonylation process, which used a cobalt catalyst, was developed by German chemical company BASF in 1963. In 1968, a rhodium-based catalyst (cis−[Rh(CO)2I2]−) was discovered that could operate efficiently at lower pressure with almost no by-products. The first plant using this catalyst was built by US chemical company Monsanto in 1970, and rhodium-catalysed methanol carbonylation became the dominant method of acetic acid production (see Monsanto process). In the late 1990s, the chemicals company BP Chemicals commercialised the Cativa catalyst ([Ir(CO)2I2]−), which is promoted by ruthenium. This iridium-catalysed process is greener and more efficient and has largely supplanted the Monsanto process, often in the same production plants.


Acetaldehyde oxidation
Prior to the commercialisation of the Monsanto process, most acetic acid was produced by oxidation of acetaldehyde. This remains the second most important manufacturing method, although it is uncompetitive with methanol carbonylation. The acetaldehyde may be produced via oxidation of butane or light naphtha, or by hydration of ethylene.

When butane or light naphtha is heated with air in the presence of various metal ions, including those of manganese, cobalt and chromium, peroxides form and then decompose to produce acetic acid according to the chemical equation

2 C4H10 + 5 O2 → 4 CH3COOH + 2 H2O
Typically, the reaction is run at a combination of temperature and pressure designed to be as hot as possible while still keeping the butane a liquid. Typical reaction conditions are 150 °C and 55 atm. Several side products may also form, including butanone, ethyl acetate, formic acid, and propionic acid. These side products are also commercially valuable, and the reaction conditions may be altered to produce more of them if this is economically useful. However, the separation of acetic acid from these by-products adds to the cost of the process.

Under similar conditions and using similar catalysts as are used for butane oxidation, acetaldehyde can be oxidised by the oxygen in air to produce acetic acid

2 CH3CHO + O2 → 2 CH3COOH
Using modern catalysts, this reaction can have an acetic acid yield greater than 95%. The major side products are ethyl acetate, formic acid, and formaldehyde, all of which have lower boiling points than acetic acid and are readily separated by distillation.


Ethylene oxidation

Fermentation
Oxidative fermentation
For most of human history, acetic acid, in the form of vinegar, has been made by bacteria of the genus Acetobacter. Given sufficient oxygen, these bacteria can produce vinegar from a variety of alcoholic foodstuffs. Commonly used feeds include apple cider, wine, and fermented grain, malt, rice, or potato mashes. The overall chemical reaction facilitated by these bacteria is

C2H5OH + O2 → CH3COOH + H2O
A dilute alcohol solution inoculated with Acetobacter and kept in a warm, airy place will become vinegar over the course of a few months. Industrial vinegar-making methods accelerate this process by improving the supply of oxygen to the bacteria.

The first batches of vinegar produced by fermentation probably followed errors in the winemaking process. If must is fermented at too high a temperature, acetobacter will overwhelm the yeast naturally occurring on the grapes. As the demand for vinegar for culinary, medical, and sanitary purposes increased, vintners quickly learned to use other organic materials to produce vinegar in the hot summer months before the grapes were ripe and ready for processing into wine. This method was slow, however, and not always successful, as the vintners did not understand the process.

One of the first modern commercial processes was the "fast method" or "German method", first practised in Germany in 1823. In this process, fermentation takes place in a tower packed with wood shavings or charcoal. The alcohol-containing feed is trickled into the top of the tower, and fresh air supplied from the bottom by either natural or forced convection. The improved air supply in this process cut the time to prepare vinegar from months to weeks.

Most vinegar today is made in submerged tank culture, first described in 1949 by Otto Hromatka and Heinrich Ebner. In this method, alcohol is fermented to vinegar in a continuously stirred tank, and oxygen is supplied by bubbling air through the solution. Using this method, vinegar of 15% acetic acid can be prepared in only 2–3 days.

Anaerobic fermentation
Some species of anaerobic bacteria, including several members of the genus Clostridium, can convert sugars to acetic acid directly, without using ethanol as an intermediate. The overall chemical reaction conducted by these bacteria may be represented as:

C6H12O6 → 3 CH3COOH
More interestingly from the point of view of an industrial chemist, many of these acetogenic bacteria can produce acetic acid from one-carbon compounds, including methanol, carbon monoxide, or a mixture of carbon dioxide and hydrogen:

2 CO2 + 4 H2 → CH3COOH + 2 H2O
This ability of Clostridium to utilise sugars directly, or to produce acetic acid from less costly inputs, means that these bacteria could potentially produce acetic acid more efficiently than ethanol-oxidisers like Acetobacter. However, Clostridium bacteria are less acid-tolerant than Acetobacter. Even the most acid-tolerant Clostridium strains can produce vinegar of only a few per cent acetic acid, compared to some Acetobacter strains that can produce vinegar of up to 20% acetic acid. At present, it remains more cost-effective to produce vinegar using Acetobacter than to produce it using Clostridium and then concentrating it. As a result, although acetogenic bacteria have been known since 1940, their industrial use remains confined to a few niche applications.

Applications
2.5-litre bottle of acetic acid in a laboratory.
Enlarge
2.5- litre bottle of acetic acid in a laboratory.
Acetic acid is a chemical reagent for the production of many chemical compounds. The largest single use of acetic acid is in the production of vinyl acetate monomer, closely followed by acetic anhydride and ester production. The volume of acetic acid used in vinegar is comparatively small.


Vinyl acetate monomer
The major use of acetic acid is for the production of vinyl acetate monomer (VAM). This application consumes approximately 40% to 45% of the world's production of acetic acid. The reaction is of ethylene and acetic acid with oxygen over a palladium catalyst.

2 H3C-COOH + 2 C2H4 + O2 → 2 H3C-CO-O-CH=CH2 + 2 H2O
Vinyl acetate can be polymerised to polyvinyl acetate or to other polymers, which are applied in paints and adhesives.


Acetic anhydride
The condensation product of two molecules of acetic acid is acetic anhydride. The worldwide production of acetic anhydride is a major application, and uses approximately 25% to 30% of the global production of acetic acid. Acetic anhydride may be produced directly by methanol carbonylation bypassing the acid, and Cativa plants can be adapted for anhydride production.

Condensation of acetic acid to acetic anhydride

Acetic anhydride is a strong acetylation agent. As such, its major application is for cellulose acetate, a synthetic textile also used for photographic film. Acetic anhydride is also a reagent for the production of aspirin, heroin, and other compounds.

Vinegar
In the form of vinegar, acetic acid solutions (typically 5% to 18% acetic acid, with the percentage usually calculated by mass) are used directly as a condiment, and also in the pickling of vegetables and other foodstuffs. Table vinegar tends to be more dilute (5% to 8% acetic acid), while commercial food pickling generally employs more concentrated solutions. The amount of acetic acid used as vinegar on a worldwide scale is not large, but historically, this is by far the oldest and most well-known application.


Use as solvent
Glacial acetic acid is an excellent polar protic solvent, as noted above. It is frequently used as a solvent for recrystallisation to purify organic compounds. Pure molten acetic acid is used as a solvent in the production of terephthalic acid (TPA), the raw material for polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Although currently accounting for 5%–10% of acetic acid use worldwide, this specific application is expected to grow significantly in the next decade, as PET production increases.

Acetic acid is often used as a solvent for reactions involving carbocations, such as Friedel-Crafts alkylation. For example, one stage in the commercial manufacture of synthetic camphor involves a Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement of camphene to isobornyl acetate; here acetic acid acts both as a solvent and as a nucleophile to trap the rearranged carbocation. Acetic acid is the solvent of choice when reducing an aryl nitro-group to an aniline using palladium-on-carbon.

Glacial acetic acid is used in analytical chemistry for the estimation of weakly alkaline substances such as organic amides. Glacial acetic acid is a much weaker base than water, so the amide behaves as a strong base in this medium. It then can be titrated using a solution in glacial acetic acid of a very strong acid, such as perchloric acid.


Other applications
Dilute solutions of acetic acids are also used for their mild acidity. Examples in the household environment include the use in a stop bath during the development of photographic films, and in descaling agents to remove limescale from taps and kettles. The acidity is also used for treating the sting of the box jellyfish by disabling the stinging cells of the jellyfish, preventing serious injury or death if applied immediately, and for treating outer ear infections in people in preparations such as Vosol. Equivalently, acetic acid is used as a spray-on preservative for livestock silage, to discourage bacterial and fungal growth.

Several organic or inorganic salts are produced from acetic acid, including:

Sodium acetate—used in the textile industry and as a food preservative ( E262).
Copper(II) acetate—used as a pigment and a fungicide.
Aluminium acetate and iron(II) acetate—used as mordants for dyes.
Palladium(II) acetate—used as a catalyst for organic coupling reactions such as the Heck reaction.
Substituted acetic acids produced include:

Monochloroacetic acid (MCA), dichloroacetic acid (considered a by-product), and trichloroacetic acid. MCA is used in the manufacture of indigo dye.
Bromoacetic acid, which is esterified to produce the reagent ethyl bromoacetate.
Trifluoroacetic acid, which is a common reagent in organic synthesis.
Amounts of acetic acid used in these other applications together (apart from TPA) account for another 5%–10% of acetic acid use worldwide. These applications are, however, not expected to grow as much as TPA production.


Safety
Concentrated acetic acid is corrosive and must therefore be handled with appropriate care, since it can cause skin burns, permanent eye damage, and irritation to the mucous membranes. These burns or blisters may not appear until several hours after exposure. Latex gloves offer no protection, so specially resistant gloves, such as those made of nitrile rubber, should be worn when handling the compound. Concentrated acetic acid can be ignited with some difficulty in the laboratory. It becomes a flammable risk if the ambient temperature exceeds 39 °C (102 °F), and can form explosive mixtures with air above this temperature ( explosive limits: 5.4%–16%).

Solutions at more than 25% acetic acid are handled in a fume hood because of the pungent, corrosive vapour. Dilute acetic acid, in the form of vinegar, is harmless. However, ingestion of stronger solutions is dangerous to human and animal life. It can cause severe damage to the digestive system, and a potentially lethal change in the acidity of the blood.

Medical Definition of acetic acid: a colorless pungent liquid acid C2H4O2 that is the chief acid of vinegar and that is used especially in synthesis (as of plastics) and occasionally in medicine as an astringent and styptic

Acetic acid is primarily used as a raw material for the manufacture of vinyl acetate (VAM). It is used as a reaction promoter in terephthalic acid production and is also a raw material for cellulose acetate, acetate esters, acetic anhydride, chloroacetic acid and a wide range of industrial synthesis.

Acetic acid structure is that of a simple carboxylic acid and consists of a methyl group attached to a carboxyl group. Acetic acid or ethanoic acid is a protic solvent; it is able to donate protons in the form of hydrons (positively charged hydrogen atoms). This characteristic means it is a member of the Brønsted acid group where protons are donated to acceptor molecules known as Brønsted bases. The donated hydrogen is dissociated from the carboxyl group. Vinegar is a solution of acetic acid and water where approximately 0.4% of acetic acid molecules give up their H+ atoms leading to an acidic solution of approximately 2.4 pH. In comparison with the world’s strongest acid – carborane acid (H(CHB11Cl11)) – with a pH value of -18, acetic acid is mildly acidic in comparison.

It should be made clear that it is not the presence of a single hydrogen atom that changes the pH of a solution. Neutral solutions (neither acid nor alkaline) contain a balanced number of hydronium ions (H30+) and hydroxyl ions (OH–). Two molecules of water (H20) are formed when a hydronium and hydroxyl ion bind and the positive and negative charges are canceled out.  When acetic acid is added to water, it splits into a negatively charged acetate ion (CH3COO–) and H+. It is, therefore, possible to understand the alternative name of acetic acid – hydrogen acetate. A small percentage of positively charged hydrogen ions bind to the water molecules and turn them into H30+. This means there are more hydronium ions and, therefore, create a positively charged (or acidic) solution. The pH of a solution is, therefore, dependent upon the balance of hydronium and hydroxyl and not the number of hydrogen ions, although these will affect this balance. A pH value is also only given to a solution. A solution always contains water; even modern superacids such as carborane are dissolved in concentrated aqueous solutions of other acids. Even glacial acetic acid has a small quantity of water.

The following image shows the dissociation of acetic acid to acetate in water. To the left are a single acetic acid molecule and a single water molecule. Acetic acid passes on a hydrogen ion to the water molecule to produce a hydronium ion. We say that the water molecule is protonated or has had a proton (hydron) donated to it.


As a solvent, liquid acetic acid dissolves polar (hydrophilic) compounds such as salts and sugars and non-polar compounds which include fats and oils. This means it has many uses in industrial chemical production but has also gained a reputation as a weight-loss supplement as it affects fat and sugar metabolism. More information pertaining to acetic acid uses will be discussed later on in this article. In crystalline form, two acetic acid molecules join together with hydrogen bonds to form a dimer. When water is added, these bonds are broken and the crystalline form dissolves.

Acetic Acid Formula
The acetic acid formula is a simple one and the result of a methyl group and a carboxyl group. Methyl groups are one of the most common organic compounds on the planet but are rarely found as single entities. They are composed of three hydrogen atoms and one carbon atom (CH3). As carbon has four electrons, the free electron usually bonds with other molecules by way of a covalent bond. The simplest carbon molecule is methane (CH4), well known for its contribution to global warming. With a free electron, methane reacts with ozone (O3) to produce carbon dioxide and water in the following reaction: (3)CH4 + (4)O3 = (3)CO2 + (6)H2O. 


In the case of acetic acid, the free electron binds with a carboxyl group (CO2H, -COOH or -C(=O)OH) which is a single carbon atom bonded to a hydroxyl group (-OH) and double-bonded to an oxygen atom. The below image shows a carboxyl group where R represents the rest of the molecule to which the carboxyl group is attached; the letter R is sometimes replaced by a wiggly line. In the case of acetic acid, the R represents the methyl group. Some prefer to describe the carboxyl group as a combination of a carbonyl group (C=0, where = indicates the double bond) and a hydroxyl group (O-H). Carboxylic acids are found in amino acids and essential to every living organism.


There is a general molecular formula for all carboxylic acids, namely CnH2n+1COOH. This means that every carboxylic acid features twice as many hydrogen atoms as carbon atoms once the carboxyl group is removed; a formula that fits in perfectly with that of acetic acid – C2H4O2. When you remove the carboxyl group from this acetic acid formula, you are left with one carbon and two hydrogen atoms.

The molar mass of acetic acid is 60.052 grams per mole (g/mol). Molar mass is the total mass of an element or compound (atomic mass) measured in atomic mass units or ‘amu’, divided by its amount in moles (mol). A single mole is based upon the Avogadro number 6.02214076×1023 as this number means that comparison between moles and Daltons, another scientific unit of atomic mass, is simpler.

Glacial acetic acid is a solution of acetic acid in a very small amount of water – less that 1%. The word glacial refers to its crystal-like solid form at room temperature. Another name for glacial acetic acid is anhydrous acetic acid. This form is a weak acid but a corrosive poison, causing blistering and burns. As there is very little water with which to dissociate, glacial acetic acid will pass on its protons to the water in the skin or mucous membranes.

Finding the right buffer agent for an acid such as acetic acid requires knowledge of the pH, Ka or pKa of the acid. The pH, Ka and pKa are all related to one another. Acetic acid has a Ka of 1.8 x 10-5 or an easier to calculate pKa value of 4.756. The pH measures the number of hydrogen ions (H+) in any solution that contains water and ranges from 0 (acidic) to 14 (base). The lower the pH, the higher the concentration of hydrogen ions. The Ka and pKa relate to acids and relate to the acid dissociation constant which shows how likely the acid is to give up its protons. A high Ka tells us that an acid is strong and will react to any chemical added to it. The pKa is the opposite – the smaller the number, the stronger the acid. This is because the pKa is a negative logarithm of the Ka.

However, concentrated acetic acid can have a lower pH than a strong acid. Thanks to the pKa which is a constant value, we can make calculations without having to think about concentrations. The pKa of acetic acid is 4.756 and this tells us how likely it is to give up its protons in a solution. Bases are measured according to how likely they are to remove protons from a solution.

The boiling point of acetic acid is between 244 and 246°F (118 and 119°C) and its melting point lies between 61 and 62°F (16 and 17°C) or just under room temperature. Acetic acid’s density is 1.049 g cm−3 in a liquid state, and 1.27 g cm−3 in a solid state.

The most commonly recognized form of acetic acid is vinegar which contains 5-20% acetic acid. How great the dilution is (and therefore the acid’s strength) is referred to as its grain strength. You can easily calculate this by multiplying the concentration by 10. Vinegar containing 5% acetic acid will have a grain strength of 50.

Uses of Acetic Acid
Acetic acid uses are many and varied. This acid is used in goods manufacturing, in food processing, in the cleaning industry, in medicine, and as a health supplement. Acetic acid is also a biochemical essential in acetyl group form where it is fundamental to the construction of amino acids and therefore impossible to exist without. Let’s have a look at a few of these acetic acid uses in more detail.

Acetic Acid in Goods Manufacturing
Acetic acid is an important chemical reagent used to produce acetate, adhesives, glues, and synthetic fabrics. Acetic acid is also used in electroplating where a metal coating is deposited onto an object by placing it in a solution that contains a specific metal salt. The solution needs to be conductive and acids that donate hydrogen ions create ideal conditions. Furthermore, electroplating can only occur within a solution and metal salts only dissolve in solutions with a low (acidic) pH value.

Acetic acid is a raw material used for the production of cellulose acetate, acetic anhydride (plastics) and chloroacetic acid used in the production of dyes and pesticides as well as certain drugs.

Acetic Acid in Food Processing
Acetic acid used in food processing to regulate the acidity or alkalinity levels of foods. The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) categorizes acetic acid as a general-purpose food additive which is safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing practices. In Europe, E-number regulations apply to all food additives. Acetic acid has been given code E260 and is considered a safe ingredient that controls bacterial colonization and can be used without limitation. This is not a new finding. It is said that the ancient Babylonians used vinegar as a food preservative.

Vinegar is used to produce salad dressings, condiments that include mustard, ketchup, and mayonnaise, and in sauces and pickles.

Acetic Acid for Cleaning
Acetic acid has been used as a cleaning product and deodorizer for centuries if not millennia; sponges of vinegar were placed in expensive filigree rings worn by the rich whenever they stepped through filthy and stinking eighteenth-century streets. The deodorizing properties of vinegar have also been taken advantage of for generations. Sailors used vinegar to scrub the decks of the ships they worked and lived on. The principles of microbial control may not have been understood at the time but the fresh-smelling, clean and illness-preventing characteristics of this organic solution were definitely well known.

Adding an alkaline product to acid causes a bubbling, fizzing reaction. Some traditional cleaners believe this effect produces a deeper clean to stable surfaces. For example, scrubbing the back yard with alkaline caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) and then using a vinegar mix on top of this will set off a reaction that certainly looks as if it has a deep-cleaning action; however, this does very little to increase the hygienic effect but rather buffers or works against the alkaline cleaning power of the caustic soda with the acidic properties of vinegar.

Today, many dedicated fans of white vinegar advertise the ecological benefits of using diluted acetic acid to clean bathrooms, wash clothes, remove odors, and make food preparation surfaces both clean and safe. Acetic acid also removes rust and lime scale deposits.

Acetic Acid in Medicine
Acetic acid or vinegar has probably been used in medicine since before the written word. Should you have suffered from an open wound on the island of Kos in the fourth century before Christ, you may have been prescribed a daily vinegar wash by Hippocrates. If you had a sore throat, he might also have asked you to mix honey and vinegar to make Oxymel, an ancient Greek cough medicine; if you had served in Europe during the First World War, you may only have had access to vinegar keep clean and remain free of infection.

Today, acetic acid solutions are used in laboratory blood testing processes as a slide wash. They remove bacterial biofilms in wounds and the digestive system, and have often been used for outer ear infections and so avoid the use of antibiotics. Ingestion of vinegar increases acetate levels in the colon and promotes calcium uptake with lower blood pressure and higher bone density as a result. Studies are looking into the use of acetate as an antitumor medication.

Acetic Acid as a Health Supplement
Acetic acid is a popular health supplement and consumed in the form of vinegar, most commonly apple cider vinegar. When bound to coenzyme A, the acetyl group of acetic acid is central to carbohydrate and fat metabolism.

Much study has been done regarding the link between vinegar consumption and lower blood glucose levels. Where high glycemic index foods are consumed after the ingestion of two to three tablespoons of apple cider vinegar, their glycemic values have been shown to be up to 35% lower. For diabetics, this could mean lower post-prandial blood glucose peaks and better glycemic control and for non-diabetics a lower risk of developing insulin resistance. Substitution of regular cucumber with a pickled cucumber showed a 30% reduction in total meal glycemic index value.

The following image shows the effect of low and high glycemic index (GI) foods on blood glucose levels. High GI foods cause a rapid peak in blood glucose levels that increase insulin production which enables the cells to metabolize glucose. This means that the blood glucose level quickly dips, causing hunger. Low GI foods cause a gentler rise in blood sugar and do not force the pancreas to produce such large quantities of insulin. The result is a gentle curve that remains stable and does not dip, increasing satiety levels after a meal. When a high GI food and low GI food are eaten at the same time they partially cancel each other out, creating a plateau effect. Vinegar is known to have the same effect as a very low GI food.


Cleaning Uses
Because acetic acid kills fungus and microbes, it is great for general disinfecting and combating mold and mildew. It can be found in several conventional and green cleaning products, such as mold and mildew cleaners, floor cleaners, window cleaners, surface cleaners, cleaning and dusting sprays, and roof cleaners, in the form of vinegar or as an ingredient by itself.

Other Uses
Acetic acid is used in several industries, such as the chemical (acidifier and neutralizer), agricultural (e.g., herbicide to control weeds), canning (e.g., flavoring for pickles), textile and dye (e.g., nylon production, dye catalyst), food (preservative for livestock grains and hay), cosmetics (bleaching agent), and manufacturing industries (e.g., production of lacquers).

Product Brands Containing Acetic Acid
To see if certain products contain acetic acid, try searching the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Household Products Database, the Environmental Working Group's (EWG) Guide to Healthy Cleaning, the Good Guide, or the EWG's Skin Deep Cosmetic Database. Remember, if using the general term "acetic acid" doesn't generate a lot of results, try entering one of its synonyms.

Regulation
When acetic acid is used in personal care products, food, or drugs it is monitored by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). For other uses, such as pesticides and cleaning products, it is monitored by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The last periodic registration review of acetic acid by the EPA (Case #4001) began in 2008.

Health and Safety
According to the FDA, acetic acid and its sodium salt, sodium diacetate, are GRAS or "generally recognized as safe." The EPA notes there is no need for concern. However, citric acid does have some safety and health concerns, especially for those working with the chemical, as noted in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's (NIOSH) International Chemical Safety Card (ICSC) on acetic acid.

Warning
Breathing in acetic acid can cause respiratory symptoms, such as coughing, difficulty breathing, and sore throat as well as nervous system issues, such as headache and dizziness. Contact with the eyes can result in burns, vision loss, pain, and redness, and skin contact can cause pain, redness, burns, and blisters. Also, ingesting citric acid may result in a sore throat, burning sensation, abdominal pain. vomiting, shock, or collapse. Due to these concerns, NIOSH suggests preventive measures for those working with acetic acid such as protecting the skin and eyes and providing appropriate ventilation and breathing protection.

Environmental Effects
According to the EPA, acetic acid is a chemical compound naturally present in all living organisms. It is also biodegradable and readily breaks down into carbon dioxide and water. However, in the 2008 "Acetic Acid and Salts Final Work Plan (FWP) for Registration Review" by the EPA, the EPA noted that an ecological risk assessment is still needed, including its effect on endangered species, when used as a weed controller.


cal Role(s):    protic solvent
A polar solvent that is capable of acting as a hydron (proton) donor.
Bronsted acid
A molecular entity capable of donating a hydron to an acceptor (Bronsted base).
(via oxoacid )
Biological Role(s):    food acidity regulator
A food additive that is used to change or otherwise control the acidity or alkalinity of foods. They may be acids, bases, neutralising agents or buffering agents.
Daphnia magna metabolite
A Daphnia metabolite produced by the species Daphnia magna.
antimicrobial food preservative
A food preservative which prevents decomposition of food by preventing the growth of fungi or bacteria. In European countries, E-numbers for permitted food preservatives are from E200 to E299, divided into sorbates (E200-209), benzoates (E210-219), sulfites (E220-229), phenols and formates (E230-239), nitrates (E240-259), acetates (E260-269), lactates (E270-279), propionates (E280-289) and others (E290-299).
Application(s):    food acidity regulator
A food additive that is used to change or otherwise control the acidity or alkalinity of foods. They may be acids, bases, neutralising agents or buffering agents.
protic solvent
A polar solvent that is capable of acting as a hydron (proton) donor.
antimicrobial food preservative
A food preservative which prevents decomposition of food by preventing the growth of fungi or bacteria. In European countries, E-numbers for permitted food preservatives are from E200 to E299, divided into sorbates (E200-209), benzoates (E210-219), sulfites (E220-229), phenols and formates (E230-239), nitrates (E240-259), acetates (E260-269), lactates (E270-279), propionates (E280-289) and others (E290-299).
View more via  Ontology
 Ontology 
Outgoing    acetic acid  has role Daphnia magna metabolite (:83056)
acetic acid  has role antimicrobial food preservative (:65256)
acetic acid  has role food acidity regulator (:64049)
acetic acid  has role protic solvent (:48356)
acetic acid  is a monocarboxylic acid (:25384)
acetic acid  is conjugate acid of acetate (:30089)
Incoming    (1-hydroxycyclohexyl)acetic acid (:37276) has functional parent acetic acid 
(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)acetic acid (:60702) has functional parent acetic acid 
(2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-en-1-yl)acetic acid (:28045) has functional parent acetic acid 
(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl)acetic acid (:952) has functional parent acetic acid 
(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid (:28478) has functional parent acetic acid 
(2S)-({(5Z)-5-[(5-ethylfuran-2-yl)methylidene]-4-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1,3-thiazol-2-yl}amino)(4-fluorophenyl)acetic acid (:46520) has functional parent acetic acid 
(2S)-[(2S,3S,4S,5S)-1,3,4,5-tetrahydroxy-4-(hydroxymethyl)piperidin-2-yl](L-tyrosylamino)acetic acid (:40208) has functional parent acetic acid 
(3-amino-2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetic acid (:45890) has functional parent acetic acid 
(3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid (:47106) has functional parent acetic acid 
(3-{(1R)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-[({(2S)-1-[(2S)-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)butanoyl]piperidin-2-yl}carbonyl)oxy]propyl}phenoxy)acetic acid (:40833) has functional parent acetic acid 
(3Z)-hex-3-en-1-yl acetate (:61316) has functional parent acetic acid 
(4-oxo-3-{[5-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl]methyl}-3,4-dihydrophthalazin-1-yl)acetic acid (:46609) has functional parent acetic acid 
(5-fluoro-2-{[(4,5,7-trifluoro-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)methyl]carbamoyl}phenoxy)acetic acid (:43373) has functional parent acetic acid 
1-O-palmityl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (:75936) has functional parent acetic acid 
1-alkyl-2-acetylglycerol (:75882) has functional parent acetic acid 
1-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (:79280) has functional parent acetic acid 
1-methyl-4-imidazoleacetic acid (:1606) has functional parent acetic acid 
1-palmitoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (:75219) has functional parent acetic acid 
1-palmityl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (:79277) has functional parent acetic acid 
1-stearoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (:75220) has functional parent acetic acid 
2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (:78045) has functional parent acetic acid 
2-thienylacetic acid (:45807) has functional parent acetic acid 
2H-imidazol-4-ylacetic acid (:43615) has functional parent acetic acid 
3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (:17445) has functional parent acetic acid 
3-methylphenylacetic acid (:88356) has functional parent acetic acid 
4-chlorophenylacetic acid (:30749) has functional parent acetic acid 
4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (:18101) has functional parent acetic acid 
6-{[1-(benzylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl]amino}-3-(carboxymethoxy)thieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene-2-carboxylic acid (:40145) has functional parent acetic acid 
N-acetyl-amino acid (:21575) has functional parent acetic acid 
N-phenylacetamide (:28884) has functional parent acetic acid 
O-acetylcarnitine (:73024) has functional parent acetic acid 
[(1S)-4-hydroxy-2,2,3-trimethylcyclopent-3-enyl]acetic acid (:64899) has functional parent acetic acid 
[(2S,4S)-2-[(1R)-1-amino-2-hydroxyethyl]-4-(1H-imidazol-4-ylmethyl)-5-oxoimidazolidin-1-yl]acetic acid (:41707) has functional parent acetic acid 
[(2S,4S)-2-[(1R)-1-amino-2-hydroxyethyl]-4-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-5-oxoimidazolidin-1-yl]acetic acid (:41749) has functional parent acetic acid 
[(2S,4S)-2-[(1R)-1-amino-2-sulfanylethyl]-4-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-5-oxoimidazolidin-1-yl]acetic acid (:41383) has functional parent acetic acid 
[5-fluoro-1-(4-isopropylbenzylidene)-2-methylinden-3-yl]acetic acid (:59660) has functional parent acetic acid 
acetamidine (:38478) has functional parent acetic acid 
acetate ester (:47622) has functional parent acetic acid 
acetimidic acid (:49028) has functional parent acetic acid 
acetyl chloride (:37580) has functional parent acetic acid 
acetyl-CoA (:15351) has functional parent acetic acid 
arsenoacetic acid (:22634) has functional parent acetic acid 
biphenyl-4-ylacetic acid (:31597) has functional parent acetic acid 
bis(4-chlorophenyl)acetic acid (:28139) has functional parent acetic acid 
chloroacetic acid (:27869) has functional parent acetic acid 
cyanoacetic acid (:51889) has functional parent acetic acid 
cyclohexylacetic acid (:37277) has functional parent acetic acid 
dibromoacetic acid (:90124) has functional parent acetic acid 
dichloroacetic acid (:36386) has functional parent acetic acid 
diflorasone diacetate (:31483) has functional parent acetic acid 
difluoroacetic acid (:23716) has functional parent acetic acid 
diphenylacetic acid (:41967) has functional parent acetic acid 
etacrynic acid (:4876) has functional parent acetic acid 
glycolic acid (:17497) has functional parent acetic acid 
haloacetic acid (:16277) has functional parent acetic acid 
hydroxy(phenyl)2-thienylacetic acid (:64444) has functional parent acetic acid 
ibufenac (:76158) has functional parent acetic acid 
imidazol-1-ylacetic acid (:70801) has functional parent acetic acid 
imidazol-2-ylacetic acid (:70806) has functional parent acetic acid 
imidazol-4-ylacetic acid (:16974) has functional parent acetic acid 
imidazol-5-ylacetic acid (:70804) has functional parent acetic acid 
indole-1-acetic acid (:72814) has functional parent acetic acid 
indole-3-acetic acids (:24803) has functional parent acetic acid 
lonazolac (:76164) has functional parent acetic acid 
magnesium acetate (:62964) has functional parent acetic acid 
mandelic acid (:35825) has functional parent acetic acid 
methoxyacetic acid (:132098) has functional parent acetic acid 
naphthylacetic acid (:35629) has functional parent acetic acid 
phenylacetic acid (:30745) has functional parent acetic acid 
phosphonoacetic acid (:15732) has functional parent acetic acid 
phosphonoacetohydroxamic acid (:44692) has functional parent acetic acid 
pirinixic acid (:32509) has functional parent acetic acid 
sulfoacetic acid (:50519) has functional parent acetic acid 
sulindac (:9352) has functional parent acetic acid 
triacetin (:9661) has functional parent acetic acid 
trichloroacetic acid (:30956) has functional parent acetic acid 
trifluoroacetic acid (:45892) has functional parent acetic acid 
uracil-6-ylacetic acid (:46371) has functional parent acetic acid 
zomepirac (:35859) has functional parent acetic acid 
{(2R)-2-[(1S)-1-aminoethyl]-2-hydroxy-4-methylidene-5-oxoimidazolidin-1-yl}acetic acid (:41608) has functional parent acetic acid 
{(2R)-2-[(1S,2R)-1-amino-2-hydroxypropyl]-2-hydroxy-4,5-dioxoimidazolidin-1-yl}acetic acid (:41360) has functional parent acetic acid 
{4-[(carboxymethoxy)carbonyl]-3,3-dioxido-1-oxonaphtho[1,2-d]-1,2-thiazol-2(1H)-yl}acetic acid (:43485) has functional parent acetic acid 
{[5-(3-{[1-(benzylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl]amino}phenyl)-4-bromo-2-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)thiophen-3-yl]oxy}acetic acid (:47182) has functional parent acetic acid 
{[5-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]thio}acetic acid (:43741) has functional parent acetic acid 
acetate (:30089) is conjugate base of acetic acid 
acetyl group (:40574) is substituent group from acetic acid 
acetyloxy group (:48076) is substituent group from acetic acid 
carboxymethyl group (:41402) is substituent group from acetic acid 
methylenecarbonyl group (:43923) is substituent group from acetic acid 


OILFIELD USAGE

acetic acid
1. n. [Well Completions, Drilling Fluids, Well Workover and Intervention]

An organic acid used in oil- and gas-well stimulation treatments. Less corrosive than the commonly used hydrochloric acid, acetic acid treatments can be more easily inhibited or retarded for treatments of long duration. This is necessary particularly in applications requiring the protection of exotic alloys or in high-temperature wells. In most cases, acetic acid is used in conjunction with hydrochloric acid and other acid additives. It can also be used as a chelating agent.

See: inhibit,  retarder


In type 2 diabetes, the level of sugar in the blood rises because the cells of the body are no longer sensitive enough to insulin, or because the pancreas produces insufficient insulin. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research in Bad Nauheim have now discovered that FFA2 and FFA3 receptors inhibit insulin secretion. These receptors are activated by acetic acid, which is formed by the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas, among others. This enables the pancreas to prevent the production of too much insulin, and the corresponding excessive drop in blood sugar levels. As acetate is primarily formed in the presence of normal or high blood sugar, acetate receptor inhibitors do not boost insulin production when blood sugar is low. This fact may help prevent dangerous hypoglycaemia in the treatment of diabetes.

original
Mouse pancreas with islets of Langerhans dyed green. Cell nuclei are dyed blue.

© MPI for Heart and Lung Research

The primary cause of type 2 diabetes was long held to be a reduced sensitivity of the body cells to insulin. In recent years, however, it has become clear that already in the early stages of type 2 diabetes insulin secretion is also impaired.

Insulin is produced in pancreatic cells and ensures that body cells can absorb glucose from the blood, thereby reducing blood sugar levels. One trigger for the secretion of insulin is the increase in blood glucose after a meal. Other substances apart from glucose can also function as inhibitors or boosters by acting on the receptors responsible for regulating insulin secretion.

The scientists have now identified receptors in the insulin-producing cells of mice and humans, which can inhibit the secretion of insulin. "When a cell absorbs glucose, it produces acetic acid. This activates the FFA2 and FFA3 receptors and thus inhibits insulin production", says Cong Tang from the Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research. By contrast, mouse cells without FFA2 and FFA3 receptors secrete more insulin. It seems that the function of the receptors is to prevent too much insulin being produced following an increase in glucose concentrations.

The scientists hope that these findings will lead to new treatment options for diabetes patients. Their next goal is to investigate the development of substances to block the acetate receptors. "The fact that acetate is primarily formed in high-sugar environments makes acetate receptor inhibitors a really attractive focus for research. This means that these substances would take effect only in patients with elevated blood sugar, but not in healthy subjects or well managed type 2 diabetes", explains Stefan Offermanns, Director of the Department of Pharmacology at the Max Planck Institute.

Acetic acid is a commodity chemical with the global demand of approximately 15 million tons per year with several applications in the chemical and food industry. The production of acetic acid can be widely categorized into chemical and fermentative routes, with the chemical route being the predominant one in the current industrial practice. In this chapter, we have reviewed the most recent developments in acetic acid production and applications over past two decades, including process intensification and catalysis by keeping the main emphasis on process sustainability. Acetic acid is used in several industrial sectors such as chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, polymer and paints, food and beverages. Furthermore, acetic acid has several applications in food industry and is traditionally known as vinegar. In addition, it is an acidulant, which is used to give a characteristic flavor profile to food. It can be used for microbial decontamination of meat and as a mild descaling agent in the food industry. More recently, acetic acid is reported to be used as an antimicrobial edible food coating agent. The diversified food culture has a significant demand in the development of such kind of innovation and acetic acid can be an efficient solution.

Acetic acid produced via fermentation route is mainly utilized in the food industry in the form of vinegar. Use of vinegar is more diversified these days, with more innovative ways to adjust and suit the current lifestyle and food culture. The different concentrations of acetic acid are used to sharpen the taste of food with a longer shelf life period and as a food preservative. Some new applications have also come such as edible and non-edible antimicrobial coating [5, 6].

This chapter reviews the current commercial processes for the synthesis of acetic acid to meet an ever-increasing global demand. The chapter also gives insight into the pros and cons associated with the process available and then how should we design a sustainable strategy to develop a simple commercial process. Further, the state of art to produce vinegar is discussed with exploitation as a multiapplication tool in the modern food industry.


Applications of Acetic Acid to Well Completion, Stimulation and Reconditioning 
F.N. Harris
J Pet Technol 13 (07): 637–639.
Paper Number: SPE-63-PA
https://doi.org/10.2118/63-PA

Abstract
Acetic acid has been used successfully many times in the past few months, in various treating mixtures and in a number of different applications. It has been used as

a perforating fluid,

a retarded acid without viscosity,

a treatment for removal of carbonate scale in the presence of chromium-plated pump parts,

a stimulation treatment in the presence of aluminum metal at elevated temperatures,

a "kill" fluid for wells,

a weak aqueous solution for carrying surfactants to remove emulsions and water blocks in the presence of water-sensitive clays,

a first-stage treating fluid ahead of hydrochloric acid for a greater drainage pattern and

a transitory true gel or emulsion for placement of temporary bridging agents.

Introduction
Only in recent months has acetic acid been widely used as an aid in overcoming many of the problems encountered in well completion, stimulation and reconditioning. Even though this acid has been used in the past for well stimulation, factors such as economics, handling and the lack of technical data have limited its uses over the past few years. Acetic acid does not present many of the operational difficulties often associated with the more conventionally used hydrochloric acid. The corrosive action of acetic-acid mixtures can be greatly minimized even at temperatures in excess of 240F. With proper inhibition, acid-pipe contact time can now be extended for days. The mixtures currently being used have not caused electrolytic corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement or stress cracking of metals.

Chemical Characteristics of Acetic Acid
Unlike hydrochloric acid, acetic acid can be effectively inhibited against almost all types of steel at elevated temperatures for extended periods of time. Table 1 shows laboratory data of corrosion rates on the most common tubular goods. In these tests, the time exposure of steel to acid has been extended to days without damaging or weakening the pipe. The type of corrosion caused by acetic acid differs from that caused by hydrochloric acid, the latter tending to "pit corrode" tubular goods with extended times. This action becomes accelerated with increasing temperatures. By comparison, acetic acid at equivalent test conditions of time, temperature and pressure will have a slight uniform removal of steel from pipe. Without pronounced pit-type corrosion, no serious damage was incurred to laboratory test samples even when the acid was allowed to spend completely. This also has been born out in field applications. A special inhibitor is always added to the acid to allow it to be stored within the casing or tubing for many hours, when operations require it, so that live acid will be present when it is needed. Corrosion tests and stress-cracking evaluations have been made on heat- treated high-alloy steels, as well as on lightweight aluminum alloys and chromium plating. No damaging effect has been noted on these samples, which were tested for four hours under simulated well conditions between 1,000 and 5,000 psi in a temperature medium up to 250F. Acetic acid is inherently slower-reacting than hydrochloric acid. In its action on carbonates, acetic-acid reaction rates are influenced greatly with pressure. While temperature does exert an influence on rate of reaction, the rate is not accelerated so much as in the case of hydrochloric acid. Fig. 1 reveals a distinct lowering of the reaction rates of acetic acid at approximately 50 per cent spent, at static test conditions of 1,000 psi.

JPT

P. 637^

Keywords:flowline corrosion, Well Intervention, riser corrosion, concentration, materials and corrosion, Subsurface Corrosion, Upstream Oil & Gas, well completion, downhole intervention, production enhancement
Subjects:Acidizing, Drilling fluid management & disposal, Drilling Fluids and Materials, Materials and corrosion, Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, Subsurface corrosion (tubing, casing, completion equipment, conductor), Well Integrity, Well Intervention, Well Operations, Optimization and Stimulation


Product description
Acetic Acid is a raw material used for the production of many downstream products. 
For applications in drugs, foods, or feeds, ATAMAN CHEMICALS provides glacial acetic acid in grades appropriate for these regulated uses.
Applications/uses
Adhesives/sealants-B&C
Agriculture intermediates
Apparel
Architectural coatings
Automotive protective coatings
Building materials
Commerical printing inks
Construction chemicals
Decorative interiors
Fertilizer
Food ingredients
Food preservatives
Formulators
Hard surface care
 
Industrial cleaners
Institutional cleaners
Intermediates
Oil or gas processing
Other-food chemicals
Other-transportation
Packaging components non food contact
Paints & coatings
Pharmaceutical chemicals
Process additives
Refining
Specialty chemicals
Starting material
Water treatment industrial


Glacial acetic acid is a trivial name for water-free acetic acid. Similar to the German name Eisessig (literally, ice-vinegar), the name comes from the ice-like crystals that form slightly below room temperature at 16.7°C (about 62°F).

The most common and official abbreviation for acetic acid is AcOH or HOAc where Ac stands for the acetyl group CH3−C(=O)−;. In the context of acid-base reactions the abbreviation HAc is often used where Ac instead stands for the acetate anion (CH3COO−), although this use is regarded by many as misleading. In either case, the Ac is not to be confused with the abbreviation for the chemical element actinium.

Acetic acid has the empirical formula CH2O and the molecular formula C2H4O2. The latter is often written as CH3-COOH, CH3COOH, or CH3CO2H to better reflect its structure. The ion resulting from loss of H+ from acetic acid is the acetate anion. The name acetate can also refer to a salt containing this anion or an ester of acetic acid.


Acetic Acid
Acetic Acid is a colorless, liquid organic compound with a distinctive odor, sour taste, and smell. It is one of the simplest carboxylic acids. Acetic acid is a significant chemical reagent and industrial chemical used in the production of soft drink bottles, polyvinyl acetate for wood glue, and many synthetic fibers and fabrics, as well as a host of household, food, and other applications that are essential to everyday life.


Useful in: dairy, savory vegetable, savory meat, savory others, fruity red, fruity yellow, fruity tropical, fruity others, sweet others, alcoholics.


Acetic acid offered in bulk, totes, and drums 
ATAMAN CHEMICALS offers several dilution strengths of acetic acid in bulk, drum, tote and pail shipments. 
Acetic acid, CAS # 64.19.7, is primarily used as a raw material for vinyl acetate (VAM) and as a reaction promoter in terephthalic acid production.  
The product also serves as a raw material for cellulose acetate, acetate esters, acetic anhydride, chloroacetic acid and a wide range of industrial synthesis. 
ATAMAN CHEMICALS provides glacial acetic acid in Tech, Food/Kosher, USP and Reagent grades for regulated applications such as drugs, foods, cleaners, feed, oil & gas, and chemical manufacturing.

 

 

Grades
Acetic acid 56%
Acetic Acid 60%
Acetic acid 80%
Acetic acid 99% glacial
Acetic acid 99% glacial food grade kosher
Acetic acid 99% glacial USP
 

Characteristics
Clear colorless liquid
Pungent vinegar color
Soluble in water
Sizes available
Bulk – Rail car & tank truck
Totes
Drums
Applications
Acetic anhydride
Acidulant
Antibiotics
Body wash
Buffer
Conditioners
Cosmetics
Dyestuffs
Electroplating
Ethanol
Ethyl acetate
Flavors
Food sauces
Hair colorants
Hair conditioner
Herbicides
Liquid hand soap
Monchloroacetic acid
N Butyl acetate
Oil field service chemicals
Oil well acidizing
Pharmaceuticals
Photographic
Pigments
PTA
Rubber
Sec butyl acetate
Secondary oil recovery
Shampoo
Shower gels
Sorbic acid
Textile finishes
Vinyl acetate
Vitamins


Acetic Acid Formula and Characteristics
Acetic or ethanoic acid is a weak carboxylic acid. The chief acetic acid formula is C2H4O2. The acetic acid formula represents two carbons, four hydrogens and two oxygens. Another way of expressing the acetic acid formula is CH3COOH. This better demonstrates its carboxyl group (-COOH). Acetic acid forms when ethanol is combined with oxygen in the air, yielding ethanoic (acetic) acid and water. This is called the oxidation of ethanol.

Ethanoic acid has no color, but it has a sharp, strong odor very much like vinegar. Keep in mind this is a flammable chemical, with a flashpoint of 39 degrees Celsius or 104 degrees Fahrenheit. Its boiling point is 118 degrees Celsius. Acetic acid is designated as a volatile organic compound.

Acetic acid with chemical formula CH3COOH is a monocarboxylic acid with one “COOH” group. It’s an anhydrous, clear, colourless liquid having a pungent smell. The uses of this very common and mostly used chemical reagent are many and varied. Acetic acid, also known as Ethanoic acid or Methanecarboxylicacid is used in many industrial processes for the manufacture of substrates.

Acidity and Use as a Solvent
Acetic acid has an acidic character because the hydrogen center in the carboxyl group (-COOH) separates via ionization to release a proton:


CH3CO2H → CH3CO2− + H+

This makes acetic acid a monoprotic acid with a pKa value of 4.76 in aqueous solution. The concentration of the solution greatly affects the dissociation to form the hydrogen ion and the conjugate base, acetate (CH3COO−). At a concentration comparable to that in vinegar (1.0 M), the pH is around 2.4 and only around 0.4 percent of the acetic acid molecules are dissociated. However, in very dilute solutions, over 90 percent of the acid dissociates.

Acetic acid is a versatile acidic solvent. As a solvent, acetic acid is a hydrophilic protic solvent, much like water or ethanol. Acetic acid dissolves both polar and nonpolar compounds and is miscible in both polar (water) and nonpolar (hexane, chloroform) solvents. However, acetic acid is not fully miscible with higher alkanes, such as octane.

Importance in Biochemistry
Acetic acid ionizes to form acetate at physiological pH. The acetyl group is essential to all life. Acetic acid bacteria (e.g., Acetobacter and Clostridium acetobutlicum) produce acetic acid. Fruits produce acetic acid as they ripen. In humans and other primates, acetic acid is a component of vaginal lubrication, where it acts as an antibacterial agent. When the acetyl group binds to coenzyme A, the holoenzyme is used in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates.

Acetic Acid in Medicine
Acetic acid, even at 1 percent concentration, is an effective antiseptic, used to kill Enterococci, Streptococci, Staphylococci, and Pseudomonas. Dilute acetic acid may be used to control skin infections of antibiotic bacteria, particularly Pseudomonas. The injection of acetic acid into tumors has been a cancer treatment since the early 19th century.1 The application of dilute acetic acid is a safe and effective treatment for otitis externa.2 Acetic acid is also used as a quick cervical cancer screening test.3 Acetic acid swabbed onto the cervix turns white in one minute if cancer is present.

Glacial acetic acid is the water free acetic acid. Its use depend on the strength of the acid. A reputed chemical supplier can give you a clear idea on its uses and strength.

Chemical propertries

Acidic character
When dissolved in water, acetic acid undergoes dissociation to form hydrogen (H+) ion. It indicates its acidic nature by turning blue litmus to red. However, it is a weak acid because it does not dissociate completely in aqueous solution.

Reaction with sodium bicarbonate
Acetic acid reacts with sodium bicarbonate to produce carbon dioxide.

Most common Acetic Acid Uses are:-

As a solvent for many industrial processes
For the manufacture of
Various dye stuffs and perfumes.
Rayon fibre
synthetic fibres and textiles
inks and dyes
soft drinks bottles
rubbers and plactics
pesticides
wood glues
For testing blood in clinical laboratory
Used in film industry
for the treatment of outer ear infections from the growth of fungus and bacteria
Used as food additive
The word ‘acetic’ comes from the Latin word ‘acetum’ which means ‘vinegar’. People commonly know the dilute form of acetic acid “Vinegar”. In addition to the use of it as a common food preservative it has various other uses like Medicinal uses, household cleaning, health and hygiene and food flavouring.

ABOUT ACETIC ACID
Acetic acid which is also known as Ethanoic acid is a colorless organic acid with chemicals formula C2H4O2 is liquid with strong and distinctive pungent and sour smell. Acetic acid got its name from a word “Acetum”, which is a Latin word for vinegar. Because of its presence in vinegar, it’s most well known, as the pungent and sour smell is because of acetic acid in vinegar.

 

CHARACTERISTICS OF ACETIC ACID
Acetic acid is a weak acid.
Glacial Ethanoic acid is very much corrosive to metals.
Boiling point: 118.1 degree Celsius.
Melting point: 16.6 degree Celsius.
Acetic acid is miscible with water.
Acidity: 4.76 pKa, basicity 9.24 pKb, and viscosity 1.22 mPa s.
At STP it has the liquid state.
Sour in taste and have a pungent smell.
Freezes in its purest form. That is why it is also known as glacial acetic acid.
 

PH AND MOLARITY OF ACETIC ACID:
Ph of acids is dependent upon molarity and normality of the acid.

So, for 1.0 M or for 1N of acetic acid its pH value will be around 2.4.

Molarity and Normality of Acetic acid are 17.4.

COMMON USES OF ACETIC ACID:
Acetic acid is a chemical reagent is widely used for chemical compounds production.

The widespread use of acetic acid is in the Vinyl Acetate Monomer production, followed by ester and acetic anhydride production.

Acetic acid is used as a solvent mainly as a solvent for inks, paints, and coatings.

Acetic acid is used as a coagulant in manufacturing rubber and is also used in manufacturing many dyestuffs and perfumes.

Food industry: Used a table vinegar and as a preservative.

Medical industry: Acetic acid injection is used to treat cancer and is also used in antiseptic creams. It is also used in the treatment of otitis externa.

 

How acetic acid is made or production of acetic acid:

Acetic/Ethanoic acid is manufactured in industries through synthetically fermentation and bacterial fermentation. Around 75% of acetic acid which is made for use in chemical industries is made through methanol carbonylation which is a process in which carbon monoxide along with methanol reacts to produce acetic acid. Iodomethane is involved as an intermediate in this process. This process appears in three steps:

CH3OH + HI → CH3I + H2O
CH3I + CO → CH3COI
CH3COI + H2O → CH3COOH + HI

Hazards and safety?

Hazards:

Health hazard: Acetic acid is corrosive for skin and therefore should be handled with care. Acetic acid causes skin burns, tissue destruction or eye damage when it comes with contact to eyes or skin. Inhalation of Acetic acid also causes injury or can lead to death in case of large amount inhaled.

Fire hazard: Acetic acid is a combustible element so it may burn and form explosives materials with air.

Safety:

Acetic acid should be stored in a clean well-ventilated area and in a tightly sealed container.

Acetic acid should be kept away from heat and sources of heat.

Water should not be added to this chemical.

Following protective gears should be worn when handling acetic acid: Gloves, Splash Goggles, Synthetic apron.

It should be ensured that there are nearby eye-wash stations.

20 Uses of Acetic Acid (CH3COOH)
October 15, 2020485
Acetic acid is a simple organic acid with a carboxylic group attached to a methyl group. It is known as ethanoic acid, ethylic acid, or glacial acetic acid. Due to the presence of the carboxylic group it is acidic in nature. It is the main constituent of vinegar. It is very sour to taste and has a pungent smell. In this article, we discuss the uses of acetic acid in industry, chemical synthesis, medicine, and house-hold. You can read our articles on acid, bases and salts, and uses of acids for more information.

Uses of acetic acid in industries
Acetic acid is used in the manufacture of starting materials for paints and adhesives.
Acetic acid is used in the manufacture of precursors for paints and adhesives.

Used in the synthesis of dyes and inks.
Used in the synthesis of fragrances.
It is used in the rubber and plastic industry. It is used as solvents and starting material for many important polymers in the rubber and plastic industry like PVA, PET, etc.
Used as a starting material for constituents of paints and adhesives
Used in the food processing industry as an additive and food preservative in cheese and sauces.
Uses of acetic acid in chemical synthesis
Photographic films are made of cellulose acetate. It is a cellulose derivative of acetic acid. 
Photographic films are made of cellulose acetate. It is a cellulose derivative of acetic acid.

Used in the synthesis of cellulose acetate. Cellulose acetate is used in photographic films and textiles. Before the invention of cellulose acetate films photography films used to be made of nitrate, which had many safety issues.
Used as a solvent in the synthesis of terephthalic acid. The process is called the Amoco process. p-xylene is oxidized into terephthalic acid. Terephthalic acid is used in the synthesis of PET, which is widely used in the manufacture of plastic bottles.
Widely used in the synthesis of esters by reaction with various alcohols. Acetic acid ester derivatives are widely used as food additives.
Used in the synthesis of vinylene acetate monomer. This monomer can then polymerized to form poly(vinyl acetate) also commonly known as PVA. PVA has wide applications from medicine (due to its biocompatibility to nanotechnology (as stabilizing agents) to paper manufacturing.
Used as a solvent in many organic catalytic reactions. You can read this article title “Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Aromatic Aldehydes by Imidazolium Dichromate in Aqueous Acetic Acid Medium” to learn more.
Uses of acetic acid in medicine
Acetic acid is used in a technique called chromoendoscopy which is an alternative to traditional endoscopy. 
Read this article with DOI: 10.1186/1471-230X-10-97 for more information.
Acetic acid is used for visual inspection of cervical cancers and lesions. It is also used in cervical cancer screening. 
Acetic acid is used in the treatment of otitis externa.
Acetic acid is also sometimes used to treat bacterial and fungal infections.
In laboratory trials on mice, it has been shown that acetic acid can alleviate the inflammatory response in mice.
House-hold uses of acetic acid
Vinegar is used for seasoning of salads. House-hold vinegar contains around 4% of acetic acid.
Vinegar is used for seasoning of salads. House-hold vinegar contains around 4% of acetic acid.

Acetic acid is the major constituent of vinegar.
Vinegar is used in the pickling of vegetables
Used in salads for seasoning
Used in the baking process. It reacts with baking soda to release carbon dioxide gas which makes the food item fluffy.
Used as an anti-fungal agent. You can read this article “An Evaluation of Antifungal Agents for the Treatment of Fungal Contamination in Indoor Air Environments” to learn more about the antifungal properties of acetic acid.
Caution
Acetic acid is a weak acid, but it can be corrosive in it’s concentrated form. It is better to be safe while handling acetic acid. It is harmful for the eyes and skin. The vapors also can be quite harmful if inhaled. Since it is a colorless liquid, the concentration cannot be determined with the naked eye. It is better to use your nitrile gloves and lab coats while handling acetic acid.

Are glacial acetic acid, acetic acid, and vinegar the same?
Vinegar is the diluted form of acetic acid for household use. Glacial acetic acid is the anhydrous form of acetic acid.

Research
Acetic acid is known to lower blood pressure and control blood sugar. In this article “The role of acetic acid on glucose uptake and blood flow rates in the skeletal muscle in humans with impaired glucose tolerance” authors have tried to study the impact of acetic acid on the human body.

Acetic Acid is a synthetic carboxylic acid with antibacterial and antifungal properties. Although its mechanism of action is not fully known, undissociated acetic acid may enhance lipid solubility allowing increased fatty acid accumulation on the cell membrane or in other cell wall structures. Acetic acid, as a weak acid, can inhibit carbohydrate metabolism resulting in subsequent death of the organism.

Ethanoic acid (Acetic acid) CH3COOH : Ethanoic acid is most commonly known as acetic acid. Its dilute solution in water (5-8%) is known as vinegar, which is used for preserving food-sausage, pickles etc.

Physical properties :
(i)   Ethanoic acid is vinegar smelling liquid. The lower carboxylic acids are liquids whereas higher ones are solids.
(ii)  Ethanoic acid is sour in taste. Other lower carboxylic acids are also sour in taste.
(iii) Ethanoic acid has boiling point 391 K. Carboxylic acids have higher boiling points than corresponding alcohols, aldehydes and ketones.
(iv) Acetic acid is soluble in water, i.e., it is miscible with water in all proportions. The lower carboxylic acids are soluble in water but solubility in water decreases with increase in molecular weight.
(v)  Acetic acid freezes at 290 K. Thus, in cold weather crystallization of acetic acid may take place that is why pure acetic acid is called glacial acetic acid.

Acetic acid is a simple monocarboxylic acid containing two carbons. It has a role as a protic solvent, a food acidity regulator, an antimicrobial food preservative and a Daphnia magna metabolite. It is a conjugate acid of an acetate.

Acetic acid, glacial appears as a clear colorless liquid with a strong odor of vinegar. Flash point 104°F. Density 8.8 lb / gal. Corrosive to metals and tissue. Used to make other chemicals, as a food additive, and in petroleum production.

Uses of Ethanoic acid :
(i)   Acetic Acid is used for making vinegar
(ii)  Acetic Acid is used as a laboratory reagent
(iii) Acetic Acid is used for preparation of white lead [2PbCO3.Pb(OH)2] which is used in white paints.
(iv) Acetic Acid is used for coagulation of rubber from latex and casein (protein) from milk
(v)  Acetic Acid is used in preparation of acetone, ethyl acetate, acetic anhydride, aspirin which is used in medicines.
(vi) Acetic Acid is used in preparation of cellulose acetate which is used for making photographic film.
(vii) Acetic Acid esters are used in artificial flavours in perfumes.
(viii) Acetic Acid 5% solution is bactericidal (destroys bacteria)
(ix) Acetic Acid compound basic copper acetate (verdigris) is used as green pigment.
(x) Aluminium acetate and chromium acetate are used as mordants in dyeing and waterproofing of fabrics.


acetic acid

ethanoic acid

64-19-7

Ethylic acid

Acetic acid, glacial

Glacial acetic acid

Methanecarboxylic acid

Acetic acid glacial

Vinegar acid

Acetasol

Essigsaeure

Acide acetique

Aci-jel

Azijnzuur

Vinegar

Acido acetico

Kyselina octova

Octowy kwas

Pyroligneous acid

HOAc

Azijnzuur [Dutch]

Ethanoic acid monomer

acetyl alcohol

Essigsaeure [German]

ethoic acid

Caswell No. 003

Otic Tridesilon

Octowy kwas [Polish]

Otic Domeboro

Acetic acid (natural)

Acide acetique [French]

Acido acetico [Italian]

Kyselina octova [Czech]

AcOH

Carboxylic acids, C2-3

Acetic acid, water solutions

FEMA No. 2006

FEMA Number 2006

acetic acid-

ethanoate

UN2789

UN2790

MeCOOH

HSDB 40

EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 044001

NSC 132953

UNII-Q40Q9N063P

BRN 0506007

CCRIS 5952

AI3-02394

methane carboxylic acid

CH3COOH

CH3-COOH

EINECS 200-580-7

CH3CO2H

MFCD00036152

10.Methanecarboxylic acid

CHEMBL539

68475-71-8

CHEBI:15366

Q40Q9N063P

Ethanoat

Shotgun

Acetic acid, diluted

Acetic acid, of a concentration of more than 10 per cent, by weight, of acetic acid

Acetic acid [JAN]

NSC-132953

NSC-406306

C2:0

Perchloric acid solution

Orlex

Vosol

E 260

E-260

WLN: QV1

Acetic acid solution, not less than 50% but more than 80% acid, by mass [UN2790] [Corrosive]

Acetic acid solution, with more than 10% and less than 50% acid, by mass [UN2790] [Corrosive]

Acetic acid, glacial or acetic acid solution, >80% acid, by mass [UN2789] [Corrosive]

Acetic acid, >=99.7%

Acetic acid, aqueous solution

Acetic acid, 99.5%, pure

Acetic acid, 99+%, extra pure

Aceticum acidum

Acetic acid, 99.6%, for analysis

Acetic acid, 99.8%, for analysis

Acetic acid, 25%, solution in water

Acetic acid, 50%, solution in water

Acetic acid, 99.8%, for biochemistry

Acetic acid, ACS reagent, >=99.7%

ACY

Acetic acid, 80% vol., solution in water

NSC-111201

NSC-112209

NSC-115870

NSC-127175

Acetic acid 0.25% in plastic container

Ethylate

acetic aicd

acetic-acid

Glacial acetate

acetic cid

actic acid

Aceticacidglacial

acetic -acid

Methanecarboxylate

Acetic acid, glacial [USP:JAN]

Nat. Acetic Acid

Acetasol (TN)

Acetic acid, glacial [USAN:JAN]

Acetic Acid Natural

Vinegar (Salt/Mix)

Acetic acid, propionic acid distillate

MeCO2H

Undiluted Acetic Acid

Oxytocin identification

3,3'-(1,4-phenylene)dipropiolic acid

HOOCCH3

PubChem22173

Acetic Acid (Recovered)

Acetic acid LC/MS Grade

Acetic acid, ACS reagent

DSSTox_CID_4394

Acetic Acid Solution, 1N

bmse000191

bmse000817

bmse000857

Otic Domeboro (Salt/Mix)

EC 200-580-7

Acetic acid (JP17/NF)

ACMC-1B1E4

DSSTox_RID_77386

NCIOpen2_000659

NCIOpen2_000682

DSSTox_GSID_24394

Acetic acid, glacial (USP)

Buffer Solution, pH 4.64

4-02-00-00094 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)

Glacial acetic acid (JP17)

KSC491S8N

UN 2790 (Salt/Mix)

INS No. 260

GTPL1058

INS NO.260

Acetic Acid Glacial HPLC Grade

Acetic acid solution, for HPLC

Acetic acid, analytical standard

Acetic acid, Glacial USP grade

DTXSID5024394

[C]C(O)=O

CTK3J1986

KS-00000XBD

Acetic acid, puriss., >=80%

INS-260

Acetic acid, 99.8%, anhydrous

Acetic acid, AR, >=99.8%

Acetic acid, LR, >=99.5%

Acetic Acid, Glacial Reagent ACS

DTXSID901022438

Acetic acid solution, 1 N, 1 M

Acetic acid, extra pure, 99.8%

Acetic acid, 99.5-100.0%

Acetic acid, Glacial, ACS Reagent

STR00276

ZINC5224164

Acetic acid, puriss., 99-100%

Tox21_301453

Acetic acid, glacial, >=99.85%

ANW-41557

ANW-44008

BDBM50074329

LMFA01010002

NSC132953

NSC406306

STL264240

TCLP extraction fluid 2 (Salt/Mix)

Acetic acid, 1% v/v aqueous solution

Acetic acid, 4% v/v aqueous solution

Acetic acid, 99.7+%, ACS reagent

Acetic acid, Environmental Grade Plus

Acetic acid, for HPLC, >=99.8%

AKOS000268789

Buffer Solution (Acetate), pH 4.01

DB03166

LS-1541

LS-2535

MCULE-8295936189

Sodium acetate, anhydrous or trihydrate

UN 2789

Acetic acid, >=99.5%, FCC, FG

Acetic acid, natural, >=99.5%, FG

Acetic acid, ReagentPlus(R), >=99%

CAS-64-19-7

Acetic acid, USP, 99.5-100.5%

NCGC00255303-01

4843-45-2

Acetic acid, 0.1N Standardized Solution

Acetic acid, 1.0N Standardized Solution

Acetic acid, SAJ first grade, >=99.0%


Acetic acid (CH3COOH), also called ethanoic acid, the most important of the carboxylic acids. A dilute (approximately 5 percent by volume) solution of acetic acid produced by fermentation and oxidation of natural carbohydrates is called vinegar; a salt, ester, or acylal of acetic acid is called acetate. Industrially, acetic acid is used in the preparation of metal acetates, used in some printing processes; vinyl acetate, employed in the production of plastics; cellulose acetate, used in making photographic films and textiles; and volatile organic esters (such as ethyl and butyl acetates), widely used as solvents for resins, paints, and lacquers. Biologically, acetic acid is an important metabolic intermediate, and it occurs naturally in body fluids and in plant juices.


Acetic acid can prevent the precipitation of iron(III) at high acetic acid concentrations at low temperatures.

Uses & Benefits
One of the most common ways consumers may come into contact with acetic acid is in the form of household vinegar, which is naturally made from fermentable sources such as wine, potatoes, apples, grapes, berries and grains. Vinegar is a clear solution generally containing about 5 percent acetic acid and 95 percent water.  Vinegar is used as a food ingredient and can also be an ingredient in personal care products, household cleaners, pet shampoos and many other products for the home:

Food Preparation: Vinegar is a common food ingredient, often used as a brine in pickling liquids, vinaigrettes, marinades and other salad dressings.  Vinegar also can be used in food preparation to help control Salmonella contamination in meat and poultry products.
Cleaning: Vinegar can be used throughout the home as a window cleaner, to clean automatic coffee makers and dishes, as a rinsing agent for dishwashers, and to clean bathroom tile and grout. Vinegar can also be used to clean food-related tools and equipment because it generally does not leave behind a harmful residue and requires less rinsing.
Gardening: In concentrations of 10 to 20 percent, acetic acid can be used as a weed killer on gardens and lawns. When used as an herbicide, the acetic acid can kill weeds that have emerged from the soil, but does not affect the roots of the weed, so they can regrow.
When acetic acid is at 99.5 percent concentration, it is referred to as glacial acetic acid. Glacial acetic acid has a variety of uses, including as a raw material and solvent in the production of other chemical products.  

Industrial applications for glacial acetic acid include:   

Vinyl Acetate, cellulose fibers and plastics: Acetic acid is used to make many chemicals, including vinyl acetate, acetic anhydride and acetate esters.
Vinyl acetate is used to make polyvinyl acetate, a polymer used in paints, adhesives, plastics and textile finishes.
Acetic anhydride is used in the manufacture of cellulose acetate fibers and plastics used for photographic film, clothing and coatings.
Acetic acid is also used in the chemical reaction to produce purified terephthalic acid (PTA), which is used to manufacture the PET plastic resin used in synthetic fibers, food containers, beverage bottles and plastic films.
Solvents: Acetic acid is a hydrophilic solvent, similar to ethanol. It dissolves compounds such as oils, sulfur and iodine and mixes with water, chloroform and hexane.
Acidizing oil and gas: Acetic acid can help reduce metal corrosion and scale build-up in oil and gas well applications. It is also used in oil well stimulation to improve flow and increase production of oil and gas.
Pharmaceuticals and vitamins: The pharmaceutical industry uses acetic acid in the manufacture of vitamins, antibiotics, hormones and other products.
Food Processing: Acetic acid is commonly used as a cleaning and disinfecting product in food processing plants.
Other uses: Salts of acetic acid and various rubber and photographic chemicals are made from acetic acid. Acetic acid and its sodium salt are commonly used as a food preservative. 
Uses & BenefitsSafety InformationAnswering Questions
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Safety Information
Consumer Exposure

Food-grade vinegar used as a multipurpose food additive is generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Like with any other acid, consumption of excess vinegar can worsen symptoms of upper gastrointestinal tract inflammatory conditions such as heartburn or indigestion, and excessive consumption of vinegar can damage tooth enamel.

Occupational Exposure

Occupational exposure to glacial acetic acid, the purest form of acetic acid, can occur through inhalation and skin or eye contact. Acetic acid is corrosive to skin and eyes. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set standards for exposure to acetic acid. Acetic acid has an OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 10 parts per million (ppm) over an 8-hour work shift. Symptoms of exposure to acetic acid vapors at that level can include eye, nose and throat irritation. At 100 ppm, marked lung irritation and possible damage to lungs, eyes and skin might result. Exposure to acetic acid can also cause pharyngeal edema and chronic bronchitis.   In general, exposure to acetic acid in concentrations above those in commercial products and preparations should be avoided, as skin and eye irritation can occur even at relatively highly diluted acid solutions.

What is the difference between acetic acid, glacial acetic acid and vinegar?
Acetic acid in its pure form (99.5 percent concentration) is also known as glacial acetic acid. Glacial acetic acid has numerous industrial uses. Vinegar contains 4 to 8 percent acetic acid, and is made from the fermentation of fruit or grain juices/liquids.

Is acetic acid hazardous to the environment?
According to the information considered under the Ecological Risk Classification of Organic Substances Approach, acetic acid is identified as having a low ecological hazard potential.

How likely am I to be exposed to acetic acid?
Consumer exposure to acetic acid is usually limited to vinegar, which is a solution containing 5 percent acetic acid and not hazardous in that form. Occupational exposure to glacial acetic acid can be hazardous, and precautions should be taken to limit exposure through inhalation, and skin and eye contact.

Can vinegar be used as a household disinfectant?
Vinegar can be used to clean some household surfaces and glass as its acidic properties can help dissolve dirt, grease and grime.  However, there is a difference between cleaning and disinfecting. Vinegar is not an EPA-registered household disinfectant and may not be as effective for killing pathogens.

Can vinegar be used as an antimicrobial to kill the novel coronavirus?
EPA does not review the effectiveness of common household ingredients like vinegar, and cannot verify how well it will work to kill the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19.

Overview
Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is a clear colourless liquid which has a pungent, vinegar-like odour. When it is pure (100% acetic acid) it is referred to as glacial acetic acid.

Uses of acetic acid
Acetic acid is the main component of vinegar, which contains 4 to 18% acetic acid. It is used as a food preservative and food additive (known as E260). Large quantities of acetic acid are used to make products such as ink for textile printing, dyes, photographic chemicals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, rubber and plastics. It is also used in some household cleaning products to remove lime scale.

How acetic acid gets into the environment
Acetic acid can enter the environment from discharge and emissions from industries. The burning of plastics or rubber, and exhaust fumes from vehicles may also release acetic acid into the environment. When released into soil it evaporates into the air where it is broken down naturally by sunlight. Levels of acetic acid in the environment would be expected to be low.

Exposure to acetic acid
Humans naturally produce small amounts of acetic acid. It plays an important role in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates in the body. Acetic acid is naturally present in some unprocessed foods including fruit and is present in some foods as an additive. There may also be exposure from the use of household products that contain acetic acid. Exposure to low levels of acetic acid in the environment, as part of a normal diet and from the correct use of household product would not be expected to cause adverse health effects.

Exposure to higher levels of acetic acid is more likely to occur in an occupational setting. However safe levels are enforced to protect employees who may be exposed to acetic acid at work. Such levels are below those that are thought to cause harmful effects.

How exposure to acetic acid could affect your health
The presence of acetic acid in the environment does not always lead to exposure. In order for it to cause any adverse health effects, you must come into contact with it. You may be exposed to acetic acid by breathing or ingesting it, or by skin contact with it. Following exposure to any chemical, the adverse health effects by which you may encounter depend on several factors, including the amount to which you are exposed (dose), the way you are exposed, the duration of exposure, the form of the chemical and if you were exposed to any other chemicals.

Low level exposure to acetic acid from the diet or from the correct use of household products that contain acetic acid would not be expected to cause adverse health effects.

Exposure to dilute solutions of acetic acid may cause irritation. Inhalation of acetic acid vapours may cause irritation of the eyes nose and throat and cough.

Exposure to more concentrated solutions of acetic acid (>25%) can cause corrosive damage.

Breathing vapours with high levels of acetic acid can cause irritation of eyes, nose and throat, cough, chest tightness, headache, fever and confusion. In serious cases damage to the airways, a fast heart rate and eye damage can occur. An accumulation of fluid in the lungs may occur and may take up 36 hours to develop.

Ingestion of higher concentrations causes immediate burning of the mouth and throat, breathing difficulty, drooling, difficulty swallowing, stomach pain and vomiting (there may be blood in the vomit).

Skin contact with strong acetic acid can cause pain, burns and ulcers. Eye contact causes pain, twitching of the eyelids, watering eyes, inflammation, sensitivity to light and burns.

Acetic acid and cancer
Acetic acid is not considered to be a cancer causing chemical.

Vulnerable people
People with breathing problems such as asthma may be more susceptible to the effects of inhaling acetic acid. This is because higher levels of acetic acid can cause irritation of airways leading to chest tightness, wheezing and breathlessness.

Pregnancy and the unborn child
Low level exposure to acetic acid from the diet or from the correct use of household products that contain acetic acid would not be expected to harm the unborn child.

There is limited information about overexposure to acetic acid during pregnancy. The irritant or corrosive tends to occur at the point of contact, for example, irritation to the skin or eyes. The absorption of acids into the body is generally low and therefore they do not cause effects in other parts of the body. Therefore, acetic acid is unlikely to have a direct effect on the unborn child. However, if the exposure acetic acid causes the mother to become unwell this may affect the health of the unborn child.

Children
If children breathe, ingest or touch acetic acid they will have similar effects to those seen in adults. They are not expected to be more sensitive to the effects of acetic acid.

Household cleaning products that contain acetic acid should be stored in an appropriate container and kept out of the reach of children.

What to do if you are exposed to acetic acid
Exposure to levels of acetic acid as found in household vinegar are not expected to cause harm.

If exposed to more concentrated acetic acid:

you should remove yourself from the source of exposure
if you have got acetic acid on your skin, remove soiled clothing (not over the head), wash the affected area with lukewarm water and soap for at least 10 to 15 minutes and seek medical advice
if you have got acetic acid in your eyes, remove contact lenses, irrigate the affected eye with lukewarm water for at least 10 to 15 minutes and seek medical advice
if you have inhaled or ingested acetic acid, seek medical advice

...% acto rūgštis (lt)
200–580–7 (it)
Acetic acid (no)
Acid acetic (ro)
acid acetic…% (ro)
Acide acétique (fr)
acide acétique à …% (fr)
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CAS names
Acetic acid
Other
IUPAC names
acetic

ACETIC ACID
Acetic Acid
Acetic acid
acetic acid
Acetic Acid
Acetic acid
acetic acid
Acetic acid (synthetic)
acetic acid ... %
acetic acid 100 %
acetic acid 60%
Acetic Acid 80%
acetic acid 99 %
acetic acid 99,8%
Acetic Acid [for General Organic Chemistry]
ACETIC ACID GLACIAL
Acetic acid glacial
Acetic acid glacial
acetic acid … %
acetic acid …%
Acetic acid, ethanoic acid
Acetic acid, Ethanoic acid,Glacial acetic acid
Acetic acid, glacial
acetic acid, of a concentration of more than 10 per cent, by weight, of acetic acid
acetic acid...%
Acetid acid
ACIDE ACETIQUE
Acide ethanoique
acido acetico
actic acid
Essigsäure
Essigsäure
Ethanoic Acid 
Ethanoic acid
ethanoic acid
Ethanoic acid,Glacial acetic acid
etic acid … %
Glacial acetic acid, Ethanoic acid
octová kyselina
Reaction mass of water and 9-(2-carboxyphenyl)-3,6-bis(diethylamino)xanthylium acetate
ácido etanoico

Trade names
A-UT6581(K1)PTA
Acetic Acid
Acetic acid
acetic acid
Acetic acid (7CI, 8CI, 9CI)
Acetic Acid 80%
Acetic Acid Glacial
Acetic acid, 100%
Acetic acid, glacial
Aci-Jel
Acide acétique dilué
Albrite Acetic Acid 80%
CHINT: Acetic acid
Dilute acetic acid
ECO2200-A-BLACK(T)
ECO2200-B
ED2800-A-BLACK(E)
Essigsaeure
Essigsäure
Ethanoic acid
ethanoic acid
Ethanoic acid monomer
Ethylic acid
ethylic acid
Glacial acetic acid
GLACIAL ACETIC ACID GMP
Ijs azijnzuur
Industrial acetic acid
Lenzing Acetic acid 100%
methane carboxylic acid
Methanecarboxylic acid
Phase I REACH Kandidat
SI6020Z
SI6037Z
SI6050Z
SI6070Z
SI6350Z
Spirit vinegar
Technical acetic acid
UT6581(K1)PTA-1000
UT6581(K1)PTA-1999
UT6581(K1)PTB
UT6581-A-10GY6.5/3
UT6581-A-N.1.5
UT6581-A-RAL9006(H)
UT6581-B
Vinegar acid


2-) ASCORBIC ACID

Ascorbic acid = Vitamin C = Ascorbate = E300

CAS Number: 50-81-7
Formula: C6H8O6
Molar mass: 176.124 g·mol−1

Vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid and ascorbate) is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary supplement.
Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy.
Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters.
Ascorbic acid is required for the functioning of several enzymes and is important for immune system function.
Ascorbic acid also functions as an antioxidant.
Most animals and plants are able to synthesize their own vitamin C, however, humans and other apes, most bats, some rodents and certain other animals cannot and must acquire it from dietary sources.

There is some evidence that regular use of supplements may reduce the duration of the common cold, but Ascorbic acid does not appear to prevent infection.
Ascorbic acid is unclear whether supplementation affects the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, or dementia.
Ascorbic acid may be taken by mouth or by injection.

Vitamin C is generally well tolerated.
Large doses may cause gastrointestinal discomfort, headache, trouble sleeping, and flushing of the skin.
Normal doses are safe during pregnancy.
The United States Institute of Medicine recommends against taking large doses.

Vitamin C was discovered in 1912, isolated in 1928, and, in 1933, was the first vitamin to be chemically produced.
Ascorbic acid is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.
Vitamin C is available as an inexpensive generic and over-the-counter medication.
Partly for Ascorbic acids discovery, Albert Szent-Györgyi and Walter Norman Haworth were awarded the 1937 Nobel Prizes in Physiology and Medicine and Chemistry, respectively.
Foods containing vitamin C include citrus fruits, kiwifruit, guava, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, bell peppers and strawberries.
Prolonged storage or cooking may reduce vitamin C content in foods.

Uses of Ascorbic acid:
Vitamin C has a definitive role in treating scurvy, which is a disease caused by vitamin C deficiency. 
Beyond that, a role for vitamin C as prevention or treatment for various diseases is disputed, with reviews reporting conflicting results. 
A 2012 Cochrane review reported no effect of vitamin C supplementation on overall mortality.
Ascorbic acid is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.

Ascorbic acid is a nutrient that the human body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. 
An antioxidant, ascorbic acid can help prevent cell damage caused by free radicals —unstable molecules that can damage cells. 
Ascorbic acid also helps prevent and treat scurvy.
According to the U.S. National Cancer Institute, ascorbic acid can help the human body fight bacterial infections and help form collagen, an important protein in fibrous tissue, teeth, bones, skin and capillaries.

Food and Beverages of Ascorbic acid:
Vitamin C occurs naturally in many fresh fruits and vegetables, from oranges and grapefruits to broccoli, Brussel sprouts and tomatoes. 
In these foods however, vitamins can be diminished by heat, boiling water or air.
Many foods are fortified with ascorbic acid to help replenish vitamin C content that may be lost in these ways. 
Ascorbic acid is often added to fruit juices, cereals, fruit-flavored candies, dried fruit, cured meats and frozen fruits, to fortify or add a citrus flavor.
Ascorbic acid also acts as a preservative to keep food such as bread, cured meats, jams and jellies, from spoiling.

Ascorbic acid and personal Care Products & Cosmetics
Cosmetics and other personal care products may include less acidic forms of ascorbic acid, such as calcium ascorbate, magnesium ascorbate, magnesium ascorbyl phosphate, sodium ascorbate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate, which act as antioxidants to slow deterioration of the finished product caused by exposure to the air and also to control the pH of the product.

Ascorbic acid and Industrial/Manufacturing Uses
Ascorbic acid is used in a range of industrial and manufacturing applications, including as a developing agent and preservative in photo production, and in water purification, where it is used to help remove the taste of iodine in sterilized, potable water. 
Scientists also use ascorbic acid in fluorescence microscopy, an essential tool to understanding cell biology. 
In this application, ascorbic acid helps increase fluorescence, making cells more visible to researchers. 
In plastic manufacturing, ascorbic acid helps bring about the chemical reaction that makes plastic.

Ascorbic acid: Vitamin C, an essential nutrient found mainly in fruits and vegetables. 
The body requires ascorbic acid in order to form and maintain bones, blood vessels, and skin. 
Ascorbic acid also promotes the healing of cuts, abrasions and wounds; 
helps fight infections; inhibits conversion of irritants in smog, tobacco smoke, and certain foods into cancer-causing substances; 
appears to lessen the risk of developing high blood pressure and heart disease; 
helps regulate cholesterol levels; 
prevents the development of scurvy; appears to lower the risk of developing cataracts; and aids in iron absorption. 
Ascorbic acid can cause adverse reactions when taken with some drugs.

Why is Ascorbic acid prescribed?
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is used as a dietary supplement when the amount of ascorbic acid in the diet is not enough. 
People most at risk for ascorbic acid deficiency are those with a limited variety of food in their diet, or who have intestinal malabsorption problems from cancer or kidney disease. 
Ascorbic acid is also used to prevent and treat scurvy (a disease that causes fatigue, gum swelling, joint pain, and poor wound healing from a lack of vitamin C in the body). 
Ascorbic acid is in a class of medications called antioxidants. 
Ascorbic acid is needed by the body to help wounds heal, to enhance the absorption of iron from plant foods, and to support the immune system. 
Ascorbic acid works as an antioxidant to protect your cells against free radicals, which may play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases.

How should Ascorbic acid be used?
Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, chewable tablets, chewable gels (gummies), and liquid drops to be given by mouth. 
Ascorbic acid usually is taken once a day or as directed by your doctor. 
Ascorbic acid is available without a prescription, but your doctor may prescribe ascorbic acid to treat certain conditions. 
Follow the directions on the package or on your product label or doctor's instructions carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. 
Take ascorbic acid exactly as directed. 
Do not take more or less of it or take Ascorbic acid more often than recommended by your doctor.

Ascorbic acid may take up to 4 weeks for symptoms of scurvy to improve.
Ascorbic acid supplements are available alone and in combination with other vitamins.

Other uses for Ascorbic acid
Ascorbic acid is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

What is ascorbic acid?
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) occurs naturally in foods such as citrus fruit, tomatoes, potatoes, and leafy vegetables. 
Vitamin C is important for bones and connective tissues, muscles, and blood vessels. 
Vitamin C also helps the body absorb iron, which is needed for red blood cell production.
Ascorbic acid is used to treat and prevent vitamin C deficiency.
Ascorbic acid may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

What special precautions should I follow?
Before taking ascorbic acid,
tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to ascorbic acid, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in ascorbic acid products. 
Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ingredients.
tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. 
Be sure to mention any of the following: chemotherapy medications, fluphenazine, and niacin taken in combination with simvastatin (Flolipid, Zocor). 
Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.
tell your doctor if you have or have ever had medical conditions.
tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. 
If you become pregnant while taking ascorbic acid, call your doctor.
tell your doctor if you use tobacco products. 
Cigarette smoking may decrease the effectiveness of ascorbic acid and you may need to take a larger dose. 
Talk to your doctor or pharmacist about your dose of ascorbic acid if you use tobacco products.

What happens if I miss a Ascorbic acid dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. 
Skip the missed dose if Ascorbic acid is almost time for your next scheduled dose. 
Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What should I avoid while taking ascorbic acid?
Follow your doctor's instructions about any restrictions on food, beverages, or activity.

How should I take ascorbic acid?
Use exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. 
Do not use in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.
The recommended dietary allowance of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) increases with age. 
Follow your healthcare provider's instructions. 
You may also consult the Office of Dietary Supplements of the National Institutes of Health, or the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Nutrient Database (formerly "Recommended Daily Allowances") listings for more information.
Drink plenty of liquids while you are taking ascorbic acid.
The chewable tablet must be chewed before you swallow it.

What special dietary instructions should I follow when using Ascorbic acid?
Some forms of ascorbic acid contain sodium and should be avoided if you are on a sodium- or salt-restricted diet.

What should I do if I forget a Ascorbic acid dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember Ascorbic acid. 
However, if Ascorbic acid is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. 
Do not take Ascorbic acid double dose to make up for a missed one.

Scurvy
The disease scurvy is caused by vitamin C deficiency and can be prevented and treated with vitamin C-containing foods or dietary supplements.
Ascorbic acid takes at least a month of little to no vitamin C before symptoms occur.
Early symptoms are malaise and lethargy, progressing to shortness of breath, bone pain, bleeding gums, susceptibility to bruising, poor wound healing, and finally fever, convulsions and eventual death.
Until quite late in the disease the damage is reversible, as healthy collagen replaces the defective collagen with vitamin C repletion. 
Treatment can be oral supplementation of the vitamin or by intramuscular or intravenous injection.
Scurvy was known to Hippocrates in the classical era. 
The disease was shown to be prevented by citrus fruits in an early controlled trial by a Royal Navy surgeon, James Lind, in 1747, on board HMS Salisbury and from 1796 lemon juice was issued to all Royal Navy crewmen.

Ascorbic acid infection
Further information: Vitamin C and the common cold
Black and white photo of Nobel Prize winner, Linus Pauling.
The Nobel prizewinner Linus Pauling advocated taking vitamin C for the common cold in a 1970 book.
Research on vitamin C in the common cold has been divided into effects on prevention, duration, and severity. 
A Cochrane review which looked at at least 200 mg/day concluded that vitamin C taken on a regular basis was not effective in prevention of the common cold. 
Restricting analysis to trials that used at least 1000 mg/day also saw no prevention benefit. 
However, taking vitamin C on a regular basis did reduce the average duration by 8% in adults and 14% in children, and also reduced severity of colds.
A subsequent meta-analysis in children found that vitamin C approached statistical significance for prevention and reduced the duration of upper respiratory tract infections.
A subset of trials in adults reported that supplementation reduced the incidence of colds by half in marathon runners, skiers, or soldiers in subarctic conditions.
Another subset of trials looked at therapeutic use, meaning that vitamin C was not started unless the people started to feel the beginnings of a cold. 
In these, vitamin C did not affect duration or severity.
An earlier review stated that vitamin C did not prevent colds, did reduce duration, did not reduce severity.

The authors of the Cochrane review concluded that:
The failure of vitamin C supplementation to reduce the incidence of colds in the general population indicates that routine vitamin C supplementation is not justified.
Regular supplementation trials have shown that vitamin C reduces the duration of colds, but this was not replicated in the few therapeutic trials that have been carried out. 
Nevertheless, given the consistent effect of vitamin C on the duration and severity of colds in the regular supplementation studies, and the low cost and safety, it may be worthwhile for common cold patients to test on an individual basis whether therapeutic vitamin C is beneficial for them."
Vitamin C distributes readily in high concentrations into immune cells, has antimicrobial and natural killer cell activities, promotes lymphocyte proliferation, and is consumed quickly during infections, effects indicating a prominent role in immune system regulation.
The European Food Safety Authority found a cause and effect relationship exists between the dietary intake of vitamin C and functioning of a normal immune system in adults and in children under three years of age.

What is Ascorbic Acid and how is Ascorbic acid used?
Ascorbic Acid is an over the counter and prescription medicine used to treat the symptoms of Ascorbic Acid Deficiency (Scurvy), Urinary Acidification and as a nutritional supplement. 
-Ascorbic Acid may be used alone or with other medications.
-Ascorbic Acid belongs to a class of drugs called Vitamins, Water-Soluble.

Ascorbic Acid (vitamin c) Injection is a sterile solution. 
Each mL contains: Ascorbic Acid (vitamin c) 250 mg and Edetate Disodium 0.025% in Water for Injection qs. 
Prepared with the aid of Sodium Bicarbonate. 
Sodium Hydroxide and/or Hydrochloric Acid may have been used to adjust pH.

No preservative added.
DESCRIPTION
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a water-soluble vitamin. 
Ascorbic acid occurs as a white or slightly yellow crystal or powder with a slight acidic taste. 
Ascorbic acid is an antiscorbutic product. On exposure to light, it gradually darkens. 
In the dry state, Ascorbic acid is reasonably stable in air, but in solution it rapidly oxidizes. 
Ascorbic acid (vitamin c) is freely soluble in water; sparingly soluble in alcohol; insoluble in chloroform, in ether, and in benzene. 
The chemical name of ascorbic acid (vitamin c) is L-ascorbic acid (vitamin c) . 
The empirical formula is C6H806, and the molecular weight is 176.13. 

Take this vitamin by mouth with or without food, usually 1 to 2 times daily. 
Follow all directions on the product package, or take as directed by your doctor.
If you are taking the extended-release capsules, swallow them whole. 
Do not crush or chew extended-release capsules or tablets. 
Doing so can release all of the drug at once, increasing the risk of side effects. 
Also, do not split extended-release tablets unless they have a score line and your doctor or pharmacist tells you to do so. 
Swallow the whole or split tablet without crushing or chewing. 
Take this product with a full glass of water (8 ounces/240 milliliters) unless your doctor directs you otherwise.
If you are taking the wafers or chewable tablets, chew them thoroughly and then swallow. 
If you are taking the lozenges, place the lozenge in your mouth and allow it to slowly dissolve.
If you are taking the powder, mix Ascorbic acid thoroughly in the proper amount of liquid or soft food and stir well. 
Take all of the mixture right away. 
Do not prepare a supply for future use. 
If you are using the liquid form of this vitamin, carefully measure the dose using a special measuring device/spoon. 
Do not use a household spoon because you may not get the correct dose.
Dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment.
Use this vitamin regularly to get the most benefit from it. 
To help you remember, take Ascorbic acid at the same time(s) each day.
If you think you may have a serious medical problem, seek immediate medical attention.

Biology:

Ascorbic acid significance:
Vitamin C is an essential nutrient for certain animals including humans. 
The term vitamin C encompasses several vitamers that have vitamin C activity in animals. 
Ascorbate salts such as sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate are used in some dietary supplements. 
These release ascorbate upon digestion. 
Ascorbate and ascorbic acid are both naturally present in the body, since the forms interconvert according to pH. 
Oxidized forms of the molecule such as dehydroascorbic acid are converted back to ascorbic acid by reducing agents.

Vitamin C functions as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions in animals (including humans) that mediate a variety of essential biological functions, including wound healing and collagen synthesis. 
In humans, vitamin C deficiency leads to impaired collagen synthesis, contributing to the more severe symptoms of scurvy.
Another biochemical role of vitamin C is to act as an antioxidant (a reducing agent) by donating electrons to various enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions.
Doing so converts vitamin C to an oxidized state - either as semidehydroascorbic acid or dehydroascorbic acid. 
These compounds can be restored to a reduced state by glutathione and NADPH-dependent enzymatic mechanisms.
In plants, vitamin C is a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase. 
This enzyme utilizes ascorbate to neutralize excess hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by converting it to water (H2O) and oxygen.

CAS Number: 50-81-7 
as salt: 134-03-2 
PubChem CID: 54670067
as salt: 23667548
IUPHAR/BPS: 4781
DrugBank: DB00126 
as salt: DB14482 
ChemSpider: 10189562 
as salt: 16736174 
UNII: PQ6CK8PD0R
as salt: S033EH8359 
KEGG: D00018 
as salt: D05853
ChEBI: CHEBI:29073 
as salt: CHEBI:113451 
ChEMBL: ChEMBL196
as salt: ChEMBL591665
NIAID ChemDB: 002072
PDB ligand: ASC (PDBe, RCSB PDB)
E number: E300 (antioxidants, ...) 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID5020106
ECHA InfoCard: 100.000.061 

Deficiency:

Main article: Scurvy
Vitamin C blood serum levels are considered saturated at levels > 65 μmol/L (1.1 mg/dL), achieved by consuming amounts which are at, or above, the Recommended Dietary Allowance, while adequate levels are defined as ≥ 50 μmol/L. 
Hypovitaminosis in the case of vitamin C is defined as ≤ 23 μmol/L and deficiency occurs at ≤ 11.4 μmol/L.
For those 20 years of age or above, data from the U.S. 2003-04 NHANES survey showed mean and median serum concentrations of 49.0 and 54.4 μmol/L, respectively. 
The percent of people reported as deficient was 7.1%.

Scurvy is a disease resulting from a deficiency of vitamin C. 
Without this vitamin, collagen made by the body is too unstable to perform its function and several other enzymes in the body do not operate correctly.
Scurvy is characterized by spots on and bleeding under the skin, spongy gums, 'corkscrew' hair growth, and poor wound healing. 
The skin lesions are most abundant on the thighs and legs, and a person with the ailment looks pale, feels depressed, and is partially immobilized. 
In advanced scurvy there are open, suppurating wounds, loss of teeth, bone abnormalities and, eventually, death.

Notable human dietary studies of experimentally induced scurvy were conducted on conscientious objectors during World War II in Britain and on Iowa state prisoners in the late 1960s to the 1980s. 
Men in the prison study developed the first signs of scurvy about four weeks after starting the vitamin C-free diet, whereas in the earlier British study, six to eight months were required, possibly due to the pre-loading of this group with a 70 mg/day supplement for six weeks before the scorbutic diet was fed. 
Men in both studies had blood levels of ascorbic acid too low to be accurately measured by the time they developed signs of scurvy. 
These studies both reported that all obvious symptoms of scurvy could be completely reversed by supplementation of only 10 mg a day.

Ascorbic acid
Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin, meaning that your body doesn't store it. 
You have to get what you need from food, including citrus fruits, broccoli, and tomatoes.

You need vitamin C for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of your body. 
Ascorbic acid helps the body make collagen, an important protein used to make skin, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. 
Vitamin C is needed for healing wounds, and for repairing and maintaining bones and teeth. 
Ascorbic acid also helps the body absorb iron from nonheme sources.

Vitamin C is an antioxidant, along with vitamin E, beta-carotene, and many other plant-based nutrients. 
Antioxidants block some of the damage caused by free radicals, substances that damage DNA. 
The build up of free radicals over time may contribute to the aging process and the development of health conditions such as cancer, heart disease, and arthritis.

Ascorbic acid’s rare to be seriously deficient in vitamin C, although evidence suggests that many people may have low levels of vitamin C. 
Smoking cigarettes lowers the amount of vitamin C in the body, so smokers are at a higher risk of deficiency.

Signs of vitamin deficiency include dry and splitting hair;
gingivitis (inflammation of the gums) and bleeding gums;
rough, dry, scaly skin;
decreased wound-healing rate, easy bruising;
nosebleeds;
and a decreased ability to ward off infection. 
A severe form of vitamin C deficiency is known as scurvy.

Low levels of vitamin C have been associated with a number of conditions, including high blood pressure, gallbladder disease, stroke, some cancers, and atherosclerosis, the build up of plaque in blood vessels that can lead to heart attack and stroke. 
Getting enough vitamin C from your diet by eating lots of fruit and vegetables may help reduce the risk of developing some of these conditions. 
There is no conclusive evidence that taking vitamin C supplements will help or prevent any of these conditions.

Vitamin C plays a role in protecting against the following:

-Heart Disease
Results of scientific studies on whether vitamin C is helpful for preventing heart attack or stroke are mixed. 
Vitamin C doesn't lower cholesterol levels or reduce the overall risk of heart attack, but evidence suggests it may help protect arteries against damage.
Some studies suggest that vitamin C can slow down the progression of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). 
Ascorbic acid helps prevent damage to LDL ("bad") cholesterol, which then builds up as plaque in the arteries and can cause heart attack or stroke. 
Other studies suggest that vitamin C may help keep arteries flexible.
In addition, people who have low levels of vitamin C may be more likely to have a heart attack, stroke, or peripheral artery disease, all potential results of having atherosclerosis. 
Peripheral artery disease is the term used to describe atherosclerosis of the blood vessels to the legs. 
Ascorbic acid can lead to pain when walking, known as intermittent claudication. 
But there is no evidence that taking vitamin C supplements will help.
The best thing to do is get enough vitamin C through your diet. 
That way, you also get the benefit of other antioxidants and nutrients contained in food. 
If you have low levels of vitamin C and have trouble getting enough through the foods you eat, ask your doctor about taking a supplement.

-High Blood Pressure
Population-based studies (which involve observing large groups of people over time) suggest that people who eat foods rich in antioxidants, including vitamin C, have a lower risk of high blood pressure than people who have poorer diets. 
Eating foods rich in vitamin C is important for your overall health, especially if you are at risk for high blood pressure. 
The diet physicians most frequently recommend for treatment and prevention of high blood pressure, known as the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet, includes lots of fruits and vegetables, which are loaded with antioxidants.

-Common Cold
Despite the popular belief that vitamin C can cure the common cold, scientific evidence doesn't support that theory. 
Taking vitamin C supplements regularly (not just at the beginning of a cold) produces only a small reduction in the duration of a cold (about 1 day). 
The only other piece of evidence supporting vitamin C for preventing colds comes from studies examining people exercising in extreme environments (athletes, such as skiers and marathon runners, and soldiers in the Arctic). 
In these studies, vitamin C did seem to reduce the risk of getting a cold.

-Cancer
Results of many population-based studies suggest that eating foods rich in vitamin C may be associated with lower rates of cancer, including skin cancer, cervical dysplasia (changes to the cervix which may be cancerous or precancerous, picked up by pap smear), and, possibly, breast cancer. 
But these foods also contain many beneficial nutrients and antioxidants, not only vitamin C, so it's impossible to say for certain that vitamin C protects against cancer. 
Taking vitamin C supplements, on the other hand, has not been shown to have any helpful effect.
In addition, there is no evidence that taking large doses of vitamin C once diagnosed with cancer will help your treatment. 
In fact, some doctors are concerned that large doses of antioxidants from supplements could interfere with chemotherapy medications. 
More research is needed. 
If you are undergoing chemotherapy, talk to your doctor before taking vitamin C or any supplement.

-Osteoarthritis
Vitamin C is essential for the body to make collagen, which is part of normal cartilage. 
Cartilage is destroyed in osteoarthritis (OA), putting pressure on bones and joints. 
In addition, some researchers think free radicals may also be involved in the destruction of cartilage. 
Antioxidants such as vitamin C appear to limit the damage caused by free radicals. 
However, no evidence suggests that taking vitamin C supplements will help treat or prevent OA. 
What the evidence does show is that people who eat diets rich in vitamin C are less likely to be diagnosed with arthritis.
Taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can lower your levels of vitamin C. 
If you take these drugs regularly for OA, you might want to take a vitamin C supplement.

Age-related Macular Degeneration
Vitamin C (500 mg) appears to work with other antioxidants, including zinc (80 mg), beta-carotene (15 mg), and vitamin E (400 IU) to protect the eyes against developing macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of legal blindness in people over 55 in the United States. 
The people who seem to benefit are those with advanced AMD. 
Ascorbic acid isn't known whether this combination of nutrients helps prevent AMD or is beneficial for people with less advanced AMD. 
This combination includes a high dose of zinc, which you should only take under a doctor’s supervision.

-Pre-eclampsia
Some studies suggest that taking vitamin C along with vitamin E may help prevent pre-eclampsia in women who are at high risk. 
Pre-eclampsia, characterized by high blood pressure and too much protein in the urine, is a common cause of premature births. Not all studies agree, however.

-Asthma
Studies are mixed when Ascorbic acid comes to the effect of vitamin C on asthma. 
Some show that low levels of vitamin C are more common in people with asthma, leading some researchers to think that low levels of vitamin C might increase the risk for this condition. 
Other studies seem to show that vitamin C may help reduce symptoms of exercise-induced asthma.

-Other
Although the information is limited, studies suggest that vitamin C may also be helpful for:
-Boosting immunity
-Maintaining healthy gums
-Improving vision for those with uveitis (an inflammation of the middle part of the eye)
-Treating allergy-related conditions, such as asthma, eczema, and hay fever (called allergic rhinitis)
-Reducing effects of sun exposure, such as sunburn or redness (called erythema)
-Alleviating dry mouth, particularly from antidepressant medications (a common side effect from these drugs)
-Healing burns and wounds
-Decreasing blood sugar in people with diabetes
Some viral conditions, including mononucleosis; Although scientific evidence is lacking, some doctors may suggest high-dose vitamin C to treat some viruses

-Dietary Sources
Excellent sources of vitamin C include oranges, green peppers, watermelon, papaya, grapefruit, cantaloupe, strawberries, kiwi, mango, broccoli, tomatoes, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage, and citrus juices or juices fortified with vitamin C. 
Raw and cooked leafy greens (turnip greens, spinach), red and green peppers, canned and fresh tomatoes, potatoes, winter squash, raspberries, blueberries, cranberries, and pineapple are also rich sources of vitamin C. 
Vitamin C is sensitive to light, air, and heat, so you'll get the most vitamin C if you eat fruits and vegetables raw or lightly cooked.

-Available Forms
You can purchase either natural or synthetic vitamin C, also called ascorbic acid, in a variety of forms. 
Tablets, capsules, and chewables are probably the most popular forms, but vitamin C also comes in powdered crystalline, effervescent, and liquid forms. 
Vitamin C comes in doses ranging from 25 - 1,000 mg.
"Buffered" vitamin C is also available if you find that regular ascorbic acid upsets your stomach. 
An esterified form of vitamin C is also available, which may be easier on the stomach for those who are prone to heartburn.

How to Take Ascorbic acid
The best way to take vitamin C supplements is 2 - 3 times per day, with meals, depending on the dosage. 
Some studies suggest that adults should take 250 - 500 mg twice a day for any benefit. 
Talk to your doctor before taking more than 1,000 mg of vitamin C on a daily basis and before giving vitamin C to a child.
Daily intake of dietary vitamin C (according to the National Academy of Sciences) is listed below.

Pediatric
Birth - 6 months: 40 mg (Adequate intake)
Infants 6 - 12 months: 50 mg (Adequate intake)
Children 1 - 3 years: 15 mg
Children 4 - 8 years: 25 mg
Children 9 - 13 years: 45 mg
Adolescent girls 14 - 18 years: 65 mg
Adolescent boys 14 - 18 years: 75 mg

Adult
Men over 18 years: 90 mg
Women over 18 years: 75 mg
Pregnant women 14 - 18 years: 80 mg
Pregnant women over 18 years: 85 mg
Breastfeeding women 14 - 18 years: 115 mg
Breastfeeding women over 18 years: 120 mg
Because smoking depletes vitamin C, people who smoke may need an additional 35 mg per day.
The dose recommended to prevent or treat many of the conditions mentioned in the Uses section is often 500 - 1,000 mg per day.

Precautions
Because of the potential for side effects and interactions with medications, you should take dietary supplements only under the supervision of a knowledgeable health care provider.
Vitamin C supplements have a diuretic effect, meaning the help the body get rid of excess fluid. 
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids when taking them.
Most commercial vitamin C is made from corn. 
People sensitive to corn should look for alternative sources, such as sago palm.
Vitamin C increases the amount of iron absorbed from foods. 
People with hemochromatosis, an inherited condition where too much iron builds up in the body, should not take vitamin C supplements.
Vitamin C is generally considered safe because your body gets rid of what it does not use. 
But at high doses (more than 2,000 mg daily) it can cause diarrhea, gas, or stomach upset. 
If you experience these side effects, lower the dose of vitamin C.
People with kidney problems should talk to their doctor before taking vitamin C.
People who smoke or use nicotine patches may need more vitamin C because nicotine makes vitamin C less effective in the body.

Infants born to mothers taking 6,000 mg or more of vitamin C may develop rebound scurvy because their intake of vitamin C drops after birth. 
If you are pregnant, talk to your doctor before taking more than 1,000 mg of vitamin C.
People with sickle cell anemia, as well as people with a metabolic disorder called G6PD, can potentially have serious side-effects from taking high levels of vitamin C.
Thalassemia and Hemochromatosis patients could be negatively affected by increased iron absorption, which may occur from vitamin C supplementation.
Vitamin C may raise blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. 
In older women with diabetes, doses of vitamin C above 300 mg per day were associated with an increased risk of death from heart disease.
Taking vitamin C right before or after angioplasty may interfere with healing.
If you are being treated for cancer, talk to your oncologist before taking vitamin C. 
Vitamin C may potentially interact with some chemotherapy drugs.

Possible Interactions
If you are being treated with any of the following medications, you should not use vitamin C supplements without first talking to your health care provider:
Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) -- Both aspirin and NSAIDs can lower the amount of vitamin C in the body because they cause more of the vitamin to be lost in urine. 
In addition, high doses of vitamin C can cause more of these drugs to stay in the body, raising the levels in your blood. 
Early research suggests that vitamin C might help protect against stomach upset that aspirin and NSAIDs can cause. 
If you regularly take aspirin or NSAIDs, talk to your doctor before taking more than the recommended daily allowance of vitamin C.
Acetaminophen (Tylenol) -- High doses of vitamin C may lower the amount of acetaminophen passed in urine, which could cause the levels of this drug in your blood to rise.
Aluminum-containing antacids -- Vitamin C can increase the amount of aluminum your body absorbs, which could cause the side effects of these medications to be worse. 
Aluminum-containing antacids include Maalox and Gaviscon.
Barbiturates -- Barbiturates may decrease the effects of vitamin C. 
These drugs include phenobarbital (Luminal), pentobarbital (Nembutal), and seconobarbital (Seconal).
Chemotherapy drugs -- As an antioxidant, vitamin C may interfere with the effects of some drugs taken for chemotherapy. 
However, some researchers speculate that vitamin C might help make chemotherapy more effective. 
If you are undergoing chemotherapy, do not take vitamin C or any other supplement without talking to your oncologist.
Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) -- Vitamin C can cause a rise in estrogen levels when taken with these drugs. 
Oral estrogens can also decrease the effects of vitamin C in the body.
Protease inhibitors -- Vitamin C appears to slightly lower levels of indinavir (Crixivan), a medication used to treat HIV and AIDS.
Tetracycline -- Some evidence suggests that taking vitamin C with the antibiotic tetracycline may increase the levels of this medication. 
It may also decrease the effects of vitamin C in the body. 
Other antibiotics in the same family include minocycline (Minocin) and doxycycline (Vibramycin).
Warfarin (Coumadin) -- There have been rare reports of vitamin C interfering with the effectiveness of this blood-thinning medication. 
In recent follow-up studies, no effect was found with doses of vitamin C up to 1,000 mg per day. 
However, if you take warfarin or another blood thinner, talk to your doctor before taking vitamin C or any other supplement.

ascorbic acid
vitamin C
l-ascorbic acid
50-81-7
L(+)-Ascorbic acid
ascorbate
Cevitamic acid
Ascoltin
Ascorbicap
Cenolate
Natrascorb
Hybrin
Allercorb
Ascorbajen

Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin. 
Unlike most mammals and other animals, humans do not have the ability to synthesize vitamin C and must obtain it from the diet.
Vitamin C is an essential cofactor in numerous enzymatic reactions, e.g., in the biosynthesis of collagen, carnitine, and neuropeptides, and in the regulation of gene expression. 
Ascorbic acid is also a potent antioxidant. 
Prospective cohort studies indicate that higher vitamin C status, assessed by measuring circulating vitamin C, is associated with lower risks of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and stroke. 
There is some evidence to suggest that vitamin C may be a useful adjunct to conventional medical practice to reduce myocardial injury and arrhythmia following a cardiac procedure or surgery in patients with cardiovascular disease.
There are insufficient data to suggest a link between vitamin C status and the risk of developing a given type of cancer. 
Most observational studies examining vitamin C intake in relation to cancer incidence have found no association. 
Randomized controlled trials have reported no effect of vitamin C supplementation on cancer risk. 
Current evidence of the efficacy of intravenous vitamin C in cancer patients is limited to observational studies, uncontrolled interventions, and case reports. 
There is a need for large, longer-duration phase II clinical trials that test the efficacy of intravenous vitamin C in cancer progression and overall survival. 
Overall, regular use of vitamin C supplements shortens the duration of the common cold but does not reduce the risk of becoming ill. 
Taking supplements once cold symptoms have already begun has no proven benefits.
Vitamin C supplements are available in many forms, but there is little scientific evidence that any one form is better absorbed or more effective than another. 
There is no scientific evidence that large amounts of vitamin C (up to 10 grams [g]/day in adults) exert any adverse or toxic effects. 
An upper intake level of 2 g/day is recommended in order to prevent some adults from experiencing diarrhea and gastrointestinal disturbances.
Supplemental vitamin C increases urinary oxalate concentrations, but whether an increase in urinary oxalate elevates the risk for kidney stones is not yet known. 
Those predisposed for kidney stone formation may consider avoiding high-dose (≥1 g/day) vitamin C supplementation.  

Function
Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) is a potent reducing agent, meaning that it readily donates electrons to recipient molecules. 
Related to this oxidation-reduction (redox) potential, two major functions of vitamin C are as an antioxidant and as an enzyme cofactor.
Vitamin C is the primary water-soluble, non-enzymatic antioxidant in plasma and tissues. 
Even in small amounts, vitamin C can protect indispensable molecules in the body, such as proteins, lipids (fats), carbohydrates, and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), from damage by free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are generated during normal metabolism, by active immune cells, and through exposure to toxins and pollutants (e.g., certain chemotherapy drugs and cigarette smoke). 
Vitamin C also participates in redox recycling of other important antioxidants; for example, vitamin C is known to regenerate vitamin E from its oxidized form.
The role of vitamin C as a cofactor is also related to its redox potential.
By maintaining enzyme-bound metals in their reduced forms, vitamin C assists mixed-function oxidases in the synthesis of several critical biomolecules.
These enzymes are either monooxygenases or dioxygenases. 
Symptoms of vitamin C deficiency, such as poor wound healing and lethargy, likely result from the impairment of these vitamin C-dependent enzymatic reactions leading to the insufficient synthesis of collagen, carnitine, and catecholamines (see Deficiency). 
Moreover, several dioxygenases involved in the regulation of gene expression and the maintenance of genome integrity require vitamin C as a cofactor. 
Indeed, research has recently uncovered the crucial role played by enzymes, such as the TET dioxygenases and Jumonji domain-containing histone demethylases, in the fate of cells and tissues. 
These enzymes contribute to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression by catalyzing reactions involved in the demethylation of DNA and histones.

M.Wt: 176.12
Formula: C6H8O6
Solubility: Soluble to 500 mM in water and to 100 mM in DMSO
Purity: ≥99%
Storage: Store at RT
CAS No: 50-81-7

Ascorbutina
Ascorteal
Cescorbat
Cetemican
Cevitamin
Citriscorb
Laroscorbine
Lemascorb
Proscorbin
Roscorbic
Secorbate
Testascorbic
Vitacimin
Vitamisin
Vitascorbol
Ascorin
Ascorvit
Cantaxin
Cebicure
Cebione
Cegiolan

Ascorbic acid is vitamin C, an antioxidant that’s sometimes used as a dietary supplement or to prevent and treat scurvy (a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in the body).  
People also commonly take vitamin C to lessen the severity of symptoms associated with the common cold.
Vitamin C is important for maintaining healthy bones, teeth, connective tissue, muscles, skin, and capillaries. 
Ascorbic acid also helps your body absorb iron.
Many foods are naturally high in vitamin C, including citrus fruits, leafy vegetables, and tomatoes.

Ascorbic acid BENEFITS:
-Provides advanced environmental protection by neutralizing damaging free radicals
-Visible anti-aging benefits, such as the improvement of the appearance of lines and wrinkles, loss of firmness, and brightens skin’s complexion
-Neutralizes free radicals on the upper layer of the skin to help prevent the impact of ozone damage to skin
-Once absorbed, this vitamin C serum remains effective for a minimum of 72 hours
-Paraben-free and ideal for normal, dry, and sensitive skin types
-Tested suitable for use post-laser, always consult with a physician for individual post-procedure care

Your body uses extra vitamin C during times of increased need such as illness or infection so unless extra care is taken to increase dietary intake during these times, daily supplies are likely to fall short. 
This is when supplemental vitamin C may be a useful addition to your diet.
-Ascorbic acid is the form of vitamin C found naturally in food. 
Ascorbic acid has good bioavailability but some people find it too acidic on their gut and can’t tolerate higher doses.
-Bioflavonoids are beneficial plant compounds often added to vitamin C supplements. 
They deliver extra immune benefits and may help to increase bioavailability.
-Mineral ascorbates such as calcium and magnesium ascorbate are often called ‘buffered’ vitamin C. 
Many people find these to be gentler forms of vitamin C that are better tolerated by the gut. 
Ascorbic acid is important however to consider the accompanying dose of mineral (calcium, magnesium etc.) when taking higher levels.
-Time-release vitamin C is often the preferred choice since vitamin C has better bioavailability when taken in smaller doses throughout the day. 
A time-release formula aims to solve this problem without taking multiple tablets, by releasing the vitamin C slowly throughout the day.

What is Ascorbic acid?
Ascorbic Acid, also known as Vitamin C, is a naturally occurring organic compound with antioxidant properties found in many foods like citrus fruits, tomatoes, and red peppers.  
Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient for the human body and also a common dietary supplement.
Historically, Ascorbic acid was common knowledge to sailors in the 18th century that lemon and lime juice could help prevent scurvy. 
By early 1907, two Norwegian physicians investigating dietary-deficiency diseases discovered an essential disease-preventing compound in foods, which eventually came to be called vitamin C.

What does Ascorbic acid do?
Ascorbic acid’s primary function in our personal care products is as an antioxidant. 
While ascorbic acid when taken as a supplement helps prevent cell damage in the human body, the antioxidant properties in the finished product help to protect the product integrity and extend the shelf life of the product. 
Ascorbic acid can also be used as a pH adjuster.

How is Ascorbic acid made?
Our Stewardship Model guides us to select ingredients which have been processed in a manner that supports our philosophy of human and environmental health.
Ascorbic acid can be sourced from citrus fruits or prepared from corn glucose by a method based on the historical “Reichstein process”. The ascorbic acid that we use is derived from citrus fruits.

What are the alternatives?
There are many ingredients with antioxidant properties, including vitamin E – another commonly used natural antioxidant. There are also many synthetic antioxidants like butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) that Tom’s of Maine would not consider as they do not meet our Stewardship Model guidelines.

Ceglion
Celaskon
Cemagyl
Cenetone
Cergona
Cetamid
Cevalin
Cevatine
Cevimin
Cevital
Cevitan
Cevitex
Colascor
Concemin
Redoxon
Vicelat
Viforcit
Viscorin
Vitacee
Vitacin
Adenex

Ascorbic acid (ascorbic acid) is a nutrient your body needs to form blood vessels, cartilage, muscle and collagen in bones. 
Vitamin C is also vital to your body's healing process.
Ascorbic acid is an antioxidant that helps protect your cells against the effects of free radicals — molecules produced when your body breaks down food or is exposed to tobacco smoke and radiation from the sun, X-rays or other sources. 
Free radicals might play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases. 
Vitamin C also helps your body absorb and store iron.
Because your body doesn't produce vitamin C, you need to get it from your diet. 
Ascorbic acid is found in citrus fruits, berries, potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli and spinach. 
Vitamin C is also available as an oral supplement, typically in the form of capsules and chewable tablets.
Most people get enough vitamin C from a healthy diet. 
Ascorbic acid deficiency is more likely in people who:

Smoke or are exposed to secondhand smoking
Have certain gastrointestinal conditions or certain types of cancer
Have a limited diet that doesn't regularly include fruits and vegetables
Severe vitamin C deficiency can lead to a disease called scurvy, which causes anemia, bleeding gums, bruising and poor wound healing.

If you take vitamin C for its antioxidant properties, keep in mind that the supplement might not offer the same benefits as naturally occurring antioxidants in food.
The recommended daily amount of vitamin C is 90 milligrams for adult men and 75 milligrams for adult women.

Ascorb
Cantan
Cebid
Cebion
Cecon
Cemill
Cereon
Cevex
Ciamin
Cipca
Hicee
Ribena
Vitace

What are the possible side effects of Ascorbic Acid?
Ascorbic Acid may cause serious side effects including:
-nausea,
-vomiting,
-heartburn,
-stomach cramps, and
-headache
Get medical help right away, if you have any of the symptoms listed above.

L-Ascorbic acid is an inhibitor of Cav3.2 channels (IC50 = 6.5 μM); displays no effect on Cav3.1 or Cav3.3 channels heterologously expressed in HEK 293 cells. 
Also enhances the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from mouse and human somatic cells by increasing reprogramming efficiency. 
Commonly used antifade reagent in live cell microscopy. 
Naturally occurring antioxidant.

Xitix
L-ascorbate
Davitamon C
Arco-cee
Planavit C
Catavin C
Ce lent
Liqui-Cee
Vicomin C
Cee-Vite
Cevi-Bid
Scorbu-C
C-Level
C-Vimin
Cetane-Caps TD
Duoscorb
Scorbacid
Cewin
Antiscorbic vitamin
C-Long

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, has several important functions.
Ascorbic acid include:
-helping to protect cells and keeping them healthy
-maintaining healthy skin, blood vessels, bones and cartilage
-helping with wound healing
-Lack of vitamin C can lead to scurvy.

Good sources of vitamin C
Vitamin C is found in a wide variety of fruit and vegetables.

Good sources include:
-citrus fruit, such as oranges and orange juice
-peppers
-strawberries
-blackcurrants
-broccoli
-brussels sprouts
-potatoes

How much vitamin C do I need?
Adults aged 19 to 64 need 40mg of vitamin C a day.

You should be able to get all the vitamin C you need from your daily diet.
Vitamin C cannot be stored in the body, so you need it in your diet every day.

What happens if I take too much vitamin C?
Taking large amounts (more than 1,000mg per day) of vitamin C can cause:
-stomach pain
-diarrhoea
-flatulence
These symptoms should disappear once you stop taking vitamin C supplements.

What does the Department of Health and Social Care advise?
You should be able to get all the vitamin C you need by eating a varied and balanced diet.
If you take vitamin C supplements, do not take too much as this could be harmful.
Taking less than 1,000mg of vitamin C supplements a day is unlikely to cause any harm.

C-Quin
C-Span
Meri-C
Cee-Caps TD
L-Lyxoascorbic acid
L-Xyloascorbic acid
Antiscorbutic vitamin
Cetane-Caps TC
3-Oxo-L-gulofuranolactone
Ce-Mi-Lin
IDO-C
Natrascorb injectable
L-(+)-Ascorbic Acid
CE-VI-Sol
Ferrous ascorbate
Acidum ascorbinicum
Ascor-B.I.D.

What is the difference between Vitamin C and ascorbic acid?
Vitamin C and ascorbic acid are chemically identical. 
The vitamin C that occurs naturally in an orange or lemon is the same molecule as synthetic ascorbic acid developed in a laboratory.

What are the health benefits of ascorbic acid?
Ascorbic acid is also well studied for Ascorbic acids health benefits. 
Oregon State University’s Micronutrient Information Center states that the antioxidant properties of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and Ascorbic acids role in collagen synthesis make it a vital molecule for skin health.
According to NCI, dietary antioxidants like vitamin C can neutralize damage to cells caused by free radicals, which may play a role in the prevention of cancer and other health conditions.

Acidum ascorbicum
Celin
Dora-C-500
Kyselina askorbova
3-Keto-L-gulofuranolactone
Cortalex
Ferancee
Stuartinic
Tolfrinic
(R)-5-((S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl)-3,4-dihydroxyfuran-2(5H)-one
Acido ascorbico
Acide ascorbique
Antiscorbutic factor
L-3-Ketothreohexuronic acid lactone
L-Threoascorbic acid
Chromagen
Kyselina askorbova [Czech]

Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a water-soluble vitamin and a recognized antioxidant drug that is used topically in dermatology to treat and prevent the changes associated with photoaging, as well as for the treatment of hyperpigmentation. 
Ascorbic acid has neutralizing properties of free radicals, being able to interact with superoxide, hydroxyl and free oxygen ions, preventing the inflammatory processes, carcinogens, and other processes that accelerate photoaging in the skin. 
Current research focuses on the search for stable compounds of ascorbic acid and new alternatives for administration in the dermis. 
Unlike plants and most animals, humans do not have the ability to synthesize our own ascorbic acid due to the deficiency of the enzyme L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, which catalyzes the passage terminal in the ascorbic acid biosynthesis. 
To deal with this situation, humans obtain this vitamin from the diet and/or vitamin supplements, thus preventing the development of diseases and achieving general well-being. 
Ascorbic acid is involved in important metabolic functions and is vital for the growth and maintenance of healthy bones, teeth, gums, ligaments, and blood vessels. 
Ascorbic acid is a very unstable vitamin and is easily oxidized in aqueous solutions and cosmetic formulations. 
Ascorbic acid is extensively used as an ingredient in anti-aging cosmetic products, as sodium ascorbate or ascorbyl palmitate. 
This review discusses and describes the potential roles for ascorbic acid in skin health and their clinical applications (antioxidative, photoprotective, anti-aging, and anti-pigmentary effects) of topical ascorbic acid on the skin and main mechanisms of action. 
Considering the instability and difficulty in administering ascorbic acid, we also discuss the importance of several factors involved in the formulation and stabilization of their topical preparations in this review.

Caswell No. 061B
Vicin
Acide ascorbique [INN-French]
Acido ascorbico [INN-Spanish]
Acidum ascorbicum [INN-Latin]
Sodascorbate
Ascorbicin
NCI-C54808
L-threo-Hex-2-enonic acid, gamma-lactone
L-threo-Ascorbic acid
FEMA No. 2109
3-Oxo-L-gulofuranolactone (enol form)
UNII-PQ6CK8PD0R

Possible interactions include:
Aluminum: 
Taking vitamin C can increase your absorption of aluminum from medications containing aluminum, such as phosphate binders. 
This can be harmful for people with kidney problems.
Chemotherapy:
There is concern that use of antioxidants, such as vitamin C, during chemotherapy might reduce the effect of chemotherapy drugs.
Estrogen:
Taking vitamin C with oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy might increase your estrogen levels.
Protease inhibitors:
Oral use of vitamin C might reduce the effect of these antiviral drugs.
Statins and niacin: 
When taken with vitamin C, the effects of niacin and statins, which might benefit people with high cholesterol, could be reduced.
Warfarin (Jantoven):
High doses of vitamin C might reduce your response to this anticoagulant.

monodehydro-L-ascorbic acid
MFCD00064328
Cetebe
Ascorbin
(+)-Ascorbic acid
Hex-2-enonic acid gamma-lactone, L-threo-
Iron(II) ascorbate
PQ6CK8PD0R
component of E and C-Level
component of Endoglobin Forte
Vasc
Ascorbicab
CHEBI:29073
CCRIS 57
component of Cortalex
component of Ferancee
HSDB 818
NCGC00164357-01
E300
DSSTox_CID_106
E-300
hex-1-enofuranos-3-ulose
Iron-ascorbic acid complexes
DSSTox_RID_75370
DSSTox_GSID_20106
Kangbingfeng
Chewcee

Ascorbic acid—also known as L-ascorbic acid—has the most research of any form of vitamin C when it comes to skin, and in fact is the most abundant naturally occurring antioxidant in our skin. 
Concentrations between 5–20% can improve numerous the appearance of signs of aging, including discolorations, wrinkles, and loss of firmness due to sun damage. 
Lower concentrations such as those between 0.3–2% also offer benefits, such as improvement of uneven skin tone, fine lines, and boosting skin’s antioxidant supply.
Ascorbic acid is also a powerhouse when mixed with other antioxidants, especially vitamin E, and is particularly great for evening out skin tone when used alone in higher concentrations, such as 15%, 20%, or greater. 
Vitamins C and E work together to keep each other stabilized and able to exert their benefits in skin longer.
In order to be most effective in higher concentrations, any water-based vitamin C formula’s pH should be 3.5 or lower. 
This helps improve stability and permeability of ascorbic acid, allowing it to do more than work as an antioxidant.
Ascorbic acid is a particularly vulnerable antioxidant when exposed to UV light and air, so it must be packaged to protect it from these elements during routine use. 
If not, its effectiveness will gradually become diminished to the point of not working at all. 
You will see this as discoloration from oxidation which causes the product to turn a copper to brownish color. 
For this reason, avoid any vitamin C (ascorbic acid) products packaged in traditional, open-mouthed jars or clear bottles.
Dropper-based dispenser-type packaging should also have air-restrictive capabilities to improve stability. 
And for maximum potency, it’s best to use a water-based vitamin C treatment within 3 months of opening. 
With once-daily usage, most people will find they go through their vitamin C product within a couple months.
Considered safe as used in cosmetics, ascorbic acid is also fine to use with retinol and niacinamide without any of these ingredients causing the other to break down or lose effectiveness beyond what would normally occur due to air and light exposure, which is why ingredients like these need to be routinely applied.

Citrovit
Juvamine
6730-29-6
Ceklin
L(+)-Ascorbic acid, 99%
(+)-Sodium L-ascorbate
Rovimix C
Scorbu C
Ascorbinsaeure
Parentrovite
Cell C
L(+)-Ascorbic acid, ACS reagent
Viscorin 100M
(2R)-2-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-2H-furan-5-one
Ronotec 100
Suncoat VC 40
(5R)-5-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-one
Rontex 100
Ascorbicap (TN)
Xyloascorbic acid, L-
Ascoltin (TN)

Ascorbic Acid is a naturally occurring lactone that is produced by plants and many animals, but not humans or other primates. 
Ascorbic acid acts as an electron donor (i.e. reducing agent), and shows antioxidant activity, particularly against reactive oxygen species. 
Ascorbic Acid is a cofactor for monooxygenase and dioxygenase as well as other enzymes (Arrigoni & De Tullio; Du et al.).

Ascorbic acid REPROGRAMMING
-Increases the efficiency of reprogramming mouse and human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells (Esteban et al.) partly through JHDM1 histone demethylase activity (Wang et al.).
-Prevents aberrant DNA methylation of the Dlk1-Dio3 locus during reprogramming of mouse somatic cells to iPS cells (Stadtfeld et al.).

Ascorbic acid MAINTENANCE AND SELF-RENEWAL
-Supports proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (Choi et al.).

Ascorbic acid DIFFERENTIATION
-Promotes differentiation of osteoblasts from human and mouse mesenchymal cells (Pittenger et al.; Tropel et al.).
-Promotes differentiation of osteoblasts from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells (zur Nieden et al.).
-Enhances differentiation of cardiomyocytes from mouse ES cells (Takahashi et al.).

Some notes on ascorbic acid
Ascorbic acid is an unnecessary additive, which can weaken the gluten in longer-fermented doughs.
One of its functions is to help ‘convey the impression of improved freshness to the customer.
We believe that bakers improving their knowledge and skills to get the most out of natural ingredients is more beneficial all round than falling back on an artificial additive
By helping gluten to ‘relax’ it can have the incidental effect of increasing the speed of rising, which is moving in the wrong direction of our aim to encouraging bakers to prolong dough fermentation

What are the possible side effects of ascorbic acid?
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Stop using ascorbic acid and call your doctor at once if you have:
joint pain, weakness or tired feeling, weight loss, stomach pain;
chills, fever, increased urge to urinate, painful or difficult urination; or
severe pain in your side or lower back, blood in your urine.
Common side effects may include:

heartburn, upset stomach; or
nausea, diarrhea, stomach cramps.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. 
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. 

What is the most important information I should know about ascorbic acid?
Follow all directions on your medicine label and package. 
Tell each of your healthcare providers about all your medical conditions, allergies, and all medicines you use.

[14C]ascorbic acid
Ascorbic acid [BAN:INN:JAN]
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
[14C]-ascorbic acid
ascorbic acid (vit C)
L-Ascorbic acid, meets USP testing specifications
2-(1,2-Dihydroxyethyl)-4,5-dihydroxyfuran-3-one
299-36-5
EINECS 200-066-2
NSC 33832
Cevitamate
Ascor
L-lyxoascorbate
L-xyloascorbate
.Ascorbinsaure
NSC-33832
Vitamin B mixture with vitamin C
3eka
NSC-218455
Ester C
Ester-C
(+)-ascorbate
L(+)-ascorbate

Isn’t ascorbic acid just vitamin C?
Consuming the ascorbic acid that can be used in baking does not provide the beneficial effects of vitamin C found in, say, an orange as it is:
-Used in far smaller quantities than the recommended daily intake
-Largely denatured (or degraded) and its residues no longer have any beneficial properties of vitamin C
-A highly-refined substance, without the many complex bioflavonoids and other beneficial micronutrients that accompany vitamin C in fresh fruit
Like many processing aids and other food additives, is it not destroyed (as industrial loaf fabricators sometimes like to claim about such things) in the sense that its residues remain in the loaf.

How do I know if there’s ascorbic acid in flour or a loaf?
All bakers using The Real Bread Loaf Mark have signed an agreement that they will only use it for loaves baked without the use of any artificial additives or processing aids.
By law, any mill that has added ascorbic acid (E300) to its flour or baking mixes has to declare so on the label – you will find it on the ingredients, perhaps alongside other unnecessary extras, such as added enzymes… 
The same applies to wrapped loaves and other pre-packed baked goods – though if deemed by the producer to be ‘processing aids’ the added enzymes would not have to appear on a loaf wrapper.
At present, bakers and retailers do not have to provide ingredients lists for unwrapped loaves. 
As noted in our call for an Honest Crust Act, we demand a change in law to require that they do and in the meantime urge all bakers to do so voluntarily.  

L-threo-hex-2-enono-1,4-lactone
L-Ascorbic acid, free radical form
L-(+)-ascorbate
Ascorbic acid [USP:INN:BAN:JAN]
Ascorbic acid mixture with Vitamin B
Vitamin C,(S)
E 300
178101-88-7
PubChem18445
Ascorbic Acid DC97SF
(2R)-2-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-4,5-dihydroxyfuran-3-one
(5R)-5-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-3,4-dihydroxyfuran-2(5H)-one
Prestwick3_000325
L-Ascorbic acid, 99%
Ascorbic Acid mixture with Vitamin B Complex
ASCOR (TN)
SCHEMBL785
bmse000182
SCHEMBL4430

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid, ascorbate) has a controversial history in cancer treatment. 
Emerging evidence indicates that ascorbate in cancer treatment deserves re-examination. 
As research results concerning ascorbate pharmacokinetics and its mechanisms of action against tumor cells have been published, and as evidence from case studies has continued to mount that ascorbate therapy could be effective if the right protocols were used, interest among physicians and scientists has increased. 
In this review, high-dose vitamin C therapy in cancer treatment is re-evaluated.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid, ascorbate) has been well documented to reduce the incidence of most malignancies in humans. 
What has been hotly debated is whether vitamin C has any therapeutic effect in the treatment of cancer. 
Cameron and Pauling reported in 1976 and 1978 that high-dose vitamin C (typically 10 g/day, by intravenous infusion for about 10 days and orally thereafter) increased the average survival of advanced cancer patients and for a small group of responders, survival was increased to up to 20 times longer than that of controls. 
Other researchers reported benefit consisting of increased survival, improved well-being and reduced pain. 
However, two randomized clinical trials with oral ascorbate conducted by the Mayo Clinic showed no benefit. 
These negative results dampened, but did not permanently extinguish, interest in ascorbate therapy or research. 
Some research groups conducted rigorous research, particularly in the area of administering mega-doses of ascorbate intravenously 

L-Ascorbic acid, FCC, FG
BSPBio_000329
(r)-5-(1,2-dihydroxy-ethyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5h-furan-2-one
MLS002153776
CHEMBL40274
BPBio1_000363
GTPL4532
GTPL4781
INS NO.300
L-Ascorbic acid, reagent grade
DTXSID5020106
L-Ascorbic acid, >=99.0%
DTXSID50986567
INS-300

How does Vitamin C work for our skin?
Generally, vitamin C helps brighten skin tone, even out skin texture, and smooth out fine lines and wrinkles. 
Ascorbic acid’s also known as the MVP of protecting the skin against free radicals and UV ray damage from the sun because of its high levels of antioxidants. 
When you look closely in the deeper layers of the skin, vitamin C is responsible for stimulating production of collagen and elastin, which are essential in keeping your skin bouncy, firm, and youthful. 

Unfortunately, with many benefits comes some disadvantages. 
In some cases, pure ascorbic acid is irritating to work with, especially for sensitive skin types. 
In other cases, ascorbic acid itself is an unstable ingredient. 
This means that it is highly sensitive to environmental factors such as temperature, light, humidity, and air. 
This sensitivity eventually translates to loss in efficacy over time and a potential to go bad in a short period of time. 
But this doesn’t mean that you should turn away from it right away! 
There is a lot of scientific evidence that shows vitamin C being an effective ingredient for helping the skin. 
Since Ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid can be very unstable and potent, it can be quite irritating to some people, especially if you have sensitive skin. 
Luckily, there are many products formulated using Vitamin C derivatives. 
But to sum it up, the derivatives are very stable and can provide similar effects as ascorbic acid: from brightening the skin to delivering antioxidants for protecting the skin against the sun. 
Some of the common derivative ingredients include tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate (THD), magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (MAP), and ascorbyl glucoside. 
There’s also derivatives like bis-glyceryl ascorbate and 3-O ethyl ascorbic acid that may also appear as an ingredient in your skincare products. 

Ascorbic acid (JP17/USP/INN)
HMS2096A11
HMS2231N16
HMS3713A11
L-Ascorbic acid ACS reagent grade
(2R)-2-[(1S)-1,2-Dihydroxyethyl]-4,5-dihydroxy-furan-3-one
BCP27915
HY-B0166
Tox21_110315
Tox21_112104
Tox21_202127

Ascorbic acid
Ascorbic acid is by far one of the known forms of vitamin C. 
Ascorbic acid is a water-soluble vitamin that helps keep our skin, hair, and bones healthy. 
Most fruits and vegetables contain ascorbic acid, and its drug form helps treat those who have vitamin C deficiency, scurvy, delayed wound, and bone healing.

Tox21_302958
ANW-73969
gamma-lactone L-threo-Hex-2-enonate
L-Ascorbic acid, analytical standard
L-Ascorbic acid, AR, >=99.5%
s3114
AKOS016843589
Tox21_112104_1
ZINC100006770
ZINC100019304
CCG-207946
DB00126
L-Ascorbic acid, mixt. with vitamin B
NSC 218455
gamma-lactone L-threo-Hex-2-enonic acid
L-Ascorbic acid, ACS reagent, >=99%
NCGC00091517-01
NCGC00091517-02
NCGC00091517-03
NCGC00091517-06
NCGC00188972-01
NCGC00256504-01
NCGC00259676-01
53262-66-1
BP-12831
SMR001233160

Is a glass of OJ or vitamin C tablets your go-to when the sniffles come? Loading up on this vitamin was a practice spurred by Linus Pauling in the 1970s, a double Nobel laureate and self-proclaimed champion of vitamin C who promoted daily megadoses (the amount in 12 to 24 oranges) as a way to prevent colds and some chronic diseases.
Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin. 
This means that Ascorbic acid dissolves in water and is delivered to the body’s tissues but is not well stored, so it must be taken daily through food or supplements. 
Even before its discovery in 1932, nutrition experts recognized that something in citrus fruits could prevent scurvy, a disease that killed as many as two million sailors between 1500 and 1800.
Vitamin C plays a role in controlling infections and healing wounds, and is a powerful antioxidant that can neutralize harmful free radicals. 
Ascorbic acid is needed to make collagen, a fibrous protein in connective tissue that is weaved throughout various systems in the body: nervous, immune, bone, cartilage, blood, and others. 
The vitamin helps make several hormones and chemical messengers used in the brain and nerves.

L-Ascorbic acid, plant cell culture tested
AB0010512
L-Ascorbic acid, reagent grade, crystalline
A0537
A8158
AB00376923
Ascorbic Acid (L-Ascorbic Acid; Vitamin C)
SW198791-2
L-Ascorbic acid, BioUltra, >=99.5% (RT)
L-Ascorbic acid, tested according to Ph.Eur.
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3466-EP2272844A1

Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid or simply ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. 
Humans, unlike most animals, are unable to synthesize vitamin C endogenously, so it is an essential dietary component. 
Vitamin C is required for the enzymatic amidation of neuropeptides, production of adrenal cortical steroid hormones, promotion of the conversion of tropocollagen to collagen, and metabolism of tyrosine and folate. 
Ascorbic acid also plays a role in lipid and vitamin metabolism and is a powerful reducing agent or antioxidant. 
Specific actions include: activation of detoxifying enzymes in the liver, antioxidation, interception and destruction of free radicals, preservation and restoration of the antioxidant potential of vitamin E, and blockage of the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines. 
In addition, vitamin C appears to function in a variety of other metabolic processes in which its role has not been well characterized.
Prolonged deficiency of vitamin C leads to the development of scurvy, a disease characterized by an inability to form adequate intercellular substance in connective tissues. 
This results in the formation of swollen, ulcerative lesions in the gums, mouth, and other tissues that are structurally weakened. 
Early symptoms may include weakness, easy fatigue and listlessness, as well as shortness of breath, and aching joints, bones, and muscles.
The need for vitamin C can be increased by the use of aspirin, oral contraceptives, tetracycline, and a variety of other medications. 
Psychological stress and advancing age also tend to increase the need for vitamin C. 
Among the elderly, lack of fresh fruit and vegetables often adds vitamin C depletion to the inherently increased need, with development of near-scurvy status.

Ascorbate is transported across the plasma membrane via a Na+-dependent transporter enriched in neuroendocrine tissue, SVCT2. 
How cytosolic ascorbate reaches the lumen of the secretory pathway is currently unclear. 
Nevertheless, concentrations of ascorbate are 5- to 10-fold higher in the lumen of the secretory pathway than in the cytosol. 
The millimolar concentrations of ascorbate in the lumenal compartment ensure that lumenal copper is reduced, as required for the enzymatic cleavage of molecular oxygen by PHM. 
In this oxidation–reduction reaction, PHM converts 2 mol of ascorbate into 2 mol of semidehydroascorbate, which disproportionate to form dehydroascorbate and ascorbate. 
Other single-electron reductants can substitute for ascorbate to provide reducing equivalents for Cu2+; consistent with this, no ascorbate-specific binding site has been identified on PHM.

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What is the most important information I should know about ascorbic acid?
Follow all directions on your medicine label and package. 
Tell each of your healthcare providers about all your medical conditions, allergies, and all medicines you use.

What is ascorbic acid?
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) occurs naturally in foods such as citrus fruit, tomatoes, potatoes, and leafy vegetables. 
Vitamin C is important for bones and connective tissues, muscles, and blood vessels. 
Vitamin C also helps the body absorb iron, which is needed for red blood cell production.

Ascorbic acid is used to treat and prevent vitamin C deficiency.
Ascorbic acid may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking ascorbic acid?
You should not use ascorbic acid if you have ever had an allergic reaction to a vitamin C supplement.

Ask a doctor or pharmacist about using ascorbic acid if you have:
-kidney disease or a history of kidney stones;
-hereditary iron overload disorder (hematochromatosis); or
-if you smoke (smoking can make ascorbic acid less effective).
Your dose needs may be different during pregnancy or while you are breast-feeding a baby. 
Do not use ascorbic acid without your doctor's advice in either case.

Major Food Sources
-Strawberries
-Broccoli
-Kiwi
-Oranges
-Green or red peppers
-Cantaloupe
-Tomato juice
-Avacado
-Baked potato
-Green peas
-Spinach

Health Implications
Populations at Risk for Vitamin C Deficiency
The following populations may be at risk for vitamin C deficiency and may require a supplement:

People who smoke cigarettes—Due to an increased metabolic turnover of vitamin C, smokers have lower blood vitamin C levels. 
Ascorbic acid is recommended that smokers take 35 mg more per day than the applicable RDA.
People who drink excessive amounts of alcohol—This may, in part, be due to a nutritionally inadequate diet.
The elderly—Studies have shown that older adults have lower levels of serum vitamin C. 
This may be due to a diet lacking in essential nutrients.
Infants—Feeding babies evaporated or boiled milk can cause vitamin C deficiency. 
This is because heat can destroy the vitamin C found in cow's milk.
People with limited variety in their diet—People whose diets are affected by poverty; food faddists; and people with mental illness may not prepare meals that contain a variety of foods to obtain enough vitamin C.
People with malabsorption and certain chronic diseases—Those with certain medical conditions like severe intestinal malabsorption, renal disease, or cancer may not be able to absorb enough vitamin C.

Antioxidant Capabilities
Free radicals are normal by-products of metabolism, but they can cause chain reactions that result in cell damage. 
This cell damage can, in turn, increase the risk of chronic diseases, including certain forms of cancer and cardiovascular disease.
Antioxidants have the ability to stop this chain reaction. 
Vitamin C functions in the body as an antioxidant. 
Because of this antioxidant capability, vitamin C is being studied for a possible role in prevention of certain conditions like age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. 
Currently there is not sufficient evidence to recommend vitamin C for any of these conditions.

Respiratory Infections
Many people believe that taking mega-doses of vitamin C will cure a cold.
There is no scientific evidence to support this idea in the general population. 
However, there may be some preventative benefit in people exposed to extreme physical stress, cold environments, or those not getting enough vitamin C normally. 
Studies have found that taking vitamin C daily may help slightly reduce the symptoms and the duration of a cold. 
But taking vitamin C after the onset of the cold does not appear to effect the course of the illness. 
In addition, a review of studies on vitamin C found that it may be able to prevent and treat pneumonia, particularly in people who do not get enough vitamin C in their diet.

Tips For Increasing Your Vitamin C Intake:
To help increase your intake of vitamin C:
-Serve fruits and vegetables raw whenever possible.
-Leave the skin on potatoes and sweet potatoes.
-Add sliced strawberries, mango, or kiwi to your breakfast cereal.
-Use mashed avocado in place of mayonnaise as a sandwich spread.
-Throw snow peas in your stir-fry.
-Replace your morning coffee with a glass of orange or grapefruit juice.
-If you take a vitamin supplement, make sure it contains vitamin C.

3466-EP2284153A2
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Vitamin C absorption and megadosing
The intestines have a limited ability to absorb vitamin C. Studies have shown that absorption of vitamin C decreases to less than 50% when taking amounts greater than 1000 mg. 
In generally healthy adults, megadoses of vitamin C are not toxic because once the body’s tissues become saturated with vitamin C, absorption decreases and any excess amount will be excreted in urine. 
However, adverse effects are possible with intakes greater than 3000 mg daily, including reports of diarrhea, increased formation of kidney stones in those with existing kidney disease or history of stones, increased levels of uric acid (a risk factor for gout), and increased iron absorption and overload in individuals with hemochromatosis, a hereditary condition causing excessive iron in the blood.
Absorption does not differ if obtaining the vitamin from food or supplements. 
Vitamin C is sometimes given as an injection into a vein (intravenous) so higher amounts can directly enter the bloodstream. 
This is usually only seen in medically monitored settings, such as to improve the quality of life in those with advanced stage cancers or in controlled clinical studies. 
Though clinical trials have not shown high-dose intravenous vitamin C to produce negative side effects, it should be administered only with close monitoring and avoided in those with kidney disease and hereditary conditions like hemochromatosis and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

Vitamin C is involved with numerous metabolic reactions in the body, and obtaining the RDA or slightly higher may be protective against certain disease states. 
However, a health benefit of taking larger amounts has not been found in people who are generally healthy and well-nourished. 
Cell studies have shown that at very high concentrations, vitamin C can switch roles and act as a tissue-damaging pro-oxidant instead of an antioxidant.
Ascorbic acids effects in humans at very high doses well beyond the RDA are unclear, and can lead to increased risk of kidney stones and digestive upset.

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Ascorbic acid is another name for vitamin C.
One dose a day of 25-75 mg is sufficient to prevent vitamin C deficiency. 
Higher doses are sometimes prescribed by doctors to treat a condition called scurvy (although this occurs only rarely in the UK).
Some ascorbic acid tablets should be chewed before they are swallowed and others need to be dissolved in water first.

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vitamin C, also called ascorbic acid, water-soluble, carbohydrate-like substance that is involved in certain metabolic processes of animals. 
Although most animals can synthesize vitamin C, it is necessary in the diet of some, including humans and other primates, in order to prevent scurvy, a disease characterized by soreness and stiffness of the joints and lower extremities, rigidity, swollen and bloody gums, and hemorrhages in the tissues of the body. 
First isolated in 1928, vitamin C was identified as the curative agent for scurvy in 1932.

The most common side effects of Ascorbic Acid include:
-injection site soreness,
-faintness, and
-dizziness

Ascorbic acid is also known as vitamin C. 
Our bodies need vitamin C to make a substance called collagen which is required for the health and repair of our skin, bones, teeth and cartilage. 
We get vitamin C from the food we eat, particularly fruit and vegetables. 
A lack of vitamin C in our diet over a period of time can lead to a condition called scurvy, although this is rare in the UK. 
Symptoms of scurvy include bleeding from the gums, bruising, and joint and muscle pains. 
Ascorbic acid has also been suggested that a lack of vitamin C may cause poor wound healing and problems fighting infection, although this has not been proved. 
Vitamin C deficiency can be treated with supplements of vitamin C (as ascorbic acid tablets) and eating foods which are rich in vitamin C.
Ascorbic acid is an ingredient of a number of vitamin preparations and some cough and cold remedies that are available to buy from retail outlets.

Tell the doctor if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away.
These are not all the possible side effects of Ascorbic Acid. 
For more information, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. 
You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

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3466-EP2301538A1
3466-EP2301929A1
3466-EP2301931A1
3466-EP2301935A1
3466-EP2301940A1
3466-EP2305219A1
3466-EP2305257A1
3466-EP2305636A1
3466-EP2305637A2
3466-EP2305648A1
3466-EP2305651A1
3466-EP2305668A1
3466-EP2305674A1
3466-EP2305679A1
3466-EP2305683A1
3466-EP2308854A1
3466-EP2308857A1
3466-EP2308861A1
3466-EP2308867A2
3466-EP2308870A2
3466-EP2311453A1

What should I tell my health care provider before I take this medicine?
They need to know if you have any of the following conditions:
-anemia
-diabetes
-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
-kidney stones
-low sodium diet
-an unusual or allergic reaction to ascorbic acid, tartrazine, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives
-pregnant or trying to get pregnant
-breast-feeding

How should I use this medicine?
Take this medicine by mouth. Chew it completely before swallowing. 
Follow the directions on the package or prescription label. 
You may take this medicine with or without food. 
If it upsets your stomach take it with food. 
Take your medicine at regular intervals. 
Do not take your medicine more often than directed.

Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. 
While this drug may be prescribed for selected conditions, precautions do apply.

Overdosage: If you think you have taken too much of this medicine contact a poison control center or emergency room at once.

NOTE: This medicine is only for you. 
Do not share this medicine with others.

Ascorbate serves as an important line of defense against H2O2 along with ascorbate peroxidase (APX).
Two molecules of ascorbate are used by APX for reduction of H2O2 to H2O. 
In addition, ascorbate reacts with other forms of ROS such as hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals and singlet O2. 
Ascorbate quenches ROS directly, acts as a substrate in both violaxanthin de-epoxidase and APX reactions and regenerate α-tocopherol. 
MDA is produced by reaction of ascorbate with ROS produces. 
The enzyme monodehydro ascorbate reductase reduces MDA back to ascorbate by using electrons from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen (NADPH) or ferredoxin. 
MDA disproportionates to form dehydroascorbate (DHA) and ascorbate, if not reduced immediately.

3466-EP2311455A1
3466-EP2311805A1
3466-EP2311807A1
3466-EP2311809A1
3466-EP2311824A1
3466-EP2311839A1
3466-EP2311842A2
3466-EP2314295A1
3466-EP2314584A1
3466-EP2314585A1
3466-EP2314588A1
3466-EP2314589A1
3466-EP2314590A1
3466-EP2314593A1

Vitamin C is a water-soluble, essential nutrient necessary for the normal structure and function of the skin. 
The antioxidant properties of vitamin C are due to its ability to donate electrons to neutralize free radicals. 
Vitamin C also helps to regenerate another antioxidant, vitamin E. 
Vitamin C is necessary in the hydroxylation of proline and lysine during collagen crosslinking, and the transcriptional regulation of collagen synthesis. 
Vitamin C also inhibits the elastin biosynthesis seen in aged elastotic skin.
The role of vitamin C in photoaging is linked to its ability to stimulate collagen repair as well as to prevent UVB-induced erythema and sunburn cell formation, both markers of photodamage. 
Several well controlled studies have shown its benefits in decreasing the appearance of fine lines, Vitamin C increases type I collagen mRNA, aids in elastic tissue repair, and clinically improve skin texture and pigmentation.

3466-EP2316452A1
3466-EP2316457A1
3466-EP2316458A1
3466-EP2316470A2
3466-EP2316825A1
3466-EP2316826A1
3466-EP2316827A1
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3466-EP2316832A1
3466-EP2316833A1
3466-EP2316837A1
3466-EP2374792A1
3466-EP2377510A1
3466-EP2380568A1
C 1000
C00072
D00018
L-Ascorbic acid, p.a., ACS reagent, 99.0%
93398-EP2380568A1
AB00376923_04
AB00376923_05
L-Ascorbic acid 1000 microg/mL in Acetonitrile
L-Ascorbic acid, JIS special grade, >=99.0%
L-Ascorbic acid, Vetec(TM) reagent grade, 99%
L-Ascorbic acid, BioXtra, >=99.0%, crystalline
Q199678
L-Ascorbic acid, puriss. p.a., >=99.0% (RT)
Q27101942
47A605F0-4187-47A8-B0CE-F9E7DA1B0076
L-Ascorbic acid, p.a., ACS reagent, reag. ISO, 99.7%
Ascorbic acid, British Pharmacopoeia (BP) Reference Standard
Ascorbic acid, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
L-Ascorbic acid, certified reference material, TraceCERT(R)
L-Ascorbic acid, powder, cell culture tested, gamma-irradiated
3,4-Dihydroxy-5beta-[(S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]furan-2(5H)-one
Ascorbic acid, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
(2R)-2-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrofuran-3-one
4-((E)-2-[(2-HYDROXYETHYL)SULFANYL]DIAZENYL)BENZENECARBOXYLICACID
(5R)-5-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-3,4-dihydroxyfuran-2(5H)-one (non-preferred name)
L-Ascorbic acid solution, 1.0 mg/mL in acetonitrile: water, certified reference material
L-Ascorbic acid, anhydrous, free-flowing, Redi-Dri(TM), ACS reagent, >=99%
L-Ascorbic acid, suitable for cell culture, suitable for plant cell culture, >=98%
L-Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)-13C6 solution, 500 mug/mL in acetonitrile: water, certified reference material, ampule of 1 mL
L-Ascorbic acid, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., 99.7-100.5% (oxidimetric)
Valeryl fentanyl hydrochloride solution, 100 mug/mL in methanol (as a free base), certified reference material, ampule of 0.5 mL


3-) PHOSPHORIC ACID

Phosphoric acid = Orthophosphoric acid = White phosphoric acid

CAS Number: 7664-38-2
EC Number: 231-633-2
E number: E338 (antioxidants, ...)
Chemical formula: H3PO4
Molar mass: 97.994 g·mol−1


Phosphoric acid is a colorless, odorless crystalline liquid. 
Phosphoric acid  gives soft drinks a tangy flavor and prevents the growth of mold and bacteria, which can multiply easily in a sugary solution. 
Most of soda’s acidity also comes from phosphoric acid.
Phosphoric acid is made from the mineral phosphorus, which is found naturally in the body. 
Phosphoric acid  works with calcium to form strong bones and teeth. 
Phosphoric acid  also helps support kidney function and the way your body uses and stores energy. 
Phosphorus helps your muscles recover after a hard workout. 
The mineral plays a major role in the body’s growth and is even needed to produce DNA and RNA, the genetic codes of living things.

Phosphoric acid is a clear, colorless, odorless liquid with a syrupy consistency.
Phosphoric acid is used as an acidifying agent to give colas their tangy flavor.
Due to the use of phosphoric acid, cola is a actually more acidic than lemon juice or vinegar. 
The vast amount of sugar acts to mask and balance the acidity.
Phosphoric acid also goes by E338, orthophosphoric acid, and phosphoric(V) acid.
Food-grade phosphoric acid is a mass-produced chemical, available cheaply and in large quantities.

Phosphoric acid is commonly used for rust prevention and removal.
Phosphorus-containing substances occur naturally (0.1%-0.5%) in foods such as milk, meat, poultry, fish, nuts, and egg yolks.
Phosphoric acid has been linked to lower bone density in some epidemiological studies, including a discussion in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
Other studies showed the opposite - that *low* intake of phosphorus leads to lower bone density. Guess who funded the studies? PepsiCo.
Aside from the risk of osteoporosis, cola consumption has also been linked to chronic kidney disease and kidney stones.
According to the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI), a consumer watchdog group not affiliated with the food industry, only a small fraction of the phosphate in the American diet comes from additives in soft drinks. 
Most comes from meat and dairy products. 
Therefore, your reason for not drinking Coke should be its sugar content and artificial food colorings, not the phosphoric acid.

Phosphorus is first turned to phosphorus pentoxide through a chemical manufacturing process. 
Phosphoric acid ’s then treated again to become phosphoric acid.
Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid, is a weak acid with the chemical formula H3PO4. 
The pure compound is a colorless solid.

Uses
The dominant use of phosphoric acid is for fertilizers, consuming approximately 90% of production.
Food-grade phosphoric acid (additive E338) is used to acidify foods and beverages such as various colas and jams, providing a tangy or sour taste. 
Soft drinks containing phosphoric acid, which would include Coca-Cola, are sometimes called phosphate sodas or phosphates. 
Phosphoric acid in soft drinks has the potential to cause dental erosion.

What is phosphoric Acid?
Phosphoric acid, also referred to as phosphoric(V) acid or orthophosphoric acid is one of the popular and most used acids. 
As such, the raw form of this acid is extracted from phosphate rocks, whereas more pure form is produced industrially from white phosphorus. 
Pure phosphoric acid is usually in a crystalline solid-state and in less concentrated form. Generally, Phosphoric acid is a colourless, syrupy, odourless, and non-volatile liquid.
Phosphoric acid which is also a mineral acid is represented by the formula H3PO4 and Phosphoric acid contains one atom of phosphorus, four atoms of oxygen and three atoms of hydrogen.

Uses of Phosphoric Acid
Orthophosphoric acid is one of the important chemicals which has myriad of uses in several industries, agriculture, and products that we use in our daily lives. 
In any case, here we will look at some popular uses of phosphoric acid.
Removal of Rust
In Food and Beverage
Personal care
Used In Agriculture
Pharma

Other Uses
Phosphoric acid used in the removal of rust
Among the various types of acids, phosphoric acid is used commonly in the removal of rust from metals like iron, steel, etc. 
Usually, when Phosphoric acid is applied reacts with the rust and converts the reddish-brown iron typically ferric oxide (iron oxide) to a black-coloured compound which is now ferric phosphate. 
This black ferric phosphate substance is easily removal.

Phosphoric acid used in food and beverage
Phosphoric acid is often used as a food additive. 
Phosphoric acid  acts as an acidity regulator in foods like jams, cereal bars, processed meats, cheese, etc. 
In the beverage industry, phosphoric acid is used as an acidulant. 
Phosphoric acid helps keep a check on fungi and bacteria formation. 
Phosphoric acid also adds to the taste of these drinks. 
However, there is an ongoing debate about the health effects and benefits of this acid.

Phosphoric acid used in personal care
Phosphoric Acid is quite necessary in the production of a wide variety of personal care products. 
Some of them include cleansing products, bath products, fragrances, hair care products and dyes, nail products, makeup, and other skin care products. 
On the other hand, phosphoric acid is also used in controlling the pH level of these products.

Phosphoric acid used in agriculture
Some reports have suggested that almost 80 percent of the phosphoric acid that is produced is used in the production of fertilizer. 
Phosphoric acid is also used as an additive and flavouring agent in animal or poultry feed.

Phosphoric acid used in pharmaceutical
Phosphoric acid is mostly used as an intermediate in pharmaceutical. 
One of the main areas that phosphoric acid is used is in dentistry. 
Phosphoric acid is uses as an etching solution and is usually used to clean the teeth. 
Other uses of phosphoric acid include teeth whiteners or mouth washing liquids. 
Phosphoric acid is also commonly used in anti nausea medicines.

Other Uses of Phosphoric Acid
There are also few other uses of this acid.
Phosphoric acid is used as an electrolyte in fuel cells or in oxyhydrogen generators. 
Phosphoric acid is also used to make synthetic detergents and treatment of water and metals.
Phosphoric acid is also used to remove mineral deposits, cement smears, and hard water stains in construction industry. 
Phosphoric acid can act as a chemical oxidizing agent to produce activated carbon products.

Frequently asked questions
-What is the other name of phosphoric acid?
Ans: Orthophosphoric acid.
-Write the chemical formula for phosphoric acid.
Ans: H3PO4.
-What is the molecular mass, boiling point and melting point of phosphoric acid?
Ans: Molecular mass = 97.994 g/mol, boiling point = 158 °C and melting point = 42.35 °C.
-Is Orthophosphoric acid a strong acid or weak acid? Why?
Ans: Phosphoric acid is a weak acid as Phosphoric acid does not fully dissociate in water.
-List two wide applications of phosphoric acid.
Ans: Phosphoric acid is widely used in fertilizers and to acidify food.

Phosphoric acid also has the potential to contribute to the formation of kidney stones, especially in those who have had kidney stones previously.
Specific applications of phosphoric acid include:
in anti-rust treatment by phosphate conversion coating or passivation
to prevent iron oxidation by means of the Parkerization process
as an external standard for phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance
in phosphoric acid fuel cells
in activated carbon production
in compound semiconductor processing, to etch Indium gallium arsenide selectively with respect to indium phosphide
in microfabrication to etch silicon nitride selectively with respect to silicon dioxide
as a pH adjuster in cosmetics and skin-care products
as a sanitizing agent in the dairy, food, and brewing industries

All three hydrogens are acidic to varying degrees and can be lost from the molecule as H+ ions (protons). 
When all three H+ ions are removed, the result is an orthophosphate ion PO43−, commonly called "phosphate". 
Removal of one or two protons gives dihydrogen phosphate ion H2PO−4, and the hydrogen phosphate ion HPO2−4, respectively. 
Orthophosphoric acid also forms esters, called organophosphates.

Phosphoric acid is commonly encountered in chemical laboratories as an 85% aqueous solution, which is a colourless, odourless, and non-volatile syrupy liquid. 
Although phosphoric acid does not meet the strict definition of a strong acid, the 85% solution can still severely irritate the skin and damage the eyes.
The name "orthophosphoric acid" can be used to distinguish this specific acid from other "phosphoric acids", such as pyrophosphoric acid. 
Nevertheless, the term "phosphoric acid" often means this specific compound; and that is the current IUPAC nomenclature.

Industry:Phosphoric Acidused in removing dust from the metal surfaces.
Used as rust converter by bringing Phosphoric acid in direct contact with a rusted iron,or steel tools and other surfaces that are rusted.
Phosphoric acid is helpful in cleaning the mineral deposits, cement nous smears and hard water stains.
Food:Used to acidify the foods and beverages such as colas.

Medicine:Phosphoric Acid is an important ingredient in over the counter medications to combat nausea.
Dentistry:Phosphoric Acid is mixed with zinc powder and forms zinc phosphate, and Phosphoric acid is useful in temporary dental cement. 
In orthodontics, zinc is used as an etching solution to help clean and roughen the surface of teeth.
Fertilizer:Used as reaction fertilizer in the soil around a granule acidification is generated that improves the utilization of phosphorus applied and available in the rhizosphere. 
Due to its nitrogen content (present as ammonia), Phosphoric acid is good for crops that require these nutrients in Phosphoric acids initial phase

General description
We are committed to bringing you Greener Alternative Products, which adhere to one or more of The 12 Principles of Greener Chemistry. 
Phosphoric acid has been enhanced for energy efficiency.
In aqueous solutions, phosphoric acid behaves as a triprotic acid. 
The triprotic acid has three ionizable hydrogen atoms, which are lost sequentially.

Application
Phosphoric acid (85 wt. % in H2O) can be used for a variety of applications, such as:
a medium for corrosion inhibition on mild steel
an activating agent in the preparation of activated carbon
enhancement of electrochemical performance for energy devices
in the development of polymeric membranes for proton exchange membrane based fuel cells

Industrially, phosphoric acid may be used in fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals, water softeners.
Phosphoric acid has been used as an acid solution for pH adjustment of the fermentation broth in a protocol for the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation of sugars in a bioreactor.

Description
A mineral acid that goes by the formula H3PO4. 
This formula specifically refers to orthophosphoric acid, but orthophosphoric acids easily combine with themselves to create compounds referred to as phosphoric acids, generally. 
Typically used as a chemical reagent, the acid is a very polar molecule, meaning Phosphoric acid is extremely water soluble. 
In food usage, Phosphoric acid is used to acidify foods and beverages, producing a tangy/sour taste. 
Because of Phosphoric acids low cost, Phosphoric acid may be desirable for such application over alternatives such as.

CAS Number: 7664-38-2 
ChEBI: CHEBI:26078
ChEMBL: ChEMBL1187 
ChemSpider: 979
ECHA InfoCard: 100.028.758 
EC Number: 231-633-2
E number: E338 (antioxidants, ...)
KEGG: D05467 
PubChem CID: 1004
RTECS number: TB6300000
UNII: E4GA8884NN 
UN number: 1805
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID5024263

Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid, is a weak acid with the chemical formula H3PO4. 
The pure compound is a colorless solid. 
All three hydrogens are acidic to varying degrees and can be lost from the molecule as H+ ions (protons). 
When all three H+ ions are removed, the result is an orthophosphate ion PO43−, commonly called "phosphate". 
Removal of one or two protons gives dihydrogen phosphate ion H2PO−4, and the hydrogen phosphate ion HPO2−4, respectively. 
Orthophosphoric acid also forms esters, called organophosphates.
Phosphoric acid is commonly encountered in chemical laboratories as an 85% aqueous solution, which is a colourless, odourless, and non-volatile syrupy liquid. 
Although phosphoric acid does not meet the strict definition of a strong acid, the 85% solution can still severely irritate the skin and damage the eyes. 
The name "orthophosphoric acid" can be used to distinguish this specific acid from other "phosphoric acids", such as pyrophosphoric acid. 
Nevertheless, the term "phosphoric acid" often means this specific compound; and that is the current IUPAC nomenclature.

Other Names: orthophosphoric acid; Anhydrous phosphoric acid
CAS Number: 7664-38-2
Molecular Formula/MF: H3PO4
EINECS Number: 231-633-2
Classification: Biochemical & chemical
Grade Standard: Food grade
Purity: 85% min
Odor: Odorless
Appearance: Colorless, transparent and syrupy liquid

Phosphoric acid is used in several industries. Fertilizer accounts for the majority of phosphoric acid use, but this chemical can also be found in:
-Food additives (to acidify foods, or as a leavening agent)
-Soaps and detergents
-Water treatment
-Toothpastes
-Rust removal
-Etching solutions in dentistry
-Teeth whiteners
-Cleaning products

Acidic properties
All three hydrogens are acidic, with dissociation constants pKa1 = 2.14, pKa2 = 7.20, and pKa3 = 12.37. 
Phosphoric acid follows that, in water solutions, phosphoric acid is mostly dissociated into some combination of its three anions, except at very low pH. 
The equilibrium equations are:
H3PO4   + H2O ⇌ H3O+ + H2PO4−      
Ka1= 7.25×10−3 [pKa1 = 2.14]
H2PO4−+ H2O ⇌ H3O+ + HPO42−       
Ka2= 6.31×10−8 [pKa2 = 7.20]
HPO42−+ H2O ⇌ H3O+ +  PO43−        
Ka3= 3.98×10−13 [pKa3 = 12.37]

Manufacture
Phosphoric acid is produced industrially by two general routes.
In the wet process a phosphate-containing mineral such as calcium hydroxyapatite is treated with sulfuric acid.
Fluoroapatite is an alternative feedstock, in which case fluoride is removed as the insoluble compound Na2SiF6. 
The phosphoric acid solution usually contains 23–33% P2O5 (32–46% H3PO4). 
Phosphoric acid may be concentrated to produce commercial- or merchant-grade phosphoric acid, which contains about 54–62% P2O5 (75–85% H3PO4). 
Further removal of water yields superphosphoric acid with a P2O5 concentration above 70% (corresponding to nearly 100% H3PO4). 
Calcium sulfate (gypsum) is produced as a by-product and is removed as phosphogypsum.

To produce food-grade phosphoric acid, phosphate ore is first reduced with coke in an electric arc furnace, to make elemental phosphorus. 
Silica is also added, resulting in the production of calcium silicate slag. 
Elemental phosphorus is distilled out of the furnace and burned with air to produce high-purity phosphorus pentoxide, which is dissolved in water to make phosphoric acid.
The phosphoric acid from both processes may be further purified by removing compounds of arsenic and other potentially toxic impurities.

IUPAC name
Phosphoric acid
Other names
Orthophosphoric acid

Chemical formula: H3PO4
Molar mass: 97.994 g·mol−1
Appearance: white solid
Odor: Odorless
Density: 1.6845 g⋅cm−3 (25 °C, 85%), 1.834  g⋅cm−3 (solid)
Melting point: 40–42.4 °C (104.0–108.3 °F; 313.1–315.5 K)
Boiling point: 212 °C (414 °F) (only water evaporates)
 
Phosphoric acid is an ingredient to many etching solutions, such as solutions for etching of Al (Aluminum), GaAs (gallium arsenide), InP (indium phosphide), Ag (silver) or ZnO (zinc oxide). 
Very hot concentrated phosphoric acid can also be used for etching of SiNx (silicon nitride).

Solubility in water    
392.2 g/100 g (−16.3 °C)
369.4 g/100 mL (0.5 °C)
446 g/100 mL (15 °C)
548 g/100 mL (20 °C)
Solubility
Soluble in ethanol
log P
−2.15

Agriculture:
Most of the phosphoric acid produced is used to make fertilizers. 
Phosphoric acid is mainly converted into three phosphate salts that are used as fertilizers. 

They are as follows:
Triple superphosphate (TSP)
Diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAP)
Monoammonium dihydrogen phosphate (MAP)
Phosphoric acid is also used in the supplement in feed given to cattle, pigs, and poultry.

Food additives:
Dilute solutions of phosphoric acid have a pleasant acidic taste. 
Hence, Phosphoric acid is used as a food additive. 
Phosphoric acid imparts acidic properties to Soft drinks.
Other readymade foods.
Water treatment products.

Manufacturing process:
Phosphoric acid is used in the manufacture of Gelatin.
Soil stabilizer.
Waxes and polishes.
Binder for ceramics.
Activated carbon.
In lakes in cotton dyeing.

Medical applications:
Phosphoric acid is mainly used
In dental cement.
For preparing albumin derivatives.
For acidifying urine.
For removing necrotic (dead cells or tissue) debris.
In anti-nausea medicines.
In teeth whiteners and mouth washing liquid.

Personal care:
Phosphoric acid is essential for a wide range of personal care products, including:
Cleansing products
Bath products
Fragrances
Haircare products
Nail products
Makeup
Skincare products
Phosphoric acid is also used to control the pH of these products.

Rust removal:
Phosphoric acid is commonly used for rust removal. 
Phosphoric acid, when applied to the rust, reacts with the rust in metals such as steel and iron. 
Phosphoric acid converts the rust into an easily removable black-colored compound.

Other uses:
Other uses of phosphoric acid include:
Automotive care products
Batteries
Cleaners for semiconductor industry
Cleaning and furnishing care products
Electrical and electronic products
Food packaging
Fuels and related products
Laundry and dishwashing products
Lawn and garden care products
Metal products not covered elsewhere
Paints and coatings
Paper products
Photographic supplies, film, and photo chemicals
Plastic and rubber products not covered elsewhere
Resales
Chemical distribution
Industrial fermentation media
Cleaners in plating processes for automotive and machinery

What are the safety concerns with phosphoric acid?
Phosphoric acid may cause acute or chronic health effects. 
Acute health effects may occur immediately or shortly after exposure to phosphoric acid:

Contact with eyes can irritate and burn the eyes.
Breathing phosphoric acid can irritate the nose and throat, causing coughing and wheezing.
Long-term or chronic effects include:
Irritate the lungs and cause bronchitis
Drying and cracking of the skin

Vapor pressure    0.03 mmHg (20 °C)
Conjugate base    Dihydrogen phosphate
Magnetic susceptibility (χ)    −43.8·10−6 cm3/mol
Refractive index (nD)    
1.3420 (8.8% w/w aq. soln.)
1.4320 (85% aq. soln) 25 °C
Viscosity
2.4–9.4 cP (85% aq. soln.)
147 cP (100%)

What Is Phosphoric Acid?
You are composed of all sorts of organic molecules. 
That doesn't mean those molecules are labeled with a sticker that says 'organic'. 
Phosphoric acid means these molecules contain carbon. 
But not everything on Earth is organic. 
Some things lack carbon. 
Such substances are commonly referred to as being inorganic. 
One of them is phosphoric acid, a corrosive inorganic acid.

Orthophosphoric acid
Trihydroxidooxidophosphorus
o-Phosphoric acid
Its molecular formulas include:
h3po4
This is the most common formula you will see for phosphoric acid and the one you should focus on remembering.

Safety
A link has been shown between long-term regular cola intake and osteoporosis in later middle age in women (but not men).
This was thought to be due to the presence of phosphoric acid, and the risk for women was found to be greater for sugared and caffeinated colas than diet and decaffeinated variants, with a higher intake of cola correlating with lower bone density.
At moderate concentrations phosphoric acid solutions are irritating to the skin. 
Contact with concentrated solutions can cause severe skin burns and permanent eye damage.

ANALYSIS ITEMS: STANDARD
H3PO4: 85% Min
Heavy Metals as Pb: 5PPM Max
Arsenic as As: 0.5PPM Max
Fluoride as F: 10PPM Max
H3PO3: 120PPM Max
Chlorides: 5 PPM Max
Sulphates: 5 PPM Max
Fe: 5 PPM Max
Color/Hazen: 20 Max

Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) can be produced by 3 main commercial methods: wet process, thermal process and dry kiln process. 
Wet process is by far the most common route and the acid can be used in phosphate fertilizers production (DAP, MAP, SPA). 
Thermal process phosphoric acid is of a much higher purity and is used in the manufacture of high grade chemicals, pharmaceuticals, detergents, food products, and other nonfertilizer products. 
The last method, using a rotary kiln, is a promising alternative because of its reduced environmental footprint and potential cost saving.

The concentration of phosphoric acid is normally expressed as % P2O5 (percent phosphoricanhydride) rather than % H3PO4 (percent phosphoric acid).
In a wet process facility (see figure 1), phosphoric acid is produced by reacting sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with naturally occurring phosphate rock. 
The reaction also forms calcium sulfate (CaSO4), commonly referred to as gypsum. 
The insoluble gypsum is separated from the reaction solution by filtration.

The operating conditions are generally selected so that the calcium sulfate will be precipitated in either the dihydrate or the hemihydrate form, thus producing 26-32% P2O5 at 70-80°C for dihydrate precipitation and 40-52% P2O5 at 90-110°C for hemihydrate precipitation. 
Further evaporation of the solvent can be performed for a high-concentration phosphoric acid.

Alternative Names
E338
Orthophosphoric acid
Phosphoric(V) acid
Pyrophosphoric acid
triphosphoic acid
o-Phosphoric acid
Hydrogen phosphate

Culinary Uses
Adding a desirable sour or tangy taste to foods and beverages.
Phosphoric acid is used in soft drinks for taste.

Substitutions
Citric acid (with different, more citrusy taste notes)
Malic Acid (with different, more apple taste notes)

Purchasing Tips
Ensure you are purchasing food grade phosphoric acid (typically in a concentrations over 85%). 
You may also search for E338, the food additive code, which is classified in sequence next to other antioxidants or acidity regulators).

Storage
As Phosphoric acid is an acid, be careful with handling. 
The pH of 85% solutions should not be powerful enough to cause bodily harm, but be careful if Phosphoric acid makes skin contact by washing the area. 
Can be corrosive when making contact with metals (as one of its uses is rust removal).  
Keep in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area with a normal temperature range as phosphoric acid should avoid high temperatures. 
As a result, avoid direct sunlight 

Production
There are three ways to produce phosphoric acid: thermal process, wet process, and dry kiln process. 
With all of these processes, Phosphoric acid is important to ensure that a solvent extraction has been used at the end in order to remove arsenic compounds by-products. 
The removal of arsenic is what ensures the phosphoric acid is food grade.

Phosphoric acid
7664-38-2
ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID
o-Phosphoric acid
Sonac
Phosphorsaeure
POLYPHOSPHORIC ACID
Acidum phosphoricum
Evits
Wc-reiniger

Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid, is a triprotic acid that exists as a dense liquid. 
Phosphoric acid is an irritant or corrosive to the skin, eyes, and other mucous membranes of both humans and laboratory animals. 
Phosphoric acids salts, though, exhibit a significantly lower irritancy potential. 
Moderate toxicity has been observed in mice when exposed via the inhalation route. 
Phosphoric acid is not genotoxic nor carcinogenic, but phosphate salts have been reported to promote the activity of known carcinogens. 
Exposures are treated typically by irrigation or flushing with water. 
Phosphoric acid has enjoyed significant interest as a food additive to various cola drinks, causing great controversy with regard to the potential for harmful effects. 
The major consideration in the pollution of the aquatic environment is the pH of the water as regards effects on indigenous flora and fauna. 
There is no bioamplification or bioaccumulation reported.

Acide phosphorique
Polyphosphoric acids
Superphosphoric acid
White phosphoric acid
Acido fosforico
Phosphorsaeureloesungen
Acido fosforico [Italian]
Fosforzuuroplossingen
ortho-phosphoric acid
Fosforzuuroplossingen [Dutch]
Phosphoric acid 75%
FEMA No. 2900
Phosphorsaeureloesungen [German]
Acide phosphorique [French]
UNII-E4GA8884NN

Phosphoric acid is a component of fertilizers (80% of total use), detergents, and many household cleaning products.
Dilute solutions have a pleasing acid taste; thus, Phosphoric acid's also used as a food additive, lending acidic properties to soft drinks and other prepared foods, and in water treatment products. 
Phosphoric acid is also used in rust proofing, engraving, and metal coating and is an intermediate or reagent in many manufacturing processes. 
Phosphoric acid also occurs naturally in many fruits and their juices. 
Apart from use of phosphoric acid itself, the greatest consumption of phosphoric acid is in the manufacture of phosphate salts. 
Taking advantage of its ability to lower blood pH, phosphoric acid has been used therapeutically to treat lead poisoning.

dihydroxidodioxidophosphorus(.)
poly(phosphoric acid)
Phosphoric acid 85%
Phosphoric acid [NF]
trihdroxidooxidophosphorus
MFCD00011340
H3PO4
E4GA8884NN
CHEBI:26078
NSC-80804
Phosphoric acid (NF)
NCGC00091005-01
Phosphoric acid solution

Phosphoric acid, although an inorganic acid, is worthy of mention in this chapter. 
Phosphoric acid is used predominantly as an acidulant, almost exclusively in the production of carbonated beverages, although its use in foods bears controversy due to its effects on health. 
Comparatively, phosphoric acid is extremely inexpensive, possessing a characteristic flat sour taste that is reminiscent of citric acid. 
Phosphoric acid is a relatively strong, dissociated acid, enabling Phosphoric acid to easily acidify colas to the low desired pH (2.5) needed to establish proper carbonation, although its antimicrobial efficacy is far inferior to most organic acids, principally due to its dissociated state, which precludes ease of transport across the bacterial membrane.

DSSTox_CID_4263
DSSTox_RID_77346
DSSTox_GSID_24263
acide phosphorique (FRENCH)
9044-08-0
Phosphoric acid, 98+%, pure
Caswell No. 662
Phosphoric acid, ortho-
Phosphoricum acidum
CAS-7664-38-2
CCRIS 2949
HSDB 1187
Phosphoric acid, ACS reagent, >=85 wt. % in H2O
Phosphoric acid, extra pure, 85% solution in water
EINECS 231-633-2
NSC 80804
UN1805

Phosphoric acid, also called orthophosphoric acid, (H3PO4), the most important oxygen acid of phosphorus, used to make phosphate salts for fertilizers. 
Phosphoric acid is also used in dental cements, in the preparation of albumin derivatives, and in the sugar and textile industries. 
Phosphoric acid serves as an acidic, fruitlike flavouring in food products. 

Phosphoric acid was again used for the liquid in these now all-but obsolete silicate cements, although the concentration and additives were different from those used with zinc phosphate cement. 
The reason for this choice may be based on a combination of factors. 
Phosphoric acid is a relatively weak acid, so that dissolution of the glass would be relatively slow. 
However, the particular chemistry of the aluminium ions released may dominate the resultant properties. 
Phosphoric acid would tend to give a stronger product due to the stronger ionic interactions between the tribasic phosphoric acid and a trivalent cation.
There would also be better water binding as well because of the high charge and opportunities for hydrogen bonding.
Aluminium ions also readily form polymeric species in solution, with polyvalent anions forming bridges between the similarly highly-charged aluminium cations; phosphate thus performs this role well. 
These bridged structures extend as the concentration of aluminium rises during the hydrolysis and dissolution of the glass, and eventually result in the coprecipitation of highly hydrated aluminium phosphate and silica gels. 
There may even be some covalent bonding between these two making, in effect, a single network. 
These inter-penetrating insoluble gels thus form the matrix of the cement in which are embedded the unreacted glass particles, which again must be in excess to form the strong core of the composite structure.

EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 076001
Phosphoric acid, for analysis, 85 wt% solution in water
Phospholeum
Marphos
phosphoric cid
Ortho-phosphate
phosphor-ic acid
Phosphate hydrogen
Polyphosphorc acds
NFB Orthophosphate
2HP

Chemical Formula: H3O4­P
CAS Number: 7664-38-2

Synonyms: orthophosphoric acid, trihydroxlphosphine oxide, white phosphoric acid
Material Uses: rust inhibitor, dispersing agent, chelating agent, water treatment
Mainly used in industrial and agricultural industries, phosphoric acid, or “phos” for short, is one of the most essential plant nutrients and therefore is often converted into phosphates that are then mixed in with other ingredients to manufacture fertilizer.
Other uses of phosphoric acid include the treatment of water and metal, and sometimes as a flavoring agent in food and beverages.
Our Phosphoric Acid 75% and Phosphoric Acid 85% are certified to NSF Standard 60 as Corrosion & Scale control and pH adjustment for use in drinking treatment. 
We also offer these in technical and food grades.

Phosphate dihydrogen
Phosphoric acid ion
Orthophosphate(3-)
ortho phosphoric acid
Phosphate ion(3-)
Monohydrogen phosphate
diphosphate tetrasodium
tetraoxophosphoric acid
Phosphate anion(3-)
ortho- phosphoric acid

Application: Phosphoric Acid is used in food flavoring, beverages, dental products, cosmetics, and skin care products. 
Industrially, Phosphoric acid is used mainly in the production of phosphate fertilizers.

Appearance: colorless liquid
Odor: odorless
Taste: tangy or sour
Solubilities: solubleble in water
Density: 1.88 g/cm³
Boiling point: 316.4°F
Freezing point: 71°F
Molecular weight: 98
Weight per gallon: 14.0562 LBs
Class: acid, phosphate, phosphate technical, phosphoric acid
Grades: NF grade, NG/ACS, Reagent (ACS, AR), Reagent/U.V. Spectrophotometric, technical

Phosphate (PO43-)
ACMC-20heq4
Hydrogen phosphate anion
Phosphoric acid, 75%
Phosphoric acid, 85%
Condensed phosphoric acid
tetra-Sodium pyrophosphate
Orthophosphate (PO43-)
Phosphoric acid ion(3-)
Phosphate ion (PO43-)
EC 231-633-2
CHEMBL1187
Phosphoric acid, 10% v/v
PHOSPHORIC ACID-17O4

What is Phosphoric acid?
Phosphoric acid is a weak acid derived from phosphate minerals.

What does Phosphoric acid do?
Phosphoric acid can be used to adjust pH.  
In our fluoride mouthwash products Phosphoric acid is used in conjunction with sodium  or disodium phosphate to help maintain the pH, or acidity of the product.  
When phosphoric acid is combined with fluoride and disodium phosphate it forms an acidulated phosphate fluoride solution as outlined in the FDA’s Anticaries monograph.  
This solution promotes remineralization and helps prevent enamel dissolution.

How is Phosphoric acid made?
Our Stewardship Model guides us to select ingredients which have been processed in a manner that supports our philosophy of human and environmental health.
Phosphoric acid is produced from phosphate rock reacted with sulfuric acid.  
The phosphoric acid is then purified for use in our products.

What are the alternatives?
For anticaries mouthwash products, with acidulated phosphate fluoride solution, sodium phosphate or disodium phosphate, and phosphoric acid are required in conjunction with Sodium Fluoride per the Anticaries Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use, Final Monograph.
Tom’s offers both fluoride and fluoride free mouthwash options.

Is this the right option for me?
Phosphoric Acid is Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by the FDA to be used as a food substance for human consumption.

Formula: H3O4P / H3PO4
Molecular mass: 98.0
Decomposes at 213°C
Melting point: 42°C
Density: 1.9 g/cm³
Solubility in water: miscible
Vapour pressure, Pa at 25°C: <10 (negligible)
Relative vapour density (air = 1): 3.4 

An unsolved mystery regarding the premature failure of I-80 in Nebraska led in part to this study. 
The transverse cracking problems that occurred there, as well as highway performance problems in other States attributed to the use of phosphoric acid but without forensic support, caused State agencies to question the use of phosphoric acid as an asphalt modifier despite its use for 30 years. 
A number of preconceived objections exist. 

These include the following:
Phosphoric acid is used as a blowing additive to make roofing asphalt. 
Phosphoric acid will cause premature aging in paving asphalt.
Phosphoric acid is an acid; Phosphoric acid will react with limestone aggregates.
Phosphoric acid is an acid; Phosphoric acid will react with lime anti-strip additives.
Phosphoric acid is an acid; Phosphoric acid will react with liquid amine antistrip additives (which are alkaline).
Phosphoric acid is very hydrophilic; Phosphoric acid will promote moisture damage.
Phosphoric acid is very hydrophilic; Phosphoric acid will be leached from asphalt pavements and could pollute the surrounding ground water.
The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) carried out surveys in December 2005 and again in October 2008. 
States were asked, "Do you allow the use of acid-modified binders?"

The 2005 survey went out to the 50 States as well as the Canadian provinces. 
Of 31 respondents, 11 allowed phosphoric acid, 16 banned it, 1 restricted its use, and 3 did not specifically address the issue. 
Because the Superpave specification is supposed to be blind to additives, Phosphoric acid is likely that phosphoric acid would have been allowed in the latter three States.
In the 2008 follow-up survey, five States specifically allowed phosphoric acid, eight States banned Phosphoric acid, four placed restrictions on Phosphoric acids use, and three had a specification for elastic recovery or phase angle, which would preclude the use of phosphoric acid as the sole modifier. 
Ten States did not address the issue. 
Twenty-three States did not respond to the survey.

The more recent 2009–2010 survey conducted by the Asphalt Institute indicated that the use of phosphoric acid is banned by 16 States. 
Thirty-two States do not specifically address the issue, which would imply that Phosphoric acid is allowed, although 20 of these States have either an elastic recovery or phase angle specification, (which would preclude the use of phosphoric acid or merely force the inclusion of polymers), leaving 12 States that would allow phosphoric acid as the sole modifier. 
One State, Minnesota, has a requirement to carry out the binder tests out after the addition of 0.5-percent liquid amine antistrip additives. 
Because amines are alkaline, phosphoric acid would be expected to react with the amines and might preclude the use of phosphoric acid. 
Binder tests are usually carried out before the addition of amine antistrip additives.

D-Mannan, dihydrogen phosphate
INS NO.338
DTXSID5024263
Phosphoric acid, AR, >=88%
Phosphoric acid, technical grade
[PO(OH)3]
BDBM14671
CHEBI:52641
H3 P O4
INS-338

Phosphoric acid is a crystalline acid obtained e.g. by treating phosphates with sulfuric acid, used in fertilizer and soap manufacture and food processing.
Due to Phosphoric acids non-toxic properties, phosphoric acid is used by a variety of industries in multiple applications. 
Phosphoric acid can be found in cosmetic and skincare products, water treatment and metal cleaners, as well as fertilizer compounds. 
The chemical itself lends itself well to control the pH level of substances and as rust removal for metals including iron and steel.
Synonyms: orthophosphoric acid, phosphoric acid
INCI: Phosphoric Acid
Chemical formula: H3PO4
CAS # 7664-38-2
Hazard: Non-hazardous

trihydrogen tetraoxophosphate(3-)
Phosphoric acid solution, 1.0 M
Phosphoric acid, AR, 88-93%
Phosphoric acid, LR, 88-93%
phosphoric acid (ACD/Name 4.0)
Phosphoric Acid (Fragrance Grade)
Phosphoric Acid 85% Reagent ACS
NSC80804

Phosphoric acid is the chemical found in soft drinks. 
Phosphoric acid’s actually the second most added chemical in the food industry. 
We know sugar is bad for you and we’ve heard the studies about how soda is unhealthy as wel, but how does phosphoric acid really affect your teeth?

What Is Phosphoric Acid?
Phosphoric acid adds a “bite” to beverages and foods, and damages your teeth due to its low pH level.

How Does Phosphoric Acid Affect Your Teeth?
The combination of low pH levels and phosphoric acid can be deadly for your teeth and enamel. 
This combination actually weakens and softens your tooth enamel. 
Softened tooth enamel can cause plaque formation. 
Plaque formation leads to further enamel erosion, and if Phosphoric acid gets severe enough then the erosion can go through your enamel and cause tooth pain and sensitivity. 
At this point, a dentist would have to go over numerous options with you for surgery or further treatment.

How Can You Limit Your Phosphoric Acid Intake?
If you want to limit your phosphoric acid intake, there are a few things you can do. 
You can limit your soda intake and look for phosphoric acid in any of your food items. 
If you do drink soda and can’t kick the habit, then try to decrease your intake or drink water afterwards.

Why Sugar-Free Soda is Also Bad for Your Teeth
While the common thought would be that less sugar in a drink like soda would equate to less damage to the teeth. 
This thought is, however, not fully correct as sugar-free soda contains many of the same damaging elements that regular soda contains. 
Sugar and bacteria combine in the mouth to form a teeth-damaging acid. 
Soda labeled as sugar-free is made with Phosphoric acids own acid — also weakening tooth enamel and damaging to dental health. 
Research has found the same amount of damage to the teeth occurs from drinking regular soda and sugar-free soda. 
Remember that many soda, juice and other sugary drinks may contain other acids such as citric acid and tartaric acid, so to protect dental health, be wary of all or be sure to thoroughly brush your teeth after drinking.

Phosphoric acid, 85%, ACS grade
Phosphoric acid, puriss., >=99%
Tetrasodium pyrophosphate 10-hydrate
Tox21_111053
Tox21_202285
Tox21_303246
ANW-44010

Inhalation: Move victim to fresh air. Call a Poison Centre or doctor if the victim feels unwell.
Skin Contact: Avoid direct contact. 
Wear chemical protective clothing if necessary. 
Quickly take off contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). 
Immediately flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 30 minutes. 
DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING.

If Phosphoric acid can be done safely, continue flushing during transport to hospital. 
Immediately call a Poison Centre or doctor. 
Treatment is urgently required. 
Transport to a hospital. 
Thoroughly clean clothing, shoes and leather goods before reuse or dispose of safely.
Eye Contact: Avoid direct contact. 
Wear chemical protective gloves if necessary. 

Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 30 minutes, while holding the eyelid(s) open. 
If a contact lens is present, DO NOT delay flushing or attempt to remove the lens. 
Neutral saline solution may be used as soon as Phosphoric acid is available. 
DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. 
If necessary, continue flushing during transport to hospital. 
Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. 
Immediately call a Poison Centre or doctor. 
Treatment is urgently required. 
Transport to a hospital.

Ingestion: Have victim rinse mouth with water. 
If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean forward to reduce risk of aspiration.
Have victim rinse mouth with water again. 
Immediately call a Poison Centre or doctor. 
Treatment is urgently required. 
Transport to a hospital.
First Aid Comments: Some of the first aid procedures recommended here require advanced first aid training.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the chemical and its conditions of use in the workplace.

Phosphoric acid, ACS reagent, 85%
Phosphoric acid, for HPLC, >=85%
AKOS028109726
DB09394
MCULE-5726619687
Y-11A06
NCGC00091005-02
NCGC00257071-01
NCGC00259834-01
E338
Phosphoric acid [UN1805] [Corrosive]
Phosphoric acid, BioUltra, >=85% (T)
Sodium pyrophosphate decahydrate BioChemica
E 338
E-338
P1745
Phosphoric acid, SAJ first grade, >=85.0%
C00009
D05467

Phosphoric acid is a colorless, clear and odorless liquid. 
Phosphoric acid is a strong inorganic acid with the chemical formula H3PO4. 
Phosphoric acid can be produced by absorbing phosphorous pentoxide directly in water or through the digestion of phosphate rock with sulfuric acid. 
The most common form of phosphoric acid is an 85 percent aqueous solution. 
Phosphoric acid has a wide range of uses, including as a food additive, rust inhibitor, fertilizers, electrolyte, dispersing agent, dental and orthopedic etchant and many more.

Quality Level: 200
vapor density: 3.4 (vs air)
vapor pressure
2.2 mmHg ( 20 °C)
5 mmHg ( 25 °C)

assay: 99.99% trace metals basis
form: liquid
concentration: 85 wt. % in H2O
bp: 158 °C (lit.)
mp: ~40 °C (lit.)
density: 1.685 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
Featured Industry: Battery Manufacturing
SMILES string: OP(O)(O)=O
InChI: 1S/H3O4P/c1-5(2,3)4/h(H3,1,2,3,4)
InChI key: NBIIXXVUZAFLBC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Gene Information: human ... SRC(6714)

Orthophosphoric acid, 85% w/w aqueous solution
Phosphoric acid, JIS special grade, >=85.0%
Q184782
J-523994
Phosphoric acid, ACS reagent, 85+% solution in water
Q27110336
Phosphoric acid solution, 85 wt. % in H2O, FCC, FG
Phosphoric acid, p.a., ACS reagent, reag. ISO, 85%
730A9101-D5DE-4668-97CA-7B6178B84417
Phosphoric acid, crystalline, >=99.999% trace metals basis
Phosphoric acid, puriss. p.a., crystallized, >=99.0% (T)
Phosphoric acid, 85 wt. % in H2O, 99.99% trace metals basis
Phosphoric acid, BioReagent, suitable for insect cell culture, 85%
Phosphoric acid, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Phosphoric acid, >=85 wt. % in H2O, >=99.999% trace metals basis

Phosphoric acid is an incredibly diverse product acid used in a wide array of applications. 
This product is manufactured by mining and processing the element Phosphorous.
Considering phosphorous is not a renewable resource, Phosphoric acid’s vitally important to align with a distributor who provides assured supply.  
Univar Solutions has strong supplier relationships and the distribution capabilities to ensure your phosphoric acid needs are met.
With more than 120 locations throughout the USA, our private fleet of trucks and rail cars and our professional service at every touchpoint, we are here to serve you chemical and ingredient needs. 

Phosphoric acid, semiconductor grade VLSI PURANAL(TM) (Honeywell 17644)
Phosphoric acid, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., >=85%
Phosphoric acid, semiconductor grade MOS PURANAL(TM) (Honeywell 17938), >=85%
Phosphoric acid, semiconductor grade PURANAL(TM) (Honeywell 17861), >=85%
62046-92-8
NFB

Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) is the leading inorganic acid produced and consumed in terms of production value and Phosphoric acid is the second largest in terms of volume—after sulfuric acid. 
By far its greatest use is in the manufacture of phosphate chemicals consumed primarily as carriers of phosphorus values in fertilizers. 
Phosphoric acid is using in the production of animal feeds is of secondary importance.
Phosphoric acid is also used in the manufacture of phosphate chemicals for use in water treatment and detergent builders, dentifrices, fire control chemicals, and a host of smaller markets. 
Consumption of phosphoric acid for Phosphoric acids acid properties is relatively small (e.g., treatment of metal surfaces, beverage acidulation). 
Phosphoric acid is the leading intermediate product or processing step between phosphate rock and the end markets for phosphorus in phosphate form.
The supply/demand balance for phosphoric acid is supply driven. 
If all the announced projects materialize, operating rates will improve. 
Emerging regions are heavily investing in downstream phosphate fertilizer production units. 
As a result, Phosphoric acid is expected that older phosphoric acid production units in regions without indigenous phosphate rock reserves will come under additional pressure and will eventually be forced to close.

Phosphate atomic spectroscopy standard concentrate 1.00 g PO43-, 1.00 g/L, for 1L standard solution, analytical standard
Phosphate atomic spectroscopy standard concentrate 10.00 g PO43-, 10.00 g/L, for 1 l standard solution, analytical standard
Phosphoric acid solution, NMR reference standard, 85% in D2O (99.9 atom % D), NMR tube size 3 mm x 8 in.
Phosphoric acid solution, NMR reference standard, 85% in D2O (99.9 atom % D), NMR tube size 4.2 mm x 8 in. , WGS-5BL Coaxial NMR tube
Phosphoric acid solution, NMR reference standard, 85% in D2O (99.9 atom % D), NMR tube size 5 mm x 8 in.
Phosphoric acid, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, packed in coated, shock- and leak-protected glass bottle, >=85% (T)
Phosphoric acid, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, NF, FCC, 85.0-88.0%


4-) LACTIC ACID 

2-Hydroxypropanoic acid

Lactic acid
Milk acid

EC / List no.: 200-018-0
CAS no.: 50-21-5
Mol. formula: C3H6O3

Lactic acid was discovered in 1780 by Swedish chemist, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, who isolated the lactic acid from sour milk as an impure brown syrup and gave it a name based on its origins: 'Mjölksyra'. 
The French scientist Frémy produced lactic acid by fermentation and this gave rise to industrial production in 1881.
Lactic acid is produced by the fermentation of sugar and water or by chemical process and is commercially usually sold as a liquid.

Pure and anhydrous racemic lactic acid is a white crystalline solid with a low melting point. Lactic acid has two optical forms, L(+) and D(-) . 
L(+)-lactic acid is the biological isomer as it is naturally present in the human body.

How is lactic acid produced?
Lactic acid can be produced naturally or synthetically. Commercial lactic acid is produced naturally by fermentation of carbohydrates such as glucose, sucrose, or lactose. 
The current world market leader in the commercial production of lactic acid is Corbion Purac: www.corbion.com.

The natural production process is shown in the figure below. 
Wih the addition of lime or chalk, the raw materials are fermented in a fermenter and crude calcium lactate is formed. 
The gypsum is separated from the crude calcium lactate, which results in crude lactic acid. 
The crude lactic acid is purified and concentrated and L(+) lactic acid is the result.

LACTIC ACID, is an organic acid with applications in beer production as well as the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries. 
Commonly used as a preservative and antioxidant. 
It also has uses as a fuel additive, chemical intermediate, acidity regulator, and disinfectant.

One specific use of LACTIC ACID is in I.V solutions, where it is an electrolyte to help replenish the bodies fluids. 
It is also used in dialysis solutions, which results in a lower incidence of side effects compared to Sodium Acetate which can also be used.

LACTIC ACID comes in both R (D-) and S (L+) enantiomers which can be manufactured individually to near perfect optical purity. 
This means LACTIC ACID is great in the production of other products which require a specific stereochemistry.

LACTIC ACID is used frequently in the cosmetic industry due to the effect of promoting collagen production, helping to firm the skin against wrinkles and sagging. 
It can also cause micro peeling, which can help reduce various scars and age spots. 
This is a great solution for people with sensitive or dry skin where exfoliants don’t work.


SYNONYMS: 2-Hydroxypropanoic acid; Lactic acid;1-Hydroxyethanecarboxylic acid; Ethylidenelactic acid; alpha-Hydroxypropionic Acid; Milchsäure (Dutch); ácido lactico (Spanish); Aacide lactique (French);

Synonyms
(RS)-2-Hydroxypropionsaeure; 1-Hydroxyethanecarboxylic acid; 2-Hydroxypropanoic acid; 2-Hydroxypropionic acid; Acidum lacticum; Aethylidenmilchsaeure; DL-Lactic acid; DL-Milchsaeure; Ethylidenelactic acid; Kyselina 2-hydroxypropanova [Czech]; Kyselina mlecna [Czech]; Lactate; Lactic acid, dl-; Lactic acid (natural); Lactic acid USP; Lactovagan; Milchsaeure; Milchsaure [German]; Milk acid; Ordinary lactic acid; Propanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-; Propel; Propionic acid, 2-hydroxy-; Racemic lactic acid; SY-83; Tonsillosan; alpha-Hydroxypropionic acid; [ChemIDplus]

Sources/Uses
Used as a solvent and acidulant in the production of foods, drugs, and dyes; Also used as a mordant in woolen goods printing, a soldering flux, a dehairing agent, and a catalyst for phenolic resins; Also used in leather tanning, oil well acidizing, and as a plant growth regulator

Lactic acid is used as a food preservative, curing agent, and flavoring agent. 
It is an ingredient in processed foods and is used as a decontaminant during meat processing. 
Lactic acid is produced commercially by fermentation of carbohydrates such as glucose, sucrose, or lactose, or by chemical synthesis.

Lactic acid, also named ‘milk acid’, is an organic acid with the following chemicalformula: CH3CH(OH)CO2H. 
The official name given by the International Union ofPure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is 2-hydroxypropanoic acid. 
This important acid can be naturally produced (Martinez et al. 2013), but its importanceis correlated with synthetic productions. 
Pure lactic acid is a colourless andhydroscopic liquid; it can be defined a weak acid because of its partial dissociationin water and the correlated acid dissociation constant (Ka= 1.38 10−4).

Lactic acid is a chiral compound with a carbon chain composed of a central (chiral) atomand two terminal carbon atoms. 
A hydroxyl group is attached to the chiral carbon atom while oneof the terminal carbon atoms is part of the carboxylic group and the other atom is part of the methylgroup. 
Consequently, two optically active isomeric forms of lactic acid exist: L(+) form, alsonamed (S)-lactic acid, and D(−) form, or (R)-lactic acid. L(+)-lactic acid is the biological isomer.

Antibacterial mechanism of lactic acid on physiological and morphological properties of Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes:
•Pathogens could be completely inactivated after exposure to lactic acid.
•Lactic acid resulted in great leakage of protein of three pathogens.
•Bacterial protein bands of lactic acid-treated cells got fainter or disappeared.
•Z-Average sizes of pathogens were changed to smaller after lactic acid treatment.
•Lactic acid caused collapsed or even broken cells with obvious pits and gaps.

Lactic acid is widely used to inhibit the growth of important microbial pathogens, but its antibacterial mechanism is not yet fully understood. 
The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial mechanism of lactic acid on Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes by size measurement, TEM, and SDS-PAGE analysis. 
The results indicated that 0.5% lactic acid could completely inhibit the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis, E. coli and L. monocytogenes cells. 
Meanwhile, lactic acid resulted in leakage of proteins of Salmonella, E. coli and Listeria cells, and the amount of leakage after 6 h exposure were up to 11.36, 11.76 and 16.29 μg/mL, respectively. 
Measurements of the release of proteins and SDS-PAGE confirmed the disruptive action of lactic acid on cytoplasmic membrane, as well as the content and activity of bacterial proteins. 
The Z-Average sizes of three pathogens were changed to smaller after lactic acid treatment. 
The damaged membrane structure and intracellular structure induced by lactic acid could be observed from TEM images. 
The results suggested that the antimicrobial effect was probably caused by physiological and morphological changes in bacterial cells.


Fifty strains each of Staphylococcus aureus, beta haemolytic Streptococci, Proteus species, Esch coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were subjected to 2%, 1 % and 0. 1 % lactic acid in peptorie water. 
Minimum inhibitory concentration of lactic acid for all the strains of each of these organisms was 0.1% or 1%. 
Depending upon its concentration, lactic acid added to peptone water brings down the PH to 2.5-4 which by itself has some inhibitory effect on the microorganisms. 
Lactic acid however, retains its inhibitory effect even if the Ph of the peptone water is brought back to 7.3. 
Lactic acid is a nontoxic and non-sensitizing agent because it is a normal metabolite of the body. 
Thus, it can be used as a safe and effective antibacterial agent for local application.

CLASSIFICATION: Food acidity regulator, Preservative, Plant growth regulator

A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. 
The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation.
Conversion to glucose via gluconeogenesis in the liver and release back into the circulation

Name    DL-Lactic acid
Synonyms    2-Hydroxypropanoic acid
2-Hydroxypropionic acid
Lactic acid
Lactic acid, dl-
Propanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-
(RS)-2-Hydroxypropionsaeure
1-Hydroxyethanecarboxylic acid
AI3-03130
Acidum lacticum
BRN 5238667
CCRIS 2951
Lactovagan
Tonsillosan
alpha-Hydroxypropionic acid
2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanoic acid
(2S)-2-hydroxypropanoate
(2R)-2-hydroxypropanoate
CAS    598-82-3
50-21-5

Lactic acid in Food
Lactic acid is naturally present in many foodstuffs. 
It is formed by natural fermentation in products such as cheese, yogurt, soy sauce, sourdough, meat products and pickled vegetables.

Lactic acid is also used in a wide range of food applications such as bakery products, beverages, meat products, confectionery, dairy products, salads, dressings, ready meals, etc. 
Lactic acid in food products usually serves as either as a pH regulator or as a preservative. 
It is also used as a flavoring agent.

Meat, Poultry & Fish
Lactic acid can be used in meat, poultry and fish in the form of sodium or potassium lactate to extend shelf life, control pathogenic bacteria (improve food safety), enhance and protect meat flavor, improve water binding capacity and reduce sodium.

Beverages
Because of its mild taste, lactic acid is used as an acidity regulator in beverages such as soft drinks and fruit juices.

Pickled vegetables
Lactic acid is effective in preventing the spoilage of olives, gherkins, pearl onions and other vegetables preserved in brine.

Salads & dressings
Lactic acid may be also used as a preservative in salads and dressings, resulting in products with a milder flavor while maintaining microbial stability and safety.

Confectionery
Formulating hard-boiled candy, fruit gums and other confectionery products with lactic acid results in a mild acid taste, improved quality, reduced stickiness and longer shelf life.

Dairy
The natural presence of lactic acid in dairy products, combined with the dairy flavor and good antimicrobial action of lactic acid, makes lactic acid an excellent acidification agent for many dairy products.

Baked Goods
Lactic acid is a natural sourdough acid, which gives the bread its characteristic flavor, and therefore it can be used for direct acidification in the production of sourdough.

Savory Flavors
Lactic acid is used to enhance a broad range of savory flavors. 
Its natural occurrence in meat and dairy products makes lactic acid an attractive way to enhance savory flavors.


Lactic acid in non-food

Pharmaceutical
The primary functions for the pharmaceutical applications are: pH-regulation, metal sequestration, chiral intermediate and as a natural body constituent in pharmaceutical products.

Biomaterials
Lactic acid is a valuable component in biomaterials such as resorbable screws, sutures and medical devices.

Detergents
Lactic acid well known for its descaling properties and is widely applied in household cleaning products. 
Also, lactic acid is used as a natural anti-bacterial agent in disinfecting products.

Technical
Lactic acid is used in a wide variety of industrial processes where acidity is required and where its properties offer specific benefits. Examples are the manufacture of leather and textile products and computer disks, as well as car coating.

Animal Feed
Lactic acid is a commonly used additive in animal nutrition. It has health promoting properties, thus enhancing the performance of farm animals. 
Lactic acid can be used as an additive in food and/or drinking water.
Lactic acid in biodegradable plastics
Lactic Acid is the principal building block for Poly Lactic Acid (PLA). 
PLA is a biobased and bio-degradable polymer that can be used for producing renewable and compostable plastics.


Created by Corbion Purac: the leading supplier of lactic acid, derivatives and lactides

Lactic acid (2-hydroxypropionic acid)
Substance group: Organic acids

Lactic acid is an organic acid occurring naturally in the human body and in fermented foods. 
It is used in a wide range of food, beverages, personal care, healthcare, cleaners, feed & pet food and chemical products as a mild acidity regulator with flavour enhancing and antibacterial properties. 
The commercial production of lactic acid is typically done by fermentation. 
Because the L(+) form is preferred for its better metabolisation, Jungbunzlauer has chosen to produce pure L(+)-lactic acid by traditional fermentation of natural carbohydrates.

L(+)-lactic acid is a colourless to yellowish, nearly odourless, syrupy liquid with a mild acid taste. 
It is commercially available as aqueous solutions of various concentrations. 
These solutions are stable under normal storage conditions.
Lactic acid is non-toxic to humans and the environment, but concentrated solutions of lactic acid can cause skin irritation and eye damage. 
They have thus to be labelled with a hazard pictogram and related statements. Lactic acid is readily biodegradable.

Molecular weight 90.1; colorless crystals. Known D (+) -lactic acid, D (-) -lactic (meat-lactic) acid and racemic lactic acid - fermentation lactic acid. For D, L- and D- lactic acids - melting point, respectively, 18 ° C and 53 ° C; boiling point, respectively, 85 ° C / 1 mm Hg. and 103 ° C / 2mm Hg; for D- lactic acid, the specific optical rotation for the D-line of sodium at a temperature of 20˚C: [α] D 20   -2.26 (concentration 1.24% in water). For D, L -lactic acid ∆H 0 formation - 682.45 kJ / mol; ∆H 0 melting 11.35 kJ / mol; ∆H 0 evaporation 110.95 kJ / mol (25 ° C), 65.73 kJ / mol (150 ° C). For L- lactic acid ∆H 0 combustion - 1344.8 kJ / mol; ∆H 0 formation -694.54 kJ / mol; ∆H 0 melting 16.87 kJ / mol.

Due to the high hygroscopicity of lactic acid, its concentrated aqueous solutions are usually used - syrupy, colorless, odorless liquids. 
For aqueous solutions of lactic acid, the density is g / cm 3 at a temperature of 20˚C d 4 20 1.0959 (40%), 1.1883 (80%), 1.2246 (100%); specific optical rotation for the sodium D-line at a temperature of 25˚С: [α] D 25   1.3718 (37.3%), 1.4244 (88.6%); h 3.09 and 28.5 mPa ∙ s (at 25 ˚С), respectively, for 45.48 and 85.32% solutions; g 46.0.10 -3 N / m (25 ° C) for 1 M solution; e 22 (17 ° C). 
Lactic acid dissolves in water, ethanol, poorly - in benzene, chloroform, and other halogenated hydrocarbons; pK a 3.862 (at 25 ° C); pH of aqueous solutions 1.23 (37.3%), 0.2 (84.0%).

Oxidation of lactic acid is usually accompanied by decomposition. Under the action of HNO 3 or O 2 of air in the presence of Cu or Fe, HCOOH, CH 3 COOH, (COOH) 2 , CH 3 CHO, CO 2 and pyruvic acid are formed. 
Reduction of lactic acid HI leads to propionic acid, and reduction in the presence of Re-mobile leads to propylene glycol.

Lactic acid dehydrates to acrylic acid, when heated with HBr, forms 2-bromopropionic acid, when the Ca salt reacts with PCl 5 or SOCl 2 -2-chloropropionyl chloride . 
In the presence of mineral acids, self-esterification of lactic acid occurs with the formation of lactone, as well as linear polyesters. 
When lactic acid interacts with alcohols, hydroxy acids RCH 2 CH (OH) COOH are formed, and when lactic acid salts react with alcohol esters. 
The salts and esters of lactic acid are called lactates.

Lactic acid is formed as a result of lactic acid fermentation (with sour milk, sauerkraut, pickling vegetables, ripening cheese, ensiling feed); D- lactic acid is found in tissues of animals, plants, and also in microorganisms.

In industry, lactic acid is obtained by hydrolysis of 2-chloropropionic acid and its salts (100 ° C) or lactonitrile CH 3 CH (OH) CN (100 ° C, H 2 SO 4 ), followed by the formation of esters, the isolation and hydrolysis of which leads to a high quality. 
Other methods of producing lactic acid are known: the oxidation of propylene with nitrogen oxides (15-20 ° C) followed by treatment with H 2 SO 4 , the interaction of CH 3 CHO with CO (200 ° C, 20 MPa).

Lactic acid is used in the food industry, in mordant dyeing, in leather production, in fermentation shops as a bactericidal agent, for the production of medicines, plasticizers. Ethyl and butyl lactates are used as solvents for cellulose ethers, drying oils, vegetable oils; butyl lactate - as well as a solvent for some synthetic polymers.

Lactic acid is an organic acid. It has a molecular formula CH3CH(OH)COOH. 
It is white in the solid state and it is miscible with water.
When in the dissolved state, it forms a colorless solution. 
Production includes both artificial synthesis as well as natural sources. 
Lactic acid is an alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) due to the presence of a hydroxyl group adjacent to the carboxyl group. 
It is used as a synthetic intermediate in many organic synthesis industries and in various biochemical industries. The conjugate base of lactic acid is called lactate.

In solution, it can ionize, producing the lactate ion CH3CH(OH)CO−2. 
Compared to acetic acid, its pKa is 1 unit less, meaning lactic acid is ten times more acidic than acetic acid. This higher acidity is the consequence of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the α-hydroxyl and the carboxylate group.

Lactic acid is chiral, consisting of two enantiomers. 
One is known as l-(+)-lactic acid or (S)-lactic acid and the other, its mirror image, is d-(−)-lactic acid or (R)-lactic acid. 
A mixture of the two in equal amounts is called dl-lactic acid, or racemic lactic acid. Lactic acid is hygroscopic. 
dl-Lactic acid is miscible with water and with ethanol above its melting point, which is around 16, 17 or 18 °C. 
d-Lactic acid and l-lactic acid have a higher melting point. Lactic acid produced by fermentation of milk is often racemic, although certain species of bacteria produce solely (R)-lactic acid. On the other hand, lactic acid produced by anaerobic respiration in animal muscles has the (S) configuration and is sometimes called "sarcolactic" acid, from the Greek "sarx" for flesh.

In animals, l-lactate is constantly produced from pyruvate via the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in a process of fermentation during normal metabolism and exercise.
It does not increase in concentration until the rate of lactate production exceeds the rate of lactate removal, which is governed by a number of factors, including monocarboxylate transporters, concentration and isoform of LDH, and oxidative capacity of tissues.
The concentration of blood lactate is usually 1–2 mM at rest, but can rise to over 20 mM during intense exertion and as high as 25 mM afterward.
In addition to other biological roles, l-lactic acid is the primary endogenous agonist of hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1 (HCA1), which is a Gi/o-coupled G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR).[10][11]

In industry, lactic acid fermentation is performed by lactic acid bacteria, which convert simple carbohydrates such as glucose, sucrose, or galactose to lactic acid. 
These bacteria can also grow in the mouth; the acid they produce is responsible for the tooth decay known as caries.
In medicine, lactate is one of the main components of lactated Ringer's solution and Hartmann's solution. 
These intravenous fluids consist of sodium and potassium cations along with lactate and chloride anions in solution with distilled water, generally in concentrations isotonic with human blood. 
It is most commonly used for fluid resuscitation after blood loss due to trauma, surgery, or burns.

History
Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele was the first person to isolate lactic acid in 1780 from sour milk.
The name reflects the lact- combining form derived from the Latin word lac, which means milk. 
In 1808, Jöns Jacob Berzelius discovered that lactic acid (actually l-lactate) also is produced in muscles during exertion.
Its structure was established by Johannes Wislicenus in 1873.

In 1856, the role of Lactobacillus in the synthesis of lactic acid was discovered by Louis Pasteur. 
This pathway was used commercially by the German pharmacy Boehringer Ingelheim in 1895.

In 2006, global production of lactic acid reached 275,000 tonnes with an average annual growth of 10%.

Production
Lactic acid is produced industrially by bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates, or by chemical synthesis from acetaldehyde.
In 2009, lactic acid was produced predominantly (70–90%)[20] by fermentation. Production of racemic lactic acid consisting of a 1:1 mixture of d and l stereoisomers, or of mixtures with up to 99.9% l-lactic acid, is possible by microbial fermentation. 
Industrial scale production of d-lactic acid by fermentation is possible, but much more challenging.

Fermentative production
Fermented milk products are obtained industrially by fermentation of milk or whey by Lactobacillus bacteria: Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Lactobacillus bulgaricus), Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactococcus lactis, and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus (Streptococcus thermophilus).

As a starting material for industrial production of lactic acid, almost any carbohydrate source containing C5 and C6 sugars can be used. 
Pure sucrose, glucose from starch, raw sugar, and beet juice are frequently used.[21] Lactic acid producing bacteria can be divided in two classes: homofermentative bacteria like Lactobacillus casei and Lactococcus lactis, producing two moles of lactate from one mole of glucose, and heterofermentative species producing one mole of lactate from one mole of glucose as well as carbon dioxide and acetic acid/ethanol.[22]

Chemical production
Racemic lactic acid is synthesized industrially by reacting acetaldehyde with hydrogen cyanide and hydrolysing the resultant lactonitrile. 
When hydrolysis is performed by hydrochloric acid, ammonium chloride forms as a by-product; the Japanese company Musashino is one of the last big manufacturers of lactic acid by this route.
Synthesis of both racemic and enantiopure lactic acids is also possible from other starting materials (vinyl acetate, glycerol, etc.) by application of catalytic procedures.

Biology
Molecular biology
l-Lactic acid is the primary endogenous agonist of hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1 (HCA1), a Gi/o-coupled G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR).

Exercise and lactate
During power exercises such as sprinting, when the rate of demand for energy is high, glucose is broken down and oxidized to pyruvate, and lactate is then produced from the pyruvate faster than the body can process it, causing lactate concentrations to rise. The production of lactate is beneficial for NAD+ regeneration (pyruvate is reduced to lactate while NADH is oxidized to NAD+), which is used up in oxidation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate during production of pyruvate from glucose, and this ensures that energy production is maintained and exercise can continue. During intense exercise, the respiratory chain cannot keep up with the amount of hydrogen ions that join to form NADH, and cannot regenerate NAD+ quickly enough.

The resulting lactate can be used in two ways:

Oxidation back to pyruvate by well-oxygenated muscle cells, heart cells, and brain cells
Pyruvate is then directly used to fuel the Krebs cycle
Conversion to glucose via gluconeogenesis in the liver and release back into circulation; see Cori cycle
If blood glucose concentrations are high, the glucose can be used to build up the liver's glycogen stores.
However, lactate is continually formed even at rest and during moderate exercise. Some causes of this are metabolism in red blood cells that lack mitochondria, and limitations resulting from the enzyme activity that occurs in muscle fibers having high glycolytic capacity.[25]

In 2004, Robergs et al. maintained that lactic acidosis during exercise is a "construct" or myth, pointing out that part of the H+ comes from ATP hydrolysis (ATP4− + H2O → ADP3− + HPO2−
4 + H+), and that reducing pyruvate to lactate (pyruvate− + NADH + H+ → lactate− + NAD+) actually consumes H+.
Lindinger et al.[27] countered that they had ignored the causative factors of the increase in [H+]. 
After all, the production of lactate− from a neutral molecule must increase [H+] to maintain electroneutrality. 
The point of Robergs's paper, however, was that lactate− is produced from pyruvate−, which has the same charge. It is pyruvate− production from neutral glucose that generates H+:

C6H12O6 + 2 NAD+ + 2 ADP3− + 2 HPO2−4    →    2 CH3COCO−2 + 2 H+ + 2 NADH + 2 ATP4− + 2 H2O
Subsequent lactate− production absorbs these protons:
2 CH3COCO−2 + 2 H+ + 2 NADH    →    2 CH3CH(OH)CO−2 + 2 NAD+

Overall:
C6H12O6 + 2 NAD+ + 2 ADP3− + 2 HPO2−4    →    2 CH3COCO−2 + 2 H+ + 2 NADH + 2 ATP4− + 2 H2O→    2 CH3CH(OH)CO−2 + 2 NAD+ + 2 ATP4− + 2 H2O
Although the reaction glucose → 2 lactate− + 2 H+ releases two H+ when viewed on its own, the H+ are absorbed in the production of ATP. 
On the other hand, the absorbed acidity is released during subsequent hydrolysis of ATP: ATP4− + H2O → ADP3− + HPO2−
4 + H+. So once the use of ATP is included, the overall reaction is

C6H12O6 → 2 CH3COCO−2 + 2 H+

The generation of CO2 during respiration also causes an increase in [H+].

Metabolism
Although glucose is usually assumed to be the main energy source for living tissues, there are some indications that it is lactate, and not glucose, that is preferentially metabolized by neurons in the brain of several mammalian species (the notable ones being mice, rats, and humans).
According to the lactate-shuttle hypothesis, glial cells are responsible for transforming glucose into lactate, and for providing lactate to the neurons.
Because of this local metabolic activity of glial cells, the extracellular fluid immediately surrounding neurons strongly differs in composition from the blood or cerebrospinal fluid, being much richer with lactate, as was found in microdialysis studies.

Some evidence suggests that lactate is important at early stages of development for brain metabolism in prenatal and early postnatal subjects, with lactate at these stages having higher concentrations in body liquids, and being utilized by the brain preferentially over glucose.
It was also hypothesized that lactate may exert a strong action over GABAergic networks in the developing brain, making them more inhibitory than it was previously assumed,acting either through better support of metabolites, or alterations in base intracellular pH levels,or both.

Studies of brain slices of mice show that β-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, and pyruvate act as oxidative energy substrates, causing an increase in the NAD(P)H oxidation phase, that glucose was insufficient as an energy carrier during intense synaptic activity and, finally, that lactate can be an efficient energy substrate capable of sustaining and enhancing brain aerobic energy metabolism in vitro.
The study "provides novel data on biphasic NAD(P)H fluorescence transients, an important physiological response to neural activation that has been reproduced in many studies and that is believed to originate predominately from activity-induced concentration changes to the cellular NADH pools."

Lactate can also serve as an important source of energy for other organs, including the heart and liver. During physical activity, up to 60% of the heart muscle's energy turnover rate derives from lactate oxidation.[16]

Blood testing

Reference ranges for blood tests, comparing lactate content (shown in violet at center-right) to other constituents in human blood
Blood tests for lactate are performed to determine the status of the acid base homeostasis in the body. 
Blood sampling for this purpose is often arterial (even if it is more difficult than venipuncture), because lactate levels differ substantially between arterial and venous, and the arterial level is more representative for this purpose.

Reference ranges
Lower limit    Upper limit    Unit
Venous    4.5[38]    19.8[38]    mg/dL
0.5[39]    2.2[39]    mmol/L
Arterial    4.5[38]    14.4[38]    mg/dL
0.5[39]    1.6[39]    mmol/L
During childbirth, lactate levels in the fetus can be quantified by fetal scalp blood testing.

Polymer precursor
Main article: polylactic acid
Two molecules of lactic acid can be dehydrated to the lactone lactide. In the presence of catalysts lactide polymerize to either atactic or syndiotactic polylactide (PLA), which are biodegradable polyesters. 
PLA is an example of a plastic that is not derived from petrochemicals.

Pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications
Lactic acid is also employed in pharmaceutical technology to produce water-soluble lactates from otherwise-insoluble active ingredients. 
It finds further use in topical preparations and cosmetics to adjust acidity and for its disinfectant and keratolytic properties.

Foods
Lactic acid is found primarily in sour milk products, such as koumiss, laban, yogurt, kefir, and some cottage cheeses. 
The casein in fermented milk is coagulated (curdled) by lactic acid. 
Lactic acid is also responsible for the sour flavor of sourdough bread.

In lists of nutritional information lactic acid might be included under the term "carbohydrate" (or "carbohydrate by difference") because this often includes everything other than water, protein, fat, ash, and ethanol.[40] If this is the case then the calculated food energy may use the standard 4 kilocalories (17 kJ) per gram that is often used for all carbohydrates. 
But in some cases lactic acid is ignored in the calculation.
The energy density of lactic acid is 362 kilocalories (1,510 kJ) per 100 g.

Some beers (sour beer) purposely contain lactic acid, one such type being Belgian lambics. 
Most commonly, this is produced naturally by various strains of bacteria. These bacteria ferment sugars into acids, unlike the yeast that ferment sugar into ethanol. 
After cooling the wort, yeast and bacteria are allowed to “fall” into the open fermenters. 
Brewers of more common beer styles would ensure that no such bacteria are allowed to enter the fermenter. 
Other sour styles of beer include Berliner weisse, Flanders red and American wild ale.

In winemaking, a bacterial process, natural or controlled, is often used to convert the naturally present malic acid to lactic acid, to reduce the sharpness and for other flavor-related reasons. This malolactic fermentation is undertaken by lactic acid bacteria.

While not normally found in significant quantities in fruit, lactic acid is the primary organic acid in akebia fruit, making up 2.12% of the juice.

As a food additive it is approved for use in the EU, USA and Australia and New Zealand; it is listed by its INS number 270 or as E number E270. 
Lactic acid is used as a food preservative, curing agent, and flavoring agent.
It is an ingredient in processed foods and is used as a decontaminant during meat processing.
Lactic acid is produced commercially by fermentation of carbohydrates such as glucose, sucrose, or lactose, or by chemical synthesis.
Carbohydrate sources include corn, beets, and cane sugar.

Forgery
Lactic acid has historically been used to assist with the erasure of inks from official papers to be modified during forgery.

Cleaning products
Lactic acid is used in some liquid cleaners as a descaling agent for removing hard water deposits such as calcium carbonate, forming the lactate, Calcium lactate. 
Owing to its high acidity, such deposits are eliminated very quickly, especially where boiling water is used, as in kettles. 
It also is gaining popularity in antibacterial dish detergents and hand soaps replacing Triclosan.


PRODUCT INFORMATION
Lactic acid is a hydroxycarboxylic acid CH3CH(OH)COOH with two stereoisomers (D(-) and L(+)) and it has several applications in food, chemical, pharmaceutical and health care industries. 
It is primarily used for food and pharmaceutical applications, preferentially the L(+) isomer, since it is the only lactic acid isomer produced in the human body. 
Around 20 to 30% of the lactic acid production is used to obtain biopolymers (polylactic acid). 
Other uses include fibers and green solvents.

Lactic acid is fully commercially available and largely (90%) produced by bacteria through anaerobic fermentation of sugars. 
It can also be commercially produced by chemical synthesis. 
The chemical production pathway gives an optical inactive racemic mixture (with the same quantity of L and D isomers), while the anaerobic fermentation pathway mostly yieldsone of the two stereoisomers, depending on the microorganism chosen. 
The biotechnological option is widely available due to its renewable origin. 
Lactic acid can be produced via fermentation of sugars from different biomass, such as: starch crops, sugar crops, lignocellulosic materials and also from whey (a residue from cheese production). 

The bulk of world production is based on homoplastic fermentation of sugars (from starch or sugar crops) where lactic acid is produced as sole product. 
Conventional production systems require the addition of calcium hydroxide to control the fermentation pH. 
This procedure results in calcium lactate as final product. 
Several steps are required to ultimately obtain and purify lactic acid: filtration, acidification, carbon adsorption, evaporation, esterification, hydrolysis and distillation. 
The conventional process is associated with high costs (due to the complex purification procedure) and poor environmental performance due to the production of large amounts of chemical effluents (e.g. calcium sulphate). 
New separation technologies are being developed, such as bipolar electrodialysis with promising results.

Lactic acid, the most fundamental natural ingredient in the dairy industry
In dairy products, lactic acid is one of the most common ingredients. 
Its purpose is generally as an acid regulator and in terms of flavouring. 
The slightly sour taste observed in yogurts, cheeses and other milk products is generally the result of fermentation from lactic acid. 
The signature flavour of sourdough bread is also a result of lactic acid during the baking process. 
With the addition of this versatile supplement, the product can be acidified with ease to reach proper pH levels, while leaving the natural flavours undisturbed. 

2-hydroxypropanoic acid

DL-Lactic acid

50-21-5

2-hydroxypropionic acid


Molecular Weight    
90.08 g/mol


Lactic Acid, DL- is the racemic isomer of lactic acid, the biologically active isoform in humans. 
Lactic acid or lactate is produced during fermentation from pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase. 
This reaction, in addition to producing lactic acid, also produces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) that is then used in glycolysis to produce energy source adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

NCI Thesaurus (NCIt)
Lactic acid appears as a colorless to yellow odorless syrupy liquid. Corrosive to metals and tissue. Used to make cultured dairy products, as a food preservative, and to make chemicals.


A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. 
The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. 
Sodium lactate is the sodium salt of lactic acid, and has a mild saline taste. 
It is produced by fermentation of a sugar source, such as corn or beets, and then, by neutralizing the resulting lactic acid to create a compound having the formula NaC3H5O3. 
Lactic acid was one of active ingredients in Phexxi, a non-hormonal contraceptive agent that was approved by the FDA on May 2020.


2-hydroxypropanoic acid


Lactic acid

2 Hydroxypropanoic Acid
2 Hydroxypropionic Acid
2-Hydroxypropanoic Acid
2-Hydroxypropionic Acid
Ammonium Lactate
D Lactic Acid
D-Lactic Acid
L Lactic Acid
L-Lactic Acid
Lactate
Lactate, Ammonium
Lactic Acid
Propanoic Acid, 2-Hydroxy-, (2R)-
Propanoic Acid, 2-Hydroxy-, (2S)-
Sarcolactic Acid


2-hydroxypropanoic acid
DL-Lactic acid
50-21-5
2-hydroxypropionic acid
Milk acid
Polylactic acid
lactate
Ethylidenelactic acid
Lactovagan
Tonsillosan
Racemic lactic acid
Propanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-
Ordinary lactic acid
Milchsaeure
Acidum lacticum
Kyselina mlecna
DL-Milchsaeure
Lactic acid USP
1-Hydroxyethanecarboxylic acid
Aethylidenmilchsaeure
alpha-Hydroxypropionic acid
Lacticacid
Lactic acid (natural)
FEMA No. 2611
26100-51-6
Kyselina 2-hydroxypropanova
Milchsaure [German]
Propionic acid, 2-hydroxy-
598-82-3
(RS)-2-Hydroxypropionsaeure
CCRIS 2951
HSDB 800
(+-)-2-Hydroxypropanoic acid
FEMA Number 2611


Kyselina mlecna [Czech]
propanoic acid, hydroxy-
SY-83
DL- lactic acid
Propel
NSC 367919
AI3-03130

Purac FCC 80

Purac FCC 88

Kyselina 2-hydroxypropanova [Czech]

EINECS 200-018-0

EINECS 209-954-4

MFCD00004520

EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 128929
BRN 5238667
(R)-2-Hydroxy-propionic acid;H-D-Lac-OH
CHEBI:78320
Poly(lactic acid)
C3H6O3
NSC-367919
NCGC00090972-01
2-hydroxy-propionic acid
DL-Lactic acid, 90%
E 270
DSSTox_CID_3192
(+/-)-Lactic acid
alpha-Hydroxypropanoic acid

C01432
DSSTox_RID_76915
DSSTox_GSID_23192
Milchsaure
Polactide
Lacticum acidum
D(-)-lactic acid
Cheongin samrakhan
UNII-3B8D35Y7S4
CAS-50-21-5
Cheongin Haewoohwan
Cheongin Haejanghwan
Lactic acid [JAN]
Lactic acid [USP:JAN]
lactasol
Propanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-, homopolymer
1-Hydroxyethane 1-carboxylic acid
Biolac
Whey

Acid lactic (ro)
Acide lactique (fr)
Acido lattico (it)
Aċidu lattiku (mt)
Kwas mlekowy (pl)
Kyselina mliečna (sk)
Kyselina mléčná (cs)
Lactic acid (no)
Maitohappo (fi)
Melkzuur (nl)
Milchsäure (de)
Mjölksyra (sv)
Mlečna kislina (sl)
Mliječna kiselina (hr)
Mælkesyre (da)
Pieno rūgštis (lt)
Pienskābe (lv)
Piimhape (et)
Tejsav (hu)
Ácido láctico (es)
Ácido láctico (pt)
Γαλακτικό οξύ (el)
Млечна киселина (bg)

CAS names
Propanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-


IUPAC names
2- Hydroxy propanoic acid
2-HYDROXY-PROPANOIC ACID
2-hydroxy-propanoic acid
2-Hydroxypropanoic Acid
2-Hydroxypropanoic acid
2-hydroxypropanoic acid
2-Hydroxypropionic acid
2-hydroxypropionic acid
D-LACTIC ACID
DL-Lactic Acid
dl-lactic acid
LACTIC ACID
Lactic Acid
Lactic acid
lactic acid
Lactic acid
lactic acid
Milchsäure
Propanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-
Propanoic acid,2-hydroxy-
Tejsav

Lactic Acid Derivatives as Food AdditivesLactic acid is surely important in the food industry. 
On the other hand, severaldifferent additives are chemically derived from lactic acid


actic acid (chemically, alpha or 2-Hydroxypropionic acid) takes roles in metabolic processes in the body; in red blood and in skeletal muscle tissues as a product of glucose and glycogen metabolism. 
Lactic acid is an "alpha hydroxy acid: which has a hydroxyl group on the carbon atom next to the acid group. 
If the hydroxy group is on the second carbon next to the acid group, it is called beta-hydroxy acid. 
Lactic acid is converted in vivo to pyruvic acid (an alpha keto acid) which occurs as an intermediate product in carbohydrate and protein metabolism in the body. 
Lactic acid occurs as two optical isomers since the central carbon atom is bound to four different groups; a dextro and a levo form ( or an inactive racemic mixture of the two); only the levo form takes part in animal metabolism. Lactic acid is present  in sour milk and dairy products such as cheese, yogurt, and  koumiss, leban, wines.  
Lactic acid causes tooth decay since lactic acid bacteria operates in the mouth. 
Although it can be prepared by chemical synthesis, production of lactic acid by fermentation of glucose and other sugar substances in the presence of alkaline such as lime or calcium carbonate is a less expensive method. 
The six-carbon glucose molecule is broken down to two molecules of the three-carbon compounds (lactic acid), during this anaerobic condition. 
Synthetic lactic acid is used commercially in tanning leather and dyeing wool; as a flavouring agent and preservative in food processing and carbonated beverages; and as a raw material in making plastics, solvents, inks, and lacquers; as a catalyst in numerous chemical processes. 
Lactic Acid is available as aqueous solutions of various concentrations, usually 22 - 85 percent (pure lactic acid is a colourless, crystalline substance.) 
Some examples of lactates (salts or esters of lactic acid) are:

Ammonium Lactate (NH4C3H5O3, CAS RN: 515-98-0): clear to yellow, syrupy liquid used in in electroplating, in finishing leather and as humectant for food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics.
Butyl Lactate (CH3CHOHCOOC4H9, CAS RN:138-22-7): a clear liquid: nontoxic, miscible with many solvents; used as a solvent for varnish, lacquers, resins and gums, used in making paints, inks, dry cleaning fluid, flavoring and as a chemical intermediate.
Calcium Lactate Pentahydrate [Ca(C3H5O3)2·5H2O, CAS RN: 814-80-2] : white crystals; soluble in water; used as a calcium source; administered orally in the treatment of calcium deficiency; as a blood coagulant.
Ethyl Lactate   (CH3CHOHCOOC2H5, CAS RN: 97-64-3): clear liquid with mild odur; boiling point 154 C; miscible with alcohols, ketones, esters, and hydrocarbons as well as with water; used in pharmaceutical preparations, feed additive, as a flavoring ( odor description: sweet butter, coconut, fruity, creamy dairy, butterscotch) and as a solvent for cellulose compounds such as nitrocellulose, cellulose acetate, and cellulose ethers.
Magnesium Lactate Trihydrate [Mg(C3H5O3)2·3H2O, CAS RN: 18917-93-6 ]: white crystals with bitter taste; soluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol; used in medicine and as an electrolyte replenisher.
Manganese Lactate Trihydrate [Mn(C3H5O3)2·3H2O]: pale red crystals; insoluble in water and alcohol; used in medicine.
Mercuric Lactate [Hg(C3H5O3)2]: poisonous white powder that decomposes when heated; soluble in water; used in medicine.
Methyl Lactate (CH3CHCHCOOCH3): clear liquid with mild odur; boiling point 145 C; miscible with alcohols, ketones, esters, and hydrocarbons as well as with water; used in pharmaceutical preparations, feed additive, as a flavoring and as a solvent for cellulose compounds such as nitrocellulose, cellulose acetate, and cellulose ethers.
Sodium Lactate (CH3CHOHCOONa, CAS RN: 72-17-3) clear to yellow, hygroscopic syrupy liquid; soluble in water; melting point 17 C; used in medicine, in antifreeze, and hygroscopic agent and as a corrosion inhibitor.
Zinc Lactate (Zn(C3H5O3)2·2H2O, CAS RN: 16039-53-5): white crystals; used as an additive in toothpaste and food; preparation of drugs.


This Brief explores the importance of lactic acid and fermentation in the modern food industry. 
Although it is usually associated with milk and dairy products, lactic acid can also be found in many other fermented food products, including confectionery products, jams, frozen desserts, and pickled vegetables. 
In this work, the authors explain how lactic acid is produced from lactose by Lactobacillus and Streptococcus cultures, and they also emphasise its important role as pH regulator and preservative, helping to the inhibition of microbial growth in fermented foods. 
The Brief discusses a wide range of lactic acid’s applications as a natural additive, curing or gelling agent, flavour, food carrier, solvent, and discoloration inhibitor, among others. 


The most important category of lactic acid derivatives with possible foodapplications is certainly the group of ‘lactic and fatty acid esters of glycerol’,according to the GSFA. This group of fatty esters may be used in many foodproductions with three main purposes (Codex Alimentarius Commission 1995):

(a) Emulsification(b) Sequestration(c) Stabilisation.
The use of lactic esters as emulsifying and surface active agents is well known.Mono- and diglycerides esterified with lactic acid are powerful emulsifiers. 
A goodexample can be stearyl-2-lactylate, obtained from stearic acid and lactic acid inalkaline solution (Belitz et al. 2009). 
Obtained lactylates are mainly represented bycalcium or sodium stearyl-2-lactylate, depending on the used alkaline agent (cal-cium or sodium hydroxide).
Because of the chemical relationship with lactic acid, these compounds are recommended with these objectives in some of food categories already shown forlactic acid, including pasteurised cream (plain); sterilised creams; fresh pastas,noodles and similar foods; salt substitutes Interestingly, a maximum limit of 5000 gper kg is recommended when speaking of the category 13.2 ‘complementary foodsfor infants and young children’; a different and non-GMP limited values have beendecided for lactic acid also in this ambit. 
All remaining food categories do not showsimilar limitations (Codex Alimentarius Commission 1995).


Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are heterogenous group of bacteria which plays a significant role in a variety of fermentation processes. 
They ferment food carbohydrates and produce lactic acid as the main product of fermentation. In addition, degradation of proteins and lipids and production of various alcohols, aldehydes, acids, esters and sulphur compounds contribute to the specific flavour development in different fermented food products.

The main application of LAB is as starter cultures, with an enormous variety of fermented dairy (ie. cheese, yoghurt, fermented milks), meat, fish, fruit, vegetable and cereal products. Besides, they contribute to the flavour, texture and nutritional value of the fermented foods, and thus they are used as adjunct cultures. 
Acceleration of cheese maturation, enhancement of yoghurt texture with the production of exo polysaccharides and control of secondary fermentations in the production of wine are some examples. The production of bacteriocins and antifungal compounds has lead to the application of bio-protective cultures in certain foods. 
Moreover, the well-documented health-promoting properties of certain LAB have lead to the addition of selected strains, in combination with bifidobacteria, as probiotic cultures with various applications in food industry.

Keywords: lactic acid bacteria, applications, fermented foods

Introduction
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play an important role in food, agricultural, and clinical applications. 
The general description of the bacteria included in the group is gram-positive, nonsporing, nonrespiring cocci or rods, which produce lactic acid as the major end product during the fermentation of carbohydrates.
The common agreement is that there is a core group consisting of four genera; Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Streptococcus. 
Recent taxonomic revisions have proposed several new genera and the remaining group now comprises the following: Aerococcus, Alloiococcus, Carnobacterium, Dolosigranulum, Enterococcus, Globicatella, Lactococcus, Oenococcus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus, and Weissella.
Their importance is associated mainly with their safe metabolic activity while growing in foods utilising available sugar for the production of organic acids and other metabolites. Their common occurrence in foods along with their long-lived uses contributes to their natural acceptance as GRAS (Generally Recognised as Safe) for human consumption.3 The EFSA’s ‘Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ)’ has concluded that for the fermenting bacteria associated with food, whether resistant to antibiotics or not - with the possible exception of enterococci - there is no evidence for any clinical problem.4 However, they can act as a reservoir for transferable resistance genes. Strains with genes transferable in such a way could inter the food chain and increase the probability of a transfer to food associated intestinal pathogenic organisms.

The three main pathways which are involved in the manufacture and development of flavour in fermented food products are as follows:
1) glycolysis (fermentation of sugars)
2) lipolysis (degradation of fat) and 
3) proteolysis (degradation of proteins)

1,5−9 Lactate is the main product generated from the metabolism of carbohydrates and a fraction of the intermediate pyruvate can alternatively be converted to diacetyl, acetoin, acetaldehyde or acetic acid (some of which can be important for typical yogurt flavours). 
The contribution of LAB to lipolysis is relatively little, but proteolysis is the key biochemical pathway for the development of flavour in fermented foods.
Degradation of such components can be further converted to various alcohols, aldehydes, acids, esters and sulphur compounds for specific flavour development in fermented food products.

The genetics of the LAB have been reviewed12−18 and complete genome sequences of a great number of LAB have been published19 since 2001, when the first genome of LAB (Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis IL1403) was sequenced and published.

Applications of LAB
Starter cultures for fermented foods

Fermented foods are produced through fermentation of certain sugars by LAB and the origins of them are lost in antiquity. 
The most commonly LAB used as starter cultures in food fermentations are shown in Table 1. It is well-known that the greatest proportion of them belong to the category of dairy products, namely cheese, yoghurt, fermented milks, while fermented meat products, fish products, pickled vegetables and olives and a great variety of cereal products are manufactured, nowadays, using starter cultures. These products, were produced in the past through back slopping and the resulting product characteristics depended on the best-adapted strains dominance, whereas, the earliest productions of them were based on the spontaneous fermentation, resulting from the development of the microflora naturally present in the raw material and its environment. Today, the majority of fermented foods are manufactured with the addition of selected, well defined, starter cultures with well characterized traits, specific for each individual product. For a detailed classification of starter cultures see.21−23

Adjunct cultures

Secondary cultures, or adjunct cultures or adjuncts, are defined as any cultures that are deliberately added at some point of the manufacture of fermented foods, but whose primary role is not acid production. 
Adjunct cultures are used in cheese manufacture to balance some of the biodiversity removed by pasteurisation, improved hygiene and the addition of defined-strain starter culture.
These are mainly non-starter LAB which have a significant impact on flavour and accelerate the maturation process.

Extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) are produced by a variety of bacteria and are present as capsular polysaccharides bound to the cell surface, or are released into the growth medium.
These polymers play a major role in the production of yogurt, cheese, fermented cream and milk-based desserts where they contribute to texture, mouth-feel, taste perception and stability of the final products. 
In addition, it has been suggested that these EPSs or fermented milks containing these EPSs are active as prebiotics, cholesterol-lowering and immunomodulants. 
EPS-producing strains of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbreuckii ssp. bulgaricus have been shown to enhance the texture and viscosity of yogurt and to reduce syneresis.

For the production of wine, LAB are involved in the malolactic fermentation, that is a secondary fermentation, which involves the conversion of L-malate to L-lactate and CO2 via malate decarboxylase, also known as the malolactic enzyme, resulting in a reduction of wine acidity, providing microbiological stabilization and modifications of wine aroma.

Bio-protective cultures

Certain LAB have been found to produce bacteriocins, namely, polypeptides synthesized ribosomally by bacteria that can have a bacteriocidal or bacteriostatic effect on other bacteria.
In general, bacteriocins lead to cell death by inhibiting cell wall biosynthesis or by disrupting the membrane through pore formation.
Bacteriocins are therefore important in food fermentations where they can prevent food spoilage or the inhibition of food pathogens. The best known bacteriocin is nisin, which has gained widespread application in the food industry and is used as a food additive in at least 50 countries, particularly in processed cheese, dairy products and canned foods.
Examples of useful bacteriocins produced by LAB are lacticin 314738−41 from lactococci, macedovicin from Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198,42,43 reuterin from Lactobacillus reuteri, sakacin M from Lactobacillus sake 14845 curvacin A, curvaticin L442 and lactocin AL705 from Lactobacillus curvatus LTH1174,46 pediocin PA-1/AcH from Pediococcus acidilactici,47 plantaricins (A, EF and JK) from Lactobacillus plantarum.
The above bacteriocins have proved effective in many food systems for the control of food spoilage or pathogenic bacteria.

Antifungal activities of LAB have been reported.48−50 In addition; LAB strains also have the ability to reduce fungal mycotoxins, either by producing anti-mycotoxinogenic metabolites, or by absorbing them.50

For LAB to be used as bio-protective starter cultures, they must possess a range of physical and biochemical characteristics, and most importantly, the ability to achieve growth and sufficient production of antimicrobial metabolites, which must be demonstrated in the specific food environment.

Probiotic culture

LAB are considered as a major group of probiotic bacteria; probiotic has been defined by Fuller as "a live microbial feed supplement which beneficially affects the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance". 
Salminen et al.54 proposed that probiotics are microbial cell preparations or components of microbial cells that have a beneficial effect on the health and well-being of the host. 
Commercial cultures used in food applications include mainly strains of Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and Propionibacterium spp. Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lb. reuteri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lb. plantarum are the most used LAB in functional foods containing probiotics.
Argentinean Fresco cheese, Cheddar and Gouda are some examples of applications of probiotic LAB, in combination with bifidobacteria, in cheeses.

The health-promoting effects of LAB are shown in Table 2. 
Apparently, these effects are species and strain specific, and the big challenge is the use of probiotic cultures composed of multiple species.
In addition, LAB, as part of gut microbiota ferment various substrates such as biogenic amines and allergenic compounds into short-chain fatty acids and other organic acids and gases.

In recent years, the genomes of several probiotic species have been sequenced, thus paving the way to the application of ‘omics’ technologies to the investigation of probiotic activities.
Moreover, although recombinant probiotics have been constructed, the industrial application of genetically engineered bacteria is still hampered by legal issues and by a rather negative general public opinion in the food sector.

Product
Genera of LAB1

Reference

Dairy products
Cheese (Mesophilic starter)
Lc. lactis ssp. lactis

22

Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris

Lc. lactis ssp. lactis var. diacetylactis

Leuc. mesenteroides ssp. cremoris

Cheese (Thermophilic starter)

S. thermoplillus

22

Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus

Lb. helveticus

Lb. delbrueckii ssp. lactis

Cheese (Mixed starter)

Lc. lactis ssp. lactis

22

Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris

S. thermoplillus

Yogurt

Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus,
S. thermophilus

22

Fermented milks

Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, S. thermophilus Lb. casei,
Lb. acidophilus, Lb. rhamnosus, Lb. johnsonii

22

Yakult

Lb. casei ssp. casei

22

Acidophilus milk

Lb. acidophilus

22

Butter and buttermilk

Lc. lactis ssp. lactis, Lc. lactis ssp. lactis var. diacetylactis,
 Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris, Leuc. menesteroides ssp. cremoris

22

Kefir

Lb. kefir, Lb. kefiranofacies, Lb. brevis, Lb. plantarum,
Lb. paracasei spp. paracasei, Lc. lactis spp. lactis,
Leuc. mesenteroides

62

Trahanas

Lc. lactis ssp. lactis, Lc. lactis ssp. lactis var. diacetylactis, Leuc. menesteroides ssp. cremoris, Lb. delbrueckii ssp. lactis, Lb. casei,
Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Lb. Acidophilus

63

Fermented meat products

Dry sausages

Lb. sakei, Lb. curvatus, Lb. plantarum, Lb. pentosus, Lb. casei,
P. pentosaceous, P. acidilactici

64,65

Salami Milano

Lb. sakei, Lb. plantarum

66

Salame Piacentino

Lb. acidophilus, Lb. helveticus, Lb. sakei, Lb. antri, Lb. oris, Lb. vaginalis, Lb. brevis, Lb. panis, Lb. versmoldensis, Lb. zeae, Lb. curvatus, Lb. paralimentarius, Lb. frumenti, Lb. plantarum, Lb. graminis, Lb. reuteri

67

Greek dry fermented sausages

Lb. sakei, Lb. plantarum, Lb. curvatus, Lb. pentosus, Lc.
lactis ssp. lactis, W. hellenica, W. paramesenteroides,
W. viridescens, W. minor

67

Chrorizo

Lb. brevis, Lb. curvatus, Lb. sakei, Lc. lactis, P. acidilactici,
P. pentosaceus, Leuc. mesenteroides

67

Fermented fish products

Thai fish

Lb. plantarum, Lb. reuteri

68

Pickled fruits and vegetables

Cabbage (Sauerkraut)

Leuc. mesenteroides, Lb. plantarum, Lb. brevis,
Lb. fermentum

69

Cucumber

Lb. brevis, Lb. plantarum, Lb. pentosus, Lb. acidophilus,
Lb. fermentum, Leuc. Mesenteroides

70,71

Olives

Lb. brevis, Lb. plantarum, Lb. pentosus

72,73

Fermented cereal products

Sourdough

Lb. brevis, Lb. hilgardii

74,75

Lb. sanfransiscensis, Lb. farciminis, Lb. fermentum,
Lb. brevis, Lb. plantarum, Lb. amylovorus, Lb. reuteri,
Lb. pontis, Lb. panis, Lb. alimentarius, W. cibaria

Kimchi

Leuc. mesenteroides, Lb. plantarum, W. kimchii sp. nov.,
Lb. kimchi, Lb. sakei, W. koreensis

76–78

Bushera

Lb. plantarum, Lb. paracasei ssp. paracasei, Lb. fermentum,
 Lb. brevis, Lb. delbrueckii ssp. delbrueckii, S. thermophilus

79

Pozol

Leuc. mesenteroides, Lb. plantarum, Lb. confusus, Lc. lactis, Lc. raffinolactis

80

Table 1 Lactic acid bacteria used as starter cultures in the production of some fermented food products

Lc. Lactococcus, Lb. Lactobacillus, Leuc. Leuconostoc, P. Pediococcus, S. Streptococcus, W. Weissella

Probiotic effect

Reference

Assimilation of cholesterol

 79,80

Lactose intolerance

 79–81

Control viral, bacterial and antibiotic associated diarrheal diseases

 79,80,83–85

Inflammatory bowel disease

 79

Allergies and atopic dermatitis

 86,87

Colonic carcinogens

88,89

Control of pathogenic bacteria

 91,92

Stimulation of the immune system on the gut mucosal surface

93

Table 2 Effects of probiotics on the human health

Conclusion
LAB are the most commonly used microorganisms for the fermentation and preservation of foods. 
Their importance is associated mainly with their safe metabolic activity while growing in foods utilising available sugar for the production of organic acids and other metabolites.

Advances in the genetics, molecular biology, physiology, and biochemistry of LAB have provided new insights and applications for these bacteria. 
Bacterial cultures with specific traits have been developed during the last 17 years, since the discovery of the complete genome sequence of Lc. lactis ssp. lactis IL1403 and a variety of commercial starter, functional, bio-protective and probiotic cultures with desirable properties have marketed.

However, the great challenge for food industry is to produce multiple strain cultures with multiple functions for specific products from specific regions of the world. 
Also it is a challenge to produce foods, which are similar in sensory characteristics and nutritional value to the traditional products, even with special health-promoting properties, in a standardized, safe and controlled process.


Lactic Acid and Lactate
Lactic acid is a weak acid, which means that it only partially dissociates in water. Lactic acid dissociates in water resulting in ion lactate and H+. 
This is a reversible reaction and the equilibrium is represented below.

CH3CH(OH)CO2H  H+ + CH3CH(OH)CO2-Ka= 1.38 x 10-4
Depending on the environmental pH, weak acids such as lactic acid are either present as the acid in its undissociated form at low pH or as the ion salt at higher pH. 
The pH at which 50% of the acid is dissociated is called the pKa, which for lactic acid is 3.86.

Under physiological circumstances the pH is generally higher than the pKa, so the majority of lactic acid in the body will be dissociated and present as lactate. 
In the undissociated (unionized) form the substrates are able to pass through the lipid membranes, unlike the dissociated (ionized) form which cannot.


Lactic acid (2-hydroxypropionic acid) is one of the large-scale chemical that is produced via fermentation. 
The commonly used feedstocks are carbohydrates obtained from different sources like corn starch, sugarcane, or tapioca starch – depending on local availability. 
The carbohydrates are hydrolyzed into monosaccharides and then fermented under the absence of oxygen by microorganisms into lactic acid. 
Lactic acid is the building block for polylactic acid, but it is also used in a broad variety of food and cosmetic applications. 
Bio-based lactic acid is optically active, and the production of either l-(+)- or d-(–)-lactic acid can be directed with bioengineered microorganisms.


Lactic acid (2-hydroxypropionic acid) ranks among the high-volume chemicals produced microbially, with an annual world production volume in the range of 370 000 MT. 
Lactic acid fermentation is among the oldest industrial fermentations, with industrial production via fermentation starting in the 1880s. 
Seventy-five percent of the current world lactic acid production occurs in the fermentation facilities of Galactic, PURAC Corporation, Cargill Incorporated, Archer Daniels Midland Company, and the joint ventures derived from these companies. 
Historically, the primary use of lactic acid has been in food for acidulation and preservation, and it has been granted GRAS (generally recognized as safe) status by the FDA. 
Lactic acid also finds uses in leather tanning, cosmetics, pharmaceutical applications, as well as various other niches [2–4]. World lactic acid production has expanded 10-fold in the last decade due, in large part, to increased demand for green products derived from lactic acid, including ethyl lactate and polylactic acid (PLA). 
Ethyl lactate can be utilized in a variety of green solvents, and although its low human toxicity relative to hydrocarbon alternatives is attractive, price is cited as the primary reason for its limited market use. 
PLA is a polymer that is considered a green alternative to petroleum-derived plastics due to its biodegradability and reduced carbon footprint. 
PLA products are on the market in a wide range of applications including packaging, fibers, and foams. 
The world’s major producer of PLA is NatureWorks LLC, currently wholly owned by Cargill Incorporated. 
The primary cost in the production of PLA and ethyl lactate is the cost of raw material, that is, lactic acid. 
The key parameters that determine the cost of lactic acid are rate, titer, and yield, in both fermentation and downstream product recovery unit operations. 
Furthermore, lactic acid production accounts for a large fraction of the energy input and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in lactic acid-derived products. 
These carbon costs can be of great concern in the marketing and viability of a green product.

As discussed previously, lactic acid production has occurred for over 100 years, with only modest changes to conditions or host organisms. 
Lactic acid is produced via fermentation, traditionally carried out by bacteria belonging to the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, and Enterococcus. 
For the recent applications of lactic acid as a green chemical intermediate, for example, for PLA, the cost of production via traditional process is too high. 
Cost estimates suggest that to be commercially viable, overall lactic acid production costs should be at or below $1.0 per kilogram of lactic acid. 
As a result, a production strain for industrial lactic acid must fit the following criteria: production of > 100 g l−1 lactic acid at yields near theoretical (0.9 g lactic acid per gram of dextrose), high chiral purity of lactic acid produced (> 99%) with rates, media, and recovery costs able to meet the above cost targets. 
Lowering this production cost holds the potential to expand the market for both lactic acid and its green derivatives.

The primary costs associated with fermentation are the nutrients and sugars required for cell growth and lactic acid production along with the downstream recovery and purification process [7]. In addition to a sugar source, traditional bacterial lactic fermentations typically require an organic nitrogen source (such as yeast extract or corn steep liquor) along with B vitamin supplementation. 
Furthermore, these fermentations require that the pH be maintained in the range of 5–7, well above the pKa of lactic acid. 
Maintaining the pH in this range requires neutralization of the lactic acid during fermentation, followed by costly downstream steps or acidulation to regenerate free lactic acid. 
This greatly increases the cost of fermentation.

In 2008, Cargill implemented a new-to-the-world fermentation technology involving genetically modified yeast capable of producing lactic acid at industrially relevant rates, titers, and yields at pH values ≤ 3.0, which is well below the pKa of lactic acid. 
The low-pH fermentation process results in improved product quality and downstream processing, reduced chemical usage and nutrient costs, and a 35% reduction in the GHG emissions associated with lactic acid production by fermentation. 
Additionally, the potential for product loss due to bacteriophage attacks and microbial contamination that can occur in the traditional bacterial process are eliminated or greatly reduced with the low-pH yeast process. 
This increased process robustness contributes to reduction in the overall cost of lactic acid production and subsequently has helped to grow the market for lactic acid and its derivatives.

Future advances in the low-pH yeast process are expected to lower the cost of lactic acid production even more by reducing the cost of the carbon source fermented to lactic acid. 
To achieve this, low-pH yeasts need to be further developed to efficiently ferment low-cost carbon sources to free lactic acid. 
It was estimated by life cycle analysis that through the use of cellulosic feedstocks derived from biomass and the use of wind power to produce lactic acid and PLA, the overall GHG emissions could be calculated as a net negative


Lactic Acid Production
Lactic acid was the first organic acid produced with microbes, carried out in 1880. In the twenty-first century, synthetic processes for the production of lactic acid (e.g., from lactonitrile) are competitive at the same costs as biological processes; lactic acid production is divided about equally between the two processes. 
The major supply of lactic acid in Europe is produced by fermentation using strains of L. bulgaricus when whey is used as the substrate, and other lactobacilli when different substrates are used.

According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administrating (FDA), lactic acid is a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) additive for miscellaneous or general purpose uses. 
It was one of the earliest organic acids used in foods. Lactic acid is used by the food industry in a number of ways: it is used in packing Spanish olives, where it inhibits spoilage and further fermentation; it aids in the stabilization of dried-egg powder; it improves the taste of certain pickles when added to vinegar; it is used to acidify the grape juice (must) in winemaking; in frozen confections, it imparts a milky tart taste and does not mask other natural flavors. 
Lactic acid is also used in the production of the emulsifiers calcium and sodium stearoyl lactylates, which function as dough conditioners. 
The sodium and potassium salts of lactic acid have significant antimicrobial properties, including in meat products against toxin production by Clostridium botulinum, and against Listeria monocytogenes in chicken, beef, and smoked salmon


Lactic acid is present in many foods both naturally and as a product of in situ fermentation, as in sauerkraut, yogurt, and many other fermented foods. 
Lactic acid is also a principal metabolic intermediate in most living organisms. 
Sodium and potassium lactates are produced commercially by neutralization of natural or synthetic lactic acid (FDA 184.1768, 1639). 
Lactic acid to be used as a food additive can be obtained either by fermentation of carbohydrates or by a chemical procedure involving formation of lactonitrile from acetaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide and subsequent hydrolysis (FDA 184.1061).

The microbiological and chemical procedures to obtain lactic acid are very competitive, with similar production costs. 
One method of biosynthesis in common use starts with glucose and produces pyruvate, which can be converted to both the l(+) and d(−) isomers using a stereospecific lactate dehydrogenase; however, only the l(+) form is produced commercially. 
The racemic mixture is always obtained by chemical synthesis. Synthetic lactic acid is free of the contaminants normally found in the product obtained by fermentation, and so it is completely colorless and probably more stable. 
Lactic acid and its salts are highly hygroscopic, and therefore are usually handled in concentrated solutions (60–80% by weight) rather than in solid form. 
These solutions are colorless and odorless, and have a mild saline taste

Lactic Acid
Lactic acid is an organic acid generated by microbial fermentation. Several studies have tested a 2% concentration of lactic acid as a sanitizer, either by itself or in combination with a surface-active agent. 
Lactic acid–based sanitizers interfere with cell membrane permeability and cell functions such as nutrient transport. 
These sanitizers are very promising and research is ongoing regarding their uses. 
For example, in a recent study, ten commercially available sanitizers were tested for their effectiveness against Listeria monocytogenes on high-density polyethylene cutting boards. 
Of all the products tested, which included QACs and sodium hypochlorite, a lactic-based sanitizer was the most effective against biofilm cells.

Lactic acid is used since 1990s as a fine chemical (production 60 000–80 000 tons yr−1). A major share (25 000 tons yr−1) is used as additive in the food industry. 
The second main application is as building block for green polymers, solvents, and plasticizers. 
Lactic acid is chemically produced by hydrocyanation (Figure 1) followed by hydrolysis of the cyanohydrin. 
The main drawbacks are the manipulation of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), the production of (NH4)2SO4 (1 eq), and the complex purification steps to obtain food-grade lactic acid because the racemic acid is obtained. 
To overcome these difficulties, the anaerobic fermentation from carbohydrates using Lactobacillus delbrueckii is a good alternative because only (S)-lactic acid is obtained in only one step. 
The fermentation is performed at 50 °C over 2–8 days with a yield of 85–95% and the product concentration is 100 g l−1. 
The isolation of (S)-lactic acid from biomass is easy using conventional methodologies

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5-) DL-Malic Acid is a white crystalline powder. 
Malic is widely used as a food additive in soft drinks, candy, jelly, jam, dairy products, canned foods, frozen foods, fresh fruits and vegetables, beverages, meat products,and spices.

Malic acid is found in other fruits such as grapes, watermelons, cherries, and in vegetables such as carrots and broccoli. 
This acid is mainly used in food applications including candy and beverages. 
Malic acid gives a tart taste, lowers the pH, has antimicrobial effects, and confers special blending and flavor-fixing properties. 
There are also nonfood applications such as use for metal cleaning and finishing, textile finishing, electroless plating, pharmaceuticals, infusions, and paints.

Malic Acid
Malic acid, like citric acid, is a general-purpose acidulant. 
It normally is associated with apples; in fact, its common name is derived from the Latin word for apple, malum, although it is also a major acid constituent of cranberries, grapes, guava, lingonberries, papaya, passion fruit, peaches, pears, pineapple, plums, and raspberries. 
Although it is used in many food products, it often is preferred in apple-containing foods, such as ciders, due to its flavor and relatively higher cost when compared with citric acid. Malic acid, however, has a fuller, smoother taste than citric acid that is beneficial in low-energy drinks, where malic acid masks the unpleasant flavors of some artificial sweeteners. 
It is positioned economically between citric and tartartic acids in price.


Malic acid was petitioned to include its use in organic processing operations. Synthetic DL- malic acid is being petition for use as a pH adjuster in processing operations. Malic acid is a food processing aid, which is used in bottled iced teas, dry mix beverages, carbonated beverages, bakery products, fruit juices, candies, gelatins, desserts, frozen specialties, and sports drinks. Non- food uses of malic acid include pharmaceuticals, paints, metal cleaning, electroplating, soaps and as a chelating agent.
The NOP final rule does not list malic acid under sections 205.605 or 205.606 as an approved substance allowed in processing of "organic" products. The ruling does however list citric acid as an approved processing aid under section 205.605 if the citric acid used is produced by microbial fermentation of carbohydrate substances (non synthetic). NOSB standards dictate that malic acid must not be used for the sole purpose of a flavor, color, or texture enhancer or preservative. Malic acid is being petitioned for use as a pH adjuster. Malic acid is used also in beverage dry mixes, carbonated beverages, bakery products, fruit juices, candies, gelatins, desserts, frozen specialties and other foods. Malic acid is used as a flavor enhancer and food acidulant


MALIC ACID [ C4H6O5 ]
Malic Acid is an organic compound that is the active ingredient in many sour and tart foods. 
It can be blended with multiple food acids, sugars, high intensity sweeteners, flavors and seasonings to create distinctive taste experiences in foods, beverages, and confections.

Malic Acid is also used in the manufacture of skin and dental care products and can be used in a number of technical applications, such as Electroplating and metal cleaning.

Malic Acid is generated during metabolism of living cells in the Kreb’s cycle and occurs naturally in all fruits and many vegetables. 
It is the predominant acid in apples thus the name is derived from the Latin name for apples which is malus. 
Malic Acid is also essential in the preparation of medical products such as throat lozenges, cough syrups, effervescent powdered preparations, toothpaste, and mouthwash.

Additionally, Malic Acid is used in the manufacture of skin care products to rejuvenate and improve skin conditions and also can be used in a number of technical applications, such as metal cleaning, textile dying to improve color value, and paint, preventing the formation of skin on the top layer during storage.

Malic acid
EC / List no.: 230-022-8
CAS no.: 6915-15-7
Mol. formula: C4H6O5


DL-malic acid
EC / List no.: 210-514-9
CAS no.: 617-48-1
Mol. formula: C4H6O5


Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid with the molecular formula C4H6O5. 
It is made by all living organisms and it contributes to the pleasantly sour taste of fruits. 
Malic acid is used as a flavor enhancer, flavor agent and adjuvant, and pH control agent in food products

Function
It has a clean, mellow, smooth, persistent sourness.
It has flavor enhancement and blending abilities. 
Malic acid aids the formulator, because it intensifies the impact of many flavors in foods or beverages, often reducing the amount of flavor needed. 
It blends distinct flavors resulting in a well-rounded flavor experience, improves aftertaste by extending the impact of some flavors, increases burst and aromaticity of some flavor notes in certain beverage applications, boosts savory flavors like cheese and hot peppers in snack food coatings and deepens and broadens the flavor profile of many products, resulting in a richer, more natural flavor experience.
It has a high solubility rate.
It has lower hygroscopicity than citric or tartaric acids.
It has a lower melting point than other acids for easier incorporation into molten confections.
It has good chelating properties with metal ions.

Commercial Production
Malic acid has two stereoisomeric forms (L- and D- enantiomers), and only the L-isomer exists naturally. 
Commercial production of malic acid is by hydration of fumaric acid or maleic acid and the product is DL-malic acid.

Application
When it is used to enhance flavors, usually less flavor additives are needed. 
This improves economies while the overall flavor profile is broader and more natural.
In the non-carbonated beverages, malic acid is a preferred acidulant since it could enhance fruit flavors, and mask the aftertaste of some salts.
In powdered mixes, it is preferred due to its rapid dissolution rate.
In beverage containing intense sweeteners, malic acid’s extended sourness masks sweetener aftertaste and its blending and fixative abilities give a balanced taste.
In calcium-fortified beverages, using malic acid in place of citric acid prevents turbidity due to precipitated calcium citrate.
Malic acid has a lower melting point than other food acids- this means that it can be incorporated into the molten hard candy without added water- shelf life is increased since the initial moisture level in the hard candy is lower.
Bakery products with fruit fillings (cookies, snack bars, pies, and cakes) have a stronger and more naturally balanced fruit flavor when the fruit filling includes malic acid. 
Pectin gel texture is more consistent due to Malic Acid’s buffering capacity.
It is the predominately active ingredient for prune juice concentrate as the natural mold inhibitor for baking products.
FDA Regulation
Malic acid is affirmed as GRAS by FDA which is listed in the Code of Federal Regulations (Title 21 Part 184.1069). 
The ingredients are used in food, except baby food, at levels not to exceed good manufacturing practice. 
Current good manufacturing practice results in a maximum level, as served, of 3.4% for nonalcoholic beverages, 3.0% for chewing gum, 0.8% for gelatins, pudding, and fillings, 6.9% for hard candy, 2.6% for jams and jellies, 3.5% for processed fruits and fruit juices, 3.0% for soft candy, 0.7% for all other food categories.


Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-

IUPAC names
2-Hydroxy butane diacid
2-hydroxybutanedioic acid
Apfelsäure
Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy
Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-
DL - malic acid
DL-MALIC ACID
DL-Malic Acid
DL-Malic acid
DL-malic acid
Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid
Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure

hydroxybutanedioic acid
hydroxylsuccinic acid
L-Äpfelsäure

MALIC ACID
Malic Acid
Malic acid
malic acid
malic acid
malic acid CAS information ?

(RS)-Hydroxylbutansäure
(S)-Hydroxybutanedioic acid and (R)-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
2- hydroxybutanedioic acid
2-Hydroxybutandisäure
2-hydroxybutanedioic acid
D-L malic acid
DL - malic acid
DL Malic Acid
DL-HYDROXYSUCCINIC ACID
DL-Hydroxysuccinic acid
DL-malic acid
DL-Malic acid
DL-malic acid
hidroxybutanedionic acid
Hydroxy butanedioic acid
Hydroxybutanedioic acid
hydroxybutanedioic acid
Malic acid
malic acid 
Malic acid
Malic Acid, DL Malic Acid

Trade names
DL MALIC ACID
DL MALIC ACID - FOOD GRADE
DL-Malic acid
Hydroxysuccinic Acid
Malic acid

DETAILED APPLICATIONS
Carbonated Beverages
Adding Malic Acid improves artificially sweetened products. Flavors are enhanced, allowing the use of less additives, and the overall flavor profile is broader, smoother and more natural.

Non-carbonated Beverages
Malic Acid is a preferred acidulant for still beverages (fruit drinks, nectars, iced-teas, sports drinks, calcium fortified juices), because it enhances fruit flavors, improves pH stability, and masks the aftertaste of artificial sweeteners and some salts.

Ciders and Wines
For alcoholic apple ciders, Malic Acid is added to maintain a consistent “sharp” taste.

Confectionaries
Malic Acid gives an appealing tartness to hard, soft, tableted, and sugarless candies as well as chewing gum. Blending multiple acids creates unique tasting confections. 
Malic Acid’s high solubility allows it to be blended with cooled confections. Adding acids at the end of the candy making process minimizes sugar inversion.

Hard Candy
Malic Acid boosts sourness intensity and enhances fruit flavors. 
It has a lower melting point than other food acids this means that it can be incorporated into molten hard candy without added water. 
The shelf life is increased as the initial moisture level in the hard candy is lower.

Soft Candy
In agar, gelatin or pectin-based candies such as jellies and gummies, Malic Acid is used to achieve a natural fruit flavor profile, uniform & controlled gelling, and good product clarity.


Powdered Mixes
In iced tea, sports drink, or fruit soup dry mixes, Malic Acid is preferred due to its rapid dissolution rate and flavor enhancement qualities. 
Since Malic Acid provides more sourness than Citric Acid, less acidulant is required and unit weight can be reduced.

Calcium Supplements and Calcium-fortified Beverages
In liquid calcium supplements, Malic Acid adds a tart and fruity flavor while controlling the pH and improving the solubility and bio-availability.

Low Calorie Beverages
Malic Acid’s extended sourness masks sweetener aftertaste and its blending and fixative abilities give a balanced taste profile.

Acidified Dairy Products
Whey-based protein beverages acidified with Malic Acid have enhanced fruit flavor with less noticeable whey flavor. 
Fruit flavored milk drinks made with fruit juice and acidified with Malic Acid have improved flavor and palatability.

Fruit Preparations and Preserves
Malic Acid enhances fruit flavors and creates a more natural flavor profile in jams, jellies, and fruit preparations. 
Fruit preparations are acidified with Malic Acid so that the fruit flavor stays strong, even when the fruit preparation is used in dairy products, frozen desserts or baked goods.

Desserts
Malic Acid is an economical fruit flavor enhancer in sherbets and water ices. In gelled desserts, Malic Acid enhances fruit flavors and helps stabilize pH to control gel texture.

Bakery Products
Bakery products with fruit fillings (cookies, snack bars, pies, and cakes) have a stronger and more naturally balanced fruit flavor when the fruit filling includes Malic Acid.

Medical and Personal Care Products
In throat lozenges, cough syrups, and effervescent powdered preparations, Malic Acid enhances fruit flavor and can diminish the flavor impact of active components. 
As Malic Acid stimulates saliva flow, it can be used in tooth-cleaning preparations and mouthwashes. 
Germicidal compounds are used in combination with Malic Acid in soaps, mouthwashes, and toothpaste.

Acid-Based Facial Products
Malic Acid can be used in skin care products to rejuvenate and improve skin conditions.

Oil Field Applications
Demands for Malic Acid in the oil industry are rapidly increasing. 
The product is used to aid in the transfer of raw crude from the well to the refinery.

Gypsum Cement Retarders
Malic Acid is used in Gypsum cement to control the rate of setting of the cement by retardation.

Acrylic Fibre Production
Acrylic fibre whiteness is enhanced by the addition of Malic Acid during the manufacturing process and also helps in the control of polymerization reaction and prevents oxidation.

Electroplating Chemicals
Malic Acid is an important constituent in plating chemicals to maintain pH, improve and control the rate of deposition of active metals like nickel.


Dl-malic acid is primarily used for acidifiers in the food industry. 
Its other manufacturing applications include metal platings, specialty paints and dyes.

Dl-malic acid, which can be found in nature, is an essential acidifier for carbohydrate metabolism. 
Its acidity is about 20% higher than a similar acidifier, citric acid, which can provide a cost-saving effect. 
It also raises an a appetite because its taste is smooth and its sourness lasts for a longer time.

L-Malic acid is produced to satisfy the increasing demand for nutritional bars and protein drinks as well as healthier functional beverages with high nutrient flavors


Malic Acid
Malic acid produces a sour taste in comparison with lactic acid and therefore most wine producers have turned to malolactic fermentation to produce “softer” wines through the accumulation of lactic acid

Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid with pK values of 3.40 and 5.11. Malic acid has a smooth, tart taste that lingers in the mouth without imparting a burst of flavour. 
Malic acid is highly water soluble. 
It is inhibitory to yeasts, moulds and bacteria, probably due to its impact on pH (Doores, 1993). 
It is used in beverages, hard candies, canned tomatoes and fruit pie fillings.

Malic acid is an organic compound with the molecular formula C4H6O5. 
It is a dicarboxylic acid that is made by all living organisms, contributes to the sour taste of fruits, and is used as a food additive. 
Malic acid has two stereoisomeric forms (L- and D-enantiomers), though only the L-isomer exists naturally. 
The salts and esters of malic acid are known as malates. The malate anion is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle.

Malic Acid
Malic acid (E296) is a four-carbon dicarboxylic acid that is used as acidity regulator and flavor enhancer in food. 
It is often found in unripe fruit and is also present in wine. 
Malic acid levels in soft drinks, fruit juices and wine need to be strictly controlled as too low or high levels may result in product deterioration.
Together with tartaric acid, malic acid makes up about 90% of the total acidity of wine. 
Malic acid is also used as flavoring agent in the sour confectionary sector. 
Similar as the other organic acids, malic acid has been found to be an effective agent for inactivating common food pathogens on fresh vegetables.

Malic acid is often synthesized chemically starting from fumaric acid. 
However, the increasing cost of fumaric acid production and the quest for more eco-friendly techniques has triggered more research efforts into producing malic acid from sugars using microorganisms

Malic acid, with a worldwide consumption of 55,000 tons in 2006, is mostly used in the beverage (51%) and food (42%) industry and it shares a 10% market of the food and beverage industry mainly as an acidulant. 
Malic acid is widely used in fruit and vegetable juices, carbonated soft drinks, jams, wines, and candies by improving their sweetness or tartness. 
Malic acid is also used in the cosmetic industry mainly to adjust pH in a low concentration. 
Many cosmetic products, such as self-tanning cream, cleansing form and facial cream, contain malic acid as a pH controller. 
Its derivative, malic acid monolaurylamide, is also used as a skin care cleansing agent. 
As malic acid can diminish flavors of active chemicals, it is often included in the soaps, mouthwasher fluid, and toothpaste

Other names: Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; α-Hydroxysuccinic acid; Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid; Hydroxysuccinic acid; Pomalus acid; dl-Malic acid; Deoxytetraric acid; Kyselina hydroxybutandiova; Kyselina jablecna; Succinic acid, hydroxy-; Hydroxybutanedioic acid; (.+/-.)-Malic acid; 2-Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid; Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-; FDA 2018; Musashi-no-Ringosan; NSC 25941; R,S(.+/-.)-Malic acid; Apple acid (Salt/Mix)

Malic acid is generally used for the production of low-calorie beverages. 
It is a bit cheaper in comparison to citric acid and can replace citric acid in some flavored CBs. 
Malic acid enhances fruit flavors in soft drinks by prolonging their release and so the recipient cells are stimulated for a longer period of time, which is translated by the brain as a stronger fruit flavor. 
Malic acid provides more acidity per unit of weight than other acidulants used in carbonated soft drinks. 
The result is that the weight of the acidulant packages weighed previously is reduced. 
It can also provide cost savings and is recommended for use in beverage syrup (0.03%–0.90%) by dissolving after the addition benzoates, if used, have completely dissolved.
Despite its sinister sounding name, the word malic acid comes from the Latin word malum, which means apple. 
Malic acid was first isolated from apple juice in 1785, and it’s what gives some foods and drinks a tart taste. 
If you’re a fan of slightly acidic wine, malic acid probably played a huge role. 
It’s also a common ingredient in many hair and skin care products that include:

shampoos
body lotions
nail treatments
acne and anti-aging products
Malic acid is part of a family of fruit acids, called alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs). Alpha hydroxy acids stimulate exfoliation by interfering with how your skin cells bond. 
As a result, dull skin is removed to make way for newer skin. Skin care products that contain malic acid can provide benefits that include:

skin hydration
exfoliation, or the removal of dead skin cells
improved skin smoothness and tone
reduction in wrinkles
Your body also produces malic acid naturally when converting carbohydrates into energy. Movement would be very difficult without malic acid. 
It’ll probably be no surprise that malic acid also has other health benefits too.

Malic acid
Malic acid (2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, C4H6O5) (Figure 9) is a white, odorless, crystalline solid. 
In contrast to other fruit acids, it is very hygroscopic and has a tendency to lump. 
Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid and has an asymmetric carbon and occurs as l(the natural)- and d-isomers.


Malic acid is an organic compound also known by the name of "apple acid" and "fruit acid", and it is contained in many prepared foods. 
This compound is found naturally in apple, and in particular in the skin, and other fruit. 
It is a so-called alpha-hydroxy organic acid, and it also present in many plant and animal species. 
This intermediate is the key element in the main cellular energy production cycle, the Krebs cycle (also known as the citric acid cycle). 
Malic acid is often present in the label of the food, but it is not dangerous or toxic to human health. Its purpose is to increase the acidity of food, giving more flavour, but it is also used as a flavouring substance and colour stabilizer. 
It is identified with the acronym E296. 
This acidifying compound is widely used in the food industry and it is generally obtained through a chemical synthesis. 
It is normally found in fruit juices - mostly of grape or apple - as well as in jellies, spreadable fruit, jams, wine and in some low calories foods. 
In nature, the malic acid is contained in foods such as prunes, currants, tomatoes and even bananas, in small quantities. 
This fruit acid is closely related to acid and it is characterized by a sour, bitter, strong and penetrating taste.

MALIC ACID IN FOOD – ADVANTAGES
The malic acid in food provides a range of benefits as follows:
It supports the body in the release of energy from food;
It increases physical endurance of athletes and sportsmen;
It provides valuable support during the hypoxic phase of training;
It can relieve the symptoms of chronic fibromyalgia reducing pain.
For the reasons above, the consumption of food containing malic acid is highly recommended for people who practice sports at intense, competitive or professional level, since it is believed to increase the physical performance especially in cases of lack of oxygen in the cells.   
It can prolong sports performances especially when taken as a dietary supplement, during the hypoxic phases of the training.

Malic acid in food – safety
In terms of safety, we should remember that the malic acid in food can irritate eyes and skin, but it does not cause damage to health. 
On this point, Europe has not defined the reference values for the daily quantity ingested.

Malic Acid is an organic compound that is the active ingredient in many sour and tart foods. 
It can be blended with multiple food acids, sugars, high intensity sweeteners, flavors and seasonings to create distinctive taste experiences in foods, beverages, and confections.

Malic Acid is also used in the manufacture of skin and dental care products and can be used in a number of technical applications, such as Electroplating and metal cleaning.

Malic acid was first described by Sheele who, in 1785, isolated this acid from unripe apples. The name malic is from the Latin for apple, malum.

Malic acid is found in other fruits such as grapes, watermelons, cherries, and in vegetables such as carrots and broccoli. 
This acid is mainly used in food applications including candy and beverages. 
It gives a tart taste, lowers the pH, has antimicrobial effects, and confers special blending and flavor-fixing properties. 
There are also nonfood applications such as use for metal cleaning and finishing, textile finishing, electroless plating, pharmaceuticals, infusions, and paints.

Etymology
The word 'malic' is derived from Latin 'mālum', meaning 'apple'. 
It is also the name of the genus Malus, which includes all apples and crabapples; and the origin of other taxonomic classifications such as Maloideae, Malinae, and Maleae. 
This derivation is also seen in the traditional German name for malic acid, 'Äpfelsäure' meaning 'apple acid' as well as in modern Greek, 'mēlicon oxy' (Μηλικόν οξύ), after the original European discovery of apples in modern-day Kazakhstan 2350 years ago by Alexander the Great's expeditionary foray into Asia

Biochemistry
L-Malic acid is the naturally occurring form, whereas a mixture of L- and D-malic acid is produced synthetically.

Malate plays an important role in biochemistry. In the C4 carbon fixation process, malate is a source of CO2 in the Calvin cycle. 
In the citric acid cycle, (S)-malate is an intermediate, formed by the addition of an -OH group on the si face of fumarate. 
It can also be formed from pyruvate via anaplerotic reactions.

Malate is also synthesized by the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate in the guard cells of plant leaves. 
Malate, as a double anion, often accompanies potassium cations during the uptake of solutes into the guard cells in order to maintain electrical balance in the cell. 
The accumulation of these solutes within the guard cell decreases the solute potential, allowing water to enter the cell and promote aperture of the stomata.

In food
Malic acid was first isolated from apple juice by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1785.
Antoine Lavoisier in 1787 proposed the name acide malique, which is derived from the Latin word for apple, mālum—as is its genus name Malus.
In German it is named Äpfelsäure (or Apfelsäure) after plural or singular of the fruit apple, but the salt(s) Malat(e). 
Malic acid is the main acid in many fruits, including apricots, blackberries, blueberries, cherries, grapes, mirabelles, peaches, pears, plums, and quince and is present in lower concentrations in other fruits, such as citrus.
It contributes to the sourness of unripe apples. Sour apples contain high proportions of the acid. 
It is present in grapes and in most wines with concentrations sometimes as high as 5 g/l.
It confers a tart taste to wine; the amount decreases with increasing fruit ripeness. 
The taste of malic acid is very clear and pure in rhubarb, a plant for which it is the primary flavor. 
It is also a component of some artificial vinegar flavors, such as "salt and vinegar" flavored potato chips.

In citrus, fruits produced in organic farming contain higher levels of malic acid than fruits produced in conventional agriculture.

The process of malolactic fermentation converts malic acid to much milder lactic acid. 
Malic acid occurs naturally in all fruits and many vegetables, and is generated in fruit metabolism.

Malic acid, when added to food products, is denoted by E number E296. 
It is sometimes used with or in place of the less sour citric acid in sour sweets. 
These sweets are sometimes labeled with a warning stating that excessive consumption can cause irritation of the mouth. 
It is approved for use as a food additive in the EU,USand Australia and New Zealand (where it is listed by its INS number 296).

Malic acid provides 10 kJ (2.39 kilocalories) of energy per gram during digestion.


Production and main reactions
Racemic malic acid is produced industrially by the double hydration of maleic anhydride. 
In 2000, American production capacity was 5000 tons per year. 
Both enantiomers may be separated by chiral resolution of the racemic mixture, and the (S)- enantiomer may be specifically obtained by fermentation of fumaric acid.

Self-condensation of malic acid with fuming sulfuric acid gives the pyrone coumalic acid:

Coumalic Acid Synthesis
Malic acid was important in the discovery of the Walden inversion and the Walden cycle, in which (−)-malic acid first is converted into (+)-chlorosuccinic acid by action of phosphorus pentachloride. 
Wet silver oxide then converts the chlorine compound to (+)-malic acid, which then reacts with PCl5 to the (−)-chlorosuccinic acid. 
The cycle is completed when silver oxide takes this compound back to (−)-malic acid.


The production of quality wines requires a judicious balance between the sugar, acid and flavour components of wine. 
L-Malic and tartaric acids are the most prominent organic acids in wine and play a crucial role in the winemaking process, including the organoleptic quality and the physical, biochemical and microbial stability of wine. 
Deacidification of grape must and wine is often required for the production of well-balanced wines. 
Malolactic fermentation induced by the addition of malolactic starter cultures, regarded as the preferred method for naturally reducing wine acidity, efficiently decreases the acidic taste of wine, improves the microbial stability and modifies to some extent the organoleptic character of wine. 
However, the recurrent phenomenon of delayed or sluggish malolactic fermentation often causes interruption of cellar operations, while the malolactic fermentation is not always compatible with certain styles of wine. 
Commercial wine yeast strains of Saccharomyces are generally unable to degrade L-malic acid effectively in grape must during alcoholic fermentation, with relatively minor modifications in total acidity during vinification. 
Functional expression of the malolactic pathway genes, i.e. the malate transporter (mae1) of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the malolactic enzyme (mleA) from Oenococcus oeni in wine yeasts, has paved the way for the construction of malate-degrading strains of Saccharomyces for commercial winemaking.

Preferred IUPAC name
2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
Other names
Hydroxybutanedioic acid
2-Hydroxysuccinic acid
L-Malic acid
D-Malic acid
(–)-Malic acid
(+)-Malic acid
(S)-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
(R)-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
Identifiers
CAS Number    
617-48-1 ☒
6915-15-7 ☒


What Is It?
Malic acid is a tart-tasting organic dicarboxylic acid that contributes to the taste of many sour or tart foods such as apples. 
Sodium Malate is the sodium salt of Malic Acid. 
Malic Acid and Sodium Malate can be found in a wide range of cosmetics and personal care products.

Why is it used in cosmetics and personal care products?
Malic Acid and Sodium Malate are used primarily to control the pH of cosmetic products.

Scientific Facts: 
Malic Acid is an organic acid which can be prepared by fermentation from natural sugars. 
The naturally occurring form of Malic Acid can be found in unripe apples and other fruits. 
Malic acid can make a wine taste tart, although the amount decreases with increasing fruit ripeness. 
The process of malolactic fermentation converts Malic Acid to much milder lactic acid.

WHAT OTHER NAMES IS MALIC ACID KNOWN BY?
(-)-Acide Malique, (+)-Acide Malique, Acide 2-Hydroxybutanédioïque, Acide malique, Acide (R)-Hydroxybutanédioïque, Acide (S)-Hydroxybutanédioïque, Ácido málico, (-)-Malic Acid, (+)-Malic Acid, (R)-Hydroxybutanedioic Acid, (S)-Hydroxybutanedioic Acid, 2-Hydroxybutanedioic Acid, D-Malic Acid, L-Malic Acid, Malic Acid, Malate.

WHAT IS MALIC ACID?
Malic acid is a chemical found in certain fruits and wines. It is used to make medicine.

People take malic acid by mouth for tiredness and fibromyalgia.

In foods, malic acid is used as a flavoring agent to give food a tart taste.

In manufacturing, malic acid is used to adjust the acidity of cosmetics.

HOW DOES MALIC ACID WORK?
Malic acid is involved in the Krebs cycle. 
This is a process the body uses to make energy.


Malic acid is a 2-hydroxydicarboxylic acid that is succinic acid in which one of the hydrogens attached to a carbon is replaced by a hydroxy group. 
It has a role as a food acidity regulator and a fundamental metabolite. 
It is a 2-hydroxydicarboxylic acid and a C4-dicarboxylic acid. 
It derives from a succinic acid. It is a conjugate acid of a malate(2-) and a malate.
Malic acid in skin care products is celebrated for its ability to brighten the skin and smooth its texture. 
That’s why it’s a common ingredient in anti-aging creams.

According to a brain-skin connection studyTrusted Source, higher stress can worsen skin conditions like eczema, acne, and premature aging. 
And while wine can help reduce stress, external use of malic acid might be a healthier application.

Skin pH balance and hydration
Malic acid is also a humectant. 
It helps with moisture retention to help your skin stay hydrated.

A 2014 study about the hydration effects of aloe veraTrusted Source used malic acid, glucose, and a chemical compound in aloe vera (acemannan), as markers for fresh gel. 
Another small study also saw improvements in scales from old wounds after applying an ointment made of malic acid and petroleum jelly, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Malic acid is often used as an ingredient in cosmetics to balance pH levels. 
According to Bartek, a manufacturer that makes cosmetic and food grade chemicals, malic acid is more balanced than other fruit acids. 
It has a better buffer capacity than other AHAs like citric and lactic acid.

Having a better buffer capacity means that you can use more malic acid without upsetting your skin’s acid-base balance, or pH levels. 
If your skin’s pH level is unbalanced, then your skin’s protective barrier may be destabilized and more prone to dryness or acne.

Anti-aging and scar lightening
AHAs promote a high skin cell turnover rate. This means your skin cells are renewed more quickly, resulting in:

fewer fine lines and wrinkles
more even skin tone
smoother skin texture
decreased blemishes
“Malic acid at higher concentrations can also penetrate into lower levels of the skin to bring about new collagen formation,” says dermatologist Dr. Annie Chiu, director of the Derm Institute in California. Collagen is a protein that helps build and repair cells. 
It supports the skin and other body tissues’ strength and flexibility and prevents sagging. 
Collagen production slows down as you age, which is partly why skin loses its elasticity and firmness the older you get.

Using products with malic acid may increase collagen production and reduce signs of aging. 
Check out beauty blog ‘Hello Glow’ for three DIY (do it yourself) apple-based masks to rejuvenate your face, skin, and hair.


Acne prevention
Whether it’s in a lotion, cleanser, or light peeling agent, malic acid can help remove a buildup of dead cells. 
This is great for acne-prone skin. 
When the skin’s pores get clogged with too many dead skin cells and the skin’s natural oil (sebum), blackheads can form. 
Bacterial infections can also develop and cause breakouts.

“Malic acid breaks down the ‘glue’ that holds the dead skin cells together on the outer layer of the skin,” says Dr. Chiu. 
When these dead skin cells are swept away, “Your skin looks less dull and when your pores are unclogged, it helps reduce the formation of acne bumps and the discoloration that’s often associated with acne.”

While it sounds like a miracle cure, Dr. Chiu recommends sticking to low doses of malic acid. 
Unless your doctor recommends it, nonprescription skin care products will contain all the malic acid you need to fight breakouts or sagging skin. Higher doses, such as supplements, should only be taken if recommended by your doctor.

Help with fibromyalgia
Fibromyalgia is a complex disorder that causes pain and fatigue in the muscles. Some research suggests that people with fibromyalgia also have a hard time producing malic acid. 
While there is little supporting evidence, two studies evaluated whether a combination of high doses of malic acid and magnesium helped reduce muscle pain and tenderness. 
One study was inconclusive, but suggested that the combination may be beneficial in high doses over a long period of time.

In the other study, people who took the malic acid and magnesium reported significant improvement within 48 hours of starting treatment. 
This continued for the full eight weeks of the study. After eight weeks of the active treatment dosage, some of the participants were given a placebo instead. 
People who took the placebo reported reoccurrence of muscle pain within 48 hours.

Unless your doctor recommends malic acid supplements, you should get all the malic acid your body needs from a healthy diet that includes plenty of fruits and vegetables.

Use with caution
Although malic acid is less irritating on the skin than other AHAs, it should still be used with caution. 
Malic acid can make your skin turn red, itch, or burn, especially around the eyes.

You may want to patch test a product before a complete application. 
To patch test, swab a small amount of product on your wrist or behind your ear. 
Then wait 24 hours to see how your skin reacts. 
If your skin begins to burn, wash off the product immediately. Seek medical attention if the irritation doesn’t go away after washing.

Also, inhaling malic acid is considered hazardous.

Malic acid is an AHA that occurs in fruits, vegetables, and wine. 
Our bodies also produce malic acid naturally when converting carbohydrates into energy. 
Many cosmetic companies use malic acid to balance the pH levels of the skin and increase moisture retention. 
Including malic acid in your skin care routine may help with skin concerns like aging, pigmentation, acne, or dryness. 
Just remember to patch test when trying out new products as malic acid can irritate the skin, especially around the eyes.

Some research also suggests that taking malic acid, with magnesium, is beneficial for people with muscle pain and fatigue. 
But always consult your doctor before taking supplements.

The global malic acid market reached a volume of 83.4 Kilotons in 2019. 
Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid made by all living organisms and has the molecular formula C4H6O5. 
It contributes to the sour and tart taste of foods and is found in nearly all fruits including apples, apricots, blackberries, grapes, peaches, plums, pears, strawberries and mangoes. 
The consumption of malic acid helps in detoxification, energy production, treating chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and improving overall muscle performance. 
It is extensively used in the food processing industry as it assists in increasing the shelf life of packaged food and bakery items. 
It also facilitates the preparation of bakery products, desserts, fruit juices, frozen specialties and sports drinks. 
Apart from this, malic acid finds applications in the detergent, health, and cosmetics and personal care industries.

Global Malic Acid Market Drivers:

In recent years, the growing use of malic acid for manufacturing sugarless confectioneries has escalated its demand among obese and diabetic people. 
Moreover, regulatory authorities such as the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA), European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) have approved the use of malic acid in food processing, thereby catalyzing its sales. Malic acid is also utilized as a substitute for citric acid and tartaric acid in the detergent industry, owing to its lower hygroscopicity and higher solubility. 
Apart from this, it is used as an ingredient in many cosmetic and personal care products as it has antioxidant properties which make the skin healthy and shiny. 
In the pharmaceutical industry, malic acid is used in the production of medical products including cough syrups, throat lozenges, toothpaste, mouthwash and health supplements such as protein shakes and nutrition bars. 
Looking forward, IMARC Group expects the global malic acid market to continue its moderate growth during the next five years.

Market Summary:

Based on the product types, the market has been segmented into L-malic acid, D-malic acid and DL-malic acid.
On the basis of applications, the market has been segregated into beverages, confectionery and food, personal care, and others. 
Currently, beverages represent the largest application segment since malic acid is used as a preferred acidulent in this segment.
Region-wise, Asia Pacific exhibits a clear dominance in the market. Other major regions include North America, Middle East and Africa, Latin America, and Europe.

(±)-Malic Acid
(±)-1-Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic Acid
(±)-2-Hydroxysuccinic acid
1723539 [Beilstein]
210-514-9 [EINECS]
230-022-8 [EINECS]
2-hydroxybutanedioic acid
2-Hydroxy-succinic acid
2-Hydroxysuccinic Acid
617-48-1 [RN]
6915-15-7 [RN]
Acide malique [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
a-Hydroxysuccinic Acid
Apfelsäure [German]
Äpfelsäure [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy- [ACD/Index Name]
DL-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
DL-Malic acid
Hydroxybutandisaeure
Kyselina hydroxybutandiova [Czech]
Malic acid [ACD/IUPAC Name]
MALIC ACID, (DL)
Malic acid, dl-
MFCD00064212 [MDL number]
R,S(±)-Malic acid
R,S(±)-Malic Acid
R,S-Malic acid
R,SMalic acid
(±)-1-Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid
(±)-Hydroxysuccinic acid
(±)-Hydroxysuccinic acid
(±)-Malic acid
(R)-2-Hydroxysuccinic acid
(S)-(-)-Hydrosuccinic acid
(S)-(-)-Hydroxysuccinic acid
(S)-2-hydroxysuccinic acid
±-Malic acid
104596-63-6 [RN]
124501-05-9 [RN]
1723540 [Beilstein]
202-601-5 [EINECS]
2-hydroxybutanedioate
2-Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid
2-Hydroxysuccinic acid|Malic Acid
41308-42-3 [RN]
481-74-3 [RN]
498-37-3 [RN]
52055-23-9 [RN]
6283-27-8 [RN]
6294-10-6 [RN]
676-46-0 [RN]
78644-42-5 [RN]
84781-39-5 [RN]
97-67-6 [RN]
Aepfelsaeure
APPLE ACID
Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-
Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-, (±)-
BUTANEDIOIC ACID, HYDROXY-, (±)-
d,l-malic acid
Deoxytetraric acid
DL-2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
DL-Apple acid
DL-hydroxysuccinic acid
DL-Malic acid;DL-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
DL-MALICACID
D-malate
E296
H2mal
Hydroxybutanedioate
Hydroxybutanedioic acid
Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid
hydroxysuccinic acid
hydroxy-succinic acid
Kyselina hydroxybutandiova
Kyselina jablecna [Czech]
mal
MALATE LIKE INTERMEDIATE
MalicAcid
Maslic acid
MFCD00004245 [MDL number]
MFCD00064213 [MDL number]
MLT
Monohydroxybernsteinsaeure
Musashi-no-Ringosan
OAA
Oxaloacetate Ion
Pomalus acid
R,S(±)-Malic acid
STR03457
Succinic acid, hydroxy-
TEO
α-Hydroxysuccinic acid
α-Hydroxysuccinic acid
苹果酸 [Chinese]


malic acid
DL-malic acid
6915-15-7
2-Hydroxysuccinic acid
2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
617-48-1
malate
Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-
hydroxysuccinic acid
Kyselina jablecna
Deoxytetraric acid
hydroxybutanedioic acid
Pomalus acid
Malic acid, DL-
Musashi-no-Ringosan
alpha-Hydroxysuccinic acid
Hydroxybutandisaeure
dl-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
Caswell No. 537
Monohydroxybernsteinsaeure
Succinic acid, hydroxy-
R,S(+-)-Malic acid
2-Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid
Kyselina jablecna [Czech]
FDA 2018
(+-)-Malic acid
DL-2-hydroxybutanedioic acid
FEMA No. 2655
FEMA Number 2655
Kyselina hydroxybutandiova [Czech]
Malic acid [NF]
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 051101


CAS names
Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-

IUPAC names
2-Hydroxy butane diacid
2-hydroxybutanedioic acid
Apfelsäure
Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy
Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-
DL - malic acid
DL-MALIC ACID
DL-Malic Acid
DL-Malic acid
DL-malic acid
Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid
Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure
hydroxybutanedioic acid
hydroxylsuccinic acid


What Is Malic Acid Used for in Foods?
Malic acid is the tartness that is added to extremely sour candies and may be used in combination with citric acid in sour sweets as well. 
In carbonated drinks that are artificially sweetened, the addition of malic acid allows less use of the flavor additives. 
It is also used widely in non-carbonated beverages of all types, ciders and wines, acidified dairy products such as fruit flavored milk drinks, whey based protein drinks and soy milk.

If you consume confectioneries, hard or soft candy, chewing gum, fruit preserves and bakery products, you are most likely eating malic acid in the process.

±)-Malic Acid
(±)-1-Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic Acid
(±)-2-Hydroxysuccinic acid
1723539 [Beilstein]
210-514-9 [EINECS]
230-022-8 [EINECS]
2-hydroxybutanedioic acid
2-Hydroxy-succinic acid
2-Hydroxysuccinic Acid
617-48-1 [RN]
6915-15-7 [RN]
Acide malique [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
a-Hydroxysuccinic Acid
Apfelsäure [German]
Äpfelsäure [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy- [ACD/Index Name]
DL-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
DL-Malic acid
Hydroxybutandisaeure
Kyselina hydroxybutandiova [Czech]
Malic acid [ACD/IUPAC Name]
MALIC ACID, (DL)
Malic acid, dl-
MFCD00064212 [MDL number]
R,S(±)-Malic acid
R,S(±)-Malic Acid
R,S-Malic acid
R,SMalic acid
(±)-1-Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid
(±)-Hydroxysuccinic acid
(±)-Hydroxysuccinic acid
(±)-Malic acid
(R)-2-Hydroxysuccinic acid
(S)-(-)-Hydrosuccinic acid
(S)-(-)-Hydroxysuccinic acid
(S)-2-hydroxysuccinic acid
±-Malic acid
104596-63-6 [RN]
124501-05-9 [RN]
1723540 [Beilstein]
202-601-5 [EINECS]
2-hydroxybutanedioate
2-Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid
2-Hydroxysuccinic acid|Malic Acid
41308-42-3 [RN]
481-74-3 [RN]
498-37-3 [RN]
52055-23-9 [RN]
6283-27-8 [RN]
6294-10-6 [RN]
676-46-0 [RN]
78644-42-5 [RN]
84781-39-5 [RN]
97-67-6 [RN]
Aepfelsaeure
APPLE ACID
Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-
Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-, (±)-
BUTANEDIOIC ACID, HYDROXY-, (±)-
d,l-malic acid
Deoxytetraric acid
DL-2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
DL-Apple acid
DL-hydroxysuccinic acid
DL-Hydroxysuccinic acid, Hydroxybutanedioic acid
DL-Malic acid;DL-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
DL-MALICACID
D-malate
E296
H2mal
http:////www.amadischem.com/proen/531473/
http:////www.amadischem.com/proen/586105/
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:6650
Hydroxybutanedioate
Hydroxybutanedioic acid
Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid
hydroxysuccinic acid
hydroxy-succinic acid
Kyselina hydroxybutandiova
Kyselina jablecna [Czech]
mal
MALATE LIKE INTERMEDIATE
MalicAcid
Maslic acid
MFCD00004245 [MDL number]
MFCD00064213 [MDL number]
MLT
Monohydroxybernsteinsaeure
Musashi-no-Ringosan
OAA
Oxaloacetate Ion
Pomalus acid
R,S(±)-Malic acid
STR03457
Succinic acid, hydroxy-
TEO
α-Hydroxysuccinic acid
α-Hydroxysuccinic acid
苹果酸 [Chinese]


D-Apple Acid; (+-)-Hydroxysuccinic acid; (+-)-Malic acid;Deoxytetraric Acid; Malic acid; 2-Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid; Deoxytetraric acid; Hydroxybutandisaeure; Hydroxybutanedioic acid; (+-)-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; Hydroxysuccinic acid; Kyselina hydroxybutandiova; Monohydroxybernsteinsaeure; Pomalus acid; R,S(+-)-Malic acid; alpha-Hydroxysuccinic acid; (+-)-1-Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid; Other CAS RN; 41308-42-3; 617-48-1; 623158-98-5; 879715-44-3;

here are two types of DL-Malic Acid: granular type and powder type. 
It features pureness, gentleness, smoothness, tenderness, lasting acidic taste, high solubility and salt stability etc. 
DL-Malic Acid is widely used in soft drinks, candy, jelly, jam, dairy products, canned foods, frozen foods, fresh fruits and vegetables, beverages, meat products, flavor, spice and pharmaceutical products.

Malic Acid is an organic compound, a dicarboxylic acid that is the active ingredient in many sour and tart foods. Malic Acid is generated during fruit metabolism and occurs naturally in all fruits and many vegetables.

The pleasant, refreshing experience of biting into a juicy apple or cherry is partly caused by Malic Acid. Its mellow, smooth, persistent sourness can be blended with multiple food acids, sugars, high intensity sweeteners, flavors and seasonings to create distinctive taste experiences in foods, beverages and confections.

Malic Acid is formed in metabolic cycles in the cells of plants and animals, including humans. The compound provides cells with energy and carbon skeletons for the formation of amino acids. The human body produces and breaks down relatively large amounts of Malic Acid every day.

Malic Acid contributes to the sourness of green apples. It is present in grapes and gives a tart taste to wine. When added to food products, Malic Acid is the source of extreme tartness. It is used with or in place of the less sour citric acid in sour sweets.

Malic Acid is used as a flavor enhancer in food preparation for confectionaries, beverages, fruit preparations and preserves, desserts, and bakery products. It is also essential in the preparation of medical products such as throat lozenges, cough syrups, effervescent powdered preparations, toothpaste and mouthwash. Additionally, Malic Acid is used in the manufacture of skin care products to rejuvenate and improve skin conditions.


Malic acid is widely used in fruit and vegetable juices, carbonated soft drinks, jams, wines, and candies by improving their sweetness or tartness. 
Malic acid is also used in the cosmetic industry mainly to adjust pH in a low concentration. 
Many cosmetic products, such as self-tanning cream, cleansing form and facial cream, contain malic acid as a pH controller. 
Its derivative, malic acid monolaurylamide, is also used as a skin care cleansing agent. 
As malic acid can diminish flavors of active chemicals, it is often included in the soaps, mouthwasher fluid, and toothpaste. 
Macromolecular materials from l-malic acid are also utilized for biomedical applications with adjusting structures and properties. 
Among them, poly(l-malic acid) is widely used in biomedical applications, because it is nontoxic when degraded. 
This is ideal characteristic for its use as a water-soluble drug carrier to introduce biologically active molecules after proper chemical modifications


MALIC ACID is widely used in food industry to enhance sweetness or tartness of fruit and vegetable juices, carbonated soft drinks, jams, wines, and candies.


Malic acid is the major organic acid in apples compared to citric acid and tartaric acid. 
A study says that malic acid in the fruit accounts for around 90 per cent of the total organic acids. 
Citric acid exists in apples but in a very low concentration.


Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid available as the racemic DL-malic acid and the two optically active isomers, D-malic acid and L-malic acid. 
L-Malic acid is the naturally occurring form. Malic acid occurs naturally in fruits including apples and cherries.  
Because of this, malic acid is commonly referred to as "apple acid."    
Malic acid is produced in the metabolic cycles of humans, plants, and animals. 
In the glyoxylate cycles, malic acid provides cells with the carbon skeleton and energy necessary for amino acid formation.

Identification  
Chemical names and other names:
DL-Malic Acid [6915-15-71 (Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-, (+-)-; DL-2-
Hydroxybutanedioic acid; DL-Apple Acid; DL-hydroxybutanedioic acid; DLHydroxysuccinic acid; DL-malic acid)
L- Malic Acid [97-67-61 (Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-, (S)-; L-2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; L-(-)-Apple Acid; L-Hydroxysuccinic acid; L-(-)-Malic acid; (S)-Malate)
D- Malic Acid [636-61-31 (D-Hydroxysuccinic acid; D(+)-Malic acid; (R)Hydroxybutanedioic acid; (R)-Malate)

Characterization

Properties:
DL- Malic Acid
Molecular Weight 134.0884
Melting Point 101-103 deg
a clean, mellow, smooth, persistent sourness,   flavor enhancement and blending abilities,   a high solubility rate,   less hygoscopic than Citric or Tartaric acids,   a lower melting point than other acids for easier incorporation into molten confections,   and good chelating properties with metal ions.
It forms:
     economical acidulant blends with other acids,
     more soluble calcium salts than Citric acid, and
     effective buffering mixtures.
The main use of synthetic malic acid is pH adjustment. Citric acid works as a modest acidulant with green teas, but malic acid is a better pH adjuster with black teas. Malic acid is more versatile for commercial tea production and storage. Malic acid is used as a direct food additive to adjust pH. Malic acid is used to lower beverage pH while inhibiting bacteria growth.
Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) by FDA when used in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), and contains no residues ofheav metals or other contaminants in excess ofFDA tolerances.
Its primary purpose is not as a preservative or used only to recreate/improve flavors, colors, textures, or nutritive value lost during processing except in the latter case as required by law.
Its purpose is to adjust ph, and although the petition is not for improving taste, this seems to be the main reason it is preferred over other acids.

Its use is compatible with the principles oforganic handling.
A main principle of organic handling is to avoid compromising the organic integrity of the organic agricultural product you are starting with. That means not adding anything artificial or synthetic. It seems much more compatible with the principle of organic food handling to use a food acid produced by fermentation or a food acid judged nonsynthetic or a naturally sour food source such as vinegar or lemon juice, rather than one made by  the catalytic conversion of butane.
There is no other way to produce a similarproduct without its use and it is used in the minimum quantity required to achieve the process. There are alternatives to malic acid for this application.


DL- Malic acid is commercially produced by the catalytic hydration of maleic anhydride or by the hydration of fumaric acid.   
DL- malic acid is made synthetically by catalytic oxidation of benzene to maleic acid, which is converted to malic acid by heating with steam under pressure. 
DL- malic acid is produced by the hydration ofmaleic anhydride (derived from butane), which is converted to maleic and then malic acid. 
Bartek, a manufacturer of malic acid, makes DL- malic acid by the catalytic conversion of butane gas, water, and oxygen to DL- malic acid. 
This process results in 99% DL-Malic acid and less than 1% fumaric acid

Synthetic DL-Malic acid is used in tea production for pH adjustment. 
It is used to keep the pH of bottled teas to a level of 4.6 or below. 
Malic acid reduces the amount of flavors needed in certain foods and beverages by intensifying the previously existing flavors. 
In particular, this pertains to carbonated beverages. 
Malic acid extends the taste of foods by increasing the impact of certain flavors (improving aftertaste). 
This is normally the case with "still" or un-carbonated beverages, including teas, fruit juices, sports drinks, and calcium fortified beverages. 
The presence of malic acid in these types of beverages masks salty aftertastes and improves pH stability while enhancing fruit flavors. 
Malic acid is also typically added to drink mixes because of its rapid rate of dissolution. 
Malic acid is more sour than citric acid, therefore less acidulant is required, reducing unit 


6-) CITRIC ACID ANHYDROUS

CAS Number: 77-92-9
EC Number: 201-069-1
Molar mass: 192,12 g/mol
Linear Formula: HOC(COOH)(CH2COOH)2

Citric acid anhydrous is used in the preparation of citrate buffer for antigen and epitope unmasking in IHC
Citric acid is a natural occurring fruit acid, produced commercially by microbial fermentation of a carbohydrate substrate. 
Citric acid is the most widely used organic acid and pH-control agent in foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals and technical applications.
Citric acid anhydrous occurs as colourless crystals or as white, crystalline powder with a strongly acidic taste. 
Citric acid anhydrous is very soluble in water, freely soluble in ethanol (96 %) and sparingly soluble in ether.
Citric acid anhydrous is non-toxic and has a low reactivity. 
Citric acid anhydrous is chemically stable if stored at ambient temperatures. 
Citric acid anhydrous is fully biodegradable and can be disposed of with regular waste or sewage.

Anhydrous Citric Acid has the chemical name Citric Acid and has the appearance of an odorless, colorless, white powder. 
This substance is toxic to plants and should not be used on any plant life that is of value. 
Anhydrous means that the substance has no water and is in a dry, granulated form. 
Citric acid is found naturally in plants and animals. 
Citric acid anhydrous is used in the fermentation of cane sugar and molasses

Main application: Citric acid anhydrous is mainly used as an acid condiment, flavoring agent and preservative in food and beverage and as pharmaceutical excipients in pharmaceutical industry. 
Citric acid anhydrous is also used as an antioxidant, plasticizer and detergent builder in chemical, cosmetics and detergent industries.

General description of Citric acid anhydrous
Citric acid anhydrous is an organic acid. 
Citric acid anhydrouss molar enthalpy of solution in water has been reported to be ΔsolHm (298.15K, m = 0.0203molkg-1) = (29061±123)Jmol-1. 
Citric acid anhydrous can be produced by crystallization from mother liquor of citric acid solution at 20-25°C during citric acid synthesis. 
An investigation of Citric acid anhydrouss crystal growth kinetics indicates that growth is linearly dependent on size.

Citric acid anhydrous is generally prescribed for the treatment of GI upset and associated symptoms including acid digestion and heartburn. 
Citric acid anhydrous is usually prescribed as a combined therapy with sodium bicarbonate salts.

Citric Acid was discovered in the 8th century and although people were aware of the acidic nature of limes and lemons, there was little information about the discovery and uses until later years. 
Citric acid anhydrous wasn’t until 1784 when a Swedish chemist, Carl Scheele was able to crystallize lemon juice. 
In World War I citric acid became important to industries.

Uses of Citric acid anhydrous:
There are many uses for this dry form of citric acid. 
Citric acid anhydrous can be used in flavorings, cosmetics, candy, gelatin, jams, jellies, soft drinks and fruit. 
Citric acid anhydrous has the ability to retard discoloration and retain flavor and vitamins. 
Salts or citrates of citric acid is also used as anticoagulants and are used to lower the citric acid in urine to treat kidney stones by lessening calcium deposits. 
Anhydrous citric acid has been used to control Caribbean Tree Frogs on the Hawaiian Islands.

Anhydrous citric acid is the water-free form of citric acid but, the monohydrate citric acid is the water-containing form of citric acid. 
This is the main difference between anhydrous and monohydrate citric acid. 
Furthermore, the chemical formula of anhydrous citric acid is C6H8O7. 
The molar mass of this compound is 192.12 g/mol. 
We can produce this compound via crystallization from hot water. 
On the other hand, the chemical formula of monohydrate citric acid is C6H8O7.H2O, and the molar mass is 210.138 g/mol. 
In addition, we can produce this compound via crystallization from cold water.

The anhydrous citric acid forms from the monohydrate form at 78 °C. 
The density of the anhydrous form is 1.665 g/cm3. 
Citric acid anhydrous melts at 156 °C, and the boiling point of this compound is 310 °C. 
The chemical formula of Citric acid anhydrous is C6H8O7 while the molar mass is 192.12 g/mol.

Application of Citric acid anhydrous
Citric acid anhydrous was used in the preparation of citric acid solution employed in the acetone method of 68Ga pre-purification and radiolabeling technique.

Citric acid anhydrous may be used:
-As release-modifying agent to improve the release of diltiazem hydrochloride from melt extruded Eudragit RS PO tablets.
-To prepare citrate buffer for use in the preparation of platelets for intravital microscopy.
-To prepare Tris-citrate buffer employed for the electrophoresis of bacterial enzymes.

Citric acid anhydrous is a weak organic acid that has the molecular formula C6H8O7. 
Citric acid anhydrous occurs naturally in citrus fruits. 
In biochemistry, Citric acid anhydrous is an intermediate in the Citric acid anhydrous cycle, which occurs in the metabolism of all aerobic organisms.
More than two million tons of Citric acid anhydrous are manufactured every year. 
Citric acid anhydrous is used widely as an acidifier, as a flavoring and a chelating agent.

A citrate is a derivative of Citric acid anhydrous; that is, the salts, esters, and the polyatomic anion found in solution. 
An example of the former, a salt is trisodium citrate; an ester is triethyl citrate. 
When part of a salt, the formula of the citrate anion is written as C6H5O3−7 or C3H5O(COO)3−3.

Natural occurrence and industrial production of Citric acid anhydrous
Lemons, oranges, limes, and other citrus fruits possess high concentrations of Citric acid anhydrous
Citric acid anhydrous exists in a variety of fruits and vegetables, most notably citrus fruits. 
Lemons and limes have particularly high concentrations of the acid; Citric acid anhydrous can constitute as much as 8% of the dry weight of these fruits (about 47 g/l in the juices). 
The concentrations of Citric acid anhydrous in citrus fruits range from 0.005 mol/L for oranges and grapefruits to 0.30 mol/L in lemons and limes; these values vary within species depending upon the cultivar and the circumstances in which the fruit was grown.

Citric acid anhydrous was first isolated in 1784 by the chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, who crystallized it from lemon juice.
Industrial-scale Citric acid anhydrous production first began in 1890 based on the Italian citrus fruit industry, where the juice was treated with hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) to precipitate calcium citrate, which was isolated and converted back to the acid using diluted sulfuric acid. 
In 1893, C. Wehmer discovered Penicillium mold could produce Citric acid anhydrous from sugar. 
However, microbial production of Citric acid anhydrous did not become industrially important until World War I disrupted Italian citrus exports.

Citric acid exists in two forms as anhydrous form and monohydrated form. 
The difference between anhydrous and monohydrate citric acid is that the anhydrous citric acid has no water of crystallization whereas the monohydrate citric acid has a water molecule associated with one citric acid molecule.

pH: 1,7 (100 g/l)
Melting / freezing point: 153°C (1013 hPa)
Relative density: 1,665 g/cm3 (20°C)
Solubility in water: 590 g/l (20°C)

Anhydrous Citric Acid, Powder, USP belongs to a class of drugs known as urinary alkalinizers that are used to treat certain metabolic problems (acidosis) caused by kidney disease. 
All Spectrum Chemical USP grade products are manufactured, packaged and stored under current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) per 21CFR part 211 in FDA registered and inspected facilities.

WE number: 201-069-1
Chemical formula: C6H8O7
Molar mass: 192,12 g/mol
Customs tariff code: 29181400

Chemical characteristics of Citric acid anhydrous
Speciation diagram for a 10-millimolar solution of Citric acid anhydrous
Citric acid anhydrous can be obtained as an anhydrous (water-free) form or as a monohydrate. 
The anhydrous form crystallizes from hot water, while the monohydrate forms when Citric acid anhydrous is crystallized from cold water. 
The monohydrate can be converted to the anhydrous form at about 78 °C. 
Citric acid anhydrous also dissolves in absolute (anhydrous) ethanol (76 parts of Citric acid anhydrous per 100 parts of ethanol) at 15 °C. 
Citric acid anhydrous decomposes with loss of carbon dioxide above about 175 °C.

Citric acid anhydrous is a tribasic acid, with pKa values, extrapolated to zero ionic strength, of 2.92, 4.28, and 5.21 at 25 °C. 
The pKa of the hydroxyl group has been found, by means of 13C NMR spectroscopy, to be 14.4. 
The speciation diagram shows that solutions of Citric acid anhydrous are buffer solutions between about pH 2 and pH 8. 
In biological systems around pH 7, the two species present are the citrate ion and mono-hydrogen citrate ion. 
The SSC 20X hybridization buffer is an example in common use. 
Tables compiled for biochemical studies are available.
On the other hand, the pH of a 1 mM solution of Citric acid anhydrous will be about 3.2. 
The pH of fruit juices from citrus fruits like oranges and lemons depends on the Citric acid anhydrous concentration, being lower for higher acid concentration and conversely.

Acid salts of Citric acid anhydrous can be prepared by careful adjustment of the pH before crystallizing the compound..
The citrate ion forms complexes with metallic cations. 
The stability constants for the formation of these complexes are quite large because of the chelate effect. 
Consequently, Citric acid anhydrous forms complexes even with alkali metal cations. 
However, when a chelate complex is formed using all three carboxylate groups, the chelate rings have 7 and 8 members, which are generally less stable thermodynamically than smaller chelate rings. 
In consequence, the hydroxyl group can be deprotonated, forming part of a more stable 5-membered ring, as in ammonium ferric citrate, (NH4)5Fe(C6H4O7)2·2H2O.
Citric acid anhydrous can be esterified at one or more of its three carboxylic acid groups to form any of a variety of mono-, di-, tri-, and mixed esters.

Citric acid anhydrous can be added to ice cream as an emulsifying agent to keep fats from separating, to caramel to prevent sucrose crystallization, or in recipes in place of fresh lemon juice. 
Citric acid anhydrous is used with sodium bicarbonate in a wide range of effervescent formulae, both for ingestion (e.g., powders and tablets) and for personal care (e.g., bath salts, bath bombs, and cleaning of grease). 
Citric acid anhydrous sold in a dry powdered form is commonly sold in markets and groceries as "sour salt", due to its physical resemblance to table salt. 
Citric acid anhydrous has use in culinary applications, as an alternative to vinegar or lemon juice, where a pure acid is needed. 
Citric acid anhydrous can be used in food coloring to balance the pH level of a normally basic dye.

Cleaning and chelating agent of Citric acid anhydrous
Structure of an iron(III) citrate complex.
Citric acid anhydrous is an excellent chelating agent, binding metals by making them soluble. 
Citric acid anhydrous is used to remove and discourage the buildup of limescale from boilers and evaporators. 
Citric acid anhydrous can be used to treat water, which makes Citric acid anhydrous useful in improving the effectiveness of soaps and laundry detergents. 
By chelating the metals in hard water, Citric acid anhydrous lets these cleaners produce foam and work better without need for water softening. 
Citric acid anhydrous is the active ingredient in some bathroom and kitchen cleaning solutions. 

A solution with a six percent concentration of Citric acid anhydrous will remove hard water stains from glass without scrubbing. 
Citric acid anhydrous can be used in shampoo to wash out wax and coloring from the hair. 
Illustrative of its chelating abilities, Citric acid anhydrous was the first successful eluant used for total ion-exchange separation of the lanthanides, during the Manhattan Project in the 1940s. 
In the 1950s, Citric acid anhydrous was replaced by the far more efficient EDTA.
In industry, Citric acid anhydrous is used to dissolve rust from steel and passivate stainless steels.

Other fruits also contain Citric acid anhydrous but in lesser amounts. 
These include:
pineapple, strawberries, raspberries, cranberries, cherries, tomatoes
Beverages or food products that contain these fruits — such as ketchup in the case of tomatoes — also contain Citric acid anhydrous.
While not naturally occurring, Citric acid anhydrous is also a byproduct of cheese, wine, and sourdough bread production.
The Citric acid anhydrous listed in the ingredients of foods and supplements is manufactured — not what’s naturally found in citrus fruits.
This is because producing this additive from citrus fruits is too expensive and the demand far exceeds the supply.
Lemons, limes, and other citrus fruits are the predominant natural sources of Citric acid anhydrous. 
Other fruits that contain much less include certain berries, cherries, and tomatoes.

Cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, dietary supplements, and foods
Citric acid anhydrous is used as an acidulant in creams, gels, and liquids. 
Used in foods and dietary supplements, Citric acid anhydrous may be classified as a processing aid if Citric acid anhydrous was added for a technical or functional effect (e.g. acidulent, chelator, viscosifier, etc.). 
If Citric acid anhydrous is still present in insignificant amounts, and the technical or functional effect is no longer present, Citric acid anhydrous may be exempt from labeling <21 CFR §101.100(c)>.
Citric acid anhydrous is an alpha hydroxy acid and is an active ingredient in chemical skin peels.
Citric acid anhydrous is commonly used as a buffer to increase the solubility of brown heroin.
Citric acid anhydrous is used as one of the active ingredients in the production of facial tissues with antiviral properties.

Other uses of Citric acid anhydrous
The buffering properties of citrates are used to control pH in household cleaners and pharmaceuticals.
Citric acid anhydrous is used as an odorless alternative to white vinegar for home dyeing with acid dyes.
Sodium citrate is a component of Benedict's reagent, used for identification both qualitatively and quantitatively of reducing sugars.
Citric acid anhydrous can be used as an alternative to nitric acid in passivation of stainless steel.

Citric acid anhydrous can be used as a lower-odor stop bath as part of the process for developing photographic film. 
Photographic developers are alkaline, so a mild acid is used to neutralize and stop their action quickly, but commonly used acetic acid leaves a strong vinegar odor in the darkroom.
Citric acid anhydrous/potassium-sodium citrate can be used as a blood acid regulator.

Citric acid anhydrous is an excellent soldering flux, either dry or as a concentrated solution in water. 
Citric acid anhydrous should be removed after soldering, especially with fine wires, as Citric acid anhydrous is mildly corrosive. 
Citric acid anhydrous dissolves and rinses quickly in hot water.

Artificial Sources and Uses of Citric acid anhydrous
The characteristics of Citric acid anhydrous make Citric acid anhydrous an important additive for a variety of industries.
Food and beverages use an estimated 70% of manufactured Citric acid anhydrous, pharmaceutical and dietary supplements use 20%, and the remaining 10% goes into cleaning agents.

Food Industry of Citric acid anhydrous
Manufactured Citric acid anhydrous is one of the most common food additives in the world.
Citric acid anhydrous’s used to boost acidity, enhance flavor, and preserve ingredients.
Sodas, juices, powdered beverages, candies, frozen foods, and some dairy products often contain manufactured Citric acid anhydrous.
Citric acid anhydrous’s also added to canned fruits and vegetables to protect against botulism, a rare but serious illness caused by the toxin-producing Clostridium botulinum bacteria.

Effects of Citric Acid
Dr. Tomohiro Sugino led a 2007 study on the effects of Citric Acid vs. Placebo on volunteers. 
The study volunteers who citric acid during the test had less mental and physical fatigue than volunteers who ingested the placebo. 
People who took citric acid had lower stress markers than the placebo group as well. 
Citric acid is a large part of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which increases energy. 
The study supported the theory that citric acid has a better track record for anti-fatigue than hydroxycitric acid.

Medicines and Dietary Supplements
Citric acid anhydrous is an industrial staple in medicines and dietary supplements.
Citric acid anhydrous’s added to medicines to help stabilize and preserve the active ingredients and used to enhance or mask the taste of chewable and syrup-based medications.
Mineral supplements, such as magnesium and calcium, may contain Citric acid anhydrous — in the form of citrate — as well to enhance absorption.

CAS No 77-92-9
Packaging Size 25 Kg
Packaging Type Composite paper-plastic bags
Brand Ensign
Physical State White Crystalline Powders
Molar Mass 192.123 g/mol
Density    1.665 g/cm3
Standards BP/USP/FCC/E330/GB1886.235-2016
Storage condition Kept in a light-proof, well-closed,dry and cool place
Assay 99.5-100.5%, >=99.5%

Citric acid anhydrous is found naturally in citrus fruits, especially lemons and limes. 
Citric acid anhydrous’s what gives them their tart, sour taste.
A manufactured form of Citric acid anhydrous is commonly used as an additive in food, cleaning agents, and nutritional supplements.
However, this manufactured form differs from what’s found naturally in citrus fruits.
For this reason, you may wonder whether Citric acid anhydrous’s good or bad for you.
This article explains the differences between natural and manufactured Citric acid anhydrous, and explores its benefits, uses, and safety.

What Is Citric acid anhydrous?
Citric acid anhydrous was first derived from lemon juice by a Swedish researcher in 1784.
The odorless and colorless compound was produced from lemon juice until the early 1900s when researchers discovered that Citric acid anhydrous could also be made from the black mold, Aspergillus niger, which creates Citric acid anhydrous when it feeds on sugar.
Because of Citric acid anhydrouss acidic, sour-tasting nature, Citric acid anhydrous is predominantly used as a flavoring and preserving agent — especially in soft drinks and candies.

Citric acid anhydrous’s also used to stabilize or preserve medicines and as a disinfectant against viruses and bacteria.
Citric acid anhydrous is a compound originally derived from lemon juice. 
Citric acid anhydrous’s produced today from a specific type of mold and used in a variety of applications.

Anhydrous Citric acid anhydrous is a tricarboxylic acid found in citrus fruits. 
Citric acid anhydrous is used as an excipient in pharmaceutical preparations due to Citric acid anhydrouss antioxidant properties. 
Citric acid anhydrous maintains stability of active ingredients and is used as a preservative. 
Citric acid anhydrous is also used as an acidulant to control pH and acts as an anticoagulant by chelating calcium in blood.

Citric acid anhydrous and Citric acid anhydrouss salts are naturally occurring constituents and common metabolites in plants and animal tissues. 
Citric acid anhydrous is an intermediary compound in the Krebs cycle linking oxidative metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fat. 
The concentration of naturally occurring citrate is relatively higher in fruits, particularly citrus fruits and juices than vegetables and animal tissues.
In human (as well as in animal and plant) physiology, Citric acid anhydrous is a very common intermediate in one of the central biochemical cycles, the Krebs or tricarboxylic acid cycle, which takes place in every cell. 
Citric acid anhydrous completes the breakdown of pyruvate formed from glucose through glycolysis, thereby liberating carbon dioxide and a further four hydrogen atoms which are picked up by electron transport molecules. 
Thus, in man approximately 2 kg of Citric acid anhydrous are formed and metabolised every day. 
This physiological pathway is very well developed and capable of processing very high amounts of Citric acid anhydrous as long as Citric acid anhydrous occurs in low concentrations.

Water <=1.0%, <=0.5%
Sulphated Ash <=0.1%, <=0.05%
Chloride <=50 ppm
Sulphate <=100 ppm, <=150 ppm
Oxalate    <=360 ppm, <=100ppm
Calcium    <=200
Arsenic    <=1 ppm
Lead <=0.5 ppm
Aluminum <=0.2 ppm
Mercury    <=1 ppm
Heavy Metals <=10 ppm
Bacterial Endotoxins <0.5 IU/mg

Environmental and Health Impact
Citric acid helps reduce toxins in the environment because it is an all natural ingredient in many products. 
The cleaners made wither citric acid as an active ingredient reduces production of chemical cleaners. 
Pharmaceutical use of citric acid reduces the toxins manufactured and ingested. 
Fewer people are allergic to the natural ingredient, though some may have a stomach or skin sensitivity to products that use citric acid.

Citric acid anhydrous is an acidic compound from citrus fruits; as a starting point in the Krebs cycle, citrate is a key intermediate in metabolism. 
Citric acid is one of a series of compounds responsible for the physiological oxidation of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins to carbon dioxide and water. 
Citric acid anhydrous has been used to prepare citrate buffer for antigen retrieval of tissue samples. 
The citrate solution is designed to break protein cross-links, thus unmasking antigens and epitopes in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded tissue sections, and resulting in enhanced staining intensity of antibodies. 
Citrate has anticoagulant activity; as a calcium chelator, Citric acid anhydrous forms complexes that disrupt the tendency of blood to clot. 
May be used to adjust pH and as a sequestering agent for the removal of trace metals.

Pharmacodynamics
No information available

Pharmacokinetics
No information available

Citric acid anhydrous Indications / Citric acid anhydrous Uses
No information available

Citric acid anhydrous Adverse Reactions / Citric acid anhydrous Side Effects
No adverse events are reported after administration of Citric acid anhydrous.

Precautions about Citric acid anhydrous
Citric acid anhydrous is contraindicated in phenylketonuria patients, salt-restricted patients and children.

Special Precautions about Citric acid anhydrous
No information available

Other Drug Interactions about Citric acid anhydrous
Citric acid anhydrous may interact with antacids.

Other Interactions about Citric acid anhydrous
No information available

Dosage of Citric acid anhydrous
Dissolve two tablets (575 mg) of Citric acid anhydrous completely in four ounces of water and drink the mixture.
 
Adults and Geriatric patients:
Take two tablets of Citric acid anhydrous, every four hours or as needed.

Food(before/after) about Citric acid anhydrous
No information available

List of Contraindications
Citric acid anhydrous and Pregnancy
Not classified under USFDA Pregnancy category. However, Citric acid anhydrous should be avoided during pregnancy

Citric acid anhydrous and Lactation
Citric acid anhydrous is unlikely safe in breastfeeding mothers. Consult a physician before taking Citric acid anhydrous.

Citric acid anhydrous and Children 
Do not give Citric acid anhydrous to children, unless prescribed by a pediatrician.

Citric acid anhydrous and Geriatic 
No information available

Citric acid anhydrous and Other Contraindications 
No information available

Storage about Citric acid anhydrous
No information available

Lab interference about Citric acid anhydrous
No information available

Eyes: Immediately flush eyes with excess water for 15 minutes, lifting lower and upper eyelids occasionally.
Skin: Immediately flush skin with excess water for 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing.
Ingestion: Call Poison Control immediately. 
Rinse mouth with cold water. 
Give victim 1-2 cups of water or milk to drink.
Induce vomiting immediately.
Inhalation: Remove to fresh air. 
If not breathing, give artificial respiration.


7-) CITRIC ACID MONOHYDRATE

CAS Number: 5949-29-1
Molecular Weight: 210.14
Linear Formula: HOC(COOH)(CH2COOH)2 · H2O

Citric acid monohydrate is an organic acid. 
Citric acid monohydrates molar enthalpy of solution in water has been reported to be ΔsolHm (298.15K, m = 0.0203molkg-1) = (29061±123)Jmol-1. 
Citric acid monohydrate can be produced by crystallization from mother liquor of citric acid solution at 20-25°C during citric acid synthesis. 
An investigation of its crystal growth kinetics indicates that growth is linearly dependent on size.
Citric acid monohydrate is a natural fruit acid that stabilizes wine and improves the acid balance of the wine

Citric acid monohydrate is a weak organic acid produced by citrus fruits. 
Citric acid plays a partial role in physiological oxidation of carbohydrates, proteins and fats to CO2 and H2O. 
Citric acid can be used to prepare a citrate buffer. 
Citrate has displayed anticoagulant activities via calcium chelation. 
As a calcium chelator, citrate can form complexes that prevent blood from clotting.

Citric Acid Monohydrate E330 is used in Food, Beverage, Pharmaceutical, Health & Personal care products, Agriculture/Animal Feed/Poultry. 
Citric Acid Monohydrate is a common form of citric acid. 
Citric acid monohydrate E330 is mainly used as an acid condiment, flavoring agent and preservative in food and beverage and as pharmaceutical excipients in pharmaceutical industry. 
Citric acid monohydrate is also used as antioxidant, plasticizer and detergent builder in chemical, cosmetics and detergent industries.

Citric acid monohydrate is used as an anticoagulant in blood banks, acidulant (beverages, confectionery, cheese, effervescent salts, pharmaceutical syrups, elixirs, effervescent powders, and tablets), antioxidant, sequestering agent to remove trace metals, and mordant to brighten colors.
Citric acid monohydrate is also used to make alkyd resins and in electroplating, special inks, and analytical chemistry.

Application
Citric acid monohydrate was used in the preparation of citric acid solution employed in the acetone method of 68Ga pre-purification and radiolabeling technique.
Citric acid is a naturally occurring fruit acid, produced commercially by microbial fermentation of a carbohydrate substrate. 
Citric acid is the most widely used organic acid and pH-control agent in foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals and technical applications.
Citric acid monohydrate occurs as colourless crystals or as white, crystalline powder with a strongly acidic taste. 
Citric acid monohydrate is efflorescent in dry air, very soluble in water, freely soluble in ethanol (96 %) and sparingly soluble in ether.
Citric acid monohydrate is non-toxic and has a low reactivity. 
Citric acid monohydrate is chemically stable if stored at ambient temperatures. 
Citric acid monohydrate is fully biodegradable and can be disposed of with regular waste or sewage.

Applications of Citric acid monohydrate:
•Citrate buffer preparations can be used in electrophoresis of microbial enzymes
•Unmasking of antigens and epitopes
•Acidifier
•Chelating Agent

Jungbunzlauer International AG offers a wide variety of products which includes citric acid monohydrate. 
Citric acid monohydrate is a natural occurring fruit acid, produced commercially by microbial fermentation of a carbohydrate substrate. 
Citric acid monohydrate is the most widely used organic acid and pH-control agent in foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals and technical applications. 
Citric acid monohydrate is very soluble in water, freely soluble in ethanol (96 %) and sparingly soluble in ether. 
Citric acid monohydrate is fully biodegradable and can be disposed of with regular waste or sewage. 
Citric acid monohydrate is available in various granulations. 
Applications: food, beverages, personal care, cleaners & detergents, industrial applications, healthcare, feed & pet food.

Citric Acid Monohydrate stabilizer is a fruit acid found in nature. 
Citric acid monohydrate has been specially selected for application in the beverages industry to stabilize wine as well as improve acid balance.
By using stabilization products, the beverages are microbiologically and chemically/physically stabilized and their shelf life is increased.

Citric acid monohydrate, as sour additive , flavoring and preservatives in food& beverage such as soft drink , steam water, candy,Biscuit,canned , fruit jam&juice,and as the antioxidant in the oil.
Citric Acid Anhydrous is the water-free form of the commonly known Citric Acid. 
This ingredient is odorless and colorless and exists in a crystalline form as a solid. 
Produced naturally and synthetically, Citric Acid in anhydrous and other forms serves an essential purpose in human functions.

Function&Application:
-In the food industry, Citric acid monohydrate is used as the acidulant in the making of soda, candy, biscuit, can, jam, juice and so on. 
Citric acid monohydrate can be used as the antioxidant of grease. 
-In the medicine industry, Citric acid monohydrate is the raw material of many pharmaceuticals, such as ferric ammonium citrate (blood tonic), sodium citrate (blood transfusion agent) and so on. 
-Citric acid is also used as the acidulant in lots of medicines. 
-In the chemical industry, Citric acid monohydrate can be taken as the non-toxic plasticizer to make the plastic film of food package. 
-Citric acid monohydrate can be used as both the auxiliary agent in the industrial and civil detergent to make nuisanceless detergent and the retarder in concrete.

Citric acid monohydrate may be used:
As release-modifying agent to improve the release of diltiazem hydrochloride from melt extruded Eudragit RS PO tablets.
To prepare citrate buffer for use in the preparation of platelets for intravital microscopy.
To prepare Tris-citrate buffer employed for the electrophoresis of bacterial enzymes.

Chemical Properties
Citric acid monohydrate occurs as colorless or translucent crystals, or as a white crystalline, efflorescent powder. 
Citric acid monohydrate is odorless and has a strong acidic taste. 
The crystal structure is orthorhombic. 
monohydrate crystals lose water of crystallization in dry air or when heated to about 40 to 50 °C. 
Citric acid monohydrate softens at 75 °C and melts at approximately 100 °C.
Citric acid monohydrate is a natural preservative and is used to add an acidic, or sour, taste to foods and soft drinks.
Citric acid monohydrate acts as a preservative and antioxidant. 
Citric acid monohydrate is also used as an acidulant, flavoring agent and antistaling agent in fruit drinks, candy, cookies, biscuits, canned fruits, jams, and jellies. 
Citric acid monohydrate differs from other forms of citric acid by having a moisture percentage ranging from 7.5-9.0.

Uses
Citric Acid Monohydrate is used as an Acidulate, Food additive, Pharmaceutical application and as a synergist in antioxidant mixtures.
Citric Acid Monohydrate is a tricarboxylic acid found in citrus fruits. 
Citric acid is used as an excipient in pharmaceutical preparations due to its antioxidant properties. 
Citric acid monohydrate maintains stability of active ingredients and is used as a preservative. 
Citric acid monohydrate is also used as an acidulant to control pH and acts as an anticoagulant by chelating calcium in blood.

Production Methods
Citric acid occurs naturally in a number of plant species and may be extracted from lemon juice, which contains 5–8% citric acid, or pineapple waste. 
Anhydrous citric acid may also be produced industrially by mycological fermentation of crude sugar solutions such as molasses, using strains of Aspergillus niger . 
Citric acid is purified by recrystallization; the anhydrous form is obtained from a hot concentrated aqueous solution and the monohydrate from a cold concentrated aqueous solution.

Pharmaceutical Applications
Citric acid (as either the monohydrate or anhydrous material) is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations and food products, primarily to adjust the pH of solutions. 
Citric acid monohydrate has also been used experimentally to adjust the pH of tablet matrices in enteric-coated formulations for colon-specific drug delivery. 
Citric acid monohydrate is used in the preparation of effervescent granules, while anhydrous citric acid is widely used in the preparation of effervescent tablets. 
Citric acid has also been shown to improve the stability of spray-dried insulin powder in inhalation formulations.
In food products, citric acid is used as a flavor enhancer for its tart, acidic taste. 
Citric acid monohydrate is used as a sequestering agent and antioxidant synergist. 
Citric acid monohydrate is also a component of anticoagulant citrate solutions. 
Therapeutically, preparations containing citric acid have been used to dissolve renal calculi.

Biotechnological Applications
Citric acid monohydrate was used in the preparation of citric acid solution employed in the acetone method of 68Ga pre-purification and radiolabeling technique.

Citric acid monohydrate may be used:
As release-modifying agent to improve the release of diltiazem hydrochloride from melt extruded Eudragit RS PO tablets.
To prepare citrate buffer for use in the preparation of platelets for intravital microscopy.
To prepare Tris-citrate buffer employed for the electrophoresis of bacterial enzymes.

In Food
Citric Acid Monohydrate E330 is widely used as organic acid and pH-control agent, flavoring and preservative in food production in candy, cookies, biscuits, canned fruits, jams, and jellies, Baby Food, Infant Formula, Bakery, Cereals, Snacks, Confectionery, Dairy, Desserts, Ice Cream, Meat, Seafood, Ready Meals, Instant Food, Sauces, Dressings, Seasonings.

In Beverage
Citric Acid Monohydrate E330 can be used as acidity regulator and antioxidant in beverage such as in Alcoholic Beverages, Carbonated Soft Drinks, Instant Drinks, Syrups, Juice Drinks, RTD Tea and Coffee, Sports and Energy Drinks, Waters

In Pharmaceutical
Citric Acid Monohydrate E330 can be used as thrombin inhibitor and fungicide in Pharmaceutical.

In Health and Personal care
Citric Acid E330 is used in cosmetics and personal care products as a preservative and to adjust the ph balance. 
Citric acid is also one of a group of ingredients known as alpha hydroxy acids that are used as the active ingredients in chemical skin peels. 
citric acid was used in almost every category of cosmetic product with over 10,000 reported uses. 
Citric Acid can be used in baby products, make-up, lipstick, bath products, soaps and detergents, hair dyes and colors, and hair and skin care products.

In Agriculture/Animal Feed/Poultry
Citric Acid Monohydrate E330 can be used as antioxidant and ph regulator in Agriculture/Animal Feed/Poultry feed such as in broiler feed, chicken feed.

In Other Industries
Citric Acid Monohydrate E330 is widely used as cleansing agent, surfactant in various other industries.
-As cleansing agent: in plumbing cleaning to remove scale.
-As anti crease agent: in textile to prevent formaldehyde contamination.
-As additive: in plastic manufacturing to improve mechanical properties.
-As concrete retardant: in construction to improve concrete quality.

Storage
Store citric acid in its originally bottle or container undiluted. 
Keep the acid at a relative humidity of 50 percent and in a temperature range of 50 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit. 
Temperatures above 104 degrees Fahrenheit can cause citric acid in granular form to harden. 
Do not add water or any other liquid to the acid, this reduces its potency. 
Follow any and all recommendations and warnings on the acid’s bottle or container. 
The acid can irritate your skin and eyes, so keep it out of your eyes, mucus members and any open cuts or wounds.

Origins
Citric acid is extracted from fruits and vegetables including lemons, limes, oranges, tomatoes and grapefruits. 
The acid is even produced in refineries by combining molasses, dextrose and cane sugar. 
Citric acid, like other ingredients and foods, is regulated and approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and European food regulatory agencies for use in food and medical industries.

Solubility
The acid is extremely soluble in water. 
Citric acid also blends easily in foods, creams and medicines. 
No special catalyst is needed to break down the acid. 
After dissolving, the acid’s flavor is still present, Citric acid monohydrates level of flavoring varies depending on how much you added to the liquid or substance you dissolved it in.

Additional Uses
Citric acid is also used to stabilize other ingredients, taste and color when cooking; in bread making to add flavoring; as a astringent; and to adjust the pH level, the measure of the acidity, in water and liquids. 
The acid is biodegradable; it metabolizes quickly within the human body and is then eliminated.

Safety
Citric acid is found naturally in the body, mainly in the bones, and is commonly consumed as part of a normal diet. 
Orally ingested citric acid is absorbed and is generally regarded as a nontoxic material when used as an excipient. 
However, excessive or frequent consumption of citric acid has been associated with erosion of the teeth.
Citric acid and citrates also enhance intestinal aluminum absorption in renal patients, which may lead to increased, harmful serum aluminum levels. 
Citric acid monohydrate has therefore been suggested that patients with renal failure taking aluminum compounds to control phosphate absorption should not be prescribed citric acid or citrate-containing products.

Citric Acid (2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid, in IUPAC naming) is a colourless crystalline organic compound belong to carboxylic acid family. 
Citric acid monohydrate exists in all plants (especially in lemons and limes) and in many animal tissues and fluids. 
In biochemistry, Citric acid monohydrate is involved in important metabolism of almost all living things; the Krebs cycle (also called citric acid cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle), a part of the process by which animals convert food to energy. 
Citric acid works as a preservative ( or as an antioxidant) and cleaning agent in nature. 
Citric acid monohydrate is commercially obtained by fermentation process of glucose with the aid of the mold Aspergillus niger and can be obtained synthetically from acetone or glycerol. 
Citric acid monohydrate can be used as an sour taste enhancer in foods and soft drinks. 

The three carboxy groups lose protons in solution; resulting in the excellent pH control as a buffer in acidic solutions. 
Citric acid monohydrate is used as a flavouring, stabilizing agent and acidulant (to control acidity) in food industry, in metal-cleaning compositions as it chelates metals. 
Citric acid is available in forms of anhydrous primarily and in monohydrate, the crystallized form from water. 
The hydrated form will be converted to the anhydrous form above 74 C.
Citrate is a salt or ester of citric acid. 
Citrates are formed by replacing the acidic one, two, or all three of the carboxylic hydrogens in citric acid by metals or organic radicals to produce an extensive series of salts, esters, and mixed (double) salts. 
Cirrates are used in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and medicine industries as well as in plastic industry; nutrient or food additives having functions of acidity regulator, sequestering and stabilizing agent, antioxidants synergist, firming agent; anticoagulant for stored whole blood and red cells and also for blood specimens as citrates chelate metal ions and saline cathartics, effervescent medicines; high boiling solvent, plasticizer and resin for food contact plastics.

storage
Citric acid monohydrate loses water of crystallization in dry air or when heated to about 408℃. 
Citric acid monohydrate is slightly deliquescent in moist air. 
Dilute aqueous solutions of citric acid may ferment on standing.

Purification Methods
Crystallise Citric acid monohydrate from hot H2O solution (w/w solubility is 54% at 10o, 71% at 50o and 84% at 100o. 
The monohydrate (softens at ~75o and melts at ~100o) dehydrates in air or when heated gently above 40o . 
The triethylester ( M 276.3, b 127o/1mm, 294o/atm, d 4 1.137, n D 1.4420.) is a bitter tasting oil. 

Incompatibilities
Citric acid is incompatible with potassium tartrate, alkali and alkaline earth carbonates and bicarbonates, acetates, and sulfides. 
Incompatibilities also include oxidizing agents, bases, reducing agents, and nitrates. 
Citric acid monohydrate is potentially explosive in combination with metal nitrates. 
On storage, sucrose may crystallize from syrups in the presence of citric acid.

Regulatory Status
GRAS listed. The anhydrous form is accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. 
Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (inhalations; IM, IV, and other injections; ophthalmic preparations; oral capsules, solutions, suspensions and tablets; topical and vaginal preparations). 
Included in nonparenteral and parenteral medicines licensed in Japan and the UK. 
Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.

Quality Level: 200
grade: ACS reagent
assay: ≥99.0%
impurities:
Substances carbonizable by hot sulfuric acid, passes test
≤0.005% Insoluble matter
ign. residue: ≤0.02%
pKa: 3.13, 4.76, 6.4
solubility:
H2O: soluble 54 % (w/w) at 10 °C (Citric acid in water)
H2O: 59.2 % (w/w) at 20 °C (Citric acid in water)
H2O: 84.0 % (w/w) at 100 °C (Citric acid in water)

Care Citric Acid Monohydrate may be used for various culinary purposes including jam making, flavouring, etc. 
Citric acid monohydrate can also be used in wine production to help prevent cloudiness.

How to use:
For preparing a solution for household cleaning purposes add Care Citric Acid in water. 
Stir gently and let the Citric Acid dissolve completely. 
This can be used with every day household cleaning such as doors, windows and household furniture.
This can also be used as a food preservative, Citric acid monohydrate can help keep Tomatoes firm. 
Add ½ tablespoon of Citric Acid for every quart of Tomatoes you will be cleaning.

anion traces:
chloride (Cl-): ≤0.001%
oxalate (C2O42-): passes test (limit about 0.05%)
phosphate (PO43-): ≤0.001%
sulfate (SO42-): ≤0.002%
cation traces:
Fe: ≤3 ppm
Pb: ≤2 ppm
SMILES string: OC(CC(O)(C(O)=O)CC(O)=O)=O.O
InChI: 1S/C6H8O7.H2O/c7-3(8)1-6(13,5(11)12)2-4(9)10;/h13H,1-2H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)(H,11,12);1H2
InChI key: YASYEJJMZJALEJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Citric Acid Monohydrate is a white crystalline powder. 
This product acts as a preservative and antioxidant. 
Citric acid monohydrate is also used as an acidulant, flavoring agent and antistaling agent in fruit drinks, candy, cookies, biscuits, canned fruits, jams, and jellies. 
Citric acid monohydrate differs from other forms of citric acid by having a moisture percentage ranging from 7.5 - 9.0.

Citric acid monohydrate
5949-29-1
Citric acid hydrate
2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid hydrate
CITRIC ACID, MONOHYDRATE
1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-, monohydrate
UNII-2968PHW8QP
MFCD00149972
2968PHW8QP
CHEBI:31404

Citric acid is a weak acid found naturally in citrus fruits like lemons and oranges. 
Citric acid monohydrates sour and tangy flavor, along with its neutralizing properties and preservative qualities, make Citric acid monohydrate a popular ingredient in a range of products including food items, beverages, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and cleaning agents.
Although citric acid is commonly available in solid form, as crystalline powder, you may have applications for which a liquid form is preferable.

Advantages
-The purest product available
-For targeted acid enrichment of wines and basic champagne wines (please observe your local regulations for appropriate dosage amounts)
-For acid harmonization in the production of fruit- or vegetable-based beverages (please observe your local regulations)

2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid;hydrate
SBB068612
2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid monohydrate
Acidum citricum monohydricum
Citric acid monohydrate (USP)
Citric acid monohydrate [USP]
Citric acid monohydrate, 99+%, ACS reagent
Citric acid monohydrate, 99.5%, for analysis

Citric Acid Monohydrate is an acidic compound from citrus fruits; as a starting point in the Krebs cycle, citrate is a key intermediate in metabolism. 
Citric acid is one of a series of compounds responsible for the physiological oxidation of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins to carbon dioxide and water. 
Citric acid monohydrate has been used to prepare citrate buffer for antigen retrieval of tissue samples. 
The citrate solution is designed to break protein cross-links, thus unmasking antigens and epitopes in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded tissue sections, and resulting in enhanced staining intensity of antibodies. 
Citrate has anticoagulant activity; as a calcium chelator, Citric acid monohydrate forms complexes that disrupt the tendency of blood to clot. 

citrate hydrate
C6H8O7.H2O
citric acid water
water citric acid
Citric acid (TN)
ACMC-20alep
monohydrate citric acid
citric acid mono-hydrate
SCHEMBL22721
Citric acid hydrate (JP17)

Citric acid is a food preservative and an ingredient in products including cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and beverages. 
The acid is available for purchase from both online and area health food stores, pharmacies and retail superstores. 
Citric acid has a shelf life of three years from the date of manufacture. 
The acid’s chemical makeup and potency remains stable for at least five years in Citric acid monohydrates original closed container.

Product application
Synonyms:           
Glacial acetic acid; Acetic acid solution; acetic acid 50%;  acetic acid, of a concentration of more than 10 per cent, by weight, of acetic acid; Acetic Acid Glacial BP; Natural Acetic Acid; Acetic acid (36%); Acetic acid, food grade; Acetic Acid Glacial; GAA; Acetic Acid, Glacial 

Citric acid monohydrate is a colourless liquid that when undiluted is also called glacial acetic acid. 
Citric acid monohydrate has a distinctive sour taste and pungent smell.
Acetic acid uses:  Additive in industrial explosives in Mining.
Other uses include use of acetic acid in the production of vinyl acetate monomer,  acetic anhydride and ester production. 

Chemical gassing agents -In the case of emulsion explosives, using Acetic acid can accelerate the gassing process. 
The chemically gassed emulsions may take 40 – 50 minutes for completion of gassing within the blast holes, particularly when the emulsion is colder.
In cases where acetic acid is used, Citric acid monohydrate is added to the emulsion prior to gassing, the desired amount of acid is mixed in the emulsion, before adding the gasser.
A gassing solution comprising sodium nitrite in water together with the selected enol compound and acetic acid is introduced into the emulsion explosive at the blast hole by entraining the gassing solution into a stream of the emulsion explosive using pumps.
The solution pH is an important parameter in the gassing of emulsion explosives due to the high cost associated with acid addition therefore a pH value should preferably be maintained at 4.1 or below.

Assay Percent Range: 1%
Linear Formula: C6H8O7·H2O
Density: 1.542g/mL
Formula Weight: 210.15
Packaging: Solid
Color: White
Quantity: 100g
Chemical Name or Material: Citric Acid, Monohydrate

Citric acid is a weak organic acid. 
Citric acid monohydrate is a natural preservative and excellent chelating agent. 
Citric acid monohydrate is used to remove limescale from boilers and evaporators and can be used to soften water.
Citric acid is widely used as a pH adjusting agent in creams and gels and can be used as a successful alternative to nitric acid in passivation of stainless steel.

CHEMBL2107737
DTXSID7074668
EBD9925
Citric acid monohydrate, Ultrapure
AKOS015918207
Citric acid monohydrate, p.a., 99.5%
AK142751
BS-17269
Citric acid monohydrate, AR, >=99.5%

Alternate Names:2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid monohydrate
Application:Citric Acid Monohydrate is a useful buffer component for antigen and epitope unmasking
CAS Number:5949-29-1
Purity:≥98%
Molecular Weight:210.14
Molecular Formula:C6H8O7•H2O

Citric acid is one of the most widespread in the plant kingdom acids and occurs as a metabolite found in all organisms. 
Lemon juice contains citric acid, for example, 5-7%. 
But is also found in apples, pears, cherries, raspberries, blackberries, currants, in conifers, fungi, tobacco, wine, and even in the milk. 
Industrial is one of citric acid by fermentation of sugar-containing raw materials such as molasses and corn ago. 
For the fermentation Aspergillus niger strains are used. 
Citric acid acts not only by its acidic action, but also by the formation of a calcium complex. 
Citric acid monohydrate is frequently used in cleaning agents to avoid the unpleasant smell of the vinegar cleaner. 
Citric acid may be used for example for descaling kettles, immersion heaters, faucets, shower heads, dishwashers and washing machines. 
In addition to being mostly used acidifier citric acid is used in the food industry for a number of other technological applications. 
Citric acid supports the reddening of meat and also improves the baking properties of dough and flour.

Product Information
soft drinks
confectionery, Jam, marmalade, jelly
Ice cream and desserts
Fruit Juices and Fruit Nectars (within 3 or 5g / l)
cut packaged vegetables, fruits and peeled potatoes
Cheese and Meat Products
pasta
Water softener and fabric softener alternative
for the passivation of stainless steel
Accelerator for the curing of cementitious materials
as rust remover
in many technical applications

Main Usage
Citric Acid is mainly used as acidulant, flavoring agent, preservative and antistaling agent in food and beverage industry. 
Citric acid monohydrate is also used as antioxidant, plasticizer and detergent in chemical,cosmetics and cleaning industries.

Citric acid is weak organic acid. 
Citric acid monohydrate is natural preservative, Citric acid monohydrate is also used for addition of acid taste for foodstuff and soft drinks. 
In biochemistry, basis of interface of citric acid - citrate, Citric acid monohydrate is important as intermediate link in cycle of citric acid which occurs in metabolism of all aerobic organisms.

Citric acid is chemical goods, and more than one million tons are made every year by fermentation. 
Citric acid monohydrate is used generally as podkislitel, as seasoning, and as the helatiruyushchy agent.

At the room temperature, citric acid represents white crystal powder. 
Citric acid monohydrate can exist either in anhydrous form or in the form of monohydrate.

Citric acid represents white crystal powder, flavourless, well soluble in water. Has been open in 1784 and it was developed from citrus. 
Now for production of citric acid cheaper raw materials on the basis of beet are used. 
Is issued with different degree of purity for use in different types of the industry. 
In natural look meets in the nature in juice of citrus fruits. 
Citric acid (E330) is included into the list of the food supplements allowed for use in foodstuff and drinks. 
Citric acid is the acidity regulator, antioxidant, and also synergist of antioxidants. 

Citric acid monohydrate can also be used as the dispersing and making small additive. 
Possesses pleasant flavor. 
Solubility in water - 162 g / 100 ml at 25 °C. 
Citric acid monohydrate is subject to thermal destruction. 
The beginning of carbonization at 170 °C. 
Citric acid monohydrate is subject to full biodisintegration. 
Can cause irritation of mucous membranes of airways, stomach, and also skin surface and eyes. 
The Limonka is widely applied in food, medical, chemical and other types of the industries. 
Citric acid for 70% plays role of podkislitel in the food industry, mainly thanks to its good solubility, low level of toxicity, harmlessness for environment and ability to mix up with other chemicals.

Storage
Kept in a light-proof, well-closed, dry and cool place
Because Citric acid monohydrate E472c-77-92-9 moderate, brisk acidity, generally used for a variety of beverages, soft drinks, wine, candy, snacks, biscuits, canned fruit juices, dairy and other food manufacturing. 
In all organic market, E472c more than 70% market share, until now, no one can replace E472c-77-92-9 of the sour agent. 
Part of crystal water is mainly used for soft drinks, juices, jams, canned fruit sugar and acid flavor, E472c also be used as edible oil anti-oxidants. 
While improving the sensory properties of food, appetite and promote the calcium and phosphorus absorption material. 
E472c used extensively for solid drink. 
E472c-77-92-9 salts such as calcium citrate and ferric citrate are certain foods you need to add calcium and iron ions enhancer. 
E472c E472c three ethyl esters as plasticizers can be used for non-toxic, food packaging, plastic film, E472c the beverage and food industry, sour agents, preservatives.
In the medical industry, E472c-77-92-9 is a lot of drugs, such as citric acid piperazine (lumbricide), ferric ammonium citrate (blood), sodium citrate (blood transfusion pharmaceutical) materials. 
In addition, E472c also be used as acidifier in many medicines;
In the chemical industry, E472c-77-92-9 citric acid ester plasticizer can use non-toxic, the food packaging plastic film;
In other areas, E472c-77-92-9 detergent used in industrial and civil pollution-free detergent builder; E472c for concrete retarder; also widely used in electroplating, leather, printing inks, printing industry, blue and so on.

M189
DB-053400
FT-0623958
Citric acid monohydrate, BioXtra, >=99.5%
C12649
Citric acid monohydrate, LR, 99.5-100.5%
Citric acid monohydrate, technical, crystalline
D01222
Citric acid monohydrate, ACS reagent, >=99.0%
Citric Acid, Monohydrate, Crystal, Reagent, ACS
2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, hydrate
Citric acid monohydrate, JIS special grade, >=99.5%
Citric acid monohydrate, SAJ first grade, >=99.5%
Q27114303

Citric acid is a weak organic acid commonly used in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. 
The parent base of citric acid, citrate, is a component of the Krebs cycle, and occurs naturally during metabolism in all living organisms. 
Citric acid monohydrate is found naturally in citrus fruit such as lemons and limes and is used as a natural preservative. 
Monohydrate citric acid has one water molecule as part of Citric acid monohydrate's chemical formula, and exists as a white powder.

Citric acid monohydrate, Vetec(TM) reagent grade, >=98%
1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-, hydrate (1:1)
Citric acid monohydrate, reagent grade, >=98% (GC/titration)
Citric acid monohydrate, >=99.5%, suitable for amino acid analysis
Citric acid monohydrate, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Citric acid monohydrate, p.a., ACS reagent, reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., 99.5-100.5%
Citric acid monohydrate, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., buffer substance, 99.5-102%
Citric acid monohydrate, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, E330, 99.5-100.5% (based on anhydrous substance), grit

Application Notes
Citric acid acts as an iron chelator. 
Citric acid monohydrate can support cholesterol/sterol, ubiquinone and isoprenoid biosynthesis in cell culture applications. 
In animals, citric acid improves the utilization of nutritional calcium. 
Citric acid monohydrate is a useful buffer component.

CAS No.5949-29-1
Chemical Name:Citric acid monohydrate
Synonymscitric;ACETONUM;ACETONE D;PROPANONE;FEMA 3326;Ctric Acid;ACETONE 300;ACETONE 5000;EXTRAN AP 22;METHYL KETONE
CBNumber:CB3235573
Molecular Formula:C6H10O8
Formula Weight:210.1388
MOL File:5949-29-1.mol

Usage Statement
Unless specified otherwise, MP Biomedical's products are for research or further manufacturing use only, not for direct human use. 
For more information, please contact our customer service department.

CAS Number: 5949-29-1
Molecular Weight: 210.14
Chemical Formula: C6H8O7H2O
Solubility: Water
Storage Temperature: Room Temperature
Shipping Weight: 1.2399 lbs
Shipping Dimensions: 3.50 x 7.00 x 3.50

Citric acid monohydrate is used in the preparation of citrate buffer in platelets for intravital microscopy. 
Citric acid monohydrate acts as a pH-control agent in foods, beverages and pharmaceuticals applications. 
Citric acid monohydrate acts as an iron chelator. 
In animals, Citric acid monohydrate improves the utilization of nutritional calcium. 
Citric acid monohydrate is a useful buffer component for antigen and epitope unmasking. 
Citric acid monohydrate is also used as an acidifier, flavoring agent and chelating agent.

Melting point:-94 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:56 °C760 mm Hg(lit.)
Density 0.791 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density 2 (vs air)
vapor pressure 184 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
refractive index n20/D 1.359(lit.)
Flash point:1 °F
storage temp. Store at RT.
solubility Citric Acid Monohydrate is very soluble in water, freely soluble in ethanol and sparingly soluble in ether.
form Solid
pka3.138, 4.76, 6.401
Specific Gravity0.810 (20/4℃)
color White
PH1.85 (50g/l, H2O, 25℃)
Water Solubility 1630 g/L (20 oC) ;H2O: soluble 54% (w/w) at 10°C (Citric acid in water)
Sensitive Hygroscopic
Merck 14,2326
BRN 4018641
Stability:Stable. Incompatible with oxidizing agents, bases, reducing agents, nitrates.
InChIKeyYASYEJJMZJALEJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS DataBase Reference5949-29-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
FDA UNII2968PHW8QP
NIST Chemistry ReferenceCitric acid monohydrate(5949-29-1)
EPA Substance Registry System1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-, hydrate (1:1) (5949-29-1)

Formula: C6H8O7.H2O / HOOCCH2C(OH)(COOH)CH2COOH.H2O
Molecular mass: 210.1
Decomposes at 175°C
Melting point: 135°C
Density: 1.5 g/cm³
Solubility in water, g/100ml at 20°C: 59.2
Auto-ignition temperature: 1010°C
Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: -1.72 


8-) SODIUM HYDROXIDE

Sodium hydroxide = Caustic soda = Lye

CAS Number: 1310-73-2 
EC Number: 215-185-5
E number: E524 (acidity regulators, ...)
Molecular Weight: 40.00
Linear Formula: NaOH

Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye and caustic soda, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. 
Sodium hydroxide is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations Na+ and hydroxide anions OH−.
Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. 
Sodium hydroxide is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. 
Sodium hydroxide forms a series of hydrates NaOH·nH2O. 

The monohydrate NaOH·H2O crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. 
The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to Sodium hydroxide instead of the anhydrous compound.
As one of the simplest hydroxides, sodium hydroxide is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students.
Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. 
Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tons, while demand was 51 million tons.

Uses of Sodium hydroxide:
Sodium hydroxide is a popular strong base used in industry. 
Sodium hydroxide is used in the manufacture of sodium salts and detergents, pH regulation, and organic synthesis. 
In bulk, Sodium hydroxide is most often handled as an aqueous solution, since solutions are cheaper and easier to handle.
Sodium hydroxide is used in many scenarios where Sodium hydroxide is desirable to increase the alkalinity of a mixture, or to neutralize acids.
For example, in the petroleum industry, sodium hydroxide is used as an additive in drilling mud to increase alkalinity in bentonite mud systems, to increase the mud viscosity, and to neutralize any acid gas (such as hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide) which may be encountered in the geological formation as drilling progresses.
Another use is in Salt spray testing where pH needs to be regulated. 
Sodium hydroxide is used with hydrochloric acid to balance pH. 
The resultant salt, NaCl, is the corrosive agent used in the standard neutral pH salt spray test.
Poor quality crude oil can be treated with sodium hydroxide to remove sulfurous impurities in a process known as caustic washing. 
As above, sodium hydroxide reacts with weak acids such as hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans to yield non-volatile sodium salts, which can be removed. 
The waste which is formed is toxic and difficult to deal with, and the process is banned in many countries because of this. 
In 2006, Trafigura used the process and then dumped the waste in Ivory Coast.

Other common uses of sodium hydroxide include:
-Sodium hydroxide is used for making soaps and detergents. 
Sodium hydroxide is used for hard bar soap while potassium hydroxide is used for liquid soaps.
sodium hydroxide is used more often than potassium hydroxide because Sodium hydroxide is cheaper and a smaller quantity is needed.
-Sodium hydroxide is used as drain cleaners that contain sodium hydroxide convert fats and grease that can clog pipes into soap, which dissolves in water. (see cleaning agent)
-Sodium hydroxide is used for making artificial textile fibres (such as Rayon).
-Sodium hydroxide is used in the manufacture of paper. 
Around 56% of sodium hydroxide produced is used by industry, 25% of which is used in the paper industry. (see chemical pulping)
-Sodium hydroxide is used in purifying bauxite ore from which aluminium metal is extracted. 
This is known as Bayer process. (see dissolving amphoteric metals and compounds)
-Sodium hydroxide is used in de-greasing metals, oil refining, and making dyes and bleaches.

Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) has no smell. 
Sodium hydroxide is made of solid white crystals that absorb water from the air. 
Sodium hydroxide is caustic. 
Workers who come in contact with sodium hydroxide can be harmed. 
The level of harm depends upon the amount, duration, and activity. 
Sodium hydroxide can burn the eyes, skin, and inner membranes, and cause temporary hair loss.
Sodium hydroxide is used to produce soaps, rayon, paper, products that explode, dyes, and petroleum products. 
Sodium hydroxide can also be used in tasks such as processing cotton fabric, metal cleaning and processing, oxide coating, electroplating, and electrolytic extraction. 
Sodium hydroxide is often found in commercial drain and oven cleaners.
Use bleach, oven cleaners, and drain cleaners
Work in food processing plants
Work in public water treatment plants
Use sodium hydroxide for making paper, glass, detergents, soaps, and other products
Mine alumina and produce aluminum
NIOSH recommends that employers use a Hierarchy of Controls to prevent injury.  
If you work in an industry that uses sodium hydroxide, please read the chemical label and the Safety Data Sheet for information on how Sodium hydroxide can harm you and how to protect yourself. 
Visit NIOSH’s page on Managing Chemical Safety in the Workplace to learn more about preventing contact with chemicals in the workplace.

The following resources provide information about workplace exposure to sodium hydroxide. 
Useful search terms for sodium hydroxide include “lye”, “caustic soda”, “soda lye”, and “sodium hydrate”.

Sodium hydroxide is used to manufacture many everyday products, such as paper, aluminum, commercial drain and oven cleaners, and soap and detergents.

Sodium Hydroxide in Cleaning & Disinfectant Products
Sodium hydroxide is used to manufacture soaps and a variety of detergents used in homes and commercial applications. 
Chlorine bleach is produced by combining chlorine and sodium hydroxide. 
Drain cleaners that contain sodium hydroxide convert fats and grease that can clog pipes into soap, which dissolves in water.

Sodium Hydroxide in Pharmaceuticals & Medicine
Sodium hydroxide is used to help manufacture a variety of medicines and pharmaceutical products, from common pain relievers like aspirin, to anticoagulants that can help to prevent blood clots, to cholesterol-reducing medications.

Sodium Hydroxide in Energy
In the energy sector, sodium hydroxide is used in fuel cell production. 
Fuel cells work like batteries to cleanly and efficiently produce electricity for a range of applications, including transportation; materials handling; and stationary, portable and emergency backup power applications. 
Epoxy resins, manufactured with sodium hydroxide, are used in wind turbines.

Sodium Hydroxide in Water Treatment
Municipal water treatment facilities use sodium hydroxide to control water acidity and to help remove heavy metals from water. 
Sodium hydroxide is also used to produce sodium hypochlorite, a water disinfectant.

Sodium Hydroxide in Food Production
Sodium hydroxide is used in several food processing applications, such as curing foods like olives or helping to brown Bavarian-style pretzels, giving them their characteristic crunch. 
Sodium hydroxide is used to remove skins from tomatoes, potatoes and other fruits and vegetables for canning and also as an ingredient in food preservatives that help prevent mold and bacteria from growing in food.

Sodium Hydroxide in Wood & Paper Products
In many paper making processes, wood is treated with a solution containing sodium sulfide and sodium hydroxide.  
This helps dissolve most of the unwanted material in the wood, leaving relatively pure cellulose, which forms the basis of paper. 
In the paper recycling process, sodium hydroxide is used to separate the ink from the paper fibers allowing the paper fibers to be reused again.

Sodium hydroxide is also used to refine raw materials for wood products such as cabinets and furniture and in wood bleaching and cleaning.

Sodium Hydroxide in Aluminum Ore Processing
Sodium hydroxide is used to extract alumina from naturally occurring minerals. 
Alumina is used to make aluminum and a variety of products including foil, cans, kitchen utensils, beer kegs and airplane parts. 
In building and construction, aluminum is used in materials that enable building facades and window frames.

Sodium Hydroxide in Other Industrial Manufacturing Uses
Sodium hydroxide is used in many other industrial and manufacturing processes. 
Sodium hydroxide is used to manufacture rayon, spandex, explosives, epoxy resins, paints, glass and ceramics. 
Sodium hydroxide is also used in the textile industry to make dyes, process cotton fabric and in laundering and bleaching, as well as in metal cleaning and processing, oxide coating, electroplating and electrolytic extracting.

Properties
Physical properties
Pure sodium hydroxide is a colorless crystalline solid that melts at 318 °C (604 °F) without decomposition, and with a boiling point of 1,388 °C (2,530 °F). 
Sodium hydroxide is highly soluble in water, with a lower solubility in polar solvents such as ethanol and methanol.
NaOH is insoluble in ether and other non-polar solvents.

Similar to the hydration of sulfuric acid, dissolution of solid sodium hydroxide in water is a highly exothermic reaction where a large amount of heat is liberated, posing a threat to safety through the possibility of splashing. 
The resulting solution is usually colorless and odorless. 
As with other alkaline solutions, it feels slippery with skin contact due to the process of saponification that occurs between NaOH and natural skin oils.

Viscosity
Concentrated (50%) aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide have a characteristic viscosity, 78 mPa·s, that is much greater than that of water (1.0 mPa·s) and near that of olive oil (85 mPa·s) at room temperature. 
The viscosity of aqueous NaOH, as with any liquid chemical, is inversely related to its service temperature, i.e., its viscosity decreases as temperature increases, and vice versa. 
The viscosity of sodium hydroxide solutions plays a direct role in Sodium hydroxides application as well as its storage.

Hydrates
Sodium hydroxide can form several hydrates NaOH·nH
2O, which result in a complex solubility diagram that was described in detail by S. U. Pickering in 1893.
The known hydrates and the approximate ranges of temperature and concentration (mass percent of NaOH) of their saturated water solutions are:
Heptahydrate, NaOH·7H2O: from −28 °C (18.8%) to −24 °C (22.2%).
Pentahydrate, NaOH·5H2O: from −24 °C (22.2%) to −17.7 (24.8%).
Tetrahydrate, NaOH·4H2O, α form: from −17.7 (24.8%) to +5.4 °C (32.5%).
Tetrahydrate, NaOH·4H2O, β form: metastable.
Trihemihydrate, NaOH·3.5H2O: from +5.4 °C (32.5%) to +15.38 °C (38.8%) and then to +5.0 °C (45.7%).
Trihydrate, NaOH·3H2O: metastable.
Dihydrate, NaOH·2H2O: from +5.0 °C (45.7%) to +12.3 °C (51%).
Monohydrate, NaOH·H2O: from +12.3 °C (51%) to 65.10 °C (69%) then to 62.63 °C (73.1%).
Early reports refer to hydrates with n = 0.5 or n = 2/3, but later careful investigations failed to confirm their existence.

Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as caustic soda or lye, is a highly versatile substance used in a variety of manufacturing processes. 
Sodium hydroxide is a co-product of chlorine production.

Chemical pulping
Main article: Pulp (paper)
Sodium hydroxide is also widely used in pulping of wood for making paper or regenerated fibers. 
Along with sodium sulfide, sodium hydroxide is a key component of the white liquor solution used to separate lignin from cellulose fibers in the kraft process. 
Sodium hydroxide also plays a key role in several later stages of the process of bleaching the brown pulp resulting from the pulping process. 
These stages include oxygen delignification, oxidative extraction, and simple extraction, all of which require a strong alkaline environment with a pH > 10.5 at the end of the stages.

Tissue digestion
In a similar fashion, sodium hydroxide is used to digest tissues, as in a process that was used with farm animals at one time. 
This process involved placing a carcass into a sealed chamber, then adding a mixture of sodium hydroxide and water (which breaks the chemical bonds that keep the flesh intact). 
This eventually turns the body into a liquid with coffee-like appearance, and the only solid that remains are bone hulls, which could be crushed between one's fingertips.
Sodium hydroxide is frequently used in the process of decomposing roadkill dumped in landfills by animal disposal contractors.
Due to its availability and low cost, Sodium hydroxide has been used by criminals to dispose of corpses. 
Italian serial killer Leonarda Cianciulli used this chemical to turn dead bodies into soap.
In Mexico, a man who worked for drug cartels admitted disposing of over 300 bodies with Sodium hydroxide.
Sodium hydroxide is a dangerous chemical due to Sodium hydroxides ability to hydrolyze protein. 
If a dilute solution is spilled on the skin, burns may result if the area is not washed thoroughly and for several minutes with running water. 
Splashes in the eye can be more serious and can lead to blindness.

Dissolving amphoteric metals and compounds
Strong bases attack aluminium. 
Sodium hydroxide reacts with aluminium and water to release hydrogen gas. 
The aluminium takes the oxygen atom from sodium hydroxide, which in turn takes the oxygen atom from the water, and releases the two hydrogen atoms, The reaction thus produces hydrogen gas and sodium aluminate. 
In this reaction, sodium hydroxide acts as an agent to make the solution alkaline, which aluminium can dissolve in.
2 Al + 2 NaOH + 2 H2O → 2 NaAlO2 + 3H2

Sodium aluminate is an inorganic chemical that is used as an effective source of Aluminium hydroxide for many industrial and technical applications. 
Pure sodium aluminate (anhydrous) is a white crystalline solid having a formula variously given as NaAlO2, NaAl(OH)4< (hydrated), Na2O.Al2O3, or Na2Al2O
Formation of sodium tetrahydroxoaluminate(III) or hydrated sodium aluminate is given by:
2Al + 2NaOH + 6H2O → 2 NaAl(OH)4 + 3 H2
This reaction can be useful in etching, removing anodizing, or converting a polished surface to a satin-like finish, but without further passivation such as anodizing or alodining the surface may become degraded, either under normal use or in severe atmospheric conditions.

In the Bayer process, sodium hydroxide is used in the refining of alumina containing ores (bauxite) to produce alumina (aluminium oxide) which is the raw material used to produce aluminium metal via the electrolytic Hall-Héroult process. 
Since the alumina is amphoteric, Sodium hydroxide dissolves in the sodium hydroxide, leaving impurities less soluble at high pH such as iron oxides behind in the form of a highly alkaline red mud.
Other amphoteric metals are zinc and lead which dissolve in concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions to give sodium zincate and sodium plumbate respectively.

Esterification and transesterification reagent
Sodium hydroxide is traditionally used in soap making (cold process soap, saponification).
Sodium hydroxide was made in the nineteenth century for a hard surface rather than liquid product because Sodium hydroxide was easier to store and transport.
For the manufacture of biodiesel, sodium hydroxide is used as a catalyst for the transesterification of methanol and triglycerides. 
This only works with anhydrous sodium hydroxide, because combined with water the fat would turn into soap, which would be tainted with methanol. 
NaOH is used more often than potassium hydroxide because Sodium hydroxide is cheaper and a smaller quantity is needed.
Due to production costs, NaOH, which is produced using common salt is cheaper than potassium hydroxide.

Food preparation
Food uses of sodium hydroxide include washing or chemical peeling of fruits and vegetables, chocolate and cocoa processing, caramel coloring production, poultry scalding, soft drink processing, and thickening ice cream.
Olives are often soaked in sodium hydroxide for softening; Pretzels and German lye rolls are glazed with a sodium hydroxide solution before baking to make them crisp. 
Owing to the difficulty in obtaining food grade sodium hydroxide in small quantities for home use, sodium carbonate is often used in place of sodium hydroxide.
Sodium hydroxide is known as E number E524.

Specific foods processed with sodium hydroxide include:
German pretzels are poached in a boiling sodium carbonate solution or cold sodium hydroxide solution before baking, which contributes to their unique crust.
Lye-water is an essential ingredient in the crust of the traditional baked Chinese moon cakes.
Most yellow coloured Chinese noodles are made with lye-water but are commonly mistaken for containing egg.
One variety of zongzi uses lye water to impart a sweet flavor.
Sodium hydroxide is also the chemical that causes gelling of egg whites in the production of Century eggs.
Some methods of preparing olives involve subjecting them to a lye-based brine.

The Filipino dessert (kakanin) called kutsinta uses a small quantity of lye water to help give the rice flour batter a jelly like consistency. 
A similar process is also used in the kakanin known as pitsi-pitsi or pichi-pichi except that the mixture uses grated cassava instead of rice flour.
The Norwegian dish known as lutefisk (from lutfisk, "lye fish").
Bagels are often boiled in a lye solution before baking, contributing to their shiny crust.
Hominy is dried maize (corn) kernels reconstituted by soaking in lye-water. 
These expand considerably in size and may be further processed by frying to make corn nuts or by drying and grinding to make grits. 
Hominy is used to create Masa, a popular flour used in Mexican cuisine to make Corn tortillas and tamales. 
Nixtamal is similar, but uses calcium hydroxide instead of sodium hydroxide.

Cleaning agent
Sodium hydroxide is frequently used as an industrial cleaning agent where Sodium hydroxide is often called "caustic". 
Sodium hydroxide is added to water, heated, and then used to clean process equipment, storage tanks, etc. 
Sodium hydroxide can dissolve grease, oils, fats and protein-based deposits. 
Sodium hydroxide is also used for cleaning waste discharge pipes under sinks and drains in domestic properties. 
Surfactants can be added to the sodium hydroxide solution in order to stabilize dissolved substances and thus prevent redeposition. 
A sodium hydroxide soak solution is used as a powerful degreaser on stainless steel and glass bakeware. 
Sodium hydroxide is also a common ingredient in oven cleaners.

A common use of sodium hydroxide is in the production of parts washer detergents. 
Parts washer detergents based on sodium hydroxide are some of the most aggressive parts washer cleaning chemicals. 
The sodium hydroxide-based detergents include surfactants, rust inhibitors and defoamers. 
A parts washer heats water and the detergent in a closed cabinet and then sprays the heated sodium hydroxide and hot water at pressure against dirty parts for degreasing applications. 
Sodium hydroxide used in this manner replaced many solvent-based systems in the early 1990s when trichloroethane was outlawed by the Montreal Protocol.
Water and sodium hydroxide detergent-based parts washers are considered to be an environmental improvement over the solvent-based cleaning methods.

CAS Registry No.: 1310-73-2
Other Names: Caustic soda, Lye
Main Uses: Manufacture of other chemicals, and used in many manufacturing processes.
Appearance: Colourless - white solid.
Odour: Odourless

Sodium hydroxide is used in the home as a type of drain opener to unblock clogged drains, usually in the form of a dry crystal or as a thick liquid gel. 
The alkali dissolves greases to produce water soluble products. 
Sodium hydroxide also hydrolyzes the proteins such as those found in hair which may block water pipes. 
These reactions are sped by the heat generated when sodium hydroxide and the other chemical components of the cleaner dissolve in water. 
Such alkaline drain cleaners and their acidic versions are highly corrosive and should be handled with great caution.
Sodium hydroxide is used in some relaxers to straighten hair. 
However, because of the high incidence and intensity of chemical burns, manufacturers of chemical relaxers use other alkaline chemicals in preparations available to average consumers. 
Sodium hydroxide relaxers are still available, but they are used mostly by professionals.
A solution of sodium hydroxide in water was traditionally used as the most common paint stripper on wooden objects. 
Sodium hydroxides use has become less common, because it can damage the wood surface, raising the grain and staining the colour.

Water treatment
Sodium hydroxide is sometimes used during water purification to raise the pH of water supplies. 
Increased pH makes the water less corrosive to plumbing and reduces the amount of lead, copper and other toxic metals that can dissolve into drinking water.

SYNONYMS:
Caustic soda, sodium hydrate, soda lye, lye, natrium hydroxide

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:
- Molecular Formula: NaOH
- White solid, crystals or powder, will draw moisture from the air and become damp on exposure
- Odorless, flat, sweetish flavor
- Pure solid material or concentrated solutions are extremely caustic, immediately injurious to skin, eyes and respiratory system

WHERE DOES IT COME FROM?
Sodium hydroxide is extracted from seawater or other brines by industrial processes.

WHAT ARE THE PRINCIPLE USES OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE?
Sodium hydroxide is an ingredient of many household products used for cleaning and disinfecting, in many cosmetic products such as mouth washes, tooth paste and lotions, and in food and beverage production for adjustment of pH and as a stabilizer. 
In its concentrated form (lye) Sodium hydroxide is used as a household drain cleaner because of its ability to dissolve organic solids. 
Sodium hydroxide is also used in many industries including glassmaking, paper manufacturing and mining. 
Sodium hydroxide is used widely in medications, for regulation of acidity. 
Sodium hydroxide may be used to counteract acidity in swimming pool water, or in drinking water.

IS SODIUM HYDROXIDE NATURALLY PRESENT IN DRINKING WATER?
Yes, because sodium and hydroxide ions are common natural mineral substances, they are present in many natural soils, in groundwater, in plants and in animal tissues. 
Water supplies in limestone areas contain significant amounts of sodium and hydroxide ions. 
Water supplies from acidic formations contain sodium but very little hydroxide. 

WHAT ARE TYPICAL LEVELS OF SODIUM AND HYDROXIDE IN FOOD PRODUCTS?
Sodium levels in foods vary enormously. 
High sodium foods such as pickles, salted meats, and potato chips contain sodium levels of 600 to several thousand parts per million. 
Bottled soft drinks contain from 80 to 250 ppm sodium.
Hydroxide levels in food and beverages are very low. 
The most alkaline foods (those having the highest pH) seldom have more than about 2 ppm hydroxide.

HOW MUCH SODIUM HYDROXIDE IS ADDED TO WATER FOR CORROSION CONTROL?
Generally sodium hydroxide for corrosion control is added to water at rates between 1 and 40 ppm. 
These amounts of sodium are very small compared to amounts already present in most waters, and compared to the amounts present in beverages and foods. 
The hydroxide which is added combines with and is neutralized by the acidity of the water, so that the resulting hydroxide level is well below a part per million. 

IUPAC name
Sodium hydroxide
Other names
Caustic soda
Lye
Ascarite
White caustic
Sodium hydrate

Historical uses
Sodium hydroxide has been used for detection of carbon monoxide poisoning, with blood samples of such patients turning to a vermilion color upon the addition of a few drops of sodium hydroxide.
Today, carbon monoxide poisoning can be detected by CO oximetry.
In cement mixes, mortars, concrete, grouts
Sodium hydroxide is used in some cement mix plasticisers. 
This helps homogenise cement mixes, preventing segregation of sands and cement, decreases the amount of water required in a mix and increases workability of the cement product, be it mortar, render or concrete.

Summer-winter heat storage
EMPA researchers are experimenting with concentrated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the thermal storage or seasonal reservoir medium for domestic space-heating. 
If water is added to solid or concentrated sodium hydroxide (NaOH), heat is released. 
The dilution is exothermic – chemical energy is released in the form of heat. 
Conversely, by applying heat energy into a dilute sodium hydroxide solution the water will evaporate so that the solution becomes more concentrated and thus stores the supplied heat as latent chemical energy.

Neutron Moderator
Seaborg Technologies is working on a reactor design in which NaOH is used as a neutron moderator.

The only hydrates with stable melting points are NaOH·H2O (65.10 °C) and NaOH·3.5H2O (15.38 °C). 
The other hydrates, except the metastable ones NaOH·3H2O and NaOH·4H2O (β) can be crystallized from solutions of the proper composition, as listed above. 
However, solutions of NaOH can be easily supercooled by many degrees, which allows the formation of hydrates (including the metastable ones) from solutions with different concentrations.

For example, when a solution of NaOH and water with 1:2 mole ratio (52.6% NaOH by mass) is cooled, the monohydrate normally starts to crystallize (at about 22 °C) before the dihydrate. 
However, the solution can easily be supercooled down to −15 °C, at which point Sodium hydroxide may quickly crystallize as the dihydrate. 
When heated, the solid dihydrate might melt directly into a solution at 13.35 °C; however, once the temperature exceeds 12.58 °C. 
Sodium hydroxide often decomposes into solid monohydrate and a liquid solution. 
Even the n = 3.5 hydrate is difficult to crystallize, because the solution supercools so much that other hydrates become more stable.
A hot water solution containing 73.1% (mass) of NaOH is an eutectic that solidifies at about 62.63 °C as an intimate mix of anhydrous and monohydrate crystals.
A second stable eutectic composition is 45.4% (mass) of NaOH, that solidifies at about 4.9 °C into a mixture of crystals of the dihydrate and of the 3.5-hydrate.

The third stable eutectic has 18.4% (mass) of NaOH. 
Sodium hydroxide solidifies at about −28.7 °C as a mixture of water ice and the heptahydrate NaOH·7H2O.
When solutions with less than 18.4% NaOH are cooled, water ice crystallizes first, leaving the NaOH in solution.

The α form of the tetrahydrate has density 1.33 g/cm3. 
Sodium hydroxide melts congruously at 7.55 °C into a liquid with 35.7% NaOH and density 1.392 g/cm3, and therefore floats on it like ice on water. 
However, at about 4.9 °C Sodium hydroxide may instead melt incongruously into a mixture of solid NaOH·3.5H2O and a liquid solution.
The β form of the tetrahydrate is metastable, and often transforms spontaneously to the α form when cooled below −20 °C.
Once initiated, the exothermic transformation is complete in a few minutes, with a 6.5% increase in volume of the solid. 
The β form can be crystallized from supercooled solutions at −26 °C, and melts partially at −1.83 °C.
The "sodium hydroxide" of commerce is often the monohydrate (density 1.829 g/cm3). 
Physical data in technical literature may refer to this form, rather than the anhydrous compound.

Crystal structure
NaOH and its monohydrate form orthorhombic crystals with the space groups Cmcm (oS8) and Pbca (oP24), respectively. 
The monohydrate cell dimensions are a = 1.1825, b = 0.6213, c = 0.6069 nm. 
The atoms are arranged in a hydrargillite-like layer structure /O Na O O Na O/. 
Each sodium atom is surrounded by six oxygen atoms, three each from hydroxyl anions HO− and three from water molecules. 
The hydrogen atoms of the hydroxyls form strong bonds with oxygen atoms within each O layer. 
Adjacent O layers are held together by hydrogen bonds between water molecules.

Chemical properties
Reaction with acids
Sodium hydroxide reacts with protic acids to produce water and the corresponding salts. 
For example, when sodium hydroxide reacts with hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride is formed:
NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) → NaCl(aq) +H2O(l)
In general, such neutralization reactions are represented by one simple net ionic equation:
OH−(aq) + H+(aq) → H2O(l)
This type of reaction with a strong acid releases heat, and hence is exothermic. 
Such acid–base reactions can also be used for titrations. 
However, sodium hydroxide is not used as a primary standard because Sodium hydroxide is hygroscopic and absorbs carbon dioxide from air.

Reaction with acidic oxides
Sodium hydroxide also reacts with acidic oxides, such as sulfur dioxide. 
Such reactions are often used to "scrub" harmful acidic gases (like SO2 and H2S) produced in the burning of coal and thus prevent their release into the atmosphere. 
For example,
2 NaOH + SO2 → Na2SO3 + H2O

CAS Number: 1310-73-2 
CHEBI: 32145
ChemSpider: 14114
ECHA InfoCard: 100.013.805 
EC Number: 215-185-5
E number: E524 (acidity regulators, ...)
Gmelin Reference: 68430
KEGG: D01169 
MeSH: Sodium+Hydroxide
PubChem CID: 14798
RTECS number: WB4900000
UNII: 55X04QC32I 
UN number: 1824, 1823
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID0029634

Reaction with metals and oxides
Glass reacts slowly with aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions at ambient temperatures to form soluble silicates. 
Because of this, glass joints and stopcocks exposed to sodium hydroxide have a tendency to "freeze". 
Flasks and glass-lined chemical reactors are damaged by long exposure to hot sodium hydroxide, which also frosts the glass. 
Sodium hydroxide does not attack iron at room temperatures, since iron does not have amphoteric properties (i.e., it only dissolves in acid, not base). 
Nevertheless, at high temperatures (e.g. above 500 °C), iron can react endothermically with sodium hydroxide to form iron(III) oxide, sodium metal, and hydrogen gas.
This is due to the lower enthalpy of formation of iron(III) oxide (−824.2 kJ/mol compared to sodium hydroxide (-500 kJ/mol), thus the reaction is thermodynamically favorable, although its endothermic nature indicates non-spontaneity. 
Consider the following reaction between molten sodium hydroxide and finely divided iron filings:
4 Fe + 6 NaOH → 2 Fe2O3 + 6 Na + 3 H2
A few transition metals, however, may react vigorously with sodium hydroxide.

In 1986, an aluminium road tanker in the UK was mistakenly used to transport 25% sodium hydroxide solution, causing pressurization of the contents and damage to the tanker. 
The pressurization was due to the hydrogen gas which is produced in the reaction between sodium hydroxide and aluminium:
2 Al + 2 NaOH + 6 H2O → 2 NaAl(OH)4 + 3 H2

Precipitant
Unlike sodium hydroxide, which is soluble, the hydroxides of most transition metals are insoluble, and therefore sodium hydroxide can be used to precipitate transition metal hydroxides. 
The following colours are observed:
Copper - blue
Iron(II) - green
Iron(III) - yellow / brown
Zinc and lead salts dissolve in excess sodium hydroxide to give a clear solution of Na2ZnO2 or Na2PbO2.
Aluminium hydroxide is used as a gelatinous flocculant to filter out particulate matter in water treatment. 
Aluminium hydroxide is prepared at the treatment plant from aluminium sulfate by reacting it with sodium hydroxide or bicarbonate.
Al2(SO4)3 + 6 NaOH → 2 Al(OH)3 + 3 Na2SO4Al2(SO4)3 + 6 NaHCO3 → 2 Al(OH)3 + 3 Na2SO4 + 6 CO2

Saponification
Sodium hydroxide can be used for the base-driven hydrolysis of esters (as in saponification), amides and alkyl halides.
However, the limited solubility of sodium hydroxide in organic solvents means that the more soluble potassium hydroxide (KOH) is often preferred. 
Touching sodium hydroxide solution with the bare hands, while not recommended, produces a slippery feeling. 
This happens because oils on the skin such as sebum are converted to soap. 
Despite solubility in propylene glycol it is unlikely to replace water in saponification due to propylene glycol primary reaction with fat before reaction between sodium hydroxide and fat.

SODIUM HYDROXIDE
Caustic soda
1310-73-2
Sodium hydrate
Soda lye
White caustic
Sodium hydroxide (Na(OH))
Aetznatron
Ascarite
Sodium hydroxide solution

CAS Number
1310-73-2
Synonym
Caustic soda; Soda lye; Sodium hydrate

Q:What is a corrosion control chemical?
A:A chemical that either alters the treated water chemistry or interacts with the surface of metallic materials in the water distribution system to inhibit corrosion and prevent the formation of soluble lead compounds.

Q:Why is sodium hydroxide used in drinking water?
A:Sodium hydroxide is used as a pH adjusting chemical in the treatment of drinking water to control the corrosion of metals such as lead from pipes into the drinking water.

Q:How does sodium hydroxide work?
A:Sodium hydroxide is used in the treatment of drinking water to raise the pH of the water to a level that minimizes the corrosion. 
Raising the pH remains one of the most effective methods for reducing lead corrosion and minimizing lead levels in drinking water

Q:Is Sodium hydroxide safe to drink my water if sodium hydroxide is added?
A:Sodium hydroxide use as a corrosion inhibitor is listed in NSF/ANSI Standard 60. 
These standards have been designed to safeguard drinking water by ensuring that additives meet minimum health effects requirements and thus are safe for use in drinking water.

Q:Why is sodium hydroxide the best choice as a corrosion inhibitor?
A:Sodium hydroxide was selected due to the chemistry of the City of Thunder Bay’s raw source water (Lake Superior) and conditions in the distribution system (pipes). 
The pristine raw water from Lake Superior is very “soft” with little buffering capacity; the water may leach minerals and contaminants from whatever material it comes into contact with. 
The addition of sodium hydroxide prior to transmission through distribution pipes will adjust the pH to a level that reduces this leaching capability of the water. 
As a corrosion inhibitor, sodium hydroxide is the best choice to treat our source water of Lake Superior.

Q:Will I be able to taste or smell sodium hydroxide in my tap water?
A:No. There will not be a difference in the taste or smell of your tap water.

Q:Will the addition of sodium hydroxide in my drinking water have an adverse effect on my personal filter that I have installed?
A:No. However, for all privately-purchased water filtration systems Sodium hydroxide is recommended to always refer to the manufacturer’s instructions.

Q:How will the addition of sodium hydroxide in our drinking water affect the treatment of waste water?
A:Sodium hydroxide is not expected that the addition of sodium hydroxide will affect our wastewater treatment process. 
The amount added will be small in relation to the many other substances found in raw sewage.

Occurrence/Use
Chemical base, acid neutralizer, caustic cleaning agent, solvent, production of paper or fibers (kraft pulping), tissue digestion, dissolving amphoteric metals, saponification (production of hard soap), manufacture of fabric and plastic, food processing, livestock management (cattle dehorning)

Soda, caustic
Natriumhydroxid
Rohrputz
Plung
Collo-Grillrein
Liquid-plumr
Caustic soda solution
Collo-Tapetta
Fuers Rohr
Rohrreiniger Rofix
NaOH

Sodium hydroxide is highly soluble in water, ethanol and methanol, making Sodium hydroxide an excellent compound to mix with these liquids. 
Sodium hydroxide is also a deliquescent, meaning Sodium hydroxide has strong absorption capabilities, so it easily and quickly absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide in the air. 
Because of these chemical attributes, major uses for sodium hydroxide are:
-As an aqueous solution
-Use in the chemical industry
-Creation of sodium salts
-Detergents
-pH regulation
-Aluminum production
-Increasing the alkalinity of a mixture
-Neutralizing acids
-Food processing (peeling vegetables, processing cocoa, soaking olives)
-Removing impurities from oil
-As an additive in drain declogging formulas
-Part of the paper-making process

Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) is white and odorless solid. 
Sodium hydroxide is a common ingredient in cleaning supplies, and perhaps most notably appears in drain and oven cleaning chemicals. 
Sodium hydroxide causes skin to burn upon contact and will cause irrevocable damage if ingested. 
However, sodium hydroxide is FDA approved and is “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS). 
Used across a multitude of industries, some applications of sodium hydroxide include textiles, soap and cleaning products, paper, aluminum processing, petroleum, and bleach production.

Sodium hydroxide is also known as lye or soda , or caustic soda.
At room temperature, sodium hydroxide is a white crystalline odorless solid that absorbs moisture from the air. 
Sodium hydroxide is a synthetically manufactured substance. When dissolved in water or neutralized with acid it releases substantial amounts of heat, which may prove sufficient to ignite combustible materials. 
Sodium hydroxide is highly corrosive .
Sodium hydroxide is generally used as a solid or a diluted in a 50% solution. 
This chemical is used to manufacture soaps, rayon, paper, explosives, dyestuffs, and petroleum products.
Sodium hydroxide is also used in processing cotton fabric, laundering and bleaching, metal cleaning and processing, oxide coating, electroplating, and electrolytic extracting. 
Sodium hydroxide is commonly found in commercial drain/ oven cleaners. 
According to the the FDA, sodium hydroxide is considered a direct food recognized as safe, where Sodium hydroxide serves as a pH control agent and follows good manufacturing guidelines 3.
Interestingly, sodium hydroxide has been studied for Sodium hydroxides use in the treatment of prion disease (as occurs in mad cow disease and kuru). 
The use of this compound has been shown to effectively reduce prion levels in an in vitro inactivation assay.

Storage
Careful storage is needed when handling sodium hydroxide for use, especially bulk volumes. 
Following proper NaOH storage guidelines and maintaining worker/environment safety is always recommended given the chemical's burn hazard.
Sodium hydroxide is often stored in bottles for small-scale laboratory use, within intermediate bulk containers (medium volume containers) for cargo handling and transport, or within large stationary storage tanks with volumes up to 100,000 gallons for manufacturing or waste water plants with extensive NaOH use. 
Common materials that are compatible with sodium hydroxide and often utilized for NaOH storage include: polyethylene (HDPE, usual, XLPE, less common), carbon steel, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), stainless steel, and fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP, with a resistant liner).
Sodium hydroxide must be stored in airtight containers to preserve Sodium hydroxides normality as Sodium hydroxide will absorb water from the atmosphere.

Sodium Hydroxide Solution 10%, Purified Water
Sodium Hydroxide Solution 10% is supplied in a 2 oz. amber glass bottle.

Used to destroy or kill the mail matrix (matrixectomies). 
Sodium Hydroxide 10% forms a strongly alkaline and caustic solution. 
As a caustic agent, Sodium hydroxide is used to destroy organic tissue by chemical action.

Use two 10 second applications. 
NaOH must be neutralized with 5%

For external use only. 
Harmful if taken internally. 
For Physician use only. 
May cause skin irritation. 
Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. 
In case of contact, immediately flush skin or eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. 
Contact a Physician. 
Keep out of reach of children.

-sodium hydroxide (also known as caustic soda and soda lye) is a white, odourless solid at room temperature
-Sodium hydroxide is used in the production of other chemicals, in the pulp and paper industry and various household products including drain cleaners
-Sodium hydroxide does not persist in the environment
-people may be exposed to small amounts of sodium hydroxide in cleaning products
-Sodium hydroxide causes irritation of eyes, nose and throat, cough, chest tightness, headache, fever and confusion
-ingestion causes immediate burning of the mouth and throat, breathing difficulty, drooling, difficulty swallowing, stomach pain and vomiting
-skin contact can cause pain, burns and ulcers
-eye contact causes pain, twitching of the eyelids, watering eyes, inflammation, sensitivity to light and burns
-individuals with breathing problems such as asthma may be more susceptible to the effects of inhaled sodium hydroxide 

Hydroxyde de sodium
Natriumhydroxyde
Sodium hydroxide dimer
White caustic solution
Sodium hydrate solution
Sodio(idrossido di)
Sodium(hydroxyde de)
MFCD00003548
Sodium hydroxide (Na2(OH)2)
sodium;hydroxide
Sodium hydroxide, pellets
UNII-55X04QC32I
Sodium hydroxide, flake
Sodium hydroxide, pearl
Sodium hydroxide, solid
LYE

Production
For historical information, see Alkali manufacture.
Sodium hydroxide is industrially produced as a 50% solution by variations of the electrolytic chloralkali process.
Chlorine gas is also produced in this process.
Solid sodium hydroxide is obtained from this solution by the evaporation of water. 
Solid sodium hydroxide is most commonly sold as flakes, prills, and cast blocks.
In 2004, world production was estimated at 60 million dry tonnes of sodium hydroxide, and demand was estimated at 51 million tonnes.
In 1998, total world production was around 45 million tonnes. 
North America and Asia each contributed around 14 million tonnes, while Europe produced around 10 million tonnes. 
In the United States, the major producer of sodium hydroxide is Olin, which has annual production around 5.7 million tonnes from sites at Freeport, Texas, and Plaquemine, Louisiana, St Gabriel, Louisiana, McIntosh, Alabama, Charleston, Tennessee, NiagaraFalls, New York, and Becancour, Canada. Other major US producers include Oxychem, Westlake, Shintek and Formosa. 
All of these companies use the chloralkali process.

Historically, sodium hydroxide was produced by treating sodium carbonate with calcium hydroxide in a metathesis reaction which takes advantage of the fact that sodium hydroxide is soluble, while calcium carbonate is not. 
This process was called causticizing.
Ca(OH)2(aq) + Na2CO3(s) → CaCO3(s) + 2 NaOH(aq)
This process was superseded by the Solvay process in the late 19th century, which was in turn supplanted by the chloralkali process which we use today.
Sodium hydroxide is also produced by combining pure sodium metal with water. 
The byproducts are hydrogen gas and heat, often resulting in a flame.
2Na + 2H2O → 2NaOH + H2
This reaction is commonly used for demonstrating the reactivity of alkali metals in academic environments; however, Sodium hydroxide is not commercially viable, as the isolation of sodium metal is typically performed by reduction or electrolysis of sodium compounds including sodium hydroxide.

CHEBI:32145
Sodium Hydroxide, 0.1M solution
55X04QC32I
Soda, hydrate
Natrium causticum
Soda, kaustische
Na (O H)
Buffer Solution, pH 8.00
Lewis-red devil lye
Caustic soda, liquid
Sodium hydroxide, pure, pellets
Caswell No. 773
sodiumhydroxide
Natriumhydroxid [German]
Natriumhydroxyde [Dutch]
Natrium-hydroxid, reinstes
UN 1823 (solid)
UN 1824 (solution)

Paper industry: One of the key steps in the process of creating paper out of wood is chemical pulping. 
This step, and other steps involved in the process of making paper require strong alkaline environments of above 10.5 PH.
Food industry: The food industry widely uses Sodium Hydroxide for chemical peeling or washing of vegetables and fruits. 
Cocoa beans are also processed with caustic soda. 
Some methods for softening olives also involve sodium hydroxide.
Cleaning agent: Sodium Hydroxide can easily remove fats, oils, grease and protein based compounds and therefore, is used widely as an industrial cleaning agent where it is commonly known as “caustic”. 
One of the typical methods of using sodium hydroxide is to heat Sodium hydroxide as a solution and then spray it with high pressure. 
Sodium hydroxide in the form of a thick liquid gel or dry crystal is also used in homes as a drain opener.

What are sodium hydroxide uses?
Sodium hydroxide is a highly versatile substance used to make a variety of everyday products, such as paper, aluminum, commercial drain and oven cleaners, and soap and detergents.

What is purpose of sodium hydroxide?
Sodium hydroxide, also known as caustic soda or lye, is a highly versatile substance used in a variety of manufacturing processes to make other products like paper or aluminum, for example.

Sodium hydroxide, 98%, pure, flakes
Sodium hydroxide, 1N standard solution
Sodium hydroxide, extra pure, micropearls
Hydroxyde de sodium [French]
Sodium hydroxide, 0.1 N standard solution
Sodium hydroxide, 0.2 N standard solution
Sodium hydroxide, for analysis, micropearls
HSDB 229

Sodium Hydroxide
Synonyms: Caustic soda
Purity Limit: ≥ 99% (Assay)
Molecular Formula: NaOH
Molecular Weight: 40.00
CAS No: 1310-73-2
MDL No: MFCD00003548
Appearance: White granular beads
Density: 2.13 g/mL
Warnings: Corrosive! Toxic!
Storage Temp: Store at RT

At room temperature, sodium hydroxide is a white crystalline odorless solid that absorbs moisture from the air. 
Sodium hydroxide is a manufactured substance. 
When dissolved in water or neutralized with acid Sodium hydroxide liberates substantial heat, which may be sufficient to ignite combustible materials.
Sodium hydroxide is very corrosive. 
Sodium hydroxide is generally used as a solid or a 50% solution. Other common names include caustic soda and lye. 
Sodium hydroxide is used to manufacture soaps, rayon, paper, explosives, dyestuffs, and petroleum products.
Sodium hydroxide is also used in processing cotton fabric, laundering and bleaching, metal cleaning and processing, oxide coating, electroplating, and electrolytic extracting. 
Sodium hydroxide is commonly present in commercial drain and oven cleaners.

Sodio(idrossido di) [Italian]
Sodium(hydroxyde de) [French]
Sodium hydroxide, 98%, extra pure, pellets
Sodium hydroxide, 97+%, ACS reagent, pellets
Sodium hydroxide [NF]
Sodium hydroxide, 98.5%, for analysis, pellets
EINECS 215-185-5
UN1823
UN1824

What is sodium hydroxide (NaOH)?
Sodium hydroxide is sometimes called caustic soda or lye.  
Sodium hydroxide is a common ingrediet in cleaners and soaps.  

At room temperature, sodium hydroxide is a white, odorless solid.  
Liquid sodium hydroxide is colorless and has no odor. 
Sodium hydroxide can react violently with strong acids and with water.  
Sodium hydroxide is corrosive.  
NaOH can react with moisture from the air and may generate heat as it dissolves.  
This heat can be enough to cause a fire if it is near flammable materials.

Sodium hydroxide is useful for its ability to alter fats.  
Sodium hydroxide is used to make soap and as a main ingredient in household products such as liquid drain cleaners.  
Sodium hydroxide is usually sold in pure form as white pellets or as a solution in water.
What are some uses of sodium hydroxide?
Sodium hydroxide is used in bar soaps and detergents.  
Sodium Hydroxide is also used as a drain cleaner to unclog pipes.

Around 56% of sodium hydroxide produced is used by industry, with 25% of NaOH used in the paper industry.  
Some other uses include fuel cell production, to cure food, to remove skin from vegetables for canning, bleach, drain cleaner, oven cleaner, soaps, detergent, paper making, paper recycling, aluminum ore processing, oxide coating, processing cotton fabric, pickling, pain relievers, anticoagulants to prevent blood clots, cholesterol reducing medications, and water treatment.

How might you be exposed to sodium hydroxide?
In the home, some household items like soaps or cleaners contain sodium hydroxide.  
Accidental ingestion or skin contact with these cleaners could cause harmful exposure.
Some industrial workplaces use sodium hydroxide.  
Here are some workplace exposure limits to NaOH in the air.
Workplace air exposure limits:

OSHA: The legal airborne
permissible exposure limit (PEL) is 2 mg/m3 averaged over an 8-hour work shift

NIOSH: The recommended airborne
exposure limit (REL) is 2 mg/m3 which should not be exceeded at any time

ACGIH: The threshold limit value
(TLV) is 2 mg/m3 which should not be exceeded at any time

How can you protect your family from exposure?
• Follow all precautions and instructions on product labels.
• Store and keep cleaning products out of the reach of children.
• Keep cleaning products in their original packaging.
• Wear latex or nitrile gloves when using products containing high concentrations of NaOH.
• Wear long sleeves and pants that cannot be degraded or deteriorated by sodium hydroxide to protect your skin.  
Remove clothes carefully if they get wet to avoid spreading the sodium hydroxide on your skin.

What are potential harmful effects of sodium hydroxide exposure?
Sodium hydroxide is a potentially dangerous substance.  
Sodium hydroxide can hurt you if Sodium hydroxide touches your skin, if you drink Sodium hydroxide or if you breathe Sodium hydroxide.  
Eating or drinking sodium hydroxide can cause severe burns and immediate vomiting, nausea, diarrhea or chest and stomach pain, as well as swallowing difficulties. 
Damage to the mouth, throat and stomach is immediate.  
Breathing Sodium hydroxide can cause severe irritation of the upper respiratory tract with coughing, burns and difficulty breathing.

The harmful effects of sodium hydroxide depend on several factors including the concentration of sodium hydroxide, length of time exposed, and whether you touched it, drank it or inhaled it.  
Contact with very high concentrations of sodium hydroxide can cause severe burns to the eyes, skin, digestive system or lungs, resulting in permanent damage or death.  
Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis.  
Repeated inhalation of sodium hydroxide vapor can lead to permanent lung damage.
First Aid
In case of emergency, call 911.

Eye contact
Flush eyes with water for 30 minutes.
Lift upper and lower lids.
Remove contact lenses.
Skin Contact

Remove contaminated clothing.
Flush with water for 15 minutes

Remove the person from exposure, if Sodium hydroxide is safe for you to do Sodium hydroxide.
If a person is unresponsive and not breathing normally, then begin CPR.

DO NOT MAKE THE PERSON VOMIT.
Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.
If the person is fully conscious and is not in respiratory distress, give them a cup of water to drink to dilute the sodium hydroxide.
Contact the Poison Center at 1-800-222-1222 for more information about exposure to sodium hydroxide.

Sodium hydroxide incidents in Tennessee
Back in 2010-2011, sodium hydroxide was reported as one of the ten most commonly spilled or released chemicals in Tennessee.  
About 50% of these spills and releases occurred in warehouses or during transport.  
About 75% of them were due to human error. 

Handling and storage
Spills and Emergencies – If employees are required to clean up spills, they must be properly trained and equipped.  
The OSHA hazardous waste operations and emergency response standard (29 CFR 1910.120) may apply.
If sodium hydroxide is spilled or leaked, take the following steps:
Evacuate personnel and secure and control entrance to the area.
Eliminate all ignition sources.
For sodium hydroxide in solution, absorb liquids in dry sand, earth, or a similar material and place into sealed containers for disposal.
Collect solid material in the most convenient and safe manner and place into sealed containers for disposal.
DO NOT use water water or any WET METHOD to clean up NaOH.
Ventilate and wash area after cleanup is complete.

DO NOT wash into sewer.
Sodium hydroxide may be necessary to contain and dispose of sodium hydroxide as a hazardous waste.
Sodium hydroxide reacts with strong acids (hydrochloric, sulfuric or nitric), water, and moisture to rapidly release heat.
Sodium hydroxide reacts with metals (aluminum, lead, tin or zinc) to form flammable and explosive hydrogen gas.
Sodium hydroxide can form shock sensitive salts on contact with nitrogen containing compounds.
Sodium hydroxide is not compatible with oxidizing agents, chlorinated solvents, ammonia, and organic materials.
Store in original, tightly closed, containers in a cool, well ventilated area away from water and moisture.
Sodium hydroxide can attack iron, copper, plastics, rubber, and coatings.

Chemical formula NaOH
Molar mass 39.9971 g mol−1
Appearance White, hard (when pure), opaque crystals
Odor odorless
Density    2.13 g/cm3 
Melting point  323 °C (613 °F; 596 K) 
Boiling point 1,388 °C (2,530 °F; 1,661 K) 
Solubility in water 418 g/L (0 °C)
1000 g/L (25 °C) 
3370 g/L (100 °C)
Solubility soluble in glycerol
negligible in ammonia
insoluble in ether
slowly soluble in propylene glycol
Solubility in methanol 238 g/L
Solubility in ethanol <<139 g/L
Vapor pressure <2.4 kPa (at 20 °C)
Basicity (pKb) 0.2
Magnetic susceptibility (χ) −15.8·10−6 cm3/mol (aq.)
Refractive index (nD) 1.3576

Sodium hydroxide, for analysis, 50% solution in water
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 075603
NSC 135799
Sodium hydroxide, extra pure, 33wt.% solution in water
Sodium hydroxide, extra pure, 50 wt% solution in water
sodiumhydroxid
hydroxyl sodium
sodium hydoxide
sodium hydroxid
sodium hyroxide
soude caustique
hydroxide sodium
Lye solution

Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic Soda) falls in a group of commodity chemicals which also includes chlorine, Cl2, sodium carbonate (soda ash), Na2CO3; potassium hydroxide (caustic potash), KOH; and hydrochloric acid (muriatic acid or anhydrous), HCl. 
Chlorine and caustic soda are the two most important products in this group, ranking among the top ten chemicals in the United States. 
The applications for chlorine and the alkalies are so varied that there is hardly a consumer product which is not dependent on one or both of them at some manufacturing stage. 
Chlorine and caustic soda are coproducts of the electrolysis of aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, NaCl (commonly called brine). 
Conversion of aqueous NaCl to Cl2 and NaOH is achieved in three types of electrolytic cells: the diaphragm cell, the membrane cell, and the mercury cell. 
The distinguishing feature of these cells is the manner by which the electrolysis products are prevented from mixing with each other, thus ensuring proper purity. 
Solution mining of salt and the availability of asbestos resulted in the dominance of the diaphragm process in North America, whereas solid salt and mercury availability led to the dominance of the mercury process in Europe. 

Japan imported Sodium hydroxides salt in solid form and, until the development of the membrane process, also favored the mercury cell for production. 
Sodium hydroxide, NaOH, mol wt 39.998, is a brittle, white, translucent crystalline solid. 
Because of Sodium hydroxides corrosive action on all human body tissue, Sodium hydroxide is also known as caustic soda. 
Aqueous solutions of caustic soda are highly alkaline.
Hence caustic soda is primarily used in neutralization reactions to form sodium salts. 
Reactions of NaOH with natural products are complex. 

They include solubilization of cotton in rubber reclaiming, cotton scouring, refining of vegetable oils, and removal of lignin and hemicellulose in the Kraft pulping process. 
The only caustic soda production process besides electrolysis is the soda–lime process, practiced by companies which do not participate in the chlorine market. 
Three forms of caustic soda are produced to meet customer needs: purified diaphragm caustic (50% Rayon grade), 73% caustic, and anhydrous caustic. 
Caustic soda is classified as a corrosive material by the DOT, and it has a marked corrosive action on all body tissue. 
Inhalation of the dust or mist can cause damage to the upper respiratory tract. 
During handling, all persons should wear proper protective clothing, safety goggles or a full face shield, rubber gloves, boots, and a caustic-resistant apron or suit. 
Disposal of waste or spilled caustic soda must be carried out by properly trained personnel.

Sodium hidroxide
Sodium hydroxyde
Sodium-hydroxide
Natrii hydroxidum
Caustic soda, dry
Caustic Soda Flake
Caustic soda, Lye
Caustic soda, bead
Caustic soda, flake
Caustic soda, solid
Caustic soda 50%

Sodium or potassium hydroxide, preferably the latter. 
The corresponding alkoxide also can be used, but prohibitively expensive. 
Best if Sodium hydroxide has ≥85 per cent potassium hydroxide. Even best grades of potassium hydroxide have 14–15 per cent water which cannot be removed. 
Sodium hydroxide should be low in carbonate, because the carbonate is not an efficient catalyst and may cause cloudiness in the final ester. 
Sodium hydroxide pellets have given very good results. 
Because quantity of catalyst used is quite less, good quality catalyst (in spite of high cost) can be used.

Sodium hydrate-[d]
Sodium hydroxide, dry
Sodium hydroxide beads
Caustic soda, granular
Sodium hydroxide liquid
Sodium hydroxide, bead
Sodium hydroxide 50%
Sodium hydroxide (TN)
ACMC-1BRPG
Sodium hydroxide (flake)
Sodium hydroxide (liquid)
Sodium hydroxide, granular
Sodium hydroxide, solution
WLN: NA Q
EC 215-185-5

Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) is highly soluble in water, and sodium hydroxide solutions are strong bases. 
The annual world production of sodium hydroxide is on the order of 60 million tons. 
Sodium hydroxide is universally used as a neutralisation agent in the chemical industry, paper making, etc. 
Soda lye contains in general 30 wt% of sodium hydroxide.

Sodium hydroxide, anhydrous
1N Sodium hydroxide solution
Sodium hydroxide pellets, EP
Sodium hydroxide, micropearls
Sodium hydroxide (JP17/NF)
Sodium hydroxide solution 25%
CHEMBL2105794
DTXSID0029634

Sodium Hydroxide, better known as lye or caustic soda, is a powerful and corrosive base that is useful not only in cleaning, but in manufacturing as well.

Formula: NaOH
Molecular mass: 40.0
Boiling point: 1388°C
Melting point: 318°C
Density: 2.1 g/cm³
Solubility in water, g/100ml at 20°C: 109 (very good) 

Sodium Hydroxide 1N Concentrate
Sodium hydroxide, 40% solution
Sodium hydroxide, 50% solution
Sodium hydroxide pellets USP-NF
Sodium Hydroxide 10N Concentrate
Sodium Hydroxide Solution, 2.5N
Sodium Hydroxide, 1.0M solution
Sodium Hydroxide, 2.0M solution

Sodium hydroxide, in aqueous solution with sodium carbonate, is occasionally used to remove the last traces of carbon dioxide from hydrogen, or other gases, where the bulk of the carbon dioxide has been removed by a more economical, but less efficient regenerative process. 
Caustic scrubbing is also used to remove CO2 from small volumes of air where CO2-free air is required.

Amount of NaOH to Make Sodium Hydroxide Solution
Prepare solutions of sodium hydroxide using this handy reference table which lists the amount of solute (solid NaOH) that is used to make 1 L of base solution. 
Follow these lab safety guidelines:
Don't touch sodium hydroxide.
Sodium hydroxide is caustic and could cause chemical burns.
If you do get NaOH on your skin, immediately rinse it with a large volume of water. 
Another option is to neutralize any base on the skin with a weak acid, such as vinegar, and then rinse with water.
Stir the sodium hydroxide, a little at a time, into a large volume of water and then dilute the solution to make one liter. 
Add sodium hydroxide to water—do not add water to solid sodium hydroxide.
Be sure to use borosilicate glass (e.g., Pyrex) and consider immersing the container in a bucket of ice to keep the heat down. 
Inspect the glassware prior to use to make sure Sodium hydroxide is free from any cracks, scratches or chips that would indicate a weakness in the glass. 
If you use a different type of glass or weak glass, there's a chance the temperature change could cause it to shatter.
Wear safety goggles and gloves since there is a chance the sodium hydroxide solution could splash up or the glassware could break. 
Concentrated solution of sodium hydroxide are corrosive and should be handled with care.

BCP26108
ANW-41118
NSC135799
Sodium hydroxide pellets ACS reagent
AKOS015913904
AKOS015951419
Sodium Hydroxide Pellets Reagent Grade
DB11151
NSC-135799
Sodium hydroxide, 10N aqueous solution
E-33
Sodium hydroxide pellets Biochemical Grade
Sodium hydroxide, 5% w/v aqueous solution
FT-0645105
FT-0689261
S0542
S0543

Sodium hydroxide (also termed lye, caustic soda, and sodium hydrate) is a white solid that dissolves in water to produce a strongly alkaline solution. 
Both the solid and liquid forms can cause severe injury to all tissues. 
Sodium hydroxide is most commonly found in the home as drain and oven cleaners in concentrations between 0.5% and 54%. 
Industrial uses include acid neutralization, petroleum refining, and treatment of cellulose, plastics, and rubber. 
Another potential source of exposure is associated with automobile airbag deployment.
Sodium hydroxide and talc powder liberated during airbag deployment have resulted in corneal keratitis, abrasions, and chemical burns.
The penetration rate of sodium hydroxide is second only to that of ammonium hydroxide; consequently, eye damage can be similarly devastating (see discussion of ammonium hydroxide in the earlier section on Ammonia). 
Studies performed on rabbit eyes demonstrated severe injury and perforation following a 30-second exposure to a drop of 1-N (4%) sodium hydroxide; both mild and severe injury following 15 to 20 seconds of exposure to a 2-N solution; and mild burns from a 0.5-N solution for 30 seconds.

SODIUM HYDROXIDE BEADS RGT GRADE 1KG
Sodium hydroxide, 20% w/v aqueous solution
Sodium hydroxide, 25% w/v aqueous solution
Sodium hydroxide, 30% w/w aqueous solution
Sodium hydroxide, 40% w/v aqueous solution
Sodium hydroxide, 50% w/w aqueous solution
X4832
Sodium hydroxide, 0.1N Standardized Solution
Sodium hydroxide, 0.5N Standardized Solution
Sodium hydroxide, 1.0N Standardized Solution
Sodium hydroxide, 2.0N Standardized Solution
Sodium hydroxide, 5.0N Standardized Solution

Sodium hydroxide is a corrosive, strong, inorganic base and alkali. 
Sodium hydroxide is water-soluble and can absorb moisture and carbon dioxide from air; used as a lab reagent, in acid neutralization and titration, in manufacturing processes, in household chemicals, etc.

C12569
D01169
Sodium hydroxide, 0.01N Standardized Solution
Sodium hydroxide, 0.05N Standardized Solution
Sodium hydroxide, 10.0N Standardized Solution
Sodium hydroxide, solid [UN1823] [Corrosive]
Q102769
J-005935
Sodium hydroxide, solution [UN1824] [Corrosive]
Sodium hydroxide, technical, 30% solution in water
Sodium hydroxide, pellets, Trace Metals Grade 99.99%


9-) SORBIC ACID

Sorbic acid, or 2,4-hexadienoic acid, is a natural organic compound used as a food preservative.
Sorbic acid has the chemical formula CH3(CH)4CO2H. 
Sorbic acid is a colourless solid that is slightly soluble in water and sublimes readily. 
Sorbic acid was first isolated from the unripe berries of the Sorbus aucuparia (rowan tree), hence its name.

Chemical names: Sorbic acid, 2,4-hexadienoic acid, 2-propenylacrylic acid

Sorbic acid is a reliable preservative that is highly effective at providing a strong protection against numerous molds, yeast and many bacteria.  
Sorbic acid is only sparingly soluble in water, making it ideal for low water applications like baked goods or in fatty media. 
Upon request, Sorbic Acid is available in pharmaceutical grade.

EC / List no.: 203-768-7
CAS no.: 110-44-1
Mol. formula: C6H8O2


IUPAC name: (2E,4E)-hexa-2,4-dienoic acid
CAS Number: 110-44-1 
C.A.S. number 110-44-1
Chemical formula C6H8O2

Properties
Chemical formula: C6H8O2
Molar mass: 112.128 g·mol−1
Density: 1.204 g/cm3
Melting point: 135 °C 
Boiling point: 228 °C 
Solubility in water: 1.6 g/L at 20 °C
Acidity (pKa): 4.76 at 25 °C

FUNCTIONAL USES: Antimicrobial preservative, fungistatic agent

Sorbic Acid is an organic compound primarily used as a food preservative.
Sorbic Acid is also effective in a wide variety of applications such as animal feed, and personal care products.

When used as a food preservative, sorbic acid inhibits the growth of mold, yeast and other microorganisms for shelf life stability. 
Sorbic acid is often used in foods such as cheese, dried fruit, yogurt, pet foods, dried meats, soft drinks, and baked goods.

Sorbic acid (C6H8O2) is a natural preservative that comes from the rowan berries, Sorbus aucuparia (family Rosaceae). It is also prepared synthetically. It inhibits growth of fungi, yeast, mold and some bacteria and is nearly nontoxic to humans. Sorbic acid is safe to use in a wide range of foods, drugs, and cosmetic products. Sorbic acid and its salts, sodium sorbate, potassium sorbate and calcium sorbate are often used in food products as preservatives.

Sorbic Acid is a natural product that is one of the most commonly used food preservatives in the bakery market. It is a highly effective antimicrobial agent that inhibits the growth of mould, yeast and fungi, thereby prolonging shelf life.

Sorbic acid
INCI: Sorbic acid.
CAS-No .: 110-44-1
EINECS-No .: 203-768-7

Synonyms: 2,4-hexadienoic acid. E-200.
Molecular formula: C6H8O2
Molecular weight: 112.13
Crystal powder, white or almost white. Slightly soluble in water, easily soluble in 96 percent ethanol. Melting point: 134.5 ° C.
Wealth: 99.0-101.0%

They have antibacterial and antifungal properties, particularly against molds and yeasts. Its activity decreases to pH> 6.0 - 6.5, with an optimum of 4.5.
They are used as a preservative in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. It has the advantage over sorbic acid of having a greater solubility in water.
Efficacy increases when combined with other antimicrobials or with glycols such as propylene glycol.

In emulsions it is better to use equal parts of the acid and salt of potassium by reason of the partition coefficient.


Product Benefits:
• Antimicrobial agent that inhibits the growth of mould, yeast and fungi.
• Colourless, odourless and tasteless.
• Less is needed by weight compared to other preservatives.

 

Product Applications:
• Used as a preservative in food and drinks.
• Used to preserve meats because of its natural antibiotic capabilities.

Sorbic acid has physiological inertness and their effectiveness even in the weakly acid pH range and their neutral taste, sorbic acid and its salts have become the leading preservatives in the food sector throughout the world over the past 30 years. Sorbic Acid is widely used as preservative in food production especially in meat, aquatic products, vegetables and fruits to inhibit microbial growth. It is also widely used as preservative in beverage in carbonated drinks, fruit drinks, dairy drinks to inhibit microbial growth.

Sorbic acid is often used as a preservative in food and drinks to prevent the growth of mould, yeast, and fungi. In general the salts are preferred over the acid form because they are more soluble in water, but the active form is the acid. The optimal pH for the antimicrobial activity is below pH 6.5. Sorbates are generally used at concentrations of 0.025% to 0.10%. Adding sorbate salts to food will, however, raise the pH of the food slightly so the pH may need to be adjusted to assure safety. It is found in many other foods, such as cheeses and breads.

Sorbic acid, or 2,4-hexadienoic acid, is a natural organic compound used as a food preservative. It has the chemical formula C6H8O2. It is a colourless solid that is slightly soluble in water and sublimes readily. It was first isolated from the unripe berries of the rowan tree (Sorbus aucuparia), hence its name.

SORBIC ACID
INCI: Sorbic Acid

Extraction: This acid is present in various fruits, but it is extracted from sorbellano fruit (sorbus aucuparia).

Benefits: Sorbic acid helps to preserve cosmetics, they are used as antimicrobial agents in the food and cosmetic industry. Specifically reduce the development of yeast and fungi.


Other names: 2,4-Hexadienoic acid, (E,E)-; Sorbic acid, (E,E)-; α-trans-γ-trans-Sorbic acid; trans,trans-Sorbic acid; trans,trans-2,4-Hexadienoic acid; Sorbistat; 1,3-Pentadiene-1-carboxylic acid, (E,E)-; 2-Propenylacrylic acid; 2,4-Hexadienoic acid, (trans,trans)-; Acetic acid, (2-butenylidene)-; Acetic acid, crotylidene-; Kyselina 1,3-pentadien-1-karboxylova; Kyselina sorbova; (E,E)-Sorbic acid; (2-Butenylidene)acetic acid; (E,E)-2,4-hexadienoic acid; Crotylidene acetic acid; Hexa-2,4-dienoic acid, (E,E)-; Hexadienoic acid, (E,E); Panosorb; Preservastat; 2,4-Hexadienoic acid, (2E,4E)-; 2E,4E-Hexadienoic acid; E 200; 2,4-Hexadienoic acid; hexa-2,4-dienoic acid

SORBIC ACID
CAS number: 110-44-1 - Sorbic acid
Origin(s): Natural, Synthetic
Other languages: Acide sorbique, Acido sorbico, Sorbinsäure, Ácido sórbico
INCI name: SORBIC ACID
EINECS/ELINCS number: 203-768-7
Food additive: E200
Classification: Regulated, Preservative
Bio-compatible (COSMOS Reference)
Sorbic acid is a preservative used in cosmetics and food (under the name E200). It is present in its natural state in the bays of the Sorbier des oiseaux (Sorbus aucuparia L., hence its name), from which it was isolated. It is authorized in organic.
Restriction in Europe: The maximum concentration allowed in ready-to-use cosmetic preparations is 0.6%.

Its functions (INCI)
Preservative : Inhibits the development of microorganisms in cosmetic products.
Masking : Reduces or inhibits the odor or basic taste of the product

Sorbic acid is a naturally occurring compound that's the most commonly used food preservative in the world. It's highly effective at inhibiting the growth of mold, which can spoil food.  When Sorbic acid is sprayed on the exterior of food, mold is inhibited for a period of time that allows the food to be shipped and stored all over the globe.  When it comes to human foods, Sorbic acid is most commonly used in wines, cheeses, baked goods, fresh produce and refrigerated meats and shellfish.  Because of its anti-fungal properties, Sorbic acid is also used in canned goods, including pickles, prunes, maraschino cherries, figs and prepared salads.

Sorbic acid is a straight-chain monocarboxylic acid used in cosmetic formulations as a preservative at concentrations up to 1.0%. 
Sorbic acid and potassium sorbate were practically nontoxic to rats and mice in acute oral toxicity studies. 
In subchronic studies no significant adverse effects were observed in rats, mice, or dogs when 10% sorbic acid was included in the diet. 
Sorbic acid and potassium sorbate at concentrations up to 10% were practically nonirritating to the rabbit eye. 
Both ingredients at concentrations up to 10% were at most only slightly irritating. 
Sorbic acid and potassium sorbate have been tested for mutagenic effects using the Ames test, genetic recombination tests, reversion assays, rec assays, tests for chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, and gene mutations. 
Results have been both positive and negative. Potassium sorbate at 0.1% in the diet or 0.3% in drinking water of rats for up to 100 weeks produced no neoplasms. 
In other chronic studies, no carcinogenic effect was demonstrated by sorbic acid in rats or mice fed diets containing up to 10% sorbic acid. 
No teratogenic effects have been observed in pregnant mice and rats ad ministered potassi um sorbate. 
In three repeat insult patch tests, sorbic acid had overall sensitization rates of 0, 0.33, and 0.8%. 
All of the subjects sensitized were inducted with 20% sorbic acid and challenged with 5% sorbic acid. 
Formulations containing up to 0.5% sorbic acid and or potassium sorbate were not significant primary or cumulative irritants and not sensitizers at this test concentration. 
A formulation containing 0.01% sorbic acid was not a photosensitizer. 
On the basis of the available data, it is concluded that sorbic acid and potassium sorbate are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of use (and concentration.


Sorbic acid is a naturally occurring compound that’s become the most commonly used food preservative in the world, and it makes the global food chain possible. 
It’s highly effective at inhibiting the growth of mold, which can spoil food and spread fatal diseases. 
For example, when sorbic acid is sprayed on the exterior of a country ham, there won’t be any mold growth for 30 days. 
This allows for food to be shipped and stored all over the globe.

Sorbic acid is a preferred preservative compared to nitrates. 
It’s applied to food by either spraying or dipping the food with a solution of sorbic acid and water.

As a Food Preservative
Sorbic acid is most commonly found in foods, animal feeds, pharmaceutical drugs, and cosmetics.

When it comes to human foods, sorbic acid is most commonly used in:

wines
cheeses
baked goods
fresh produce
refrigerated meat and shellfish
Sorbic acid is used to preserve meats because of its natural antibiotic capabilities. 


The sorbic acid and its salts have been widely used in the food industries for many years as important food preservatives in order to inhibit the growth of various bacteria, yeasts, and fungi in acidic media. The health effects have led to limitation on the concentrations that can be used in food


CAS No.: 110-44-1

Synonyms: (2E,4E)-hexa-2,4-dienoic acid, 2,4-hexadienoic acid

Sorbic acid is used as a preservative in food and drinks to prevent the growth of mold, yeast and fungi.

Use: Preservative, Cosmetics, Feed, Tobacco, Mold Inhibitor, Yeast Inhibitor, Bactericide, Antimicrobial, Beverages, Beverage Powder, Soft Drink, Cakes, Cheese, Fish, Fruit Juice, Margarine, Pickled Goods, Salad Dressings, Fresh Salad, Wine, Puddings, Sauces, Baking Food, Sauage, Food Colors, Milk, Wine, Flavoring Agent.

General description
Sorbic acid is used as a food preservative and has antimicrobial property.


Biochem/physiol Actions
Sorbic acid can be used to inhibit bacterial, yeast and fungal sulfhydryl enzymes by inhibiting amino acid uptake.


In fact, its earliest use was against one of the deadliest toxins known to mankind, the bacteria Clostridium botulinum, which can cause botulism. 
Its use saved countless lives by preventing bacterial growth while allowing meats to be transported and stored safely.

Because of its anti-fungal properties, sorbic acid is also used in canned goods, including pickles, prunes, maraschino cherries, figs, and prepared salads.


Sorbic acid appears as white powder or crystals. Melting point 134.5°C. Slightly acidic and astringent taste with a faint odor.

Sorbic acid is a hexadienoic acid with double bonds at C-2 and C-4; it has four geometrical isomers, of which the trans,trans-form is naturally occurring. 
It is a hexadienoic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, a medium-chain fatty acid and an alpha,beta-unsaturated monocarboxylic acid. 
It is a conjugate acid of a sorbate.


Is It Safe?
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration considers sorbic acid to be safe for regular use, as it’s not linked to cancer or other major health problems. 
Some people can be allergic to sorbic acid, but reactions are typically mild and consist of light skin itching.

The Takeaway
Sorbic acid has proven vital to our ability to store food and transport it across long distances.
Allergies are rare and usually very mild, but exposure to undiluted sorbic acid might carry some risks.

Because of their physiological inertness, their effectiveness even in the weakly acid pH range and their neutral taste, sorbic acid and its salts have become the leading preservatives in the food sector throughout the world over the past 30 years. 
The most commonly used products are sorbic acid itself (E200) and potassium sorbate (E202). 
In many countries sodium sorbate (E201) and calcium sorbate (E203) are also permitted. 
Sorbic acid is sparingly soluble in water, sodium sorbate has better solubility, and potassium sorbate is very freely soluble and can be used to produce 50% stock solutions. 
The soluble sorbates are preferred when it is desired to use the preservative in liquid form, or when aqueous systems are to be preserved. 
Sodium sorbate in solid form is unstable and very rapidly undergoes oxidation on exposure to atmospheric oxygen. 
It is therefore not produced on the industrial scale. 
Aqueous solutions of sodium sorbate remain stable for some time. 
Calcium sorbate is used in the manufacture of fungistatic wrappers because it is highly stable to oxidation, but this use is very limited. 
Sorbic acid and sorbates can be directly added into the product. The products can be dipped or sprayed with aqueous solutions of sorbates. 
Dusting of food with dry sorbic acid is also possible but less recommended because sorbic acid irritates the skin and mucous membranes. 
Sorbic acid and particularly calcium sorbate can be used as active substances in fungistatic wrappers. 
A general survey of the numerous uses of sorbic acid in the food sector will be given


Sorbic acid is a short-chained unsaturated (has double bonds) fatty acid. Its iupac name is 2,4 hexadienoic acid and its chemical formula is C6H8O2. It has a carboxylic tail which has a pKa of 4.76. Its melting and boiling points are 136 and 228 degrees Celsius, respectively. It is commonly used by the food industry as a preservative because its mineral salts have antimicrobial properties in acidic solutions. Its undissociated form is several degrees more antimicrobial then its dissociated form and is a function of pH, yet both have antimicrobial properties. It is particularly effective against fungi and has the advantage of not diminishing overtime. Generally, a fungistatic dose in the presence of ethanol and sulfur is roughly 200 mg/L. It can also be used to remove mineral deposits. Sorbic acid by itself has subtle sensory characteristics, but a portion of the population finds it particularly offensive.

Application in Wine Microbiology:
Sorbic acid is often applied prevent off-dry wines from fermenting in the bottle. It is generally used to inhibit Saccharomyces, which it is fairly good at doing. An issue with this is that lactic acid bacteria, specifically Oenococcus can esterify it into an alcohol (sorbyl alcohol) and then it has the tendency to rearrange and become 2ethoxyhexa-3,5-diene, which has a potent, geranium-like odor that is unpleasant. Its sensory threshold has been reported to be around 100ng/L, which is a relatively small amount. Other geneses within lactic acid bacteria have not been reported to be able to metabolize Sorbic acid. To minimize the potential for this off odor in sweet reserves and when blended back, wines should have the solids removed, be filtered, properly sulfited and kept at low temperature.

Sorbic acid is of low-toxicity. It is allowed to be used in many foods, such as fruit/vegetable juices, ready-to-eat soups and broths, fried fish ball, dried apricots and raisins

Production
The traditional route to sorbic acid involves condensation of malonic acid and trans-butenal.
It can also be prepared from isomeric hexadienoic acids, which are available via a nickel-catalyzed reaction of allyl chloride, acetylene, and carbon monoxide. 
The route used commercially, however, is from crotonaldehyde and ketene.
An estimated 30,000 tons are produced annually.

Sorbic acid has been used extensively as a preservative in a vast array of food. 
The benefits of sorbates as food preservatives are two-fold: sorbates inhibit a wide spectrum of bacteria yeasts and molds and they have extremely low toxicity. 
Several protocols for producing sorbic acid and sorbates are known. 
However the most common method of producing commercial quantities requires a decomposition step that yields unwanted colored byproducts. 
Multiple purification steps are required to yield product that is food grade or better. 

History
Sorbic acid was isolated in 1859 by distillation of rowanberry oil by A. W. von Hofmann. 
This affords parasorbic acid, the lactone of sorbic acid, which he converted to sorbic acid by hydrolysis. 
Its antimicrobial activities were discovered in the late 1930s and 1940s, and it became commercially available in the late 1940s and 1950s. 
Beginning in the 1980s, sorbic acid and its salts were used as inhibitors of Clostridium botulinum in meat products to replace the use of nitrites, which can produce carcinogenic nitrosamines.

Properties and uses
With a pKa of 4.76, it is about as acidic as acetic acid.

Sorbic acid and its salts, such as sodium sorbate, potassium sorbate, and calcium sorbate, are antimicrobial agents often used as preservatives in food and drinks to prevent the growth of mold, yeast, and fungi. 
In general the salts are preferred over the acid form because they are more soluble in water, but the active form is the acid. 
The optimal pH for the antimicrobial activity is below pH 6.5. Sorbates are generally used at concentrations of 0.025% to 0.10%. 
Adding sorbate salts to food will, however, raise the pH of the food slightly so the pH may need to be adjusted to assure safety. 
It is found in foods such as cheeses and breads.

The E numbers are:

E200 Sorbic acid
E201 Sodium sorbate
E202 Potassium sorbate
E203 Calcium sorbate
Some molds (notably some Trichoderma and Penicillium strains) and yeasts are able to detoxify sorbates by decarboxylation, producing trans-1,3-pentadiene. 
The pentadiene manifests as a typical odor of kerosene or petroleum. Other detoxification reactions include reduction to 4-hexenol and 4-hexenoic acid.

Sorbic acid can also be used as an additive for cold rubber, and as an intermediate in the manufacture of some plasticizers and lubricants

Safety

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The LD50 value of sorbic acid is estimated to be between 7.4 and 10 g/kg. 
Sorbic acid and sorbates therefore have a very low mammalian toxicity – hence their extensive use in food and beverage preservation. 
Sorbic acid occurs naturally in wild berries, is relatively unstable and rapidly degraded in soil, hence it is considered environmentally friendly. 
In the body it is generally metabolized by the same oxidation pathway as the 5-carbon saturated fatty acid caproic acid. 


See also
Sorbitol
Polysorbate
Acids in wine
Parasorbic acid


sorbic acid
110-44-1
(2E,4E)-hexa-2,4-dienoic acid
2,4-Hexadienoic acid
2E,4E-Hexadienoic acid
Hexa-2,4-dienoic acid
Panosorb
Sorbistat
2,4-Hexadienoic acid, (2E,4E)-
2-Propenylacrylic acid
trans,trans-Sorbic acid
Hexadienoic acid
(E,E)-2,4-Hexadienoic acid
alpha-trans-gamma-trans-Sorbic acid
Preservastat
(E,E)-Sorbic acid
trans,trans-2,4-Hexadienoic acid
2,4-Hexadienoic acid, (E,E)-
Crotylidene acetic acid
Kyselina sorbova
Acetic acid, crotylidene-
Caswell No. 801
Sorbic Acid [USAN]
Acidum sorbicum
Acetic acid, (2-butenylidene)-
Kyselina sorbova [Czech]
trans-trans-2,4-Hexadienoic acid
(E,E)-1,3-pentadiene-1-carboxylic acid
(2E,4E)-2,4-Hexadienoic acid
Hexadienoic acid, (E,E)
(2-Butenylidene)acetic acid
C6:2n-2,4
Sorbic acid (NF)
Sorbic acid [NF]
UNII-X045WJ989B
CCRIS 5748
HSDB 590
1,3-Pentadiene-1-carboxylic acid
1,3-Pentadiene-1-carboxylic acid, (E,E)-
E 200
EINECS 203-768-7
MFCD00002703
5309-56-8
Kyselina 1,3-pentadien-1-karboxylova
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 075901
(2-butenylidene) acetic acid
AI3-14851
CHEBI:38358
Kyselina 1,3-pentadien-1-karboxylova [Czech]
(E,E)-Sorbic acid; Sorbic acid
X045WJ989B
22500-92-1
NCGC00091737-01
DSSTox_CID_1277
DSSTox_RID_76053
DSSTox_GSID_21277
Hexadienic acid
2,4-Hexadienoic acid, 99%
(2E,4E)hexa-2,4-dienoic acid
CAS-110-44-1
Sorbic acid solution
(2E)-2,4-Hexadienoic acid
Sorbic acid, (E,E)-
Sorbinsaeure
Sorbinsaure
NSC49103
E-sorbic acid
trans,trans-SA
sorbic acid group
Sorbic Acid FCC
Hexa-2,4-dienoic acid, (E,E)-
2,4-Hexadiensaeure
NSC 35405
NSC 49103
NSC 50268
Crotylidene-Acetic acid
EC 203-768-7
SCHEMBL1647
Sorbic acid, >=99.0%
91751-55-2
MLS002152937
(2-butenylidene)-Acetic acid
(E,E)-SA
CHEMBL250212
(e,e)-hexa-2,4-dienoic acid
DTXSID3021277
Sorbic acid, analytical standard
CHEBI:35962
FEMA 3921
HMS3039E13
Sorbic acid, potassium salt (van)
HY-N0626
STR09707
ZINC1558385
Tox21_111164
Tox21_201719
Tox21_300182
2,4-SA
LMFA01030100
LS-504
s4983
SBB060282
(2E,4E)-2,4-Hexadienoic acid #
2, 4-Hexadienoic acid potassium salt
AKOS000119456
CCG-266056
NE10215
2,4-Hexadienoic acid, (trans,trans)-
2,4-Hexadienoic acid, >=99%, FCC
.alpha.-trans-.gamma.-trans-Sorbic acid
NCGC00091737-02
NCGC00091737-03
NCGC00091737-05
NCGC00253957-01
NCGC00259268-01
E200
P891
SMR001224532
Sorbic acid, tested according to Ph.Eur.
Sorbic acid, SAJ first grade, >=98.5%
CS-0009618
S0053
Sorbic acid 1000 microg/mL in Acetonitrile
Sorbic acid, Vetec(TM) reagent grade, 98%
ST51046499
Sorbic acid, for synthesis, 99.0-101.0%
alpha-trans-Laquo gammaRaquo -trans-sorbic acid
D05892
Hexadienoic acid1,3-pentadiene-1-carboxylic acid
A829400
AN-651/40229308
Q407131
J-002425
J-524281
2,4-Hexadienoic acid, (E,E)-; 2,4-Hexadienoic acid
F8886-8255
Sorbic acid, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Sorbic acid, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Sorbic acid, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material

Sorbic Acid
Sorbic acid inhibits the growth of C. botulinum and further reduces nitrosamine formation. 
To counter the use of nitrite at high concentrations in meat curing, fractional replacement of nitrite by sorbic acid has been put forth

Sorbic Acid
Sorbic acid, potassium sorbate, and calcium sorbate are novel, highly efficient, safe, and nonpoisonous food preservatives. 
They are the substitute for the benzoic acid as a traditional preservative. Sorbic acid, potassium sorbate, and calcium sorbate approved worldwide are often now successfully used as standard products in many branches of the food industry. As they are acidic preservatives, it is better to use them at pH 5–6.

Sorbic acid, potassium sorbate, and calcium sorbate are unsaturated fatty acids and salts of unsaturated fatty acids, which participate in the normal fat metabolism in human body and are oxidized into carbon dioxide and finally water. They do not accumulate in the human body


PRESERVATIVES | Permitted Preservatives – Sorbic Acid
Linda V. Thomas, in Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology, 1999

Introduction
Sorbic acid derives its name from Sorbus aucuparia, because it was from berries of this tree that it was first isolated (Table 1). 
Seventy years later its potential as an antimicrobial agent was discovered, and sorbic acid and its salts (generally called sorbate) are now used as preservatives in a variety of foods in many countries.

Table 1. History of the use of sorbate as a food preservative

1859    Isolated from the oil of berries of the rowan (mountain ash) tree
1870–1890    Chemical structure formulated
1900    First synthesized by condensation of crotonaldehyde and malonic acid
1926    Synthesis of sorbic acid by oxidation of sorbaldehyde
1939–1940    Recognition of antimicrobial properties
1945    US patent for use as antifungal agent in foods
1940–1960    Industrial production. Use in dairy, fruit and vegetable products
1974    Potassium sorbate discovered to inhibit growth of bacteria

Sorbic acid is an unsaturated aliphatic straight-chain monocarboxylic fatty acid, 2,4-hexadienoic acid. 
Salts and esters form by reaction with the carboxyl group; reactions also occur via its conjugated double bond.
The acid and its sodium, calcium and potassium salts are used in food. 
The potassium salt is commonly used because it is more stable and easier to produce. 
Furthermore, its greater solubility extends the use of sorbate to solutions appropriate for dipping and spraying. 
Other derivatives with antimicrobial capabilities (sorboyl palmitate, sorbamide, ethyl sorbate, sorbic anhydride) have limited use because they are more insoluble, toxic and unpalatable.


Sorbic acid and its calcium, potassium, and sodium salts are used as preservatives in a wide range of food, including dairy, meat, fish, vegetables, fruit, bakery, emulsions, beverages, and so on. 
Their advantages include broad antimycotic and antibacterial spectrum of activity; lack of effect on organoleptic properties of the foods; good activity in less acidic conditions (compared with propionate or benzoate) and safety. 
Sorbate has been granted generally recommended as safe status and has an acceptable daily intake of 25 mg kg−1 body weight that is higher than most other preservatives.


Sorbic acid is active against yeasts, molds, and many bacteria. 
Microbial inhibition by sorbate is variable and depends on species, strains, composition of food, pH, aw, food-processing treatments, temperature of storage, and concentration of sorbate. 
The antimicrobial action of sorbate depends on pH and is most effective approaching its dissociation constant (pKa = 4.76); however, it is possible that it has a good inhibitory effect at pH as high as 6.5–7.0, which is an advantage over other preservatives such as benzoic and propionic acids that loss their effectiveness at pH 4.5–5.5. 
The most commonly used forms include sorbic acid and its potassium salt. 
Sorbates have found wide application in various foods, including dairy products, bakery products, fruit and vegetables products, meat and fish products, beverages, food emulsions, and sugar and confectionery products. The maximum permitted concentration of sorbates for most foods is between 0.1% and 0.3%.


Sorbic acid is nontoxic and is metabolized by fatty acid oxidation, pathways common to both laboratory mammals and humans.


Sorbate is used as a preservative in a wide range of products (Table 3). 
It can be mixed with dry ingredients (e.g., flour, salt) or applied to surfaces by dipping, spraying, or dusting. 
It can be incorporated within packaging material using organic carriers, such as ethanol, vegetable oil, or propylene glycol. 
Permitted levels depend on the product type and country of origin, but the maximum is generally 0.2%. Higher concentrations can be used in packaging or surface treatments. 
Sorbate use in the UK is covered by Schedule 2, Part A of the Miscellaneous Food Additives Regulations 1995 (Statutory Instrument 3187).

Sorbic Acid and Sorbates
2,4-Hexadienoic acid and 2-propenylacrylic acid are the chemical names of sorbic acid. 
FAO/WHO describes it as colorless needles or white free-flowing powder, having a slight characteristic odor with a purity not less than 99.0% and molar mass of 112.12 g mol− 1, with a melting point between 132 and 135 °C, and being slightly soluble in water and soluble in ethanol. 

Sorbic acid is active against yeasts, molds, and many bacteria. 
Microbial inhibition by sorbate is variable and depends on species, strains, composition of food, pH, aw, food-processing treatments, temperature of storage, and concentration of sorbate. The antimicrobial action of sorbate depends on pH and is most effective approaching its dissociation constant (pKa = 4.76); however, it is possible that it has a good inhibitory effect at pH as high as 6.5–7.0, which is an advantage over other preservatives such as benzoic and propionic acids that loss their effectiveness at pH 4.5–5.5. The most commonly used forms include sorbic acid and its potassium salt. Sorbates have found wide application in various foods, including dairy products, bakery products, fruit and vegetables products, meat and fish products, beverages, food emulsions, and sugar and confectionery products. The maximum permitted concentration of sorbates for most foods is between 0.1% and 0.3%.

Application: Sorbic acid is a naturally occurring weak acid that is the most common food preservative in the world. Sorbic acid is an antimicrobial agent used to prevent mold, yeast, and fungi growth, particularly in cheese, yogurt, meat, wine, soft drinks, and more. It can also be found in animal feeds, pharmaceutical drugs, and cosmetics.

Preservatives have been commonly used as additives in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. 
Addition of preservatives prevents the alteration and degradation of the product formulation. 
Nowadays, this type of preservation is often performed with the use of chemical preservatives, such as sorbic acid and its respective sodium, potassium, and calcium salts due to its high solubility. 
Practical usage of sorbates includes the protection of human food, animal nutrition, pharmaceuticals, cosmetic products, and packaging materials. 
Sorbates are used as a food preservative in the application areas of cheese and cheese products, yogurt, and sour cream.

These compounds are generally used to inhibit yeast and mold growth. 
Additionally, they are effective against a wide range of bacteria. 
The highest activity of these compounds is recorded in foods with low pH value, while they are noneffective in foods at neutral pH value. 
Their solubility in water varies depending on the pH and temperature of the environment. 
As the concentration of soluble food components such as sucrose, glucose, and NaCl increases, the solubility of sorbic acid in water decreases. 
While the solubility of sorbic acid in water at 25°C is 0.16%, the solubility of potassium sorbate under the same conditions is above 50%. 
Potassium sorbate with a chemical structure of CH3CH = CHCH = CHCOOK is a white crystalline powder. 
Its solubility in water is very high, and it has a solubility capacity of 139.2 g in 100 ml of water. 20 g dissolves in 1 ml of alcohol at 20°C. 
Sorbates are more soluble in alcohol compared to water.

Sorbic acid can be differently applied in foodstuffs. 
It can be added directly to the product or sprayed onto the surface, sprinkled in powder form, dipped into food-grade sorbate solutions prepared in certain concentrations, or coated with sorbate packaging materials. 
High concentration solutions are required for dipping and spray applications.

Food additives such as preservatives may cause an allergic or intolerance reaction. 
As a preservative, sorbic acid is regarded as safe and nontoxic, but using especially in large amounts can potentially lead to allergies. 
Migraine, a common type of headache, is one of the possible adverse health effects of potassium sorbate. Higher than normal levels of potassium in the blood may lead to hyperkalemia .

The use of sorbic acid and its salts in processed foods is extremely important. Not using this antimicrobial agent may cause microbial activities that lead to food poisoning. 
However, there are some limitations in using these preservatives. 
Fermented products are the foremost food group that have limitations for food additives because of their importance in healthy nutrition, prevention, and curing effects. 


The use of sorbic acid and its salts in processed foods is extremely important. 
Not using this antimicrobial agent may cause microbial activities that lead to food poisoning. 
However, there are some limitations. Fermented products are the foremost food group that have limitations for food additives because of their importance in healthy nutrition, prevention, and curing effects.

Sorbic acid and potassium sorbate are already authorised for use in food and feed as preservatives. 
Sorbic acid and its potassium salt are safe when used at the maximum proposed dose in feed for dogs and cats (2 500 (sorbic acid) and 3 400 (potassium sorbate) mg/kg) and young ruminants (6 700 (sorbic acid) and 9 000 (potassium sorbate) mg/kg). 
This conclusion is extended to all animal species. 
The contribution of potassium sorbate to the potassium supply of animals should be considered when formulating diets or when it is included in water for drinking. 
As no measurable residues of sorbic acid or potassium ion are expected in edible products of food-producing animals, sorbic acid and potassium sorbate are considered safe for the consumers when used up to the maximum proposed level. 
Sorbic acid and potassium sorbate are skin, eye and respiratory tract irritants. 
The use of sorbic acid and its potassium salt in animal nutrition would not pose a risk to the environment. 
As sorbic acid and potassium sorbate are authorised food additives within the EU for use as preservatives, it is reasonable to expect that the effect in food will be observed in feed when it is used at comparable concentrations and under similar conditions. 
The FEEDAP Panel has reservations about the effectiveness of sorbic acid and its potassium salt as preservatives in complete feedingstuffs with a moisture content of ≤ 12 %. 
Equivalent concentrations for sorbic acid and potassium sorbate when used as preservatives in water for drinking should be specified.

Keywords:sorbic acid, E 200, calcium sorbate, E 202, potassium sorbate, E 203, food additives

A. W. Van Hoffman was the first to isolate sorbic acid from the berries of the mountain ash tree in the year 1859. The antimicrobial (preservative) properties of sorbic acid were recognized in the 1940's. In the late 1940's and 1950's it became commercially available. Since then, sorbic acid has been extensively tested and used as a preservative in many foods. In wine, its use was legalized in France in 1959 and in Germany in 1971. Sorbic acid and its potassium salt are now used in many countries in the production of sweet white wines. In the United States, BATF permits the use of sorbic acid and potassium sorbate to preserve wine. The maximum concentration of sorbic acid allowed in finished wine is 300 mg/L, (300 ppm).

Sorbic acid (2,4-hexadienoic acid) is a straight chain unsaturated fatty acid with a molecular weight of 112.13 and the formula: CH3 - CH = CH - CH = CH - COOH. Sorbic acid is commercially produced as a powder or granules, it has a characteristic acrid odor and acid taste. The carboxyl (COOH) group in sorbic acid is very reactive and can form salts with calcium, sodium, and potassium. The potassium salt of sorbic acid is commercially available as a powder or granules. Its molecular weight is 150.22 and it is very soluble in water

The solubility of sorbic acid in water is low (.16 g/100 ml) and it increases with temperature. The solubility is higher in ethanol, but decreases in the presence of other solutes such as sugar. Potassium sorbate (as compared to sorbic acid) is very soluble in water. The solubility decreases with an increase in ethanol, and/or sugar content in the solvent mixture. This point is important since sweet wines contain both sugar and alcohol.

Antimicrobial Activity

The antimicrobial action of sorbic acid is primarily against yeasts and molds. It's action against bacteria appears to be selective. At concentrations used in wine it does not seem to prevent spoilage from either acetic or lactic acid bacteria. Must and wine related yeasts inhibited by sorbic acid include species of genera Brettanomyces, Candida, Hansenula, Pichia, Saccharomyces, Torulaspora, and Zygosaccharomyces.

The inhibitory effect of sorbic acid on yeast strains is not uniform. Certain species are more tolerant than others. For example, according to Pitt (1974), Zygosaccharomyces bailii was not inhibited by sorbic acid at 0.06% in 10% glucose. It should be noted that the yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii is also resistant to sulfur dioxide and diethyl pyrocarbonic acid (DEPC) and it can ferment high sugar musts such as grape juice concentrate containing 55 to 72 percent sugar. If contaminated concentrate is used for sweetening wine, it is likely to cause a refermentation even if a normal concentration of sorbic acid is present.


The inhibitory influence of sorbic acid is greatest when it is in undissociated form. The pka of sorbic acid is 4.75. The antimicrobial action increases as the pH value decreases below 4.75. In other words, the proportion of undissociated form of sorbic acid increases (above 50%) as the pH drops below 4.75, this can lead to increased antimicrobial action.


Sorbic acid also inhibits mold growth. Some of the important species that are suppressed by sorbic acid belong to the genera Alternaria, Botrytis, Cladosporiwn, Fusariwn, Mucor, Penicilliwn, Rhizopus, Trichoderma. Mold can be a problem in wine cellars. To control mold in the wine cellar, sorbic acid could be included in the antimicrobial compounds used for sanitizing.

Several microorganisms can metabolize sorbic acid particularly when it is present in small concentrations. For this reason, it is not a suitable preservative in foods with high microbial counts. To derive the maximum benefit from the antimicrobial action of sorbic acid, it is important to clean the wine well and keep the microbial count low in the bottled wine. It should be emphasized that sorbic acid inhibits yeast and mold, but not acetic and lactic acid bacteria. In fact, lactic acid bacteria can metabolize sorbic acid and produce off flavored compounds.

The antimicrobial action of sorbic acid is due to its inhibitory influence on various enzymes in the microbial cell. The enzymes inhibited by sorbic acid include the following:

1. Enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism such as enolase and lactate dehydrogenase.

2. Enzymes of citric acid cycles such as malate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and fumerase.

3. Several enzymes containing SH group, and other enzymes such as catalase and peroxidase.

Application in the Winery

Potassium sorbate is used in the production of sweet white table wines. Although BATF permits its use in wine, up to 300 ppm, it is important to remember that its taste threshold is well below the legal limit. The taste threshold for experienced tasters has been reported to be about 130 ppm. Addition of sorbic acid often results in the formation of ethyl sorbate, which is said to impart an unpleasant odor when present in a significant level.

As mentioned earlier, lactic acid bacteria can decompose sorbic acid and produce 2-ethoxyhexa-3, 5 diene, and other compounds which give a geranium like off odor.


They suggested that in addition to 2 ethoxyhexa - 3, 5 diene (main compound with geranium like odor) other compounds such as the two dienols and the other ether, (1 - ethoxyhexa 2,4 diene) also contribute to the overall off odors in wines containing sorbic acid and spoiled by lactic acid bacteria.

To prevent bacterial spoilage in sweet wines it is important to add a sufficient amount of sufur dioxide in addition to sorbic acid.

Besides pH, the ethanol content of a wine also influences the antimicrobial action of sorbic acid. For this reason, with a relatively high amount of alcohol in the wine, lower levels of sorbic acid would be needed. Peynaud (1980) recommended the following doses of sorbic acid in clarified wine based on alcohol content

It should be emphasized that a wine must be clarified to reduce the yeast population below 100/ml for sorbic acid to be effective.

The key points in sorbic acid use are summarized below.

1. Potassium sorbate (most soluble form of sorbic acid) should be used. However, this can cause bitartrate precipition problems.

2. The solubility of potassium sorbate is influenced by temperature, therefore, it should not be added to a cold wine.

3. Wine should be mixed well after sorbate addition.
4. Sorbate should be used in conjunction with sulfur dioxide.
5. Certain yeast and bacteria are not inhibited by sorbic acid.
6. Properly clarified wine (low yeast count), low pH, and relatively high alcohol would help in reducing the

amount of sorbic acid needed for effectively controlling yeast.
7. Sorbic acid addition should never be considered as a substitute for poor sanitation.

Calculating Potassium Sorbate Additions

Sorbic acid is added to a wine in the form of the potassium salt. Potassium sorbate contains 73.97% sorbic acid. In order to calculate the amount of potassium sorbate, the following formula should be used.

Formula: ppm = mg/liter
mg/liter of sorbic acid x 1.35 = mg/

liter of potassium sorbate
Example: To obtain 200 ppm sorbic acid in wine, the following steps may be used.

I. 200 ppm = 200 mg/liter
II. 200 mg/liter x 1.35 = 270 mg/liter of potassium sorbate
III. 270 mg/liter x 3.785 = 1021.95 mg/gallon or 1.022 gram/gallon


*Values given in the left column are for sorbic acid, while the values given in other columns are for potassium sorbate. For example, to obtain 150 ppm sorbic acid level, you need to add 150 x 1.35 = 202 mg/L of potassium sorbate and not 150 mg/L of potassium sorbate. This is due to the fact that potassium sorbate on a molecular weight basis contains about 74% sorbic acid.

McCarthy et aI.(l9) found that both temperature and type of container affected the breakdown of sorbic acid. Aqueous solutions of sorbic acid (0.1% w/v) stored for 12 weeks in polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, and glass containers all had significant loss on storage, except when refrigerated or in the presence of an antioxidant (as occurs in polyethylene-92.2% sorbic acid remaining). The mechanism of decomposition was uncertain and in polyvinyl chloride and glass (at 5OOC) was not linear. Although some solutions became increasingly acidic with time, leading to improved contact killing times, both dilution tests confirmed a loss in potency. These losses were not always proportional to the spectrophotometric results. Gruntova et a1.(20) also studied the stability of sorbic acid in aqueous and polysorbate solutions; sorbic acid was oxidized more readily in the polysorbate solutions, with the rate influenced by the packaging material. Kondrat'eva et a1.(21) found that the amount of sorbic acid in petrolatum and emulsified bases stored at room temperature in metal containers started to decrease within 1 month and reached 60-80% of the initial content of the bases. They concluded that sorbic acid does not react with sodium lauryl sulfate or diethylene glycol stearate. Nielsed2*) found that sorbic acid incorporated in a cough syrup formulation did not decompose after 26 months of storage at room temperature. Sorbic acid formed complexes with various starches by interacting with the amylose fraction of the starch. Sorbic acid complexed with acacia in aqueous solution and was also absorbed by nylon and cellulose acetate. The degree of sorbic acid uptake by nylon increased with both temperature and time and was dependent on the pH of the solution, indicating the undissociated molecule was the preferentially absorbed form


Sorbic acid and potassium sorbate are used in cosmetics and toiletries as preservatives and antimicrobials.
The 1986 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) data show that sorbic acid was used in a total of 445 products, including primarily makeup (44%), skin care (19%), eye makeup (16%), hair (7%), and bath (4%) preparations. Of these formulations, 62% incorporated sorbic acid at concentrations of 50.1%; 37% incorporated sorbic acid at concentrations of > 0.1-1%. Potassium sorbate was reported in 117 products, prirnarily skin care (including suntan preparations) (44%), hair (34'%), and makeup (8%) preparations. Of the formulations, 56% incorporated potassium sorbate at concentrations of > 0.1-1%; 44% incorporated potassium sorbate at concentrations of I 0.1 %.(44) The FDA cosmetic product formulation data presented in Table 2 are compiled through voluntary filing of such data in accordance with Title 21 Part 720.4 (d)(l) of the Code of Federal Regulations (1979). Ingredients are listed in prescribed concentration ranges under specific product type categories. Since certain cosmetic ingredients are supplied by the manufacturer at less than 100% concentration, the value reported by the cosmetic formulator may not necessarily reflect the actual concentration found in the finished product; the actual concentration is a fraction of that reported to the FDA. Data submitted within the framework of preset concentration ranges provide the opportunity for overestimation of the actual concentration of an ingredient in a particular product. An entry at the lowest end of a concentration range is considered the same as one entered at the highest end of that range, thus introducing the possibility of a 2- to 10-fold error in the assumed ingredient concentration. 
The formulation data presented in Table 2 indicate that cosmetic products containing sorbic acid and potassium sorbate may contact all external body surfaces and hair, as well as ocular and vaginal mucosae. Sorbic acid additionally may contact the oral mucosae. These products may be used daily or occasionally over a period of up to several years. The frequency and length of application can result in continuous exposure.


Sorbic acid and potassium sorbate are effective preservatives at low concenitration for the control of mold and yeast in cheese products, based goods, fruit juices, fresh fruits and vegetables, wines, soft drinks, pickles, sauerkraut, and certain fish and meat product.
These ingredients are generally recognized as safe direct food additives when used in accordance with good manufacturing practice.
Results of a survey of food manufacturers indicated that the mean (weighted) level of the addition of sorbic acid to foods ranged from < 0.01 to 0.58%. 
The Grocery Manufactures of America has made an independent estimate of 0.5-0.3% for the range of sorbate addition to food.

Expert Committee on food additives has estimated the acceptable daily intake of sorbic acid and its salts (expressed as sorbic acid) as 25 m 8,’kg body weight
Potassium sorbate is also recognized as a GRAS indirect food additive as it migrates to food from paper and paperboard products used in food packaging. 
Sorbic acid and potassium sorbate are also used as preservatives in a variety of pharmaceuticals. 
The Ophthalmic Advisory Review Panel of the FDA over-the-counter (OTC) drug review program has proposed that sorblic acid used alone in concentrations of 0.1-0.2% is not an effective antimicrobial agent because of its limited bactericidal effects. 
They also indicated that more data were required to establish the safety and effectiveness of sorbic acid used as a preservative in combination with other approved preservatives.

Sorbic acid is a straight-chain rnonocarboxylic acid, also known as 2,4- hexadienoic acid. 
It is a white crystalline powder soluble in alcohol and ether but (only slightly soluble in water. 
Potassium sorbate is the potassium salt sorbic acid and is a white crystalline powder or white granules or pellets freely soluble in alcohol and water. 
Sorbic acid occurs naturally as the lactone, parasorbic acid, in berries of the mountain ash, Sorbus aucuparia L., Rosaceae. The sorbic acid used in cosmetics is synthesized by various commercial processes. 
Potassium sorbate is prepared by reacting sorbic acid with an equimolar portion of potassium hydroxide. 
Solutions of sorbic acid are subject to autoxidation and atmospheric oxidation. 
Both the temperature and the type of container have also affected the breakdown of sorbic acid. 
Sorbic acid and potassium sorbate are analyzed primarily by chromatographic techniques. 
Several analytic studies have been conducted to determine whether sorbic acid was contaminated with its isomer parasorbic acid, a suspected carcinogen. 
No traces of parasorbic acid were found (tests sensitive down to a concentration of 0.5 mg/kg). 
Sorbic acid and potassium sorbate are used in cosmetics and toiletries as preservatives and antimicrobials generally at concentrations of I 1 %. 
According to the data voluntarily reported to the FDA through 1986, sorbic acid and potassium sorbate were used in 445 and 117 cosmetic formulations, respectively. 
These ingredients are primarily used in facial and eye makeup and skin care and hair preparations. 
Sorbic acid and potassium sorbate are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) direct food additives. They are used as preservatives at low concentrations

(2E,4E)-2,4-Hexadienoic acid [ACD/IUPAC Name]
(2E,4E)-2,4-Hexadiensäure [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
(2E,4E)hexa-2,4-dienoic acid
(2E,4E)-hexa-2,4-dienoic acid
(E,E)-1,3-Pentadiene-1-carboxylic acid
(E,E)-2,4-Hexadienoic acid
1098547 [Beilstein]
110-44-1 [RN]
2,4-Hexadienoic acid, (2E,4E)- [ACD/Index Name]
2,4-Hexadienoic acid, (E,E)-
2E,4E-Hexadienoic acid
3921
Acide (2E,4E)-2,4-hexadiénoïque [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Acidum sorbicum
C6:2n-2,4
Sorbic acid [Wiki]
trans,trans-2,4-hexadienoic acid
trans,trans-sorbic acid
trans-trans-2,4-Hexadienoic acid
WG2100000
X045WJ989B
α-trans-γ-trans-sorbic acid
"2,4-HEXADIENOIC ACID"
"HEXA-2,4-DIENOIC ACID"
(2-butenylidene)-Acetic acid
(2-Butenylidene)acetic acid
(2e,4e);-hexa-2,4-dienoic acid
(2E,4E)-Hexa-2,4-dienoate
(4E)-Hexa-2,4-dienoic acid
(E,E)-hexa-2,4-dienoic acid
(E,E)-SORBIC ACID
1,3-Pentadiene-1-carboxylic acid
1,3-Pentadiene-1-carboxylic acid, (E,E)-
2, 4-Hexadienoic acid
2,4-Hexadienic acid
2,4-hexadienoic acid 99%
2,4-Hexadienoic acid, (trans,trans)-
2,4-hexadienoic acid, 99%
2,4-HexadienoicAcid
2,4-Hexadiensaeure
2,4-HEXANEDIENOIC ACID
2-Propenylacrylic acid
91751-55-2 secondary RN [RN]
Acetic acid, (2-butenylidene)-
Acetic acid, crotylidene-
c6h8o2
Crotylidene acetic acid
Crotylidene-Acetic acid
foodpreservative-sorbicacidpurity
Hexa-2,4-dienoic acid
Hexa-2,4-dienoic acid, (E,E)-
Hexadienic acid
Hexadienoic acid
Hexadienoic acid, (E,E)
Hexadienoic acid1,3-pentadiene-1-carboxylic acid
http:////www.amadischem.com/proen/602622/
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:38358
InChI=1/C6H8O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6(7)8/h2-5H,1H3,(H,7,8)/b3-2+,5-4
Kyselina 1,3-pentadien-1-karboxylova [Czech]
Kyselina sorbova [Czech]
Panosorb
Parasorbic Acid
Preservastat
Sorbic acid 1000 µg/mL in Acetonitrile
Sorbic Acid, (E,E)- [USAN]
sorbic acid-分析标准品
Sorbins??ure
Sorbinsaeure
Sorbistat [Trade name]
UNII-X045WJ989B
α-trans-Laquo γRaquo -trans-sorbic acid
α-trans-γ-trans-Sorbic acid
山梨酸 [Chinese]


(2-Butenylidene)acetic acid
(2E,4E)-2,4-Hexadienoic acid
(E,E)-1,3-pentadiene-1-carboxylic acid
(E,E)-2,4-hexadienoic acid
(E,E)-SA
(E,E)-Sorbic acid
1,3-Pentadiene-1-carboxylic acid
2-Propenylacrylic acid
2, 4-Hexadienoic acid potassium salt
2,4-Hexadienoic acid
2,4-Hexadienoic acid, potassium salt
Acetic acid, (2-butenylidene)-
Acetic acid, crotylidene-
alpha-trans-gamma-trans-sorbic acid
Crotylidene acetic acid
Hexa-2,4-dienoic acid
Hexadienic acid
Hexadienoic acid
Hexadienoic acid, (E,E)
Hexadienoic acid1,3-pentadiene-1-carboxylic acid
Kyselina 1,3-pentadien-1-karboxylova
Kyselina sorbova
Panosorb
Parasorbic acid
Potassium sorbate
Preservastat
SA
Sorbic acid (NF)
Sorbic acid, (E,E)-
Sorbic acid, potassium salt (VAN)
Sorbistat
Sorbistat-K
trans,trans-2,4-Hexadienoic acid
trans,trans-SA
trans,trans-Sorbic acid
(e,e)-1,3-Pentadiene-1-carboxylate
(e,e)-2,4-Hexadienoate
(e,e)-Sorbate
1,3-Pentadiene-1-carboxylate
a-trans-g-trans-Sorbate
a-trans-g-trans-Sorbic acid
alpha-trans-gamma-trans-Sorbate
Α-trans-γ-trans-sorbate
Α-trans-γ-trans-sorbic acid
trans,trans-2,4-Hexadienoate
trans,trans-Sorbate
(2E,4E)-2,4-Hexadienoate
Sorbate
(2-Butenylidene)-acetic acid
(2E,4E)-Hexa-2,4-dienoic acid
2E,4E-Hexadienoic acid
Acidum sorbicum
alpha-trans-Laquo gammaraquo -trans-sorbic acid
Crotylidene-acetic acid
FEMA 3921
Sorbic acid, potassium salt
trans-trans-2,4-Hexadienoic acid
Acid, sorbic
Sorbate, sodium
Sorbate, potassium
Acid, propenylacrylic
Sodium sorbate
Acid, hexadienoic
Propenylacrylic acid


Sorbic Acid is a white crystalline unsaturated carboxylic acid found in berries of the mountain ash and used to inhibit the growth of moulds and as an additive for certain synthetic coatings, as of cheese (E200); 2,4-hexadienoic acid. It exists as cis- and trans- isomers, the latter being the one usually obtained. Formula: CH3CH:CHCH:CHCOOH


Sorbic Acid is a mild, natural preservative that usually comes to the formula together with its other mild preservative friends, such as Benzoic Acid and/or Dehydroacetic Acid. Btw, it's also used as a food preservative.

Preservatives are defined as chemicals which extend shelf life of foods by preserving them against spoilage caused by microbial, enzymatic and chemical changes. For this purpose widely used preservatives are benzoic acid and sorbic acid and their respective potassium and sodium salts that must be monitored and controlled in dairy products, including cheese, yogurt and ayran1-4 . These preservatives have been used in the food sector throughout the world over the past 30 years for the preservation of pastries, margarine, cheese, in sour soup tins, beverages, fruit, sausages, fishes, sweets and ground beef5 . Preservatives are generally used to inhibit mold and yeast growth and they are also effective against many bacteria. Antimicrobial properties of preservatives depend on some factors such as antimicrobial spectrum, chemical and physical properties, concentration, affect mechanism of substance and composition, pH, water activity, storage temperature of food. Besides these factors, it must also be paid attention to some other subjects for choosing a preservative to be used for foods, such as genus and microorganism load on food, cost of preservative and its effect on quality of food1,6,7 . The effect of sodium benzoate against microorganisms is by inactivating cell wall and some enzymes in the cell8,9. Sorbic acid is often used as sodium, potassium and calcium salts. However, in use as potassium sorbate is more common because its solubility is more than 50 % in foods8,10-12. Sorbic acid becomes effective by inactivating enzymes in cells of microorganisms8 . Of these antimicrobial substances, that have common use, benzoic acid is metabolized rapidly and moved out from body. It doesn't accumulate in tissues. It's not harmful to health, when added to foods as sodium benzoate at very low levels. However, as the quantity increases, both the nutritional value of food is reduced and some kind of health problems can occur9 . Very high doses of benzoic acid cause adverse effects such as metabolic acidosis, convulsions and hyperpnoea4 . Several studies have been reported that benzoates cause asthma and various allergic reactions in human being4,7,13,14. Sorbic acid and its salts have less toxic effect than benzoic acid and its salts9 . Sorbic acid is metabolized rapidly like some fatty acids (as butyric acid, caproic acid) in human and animals and this is shown as a reason for less toxic effect9,15. Excessive quantities of these acids cause serious hazards for consumers and they must be strictly controlled


Sorbic Acid is an organic compound primarily used as a preservative. It inhibits the growth of mold, yeast and other microorganisms for shelf life stability. This product is often used in foods such as cheese, dried fruit, yogurt, pet foods, dried meats, soft drinks, and baked goods.

Sorbic acid is used to inhibit molds, yeasts, and fungi in many foods, such as cheese, wine, and baked goods.

It reacts with potassium to make potassium sorbate and with calcium to make calcium sorbate, which are also used as anti-fungals.


Sorbic acid, an unsaturated six-carbon fatty acid, is a naturally occurring preservative that is used less in food compared to its potassium salt – potassium sorbate (E202) due to the slight solubility in water. This ingredient can be used in low water content food such as baked goods, cheese, dried fruits, meat and fatty media.


Sorbic acid, an unsaturated six-carbon fatty acid, is a naturally occurring preservative that is used less in food compared to its potassium salt – potassium sorbate (E202) due to the slight solubility in water. This ingredient can be used in low water content food such as baked goods, cheese, dried fruits, meat and fatty media.


How Sorbic Acid works as a Preservative?
The bacteriostatic or bactericidal mechanism of sorbic acid are the same as that of potassium sorbate. When added to water, potassium sorbate dissociates into sorbic acid and potassium ions. It is the sorbic acid that is active as an antimicrobial preservative. 

Like benzoic acid, sorbic acid is a lipid-soluble weak acid that enters into the cell of microbial through the cell membrane then accumulates and finally influences the internal PH of microbial eventually disrupts its transport functions and metabolic activity result in the death of the microbial

What is Sorbic Acid (E200) in Food & the difference with Potassium Sorbate?Sorbic Acid in baked foodPRESERVATIVES APRIL 7, 2020 3 COMMENTS
Source | Production | Mechanism | Uses | Safety | Side effects | FAQs 

Sorbic acid, an unsaturated six-carbon fatty acid, is a naturally occurring preservative that is used less in food compared to its potassium salt – potassium sorbate (E202) due to the slight solubility in water. This ingredient can be used in low water content food such as baked goods, cheese, dried fruits, meat and fatty media.


It is generally used to inhibit the growth of molds (also mycotoxin-forming molds), yeast and some bacteria. The European food additive number for it is E200. 

Natural source
It can be naturally found in berries species, such as mountain ash, rowan and magnolia vine. (1)

How is Sorbic Acid made?
It is commercially synthesized from the condensation between ketene and crotonaldehyde instead of extracted from berries. The manufacturing process is described in the first three steps of production of potassium sorbate.

How Sorbic Acid works as a Preservative?
The bacteriostatic or bactericidal mechanism of sorbic acid are the same as that of potassium sorbate. When added to water, potassium sorbate dissociates into sorbic acid and potassium ions. It is the sorbic acid that is active as an antimicrobial preservative. 

Like benzoic acid, sorbic acid is a lipid-soluble weak acid that:

enters into the cell of microbial through the cell membrane
then accumulates and finally influences the internal PH of microbial
eventually disrupts its transport functions and metabolic activity
result in the death of the microbial
Specification
Other names    
2,4-Hexadienoic Acid
2-propenylacrylic acid
Chemical formula    C6H8O2
CAS No.    110-44-1
Molecular weight    112.128 
Boiling point    270 °C
Properties
Colorless needles or white free-flowing powder with a slight faint characteristic odor.

Structure
sorbic acid chemical structure
Image Source

Solubility
In water

Slightly soluble in water (solubility 0.16 g/100 mL at 20 °C) so it is not suitable to use it in food with much water content. Generally, it is made into salts form, potassium sorbate, which is the commonly utilized form.

In organic solvent

Soluble in ethanol, ether, propylene glycol, peanut oil, glycerin and glacial acetic acid. 

PH
The antimicrobial activity of sorbic acid generates when it is in the form of a molecule, the condition of undissociated. 

The PKa of sorbic acid is 4.76. That’s to say, its inhibitory activity rises as pH value (below 4.76) decreases as the percentage of the undissociated sorbic acid goes up, this leads to the enhanced antimicrobial activity. 

The optimal pH for the antimicrobial activity is from 3.0 to 6.5.

What’re the Uses of Sorbic Acid?
Sorbic acid and potassium sorbate have become the primary preservatives in food application due to its good antimicrobial activity & effectiveness in the weak acid pH range and their safety over benzoic acid and sodium benzoate.

Mostly, it protects food from yeast and mold spoilage and commonly added with usage from 0.025% to 0.10%.

Sodium sorbate and Calcium sorbate

Another two sorbates, sodium sorbate and calcium sorbate which were also used as food additives in Europe. However, in other countries, they are permitted, for example, in the US.

Sodium sorbate (previously had the E number E201) is not an approved food additive in the EU for its genotoxicity.

Calcium sorbate (previously had the E number E203) was no longer allowed to be used in the European Union since Jan, 2018 as the EFSA was not able to evaluate its safety due to the lack of data, such as genotoxicity data, also, it was unable to set an ADI. Therefore this ingredient was deleted in the list of food additives. (2)

Food
Sorbic acid can prevent the spoilage of yeast, mold, and some bacteria in food and therefore prolong food shelf life. It can be used to preserve foods with low water content and the following food may contain it:

cheese
dried fruit
yogurt
pet foods
dried meats
baked goods.
While in liquid form/aqueous systems for preservation, potassium sorbate is preferred.

How to use it?
Sorbic acid can be added in food with several methods (3):

directly used 
dusted in powder form
sprayed onto the food surface
dipped into sorbate solutions to prepare a certain concentrations
packaging materials
Cosmetics
Sorbic acid can also be used as a preservative (4) in cosmetics and personal care products to inhibit the growth of yeast and mold. 

Is Sorbic Acid Safe to Eat?
Yes, it has been approved as a safe ingredient by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), as well as Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). 

FDA
It is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) that can be used as a chemical preservative in accordance with good manufacturing practice for human consumption. (5)

Uses limit 
It is authorized in the following food (6)

Cheeses and cheese related products < 0.2% 
cheeses and cheese related products, used alone or combined with potassium or sodium sorbate < 0.3% 
Art sw fruit jellies, pres, and jams < 0.1% 
Concentrated orange juice < 0.2% 
Margarine <0.1% alone or <0.2% in combination with other preservatives
EFSA
Sorbic acid (E200) is listed in Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012 as an authorised food additive and categorized in “Additives other than colours and sweeteners” (7).

Approved uses 
The same with that of potassium sorbate, at the maximum dosage from 20 to 6,000 mg/kg (10) (11)

UK Food Standards Agency
Categorized in “Others” (12)

Food Standards Australia New Zealand 
It is an approved ingredient in Australia and New Zealand with the code number 200. (13)

JECFA 
Function Class: food additives, preservative. (14) 

Acceptable daily intake: ADI “25 mg/kg bw” in 1973. (15)

What are the possible Side Effects of Sorbic acid?
Although sorbic acid is approved safe by FDA and EFSA, there may be some mild possible side effects, like allergy symptoms in skin or scalp irritation or dermatitis from skin care products; digestive problems such as diarrhea. It is almost no toxicity and not linked to cancer.

Allergy
Allergy symptoms like skin and eye irritation, from some people who’re sensitive to sorbic acid especially from cosmetics and personal products.

A report in 2008 showed that sorbic acid may cause allergic reactions, such as dermatitis. (16)

Frequently Asked Questions 
Is it Natural or Synthetic?
It is natural if it comes from the fruits, however, mostly sorbic acid in the market is synthetic as made from chemical production.

Is it Vegan?
Yes, it is vegan and manufactured without the use of animal matter or products derived from animal origin. So it can be used in the food for vegetarians.

Sorbic acid vs Ascorbic acid?
Some people may be mistaken these two different categories of food additives, sorbic acid is a preservative while ascorbic acid (vitamin c) is an antioxidant and also a vitamin c supplement.

Conclusion
Now you may have a good knowledge of the preservative – sorbic acid (E200), from the following aspects:

Production process
Uses
Comparison with potassium sorbate
Safety
Possible side effects


sorbic acid is a α,β-unsaturated monocarboxylic acid (CHEBI:79020)
sorbic acid is a hexadienoic acid (CHEBI:24555)
sorbic acid is a medium-chain fatty acid (CHEBI:59554)
sorbic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid (CHEBI:26208)
sorbic acid  is conjugate acid of sorbate (CHEBI:36550)

(2E,4Z)-6-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-6-oxohexa-2,4-dienoic acid (CHEBI:28978) has functional parent sorbic acid (CHEBI:35962)
2-hydroxy-6-(2-hydroxyphenoxy)-6-oxo-cis,cis-hexa-2,4-dienoic acid (CHEBI:28990) has functional parent sorbic acid (CHEBI:35962)
2-hydroxy-6-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-6-oxo-cis,cis-hexa-2,4-dienoic acid (CHEBI:1135) has functional parent sorbic acid (CHEBI:35962)
2-Hydroxy-6-oxo-(2'-aminophenyl)-hexa-2,4-dienoate (CHEBI:36537) has functional parent sorbic acid (CHEBI:35962)
2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid (CHEBI:17820) has functional parent sorbic acid (CHEBI:35962)
ethyl sorbate (CHEBI:72819) has functional parent sorbic acid (CHEBI:35962)
(2E,4E)-hexa-2,4-dienoic acid (CHEBI:38358) is a sorbic acid (CHEBI:35962)
(2E,4Z)-hexa-2,4-dienoic acid (CHEBI:38361) is a sorbic acid (CHEBI:35962)
(2Z,4E)-hexa-2,4-dienoic acid (CHEBI:38360) is a sorbic acid (CHEBI:35962)
(2Z,4Z)-hexa-2,4-dienoic acid (CHEBI:38359) is a sorbic acid (CHEBI:35962)
sorbate (CHEBI:36550) is conjugate base of sorbic acid (CHEBI:35962)

(E,E)-2,4-Hexadienoic acid

1,3-Pentadiene-1-carboxylic acid, (E,E)-

2,4-Hexadienoic acid

2,4-Hexadienoic acid, (2E,4E)-

2,4-Hexadienoic acid, (E,E)-

2-Propenylacrylic acid

2E,4E-Hexadienoic acid

Acetic acid, (2-butenylidene)-

Acetic acid, crotylidene-

alpha-trans-gamma-trans-Sorbic acid

Hexa-2,4-dienoic acid
EC Inventory, Other
Hexa-2,4-dienoic acid
Cosmetic Products Regulation, Annex V - Allowed Preservatives, Other
hexa-2,4-dienoic acid

Hexa-2,4-dienoic acid (Sorbic acid)

Hexadienoic acid
Kyselina 1,3-pentadien-1-karboxylova
Kyselina sorbova
Panosorb
Sorbic acid
sorbic acid
Sorbistat

trans,trans-Sorbic acid
trans-trans-2,4-Hexadienoic acid

Translated names
2,4-hexadién sav (Szorbinsav) (hu)

Acid hexa-2,4-dienoic (Acid sorbic) (ro)

Acide hexa-2,4-diénoïque (acide sorbique) (fr)

Acido esa-2,4-dienoico (Acido sorbico) (it)

Aċidu eża-2,4-dienoiku (Aċidu sorbiku) (mt)

Heksa-2,4-dieenhape (sorbiinhape) (et)

Heksa-2,4-dieenihappo (sorbiinihappo) (fi)

Heksa-2,4-dieno rūgštis (sorbo rūgštis) (lt)

Heksa-2,4-dienoična kiselina (sorbinska kiselina) (hr)

Heksa-2,4-dienojska kislina (sorbinska kislina) (sl)

Heksa-2,4-diēnskābe (sorbīnskābe) (lv)

Hexa-2,4-dieenzuur (sorbinezuur) (nl)

Hexa-2,4-dienoic acid (Sorbic acid) (no)

hexa-2,4-dienová kyselina (kyselina sorbová) (cs)

Hexa-2,4-diensyra (Sorbinsyra) (sv)

hexa-2,4-diensyre (sorbinsyre) (da)

Hexa-2,4-diensäure (Sorbinsäure) (de)

Kwas (2E,4E)-heksa-2,4-dienowy (kwas sorbinowy) (pl)

kyselina hexa-2,4-diénová (kyselina sorbová) (sk)

Ácido hexa-2,4-dienoico (ácido sórbico) (es)

Ácido hexa-2,4-dienóico (ácido sórbico) (pt)

Εξα-2,4-διενοϊκό οξύ (σορβικό οξύ) (el)

Хекса-2,4-диенова киселина (сорбинова киселина) (bg)

CAS names
2,4-Hexadienoic acid, (2E,4E)-

IUPAC names
(2E,4E)-hexa-2,4-dienoic acid
(E,E)-2,4-Hexadienoic acid
(E,E)-2,4-Hexadienoic acid.
(E,E)-hexa-2,4-dienoic acid
2,4 Hexadienoic acid
2,4-HEXADIENOIC ACID
2,4-Hexadienoic acid, (2E,4E)-
2E,4E)-hexa-2,4-dienoic acid
Hexa-2,4-dienoic acid
hexa-2,4-dienoic acid
Hexa-2,4-dienoic acid
SORBIC ACID
Sorbic Acid
Sorbic acid
sorbic acid
Sorbic Acid
Szorbinsav


10-) DL-TARTARIC ACID

DL-Tartaric acid = DL-2,3-Dihydroxybutanedioic acid = E334 = 2,3-Dihydroxysuccinic acid

CAS Number: 133-37-9
Molecular Weight: 150.09
EC Number: 205-105-7

DL-Tartaric Acid (2,3-Dihydroxysuccinic acid) is a white, crystalline organic acid isolated from many plants, particularly tamarinds and grapes and is used as an antioxidant and an additive agent to give a sour taste.
DL-Tartaric Acid uses as acidifier and natural preservative for marmalades, ice cream, jellies, juices, preserves, and beverages. 
2,3-Dihydroxysuccinic acid uses as effervescent for carbonated water. 
DL-Tartaric Acid uses as emulsifier and preservative in the bread-making industry and in the preparation of candies and sweets.
DL-Tartaric Acid uses as a synergist for antioxidants, acid, emulsifier, sequestrant, and flavoring agent.
2,3-Dihydroxysuccinic acid is also known as E334.
DL Tartaric acid (2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid) is a butanedioic acid substituted by hydroxy groups at positions 2 and 3. 
DL-Tartaric Acid is white crystalline dicarboxylic acid found in many plants, particularly tamarinds and grapes. 

DL-Tartaric acid can be used:
In the Debus–Radziszewski reaction as a weak acid for the synthesis of imidazolium ionic liquid.
DL-Tartaric Acid uses as an additive in electrochemical deposition technique for the synthesis of bismuth thin films to be used as X-ray absorbers.
DL-Tartaric Acid uses as a complexing agent for the synthesis of nano-crystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) powder.
DL-Tartaric Acid uses as a dopant for the synthesis of polyaniline nanofibers and nanotubes by oxidation polymerization.
DL-Tartaric Acid uses as a synthetic, white crystalline powder used in building materials and oil fields

DL-Tartaric acid is a white, crystalline powder.  
DL-Tartaric Acid uses as is mainly used in the food industry as an acidulant or ingredient producing emulsifier, and can be used as a starting material for pyruvate. 
DL-Tartaric Acid usage also covers the construction industry as a retarder, metal complexing agent for electroplating industry.
DL-Tartaric Acid used as an additive in baking powder & baking mixes and metal processing agent to prevent oxide formation
DL-Tartaric Acid uses as also acts as chemical intermediate for potassium antimony tartrate, potassium sodium tartrate, potassium boro tartrate.
DL–Tartaric Acid is also widely popular as beverages and other food acidifier, similar to the use and citric acid. 
Combination of tartaric acid and tannin can be used as mordant acid dyes.

Colorless crystals or white powder without odor,with sour taste,stable in air,compound of equal quantity of dextro-rotatory and levo-rotatory tartaric acid,containing one or two molecule crystalline water and losing water when heated to 100°C,specific gravity 1.697.
DL-Tartaric acid is used as a synergist for antioxidants, emulsifier, sequestrant and flavoring agent. 
It is also added with citric acid to prepare effervescent salts, thereby enhancing the taste of oral medications. 
DL-Tartaric Acid is also utilized in pigments, processing aids, ink, toner and colorant products. 
DL-Tartaric Acid acts as a chelating agent in metal and farming industries. 
Further, it is used as lubricant and grease. 
DL-Tartaric Acid is mixed with sodium bicarbonate and used as a leavening agent in food preparation. 
In the pharmaceutical industry, DL-Tartaric Acid is utilized in the preparation of tartar emetic, which is used in cough syrup as an expectorant.

Food Industry
–DL-Tartaric Acid uses as acidifier and natural preservative for marmalades, ice cream, jellies, juices, preserves, and beverages.
–DL-Tartaric Acid uses as effervescent for carbonated water.
–DL-Tartaric Acid uses as emulsifier and preservative in the bread-making industry and in the preparation of candies and sweets.

Tartaric acid is a white, crystalline organic acid that occurs naturally in many fruits, most notably in grapes, but also in bananas, tamarinds, and citrus.
DL-Tartaric Acids salt, potassium bitartrate, commonly known as cream of tartar, develops naturally in the process of fermentation. 
DL-Tartaric Acid is commonly mixed with sodium bicarbonate and is sold as baking powder used as a leavening agent in food preparation. 
DL-Tartaric Acid is added to foods as an antioxidant E334 and to impart its distinctive sour taste.
Tartaric acid is an alpha-hydroxy-carboxylic acid, is diprotic and aldaric in acid characteristics, and is a dihydroxyl derivative of succinic acid.

Tartaric acid and its derivatives have a plethora of uses in the field of pharmaceuticals.
For example, DL-Tartaric Acid has been used in the production of effervescent salts, in combination with citric acid, to improve the taste of oral medications.
The potassium antimonyl derivative of the acid known as tartar emetic is included, in small doses, in cough syrup as an expectorant.
Tartaric acid also has several applications for industrial use. 
The acid has been observed to chelate metal ions such as calcium and magnesium. 
Therefore, the acid has served in the farming and metal industries as a chelating agent for complexing micronutrients in soil fertilizer and for cleaning metal surfaces consisting of aluminium, copper, iron, and alloys of these metals, respectively.

Naturally occurring tartaric acid is chiral, and is a useful raw material in organic chemical synthesis. 
The naturally occurring form of the acid is dextrotartaric acid or L-(+)-tartaric acid (obsolete name d-tartaric acid). 
Because it is available naturally, it is slightly cheaper than its enantiomer and the meso isomer. The dextro and levo prefixes are archaic terms.
Modern textbooks refer to the natural form as (2R,3R)-tartaric acid (L-(+)-tartaric acid), and its enantiomer as (2S,3S)-tartaric acid (D-(-)-tartaric acid). 
The meso diastereomer is (2R,3S)-tartaric acid (which is identical with ‘(2S,3R)-tartaric acid’).
Whereas the two chiral stereoisomers rotate plane polarized light in opposite directions, solutions of meso-tartaric acid do not rotate plane-polarized light. 
The absence of optical activity is due to a mirror plane in the molecule [segmented line in picture below].[14][15]
Tartaric acid in Fehling's solution binds to copper(II) ions, preventing the formation of insoluble hydroxide salts.

DL-Tartaric Acid is a food additive. 
DL-Tartaric Acid is a white, crystalline powder that is stable in the air and soluble in water, ethanol. And ethyl ether.
DL-Tartaric Acid is used in the manufacturing of tartrates and in the production of electroplates, chemical fertilizers, glass, foods, and pharmaceuticals, etc.

DL-Tartaric Acid has been known to winemakers for centuries. 
However, the chemical process for DL-Tartaric Acid was developed in 1769 by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele.

DL-Tartaric Acid played an important role in the discovery of chemical chirality. 
This property of tartaric acid was first observed in 1832 by Jean Baptiste Biot, who observed its ability to rotate polarized light.
Louis Pasteur continued this research in 1847 by investigating the shapes of sodium ammonium tartrate crystals, which he found to be chiral. 
By manually sorting the differently shaped crystals, Pasteur was the first to produce a pure sample of levotartaric acid.

DL-Tartaric Acid is a white crystalline organic acid that occurs naturally in many plants, most notably in grapes. 
DL-Tartaric Acids salt, potassium bitartrate, commonly known as cream of tartar, develops naturally in the process of winemaking. 
Naturally occurring tartaric acid is chiral, and is a useful raw material in organic chemical synthesis. 
The naturally occurring form of the acid is dextrotartaric acid or D-(-)-tartaric acid.

Assay Percent Range 99.50%
Linear Formula HO2CCH(OH)CH(OH)CO2H
Formula Weight 150.09
Physical Form Crystalline Powder
Percent Purity 99.5%
Heavy Metals (as Pb) 20ppm max.
Infrared Spectrum Authentic
Loss on Drying    0.5% max.
Packaging Plastic bottle
Solubility Solubility in water: soluble. Other solubilities: soluble in alcohol and ether, insoluble in chloroform

DL-Tartaric Acid acid can be analyzed by this reverse phase (RP) HPLC method with simple conditions. 
The mobile phase contains an acetonitrile (MeCN), water, and phosphoric acid. 
For Mass-Spec (MS) compatible applications the phosphoric acid needs to be replaced with formic acid. 
Smaller 3 µm particles columns available for fast UPLC applications. 
This liquid chromatography method is scalable and can be used for isolation impurities in preparative separation. 
DL-Tartaric Acid also suitable for pharmacokinetics.

We provide a comprehensive DL-Tartaric Acid, which is highly demanded by the clients to manufacture tartaric acid salts like potassium sodium tartrate. 
DL-Tartaric Acid is a colorless crystals or white power that is odorless, sour in taste and stable in air. 
The tartaric acid is a compound of equal quantity of dextro-rotatory & levo-rotatory tartaric acid . 
DL-Tartaric Acid contains one or two molecule crystalline water and however, it losses water on heating upto 100°C , specific gravity 1.697. 
DL-Tartaric Acid is soluble in water is about 1% and 5.01( 25°C ) in ethanol, in water is 20.60( 20°C ). 
DL-Tartaric Acid is also used in varied industries like food, medicine, chemistry and light industry. 
In addition, DL-Tartaric Acid is also used in tanning, photo, glass, enamel and telecom materials industries. 
Owing to the high acidic level as 1.3 times as citric acid, the tartaric acid is used as acidifying agent for grape juice and also, as foaming agent.

Applications
DL-Tartaric acid is used as a synergist for antioxidants, emulsifier, sequestrant and flavoring agent. 
DL-Tartaric Acid is also added with citric acid to prepare effervescent salts, thereby enhancing the taste of oral medications. 
DL-Tartaric Acid is also utilized in pigments, processing aids, ink, toner and colorant products. 
DL-Tartaric Acid acts as a chelating agent in metal and farming industries. Further, it is used as lubricant and grease. 
DL-Tartaric Acid is mixed with sodium bicarbonate and used as a leavening agent in food preparation. 
In the pharmaceutical industry, DL-Tartaric Acid is utilized in the preparation of tartar emetic, which is used in cough syrup as an expectorant.

DL-Tartaric Acid is an acidulant that adds a sharp tart flavor and as an antioxidant. 
DL-Tartaric Acid is naturally found in fruits. It has weak antimicrobial properties as compared to other organic acids. 
DL-Tartaric Acid mixed together with sodium bicarbonate is baking powder.

biological source: synthetic
Quality Level: 400
assay: ≥99%
mp: 210-212 °C (lit.)
Documentation: see Safety & Documentation for available documents
Featured Industry: Flavors and Fragrances
Organoleptic: odorless
food allergen: no known allergens
SMILES string: O[C@@H]([C@H](O)C(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI: 1S/C4H6O6/c5-1(3(7)8)2(6)4(9)10/h1-2,5-6H,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)/t1-,2-/m0/s1
Physical State :Solid
Solubility :Soluble in Water: 0.1 g/mL
Storage :Store at room temperature
Melting Point :210-212° C (lit.)
Melting point:210-212 °C(lit.)
alpha [α]D20 -0.2~+0.2° (c=20, H2O)
Boiling point:191.59°C (rough estimate)
Density 1.788
vapor pressure <0.1 hPa (20 °C)
refractive index 1.5860 (estimate)
FEMA 3044 | TARTARIC ACID (D-, L-, DL-, MESO-)
Flash point:210 °C
storage temp. Store below +30°C.
solubility H2O: 0.1 g/mL, clear
pka3.03, 4.37(at 25℃)
form Liquid
color White
PH1.6 (100g/l, H2O, 25℃)
Water Solubility soluble
JECFA Number621
Merck 14,9069
BRN 1725148
Stability:Stable. Incompatible with bases, oxidizing agents, reducing agents, silver.
InChIKeyFEWJPZIEWOKRBE-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Eye protection
Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166 Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU).

Skin and body protection
impervious clothing, The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace.

Hygiene measures
Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. 
Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday

For obtaining a higher solubility , please warm the tube at 37 ℃ and shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while.
Stock solution can be stored below -20℃ for several months.
We recommend that you prepare and use the solution on the same day. 
However, if the test schedule requires, the stock solutions can be prepared in advance, and the stock solution must be sealed and stored below -20℃. 
In general, the stock solution can be kept for several months.
Before use, we recommend that you leave the vial at room temperature for at least an hour before opening it.

The symptoms of lung oedema often do not become manifest until a few hours have passed and they are aggravated by physical effort.
Rest and medical observation are therefore essential.
Immediate administration of an appropriate spray, by a doctor or a person authorized by him/her, should be considered. 

Applications
1. DL – TARTARIC ACID is widely used as beverages and other food acidifier, similar to the use and citric acid. 
Combination of tartaric acid and tannin can be used as mordant acid dyes, but also for the photographic industry, and the fixation of certain imaging operations, which have a photosensitive iron salts, it can be used to produce a blueprint
2. DL - Tartaric acid with a variety of metal ions complexation can be used for metal surface cleaning agents and polishing agents
3. Potassium sodium tartrate (Rochelle salt) can be prepared Fehling, but also used in medicine as laxatives and diuretics, but also as a Sims can be fun intermediates
4. The crystal has piezoelectric properties can be used for the electronics industry
5. DL - TARTARIC ACID (CAS NO.147-71-7) is used for chromatographic analysis of reagent and a masking agent. 
And it also used as split agent for pharmaceutical, food additives, chemical and biological reagents
6. This product is widely used in food industry, such as beer foam, food sour agent, Jiao flavor agent and used in soft drinks, candy, fruit juice, sauces, cold dish, and baking powder and so on. 

Formula: C4H6O6 / COOH(CHOH)2COOH
Molecular mass: 150.1
Melting point: 206°C
Relative density (water = 1): 1.79
Solubility in water, g/100ml at 20°C: 20.6
Flash point: 210°C o.c.
Auto-ignition temperature: 425°C
Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: -0.76 (calculated)

Chemical stability
Stable under recommended storage conditions.
Possibility of hazardous reactions
no data available
Conditions to avoid
no data available
Materials to avoid
Bases, Oxidizing agents, Reducing agents
Hazardous decomposition products
Hazardous decomposition products formed under fire conditions. - Carbon oxides
Other decomposition products - no data available

Appearance (Colour) White
Appearance (Form) Crystalline compound
Solubility (Turbidity) 5% aq. solution    Clear
Solubility (Colour) 5% aq. solution    Colourless
Assay min. 99%
Melting Point 208 - 212°C
Water (KF) max. 0.5%

Synonyms:
DL-2,3-Dihydroxybutanedioic acid, DL-Tartaric acid
DL-Tartaric acid
tartaric acid
2,3-Dihydroxysuccinic acid
2,3-Dihydroxybutanedioic acid
133-37-9
526-83-0
Racemic acid
Uvic acid
Traubensaure
Racemic tartaric acid
DL-Tartrate
Paratartaric acid
Paratartaric aicd
Threaric acid
Resolvable tartaric acid
BUTANEDIOIC ACID, 2,3-DIHYDROXY-
(+)-Tartaric acid
Natural tartaric acid
Acidum tartaricum
NSC62778
Tartaric acid D,L
Tartaric acid, L-(+)-
Baros
CHEBI:15674
dl-2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid
Dextrotartaric acid
(2RS,3RS)-Tartaric acid
tartrate
MFCD00071626
NSC 148314
868-14-4
Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-, (2R,3R)-rel-
E-7050 (2S,3S)-2,3-dihydroxysuccinic acid
(2R,3R)-rel-2,3-Dihydroxysuccinic acid
DL-Tartaric acid, 99.5%
Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-(R*,R*)-(.+/-.)-
Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-, (R*,R*)-
Tartaric acid, L-
DL-TARTARIC-2,3-D2 ACID
(2R,3R)-2,3-Dihydroxybernsteinsaeure
Tartaric acid (VAN)
1007601-97-9
Kyselina vinna [Czech]
NSC155080
Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy- (2R,3R)-
Tartaric acid [USAN:JAN]
(.+-.)-Tartaric acid
C4H6O6
(+)-(2R,3R)-Tartaric acid
d-alpha,beta-Dihydroxysuccinic acid
NSC-62778
Kyselina 2,3-dihydroxybutandiova [Czech]
(+) tartaric acid
(-) tartaric acid
1,2-Dihydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid
AI3-06298
91469-46-4
1,2-dicarboxylic acid
WLN: QVYQYQVQ
(-) D-Tartaric acid
ACMC-209qpg
Sal tartar (Salt/Mix)
Tartaric acid, (DL)-
Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy- (R-(R*,R*))-
Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-, [S-(R*,R*)]-
Malic acid, 3-hydroxy-
laevo-(+)-tartaric acid
dextro,laevo-tartaric acid
Succinic acid,3-dihydroxy
SCHEMBL848
ACMC-209cz3
bmse000167
Succinic acid,3-dihydroxy-
(.+/-.)-Tartaric acid
DSSTox_CID_26986
DSSTox_RID_82036
2,3-dihydroxy-succinic acid
DSSTox_GSID_46986
Oprea1_827092
TARTARIC ACID, (L)
Tartaric acid, (.+-.)-
Butanedioic acid,3-dihydroxy-
CHEMBL333714
Dihydroxysuccinic acid, (DL)-
Tartaric acid, (.+/-.)-
DTXSID5046986
L+Tartaric Acid FCC, NF, USP
2,3-bis(oxidanyl)butanedioic acid
HMS3370M15
(+)-2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid
(S,S)-Tartaric acid;Tartaric acid
BCP14303
Tox21_302052
BBL011588
MFCD00064206
NSC133735
NSC148314
NSC608773
s2997
STK387106
2,3-Dihydroxysuccinic acid, (DL)-
3-carboxy-2,3-dihydroxypropanoic acid
AKOS000120086
AKOS016844048
MCULE-3867000095
NE11122
NSC-133735
NSC-148314
NSC-608773
SMP2_000051
d-.alpha.,.beta.-Dihydroxysuccinic acid

DL Tartaric Acid is a colorless and semi-transparent or white powder, with a sour taste. 
DL-Tartaric Acid is widely used in many fields such as foodstuff, medicine, the chemical and light industries etc., and is mainly used to make tartrates (tartaric acid salts), like antimony potassium tartrate, and potassium sodium tartrate. 
DL-Tartaric Acid can be used as a beer vesicant, foodstuff sourness agent, and flavoring etc. 
DL-Tartaric Acids sourness is 1.3 times of that of citric acid, and it is especially suitable to be a sourness agent of grape juice. 
DL-Tartaric Acid is also very important for the tannage, photograph, glass, enamel and telecommunication equipment industries.
Catering to the requirements of our clients, we are involved in manufacturing and exporting of DL-Tartaric Acid Powder in Qingdao, Shandong, China.

Chemical Name: 2,3-Dihydroxy butanedioic acid
Molecular formula: C4H6O6
Molecular weight: 150.09
Structured:

Character: Colorless crystals or a white powder, without odor, with sour taste, stable in air, Compound of equal quantity of dextro-rotatory and levo-rotatory tartaric acid. Containing one or two molecule crystalline water and losting water when heated to 100A C, specific gravity 1.697. 
DL-Tartaric Acid's solubility in ether is about 1% and 5.01(25A C) in ethanol, in water is 20.60(20A C).
Specifications: Complies with (IV) & GB15358-94.
Uses of DL-Tartaric Acid: Widely used in foodstuff, medicine, chemical industry and light industry etc, and is mainly used to make tartaric acid salts, like potassium sodium tartrate, foodstuff sourness agent and flavoring etc Its sourness is 1.3 time of that of citril acid, and is especially suitable to be a sourness agent of grape juice. 
DL-Tartaric Acid is appraised as an excellent food additive by the FAO/WHO experts committee. 
DL-Tartaric Acid is also very important for the tannage, photograph, glass, enamel and telecommunication equipment industries.

NCGC00256063-01
NCGC00347131-03
AK105884
AK116146
AS-10983
CAS-133-37-9
NCI60_001102
(+)-2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-butanedioic acid
DB-016129
DB-016159
DB-042899
AM20110247
FT-0624346
FT-0625514
FT-0628018
FT-0628243
FT-0656080
FT-0772946
FT-0773804
(+/-)-2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-butanedioic acid

Form: Powder
CAS Number: 133-37-9
Loss on Drying: 0.34%
Melting Point: 200-203 Deg C
Sulphate Ash: 0.045%

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A22830
A22866
Butanedioic acid,3-dihydroxy- [R-(R*,R*)]-
133D379
A829202
Q194322
Butanedioic acid,3-dihydroxy-, (R*,R*)-(.+-.)-
F2191-0230
Z1258943354
1,2-Dihydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid;2,3-Dihydrosuccinic acid
(2S,3S)-(-)-Tartaric acid; D(-)-Threaric acid;D(-)-Dihydroxysuccinic acid
Copper, mixt. with [R-(R*,R*)]-2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid monopotassium salt

The formation constants of the complexes of D-, L-, DL-, and meso-tartaric acid (H2L) with the hydrogen ion and the oxovanadium(IV) cation, [VO]2+, have been measured potentiometrically at 25.0 °C and I= 0.10 mol dm–3(K[NO3]). 
The enthalpy changes on formation of the protonated tartaric acids have been measured calorimetrically under identical conditions. 
The existence of binuclear complexes of both optically active and, to a lesser extent, meso-tartaric acids with [VO]2+ has been confirmed. 
With active tartaric acids the major species at pH >6 is [(VO)2{D(or L)-L}2H–4]4–, but with meso-tartaric acid this species is of minor importance as a result of conformational differences. 
The binuclear complex [(VO)2(D-L)(L-L)H–4]4– is significantly more stable than [(VO)2-(D-L)2H–4]4–. 
This may be explained as resulting from conformational differences.

Ite Standard
Appearance white crystalline powder
Assay 99.5~101.0
Specific rotation[a]D20 +12 ~12.8 ° 
Heavy metals(on Pb) ≤0.001
Calcium (Ca) ≤0.02
Residue on ignition ≤0.05
Loss on drying ≤0.2
Oxalate(C2O4) ≤0.035
Sulphate(SO4) ≤0.015
Arsenic(As) ≤0.0003
Chloride (Cl) ≤0.01
Solubleness Pass test
Storage    in dry and cool place

Other names: 
Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-(R*,R*)-(.+/-.)-; Paratartaric acid; (.+/-.)-Tartaric acid; Paratartaric aicd; Racemic acid; Racemic tartaric acid; Resolvable tartaric acid; Tartaric acid, (DL)-; Tartaric acid, (.+/-.)-; Traubensaure; Uvic acid; Dihydroxysuccinic acid, (DL)-; dl-2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid; 2,3-Dihydroxysuccinic acid, (DL)-; (2RS,3RS)-Tartaric acid; Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-, (2R,3R)-rel-; Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-, (R*,R*)-; NSC 148314; Tartaric acid; (±)-tartaric acid
(±)-Tartaric acid
2,3-Dihydroxybernsteinsäure [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid
2,3-dihydroxysuccinic acid
2,3-Dihydroxy-succinic acid
212-425-0 [EINECS]
815-82-7 [RN]
Acide tartrique [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy- [ACD/Index Name]
DL-Tartaric acid
MFCD00064206 [MDL number]
Tartaric acid [ACD/IUPAC Name] [JP15] [NF] [Trade name] [Wiki]
Tartaric acid, (±)-
Tartaric acid, (DL)-
TARTARIC ACID, D-
TARTARIC ACID, DL-
TARTARIC ACID, MESO-
Tartarsäure [German]
(+)-tartarate
(+)-Weinsaeure
(±)-tartaric acid
(±)-Tartaric Acid
(1R,2R)-1,2-Dihydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid
(2R,3R)-2,3-Dihydroxybernsteinsaeure
(2R,3R)-2,3-dihydroxybutanedioate
(2R,3R)-2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid
(2R,3R)-2,3-tartaric acid
(2R,3R)-rel-2,3-Dihydroxysuccinic acid
(2R,3R)-Tartarate
(2RS,3RS)-Tartaric acid
(2S,3S)-2,3-Dihydroxysuccinic acid [ACD/IUPAC Name]
(R,R)-tartarate
1,2-DIHYDROXYETHANE-1,2-DICARBOXYLIC ACID
1-Aminoheptadecane
2-(2-oxanyloxy)isoindole-1,3-dione
2, 3-Dihydrosuccinic acid
2,​3-​dihydroxysuccinic acid
2,3-dihydrosuccinic acid
2,3-dihydroxybutanedioate
2,3-dihydroxy-succinate
2,3-Dihydroxysuccinic acid, (DL)-
205-696-1 [EINECS]
2-Tetrahydropyran-2-yloxyisoindoline-1,3-dione
3-Carboxy-2,3-dihydroxypropanoate [ACD/IUPAC Name]
3-Carboxy-2,3-dihydroxypropanoic acid
868-14-4 [RN]
91469-46-4 [RN]
acide tartarique
Acidum tartaricum
Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy- {[R-(R*,R*)]-}
Cremor tartari
d-a,b-Dihydroxysuccinic Acid
DB09459
dextro,laevo-tartaric acid
Dihydroxysuccinic acid, (DL)-
DL-2,3-Dihydroxybutanedioic acid
dl-tartaric acid-gr
DL-TARTARIC-2,3-D2 ACID
dl-tartaricacid
dl-tartrate
Kyselina 2,3-dihydroxybutandiova [Czech]
Kyselina vinna [Czech]
Kyselina vinna
L-tartarate
Malic acid, 3-hydroxy-
Natrol
Paratartaric acid
Rechtsweinsaeure
Resolvable tartaric acid
Succinic acid, 2, 3-dihydroxy
Succinic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy
Succinic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-
TAR
Tartar cream
Tartarate [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Tartaric acid, (±)-
Tartaric acid, (l)
Tartrol
THREARIC ACID
TLA
Traubensaure
Uvic acid
Weinsaeure
Weinsteinsaeure
WLN: QVYQYQVQ


11-) TRISODIUM CITRATE

Trisodium citrate = Sodium citrate = E331 = Citrosodine

CAS number: 68-04-2 
E number: E331
Chemical formula: Na3C6H5O7
Molar mass: 258.06 g/mol

In food industry, Trisodium citrate is used as a flavor and stabilizer. 
In pharmaceutical industry, Trisodium citrate is used as anticoagulant, reducer of phlegm and diuretic.
Trisodium citrate has the chemical formula of Na3C6H5O7. 
Trisodium citrate is sometimes referred to simply as "Trisodium citrate", though Trisodium citrate can refer to any of the three sodium salts of citric acid. 
Trisodium citrate possesses a saline, mildly tart flavor, and is a mild alkali.

Trisodium citrate is often referred to as Trisodium citrate, though Trisodium citrate can refer to any of the three sodium salts of citric acid. 
Trisodium citrate has a saline, mildly tart flavor. 
Trisodium citrate is mildly basic and can be used along with citric acid to make biologically compatible buffers.
Trisodium citrate is primarily used as a food additive, usually for flavor or as a preservative. 
In certain varieties of club soda, Trisodium citrate is employed as a flavoring agent. 
Trisodium citrate is a common ingredient in Bratwurst, and is also used to contribute a tart flavor in commercial, ready-to- drink beverages and drink mixes. 
Trisodium citrate is found in gelatin mix, ice-cream, jams, sweets, milk powder, processed cheeses, carbonated beverages, and wine.
Trisodium citrate is also used as an emulsifier for oils in the cheesemaking process. 
Trisodium citrate allows cheese to melt without becoming greasy. 
Historically, sodium phosphate was used to keep water and fat droplets mixed when cheese is melted.

Trisodium citrate, also known as Trisodium citrate, is an organic compound that has white to colorless crystals. 
Trisodium citrate is odourless, with a cool salty taste. 
Stable in room temperature and air, slightly soluble in wet air, weathering in hot air. 
Lose crystal water heated to 150 ℃. 
Trisodium citrate is easily soluble in water, glycerol, alcohol and other organic solvents. 
Trisodium citrate is decomposed by overheating, slightly deliviate in humid environment and slightly weathering in hot air.

Application of Trisodium citrate
Trisodium citrate is used as acidity regulator, flavor agent and stabilizer in food and beverage industry. 
Trisodium citrate used as an anticoagulant, phlegm dispersant and diuretic in the pharmaceutical industry; In detergent industry, sodium tripolyphosphate can be substituted as non-toxic detergent additive. 
Trisodium citrate is also used in brewing, injection, photographic medicine and electroplating.

Trisodium citrate is colorless or white crystal and crystalline powder. 
Trisodium citrate is inodorous and taste salt, cool. It will loss crystal water at 150° C and decompose at more high temperature. 
Trisodium citrate dissolves in ethanol.
Trisodium citrate E331, Food Additives Trisodium citrate Application
Trisodium citrate is used to enhance flavor and maintain stability of active ingredients in food and beverage in detergent industry, it can replace Sodium tripolyphosphate as a kind of safe detergent it can aloe be used in fermentation, injection, photography and metal plating.
Trisodium citrate is sometimes used as an acidity regulator in drinks, and also as anemulsifier for oils when making cheese. 
Trisodium citrate allows the cheeses to melt without becoming greasy.

Chemical Properties of Trisodium citrate:
Trisodium citrate is colorless crystals or white crystalline powder, and is odorless, cool and salty. 
Trisodium citrate has no melting point with a relative density of 1.857. 
Trisodium citrate is stable in air at room temperature with loss of crystal water when being heated to 150 °C loss of crystal water; further heating will cause its decomposition. 
Trisodium citrate is insoluble in ethanol but highly soluble in water. 5% aqueous solution has a pH value of 7.6 to 8.6. 

Uses of Trisodium citrate:
Trisodium citrate can be used as Ph adjusting agents and emulsifying enhancers applied to jam, candy, jelly and ice cream; its combination with citric acid has an effect of alleviating tour; it also has effects on forming complex with metal ions. 
China rules that Trisodium citrate can be applied to various types of food with appropriate usage according to the absolute necessity.
Trisodium citrate can be used as a food additive, as complex agent and buffering agent in electroplating industry; at the field of pharmaceutical industry, it is used for the manufacturing of anti-clotting drugs; and used as the detergent additives in light industry.
Trisodium citrate is used as the analysis agents used for chromatography analysis and can also used for preparing bacterial culture medium; moreover, it can also be applied into pharmaceutical industry.
Trisodium citrate can be used for the flavoring processing of food, as stabilizers, buffers and deputy complex-forming agents in non-toxic electroplating industry; at pharmaceutical industry, it is used as anti-clotting agent, phlegm drugs and diuretics drugs. 
Trisodium citrate can also be used in brewing, injection, newspaper and movies medicines.

Applications of Trisodium citrate:

Foods
Trisodium citrate is chiefly used as a food additive, usually for flavor or as a preservative. 
Trisodium citrates E number is E331. 
Trisodium citrate is employed as a flavoring agent in certain varieties of club soda. 
Trisodium citrate is common as an ingredient in bratwurst, and is also used in commercial ready-to-drink beverages and drink mixes, contributing a tart flavor. 
Trisodium citrate is found in gelatin mix, ice cream, yogurt, jams, sweets, milk powder, processed cheeses, carbonated beverages, and wine[citation needed], amongst others.
Trisodium citrate can be used as an emulsifying stabilizer when making cheese. 
Trisodium citrate allows the cheese to melt without becoming greasy by stopping the fats from separating.
As a conjugate base of a weak acid, citrate can perform as a buffering agent or acidity regulator, resisting changes in pH. 
Trisodium citrate is used to control acidity in some substances, such as gelatin desserts. 
Trisodium citrate can be found in the milk minicontainers used with coffee machines. 
Trisodium citrate is the product of antacids, such as Alka-Seltzer, when they are dissolved in water.
The pH of a solution of 5 g/100 ml water at 25 °C is 7.5 – 9.0. 
Trisodium citrate is added to many commercially packaged dairy products to control the PH impact of the gastrointestinal system of humans, mainly in processed products such as cheese and yogurt.

Medicine
In 1914, the Belgian doctor Albert Hustin and the Argentine physician and researcher Luis Agote successfully used Trisodium citrate as an anticoagulant in blood transfusions, with Richard Lewisohn determining its correct concentration in 1915. 
Trisodium citrate continues to be used today in blood-collection tubes and for the preservation of blood in blood banks. 
The citrate ion chelates calcium ions in the blood by forming calcium citrate complexes, disrupting the blood clotting mechanism. 
Recently, triTrisodium citrate has also been used as a locking agent in vascath and haemodialysis lines instead of heparin due to its lower risk of systemic anticoagulation.

Trisodium citrate is used to relieve discomfort in urinary-tract infections, such as cystitis, to reduce the acidosis seen in distal renal tubular acidosis, and can also be used as an osmotic laxative. 
Trisodium citrate is a major component of the WHO oral rehydration solution.
Trisodium citrate is used as an antacid, especially prior to anaesthesia, for caesarian section procedures to reduce the risks associated with the aspiration of gastric contents.

Boiler descaling
Trisodium citrate is a particularly effective agent for removal of carbonate scale from boilers without removing them from operation and for cleaning automobile radiators.

IUPAC name:
TriTrisodium citrate
Preferred IUPAC name
Trisodium 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate
Other names:
Citrosodine
Citric acid, trisodium salt
Trisodium citrate
E331

Trisodium citrate, Anhydrous, USP is used to treat certain metabolic problems (acidosis) caused by kidney disease. 
All Spectrum Chemical USP products are manufactured, packaged and stored under current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) per 21CFR part 211 in FDA registered and inspected facilities

Excellent performance
Trisodium citrate is currently the most important citrate. 
Trisodium citrate is produced by two steps: first starch food is fermented to generate citric acid; secondly, citric acid is neutralized by alkali to generate the final products. 
Trisodium citrate has the following excellent performance:
Safe and nontoxic properties; Since the basic raw material for the preparation of Trisodium citrate mainly comes from the food, Trisodium citrate is absolutely safe and reliable without causing harm to human health. 
The United Nations Food and Agriculture and the World Health Organization has no restriction in its daily intake, which means that this product can be considered as non-toxic food.
Trisodium citrate is biodegradable. 
After subjecting to the dilution of a large amount of water, Trisodium citrate is partially converted into citrate, which coexists with Trisodium citrate in the same system. 
Citrate is easy to subject to biological degradation at water by the action of oxygen, heat, light, bacteria and microbes. 
Trisodium citrates decomposition pathways are generally going through aconitic acid, itaconic acid, citraconic acid anhydride to be further converted to carbon dioxide and water.
The ability of forming complex with metal ions. 
Trisodium citrate has a good capability of forming complex with some metal ions such as Ca2+, Mg2+; for other ions such as Fe2+, Trisodium citrate also has a good complex-forming ability.
Excellent solubility, and the solubility increases with increasing temperature of water.
Trisodium citrate has a good capability for pH adjustment and a good buffering property. 
Trisodium citrate is a weak acid-strong alkali salt; When combined with citrate, they can form a pH buffer with strong compatibility; therefore, this is very useful for some cases in which it is not suitable to have large change of pH value. 
In addition, Trisodium citrate also has excellent retardation performance and stability.

Heavy Metal (PB) ≤ 0.001%
Arsenic ≤ 0.0001%
Ferric ≤ 0.001%
Oxalate ≤ 0.03%
Sulfate ≤ 0.015%
Readily carbonizable substance Meet the rule
Chloride ≤ 0.005%
Water 11.0-13.0%
Appearance of the solution clear and transparent solution, colorless
Pyrogen consistent with the test

Effect and application of Trisodium citrate:
During the process of clinically taking fresh blood, adding some amount of sterile Trisodium citrate can play a role in prevent blood clotting.
Trisodium citrate is exactly taking advantage of the features that calcium citrate can form soluble complexes with calcium ion.
In the field of medicine, Trisodium citrate is used for the in vitro anti-clotting drugs and anticoagulants drugs, phlegm drugs, and diuretics drugs during blood transfusions.
Trisodium citrate can also used for cyanide-free electroplating industry; also used as developer for photographic industry. 
Trisodium citrate can be used as flavoring agents, buffering materials, emulsifiers, and stabilizer in the food industry. 
Trisodium citrate is also widely used in chemical, metallurgical industry, the absorption of sulfur dioxide exhaust with the absorption rate of 99% and regenerate liquid sulfur dioxide citrate for recycle application. 
Trisodium citrate has a good water solubility and a excellent cheating capability with Ca2 +, Mg2 + and other metal ions.
Trisodium citrate is biodegradable and has a strong dispersing ability and anti-redeposition ability.
Daily-applied chemical detergents use it as alternative to trimer sodium phosphate for production of non-phosphorus detergent and phosphate-free liquid detergent. 
Adding a certain amount Trisodium citrate to the detergent can significantly increase the cleaning ability of detergent cleaning. 
The large scale of application of sodium tripolyphosphate as a builder in detergents is an important discovery in synthetic detergent industry. 
Trisodium citrate is non-toxic without environmental pollution.
Trisodium citrate can also be acted as a buffer for the production of cosmetics.

Assay Percent Range: 99.0%
Beilstein: 6104939
Solubility Information: 
Soluble in water. 
Insoluble in alcohol.
Formula Weight: 294.10 (258.07 Anhydrous)
Physical Form: Crystalline
Grade: ACS Reagent
Melting Point: 150°C-2H2O
Quantity: 500g
Chemical Name or Material: TriTrisodium citrate dihydrate, For analysis ACS

Trisodium citrate is used as a natural food preservative. 
Some of the benefits of using Trisodium citrate as a Food additive include better circulation and blow flow as well as balancing out Ph levels in the body. 
Trisodium citrate is also a powerful source of antioxidants.
Trisodium citrate is a non-toxic, neutral salt with low reactivity. 
Trisodium citrate is chemically stable if stored at ambient temperatures. 
Trisodium citrate is fully biodegradable and can be disposed of with regular waste or sewage. 
Trisodium citrate is widely used in foods, beverages, and various technical applications mainly as buffering, sequestering, or emulsifying agent. 
Trisodium citrate may be stored for 36 months from the date of manufacture in the unopened original container. 
Relative humidity of 50% and a temperature range of 10–30°C are the most suitable conditions for storage.

CAS Number    
68-04-2 
6132-04-3 (dihydrate)
6858-44-2 (pentahydrate)
ChEMBL: ChEMBL1355
ChemSpider: 5989
ECHA InfoCard: 100.000.614 
E number: E331iii (antioxidants, ...)
PubChem CID: 6224
RTECS number: GE8300000
UNII: 
RS7A450LGA 
B22547B95K (dihydrate) 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID2026363

What is Trisodium citrate?
Trisodium citrate is a tribasic salt of citric acid. 
Trisodium citrate has a sour taste similar to citric acid, and is salty as well. 
Trisodium citrate is often used as a food preservative, and as a flavoring in the food industry. 
In the pharmaceutical industry Trisodium citrate is used to control pH. 
Trisodium citrate may be used as an alkalizing agent, buffering agent, emulsifier, or sequestering agent.
According to the FDA Select Committee on Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) food substances, citrate salts, including Trisodium citrate, are generally regarded as safe when used in normal quantities.

Chemical formula: Na3C6H5O7
Molar mass: 258.06 g/mol (anhydrous), 294.10 g/mol (dihydrate)
Appearance: White crystalline powder
Density: 1.7 g/cm3
Melting point: > 300 °C (572 °F; 573 K) (hydrates lose water ca. 150 °C)
Boiling point: Decomposes
Solubility in water: Pentahydrate form: 92 g/100 g H2O (25 °C)

Trisodium citrate
TRITrisodium citrate
68-04-2
Natrocitral
Trisodium citrate anhydrous
Trisodium citrate, anhydrous
Citric acid, trisodium salt
TriTrisodium citrate, anhydrous
1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-, trisodium salt
Sodium 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate
TriTrisodium citrate anhydrous
FEMA No. 3026
Citric acid trisodium salt
UNII-RS7A450LGA
Trisodium citrate,anhydrous
MFCD00012462
RS7A450LGA
Citrosodine
CHEBI:53258
Citric acid trisodium salt, anhydrous
CITRIC ACID, SODIUM SALT
Citrosodina
Citnatin
Citreme
Citrosodna

General description of Trisodium citrate:
Trisodium citrate, (molecular formula: Na3C6H5O7 • 2H2O) has molecular weight of 294.1, is a colorless crystal or white crystalline powder product.
Trisodium citrate is odorless, salty taste, and cool.
Trisodium citrate will lose its crystal water at 150 °C and will be decomposed at even higher temperature. 
Trisodium citrate also has slight deliquescence in wet air and has weathering property upon hot air. 
Trisodium citrate is soluble in water and glycerol, but insoluble in alcohol and some other organic solvents. 
Trisodium citrate has no toxic effect, and has pH adjusting capability as well as having a good stability, and therefore can be used in the food industry. 
Trisodium citrate has the greatest demand when being used as a food additive.
As food additives, Trisodium citrate is mainly used as flavoring agents, buffers, emulsifiers, bulking agents, stabilizers and preservatives.
in addition, combination between Trisodium citrate and citric acid can be used in a variety of jams, jelly, juice, drinks, cold drinks, dairy products and pastries gelling agents, flavoring agents and nutritional supplements.

Assay (%) Not less than 99.0 (anhydrous basis)
Water (%) 10.0 – 13.0
Identification Positive for sodium and citrate
Alkalinity Passes USP and FCC tests
Tartrate Passes USP test
Heavy Metals (as Pb) Not more than 10mg/kg
Lead Passes FCC test

CAS number: 6132-04-3
EC number: 200-675-3
Grade: Ph Eur,BP,JP,USP,E 331
Hill Formula: C₆H₅Na₃O₇ 
Molar Mass: 294.10 g/mol
HS Code: 2918 15 00

TriTrisodium citrate has the chemical formula of Na3C6H5O7. 
Trisodium citrate is sometimes referred to simply as Trisodium citrate, though Trisodium citrate can refer to any of the three sodium salts of citric acid. 
Trisodium citrate possesses a saline, mildly tart flavor. 
For this reason, citrates of certain alkaline and alkaline earth metals (e.g. sodium and calcium citrates) are commonly known as "sour salt" (occasionally citric acid is erroneously termed sour salt).

Trisodium citrate hydrate
trisodium;2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate
1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-, sodium salt (1:3)
CCRIS 3293
Trisodium citrate (Na3C6H5O7)
HSDB 5201
anhydrous Trisodium citrate
994-36-5
Citric acid, trisodium salt, 98%, pure, anhydrous
EINECS 200-675-3
trisodium-citrate
tri-Trisodium citrate
Trisodium 2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylate
Trisodium citrate salt

What is Trisodium citrate?
Trisodium citrate is a natural ingredient that is commonly found in citrus fruits, like lemon juice. 
Trisodium citrate is a salt of citric acid also known as sour salt.

What does Trisodium citrate do?
Trisodium citrate is used to balance pH levels and as a water softener. 
Trisodium citrate is also used in cosmetics such as make-up and lipstick, in baby products like wipes, in soaps and, of course, laundry detergents.

Trisodium citrate is a small white crystal or powder, soluble in water with a slight acidic or sour taste. 
Trisodium citrate is mainly used in soft drinks, frozen deserts, meat products, diuretic and expectorant and an anti coagulant for blood withdrawn from the body. 
Trisodium citrate is a pure product small clumps may form over time, simply crush them with a spoon. 
Trisodium citrate will have no effect on the functionality of the product.

sodium (iii) citrate
Trisodium citrate (USP)
Anhydrous triTrisodium citrate
EC 200-675-3
C6H5Na3O7
Anticoagulant Trisodium citrate
trisodium 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate
CHEMBL1355
INS NO.331(III)
INS-331(III)
DTXSID2026363

Production methods of Trisodium citrate:
Trisodium citrate is produced by the neutralization of citric acid by sodium hydroxide or sodium bicarbonate. 
Dissolve sodium bicarbonate in water upon stirring and heating; add citric acid, continue to heat up to 85-90 °C; adjust the pH to 6.8; adjust active carbon for bleaching. 
Filter when the mixture is still hot; condense the filtrate under reduced pressure; cool and the crystal comes out; filter, wash, dry to obtain the final products of Trisodium citrate.
C6H8O7 + 3NaHCO3 → C6H5Na3O7 • 2H2O + 3CO2 ↑ + H2O

Chemical Properties of Trisodium citrate:
white powder or colourless crystals
Trisodium citrate dihydrate consists of odorless, colorless, monoclinic crystals, or a white crystalline powder with a cooling, saline taste. 
Trisodium citrate is slightly deliquescent in moist air, and in warm dry air it is efflorescent. 
Although most pharmacopeias specify that Trisodium citrate is the dihydrate, the USP 32 states that Trisodium citrate may be either the dihydrate or anhydrous material.

Uses of Trisodium citrate:
Trisodium citrate is chiefly used as a food additive, usually for flavor or as a preservative.
Anticoagulant for collection of blood. 
In photography; as sequestering agent to remove trace metals; as emulsifier, acidulant and sequestrant in foods.
An anticoagulant also used as a biological buffer

Definition of Trisodium citrate:
ChEBI: The dihydrate of triTrisodium citrate.

Production Methods of Trisodium citrate:
Trisodium citrate is prepared by adding sodium carbonate to a solution of citric acid until effervescence ceases. 
The resulting solution is filtered and evaporated to dryness.

Pharmaceutical Applications of Trisodium citrate:
Trisodium citrate, as either the dihydrate or anhydrous material, is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations.
Trisodium citrate is used in food products, primarily to adjust the pH of solutions. 
Trisodium citrate is also used as a sequestering agent. 
The anhydrous material is used in effervescent tablet formulations. 
Trisodium citrate is additionally used as a blood anticoagulant either alone or in combination with other citrates such as disodium hydrogen citrate.
Therapeutically, Trisodium citrate is used to relieve the painful irritation caused by cystitis, and also to treat dehydration and acidosis due to diarrhea.

Biological Activity
Commonly used laboratory reagent

Safety of Trisodium citrate:
After ingestion, Trisodium citrate is absorbed and metabolized to bicarbonate.
Although Trisodium citrate is generally regarded as a nontoxic and nonirritant excipient, excessive consumption may cause gastrointestinal discomfort or diarrhea. 
Therapeutically, in adults, up to 15 g daily of Trisodium citrate dihydrate may be administered orally, in divided doses, as an aqueous solution to relieve the painful irritation caused by cystitis.
Citrates and citric acid enhance intestinal aluminum absorption in renal patients, which may lead to increased, harmful serum aluminum levels. 
Trisodium citrate has therefore been suggested that patients with renal failure taking aluminum compounds to control phosphate absorption should not be prescribed citrate- or citric acid-containing products.

storage
Trisodium citrate dihydrate is a stable material. 
Aqueous solutions may be sterilized by autoclaving. 
On storage, aqueous solutions may cause the separation of small, solid particles from glass containers.
The bulk material should be stored in an airtight container in a cool, dry place.

Purification Methods
Crystallise the salt from warm water by cooling to 0o.

Incompatibilities
Aqueous solutions are slightly alkaline and will react with acidic substances. 
Alkaloidal salts may be precipitated from their aqueous or hydro-alcohol solutions. 
Calcium and strontium salts will cause precipitation of the corresponding citrates. 
Other incompatibilities include bases, reducing agents, and oxidizing agents.

Regulatory Status
GRAS listed. Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. 
Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (inhalations; injections; ophthalmic products; oral solutions, suspensions, syrups and tablets; nasal, otic, rectal, topical, transdermal, and vaginal preparations). 
Included in nonparenteral and parenteral medicines licensed in the UK. 
Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.

What Is Trisodium citrate?
Trisodium citrate is a salt of citric acid. 
Citric acid is an organic acid that occurs naturally in plants and animals.
Trisodium citrate occurs as colorless crystals or white powder, and is commonly found in citrus fruits, corn, and other foods.
Two ounces of orange juice has about 500 mg, according to the FDA.
Citric acid is an alpha-hydroxy acid and a beta-hydroxy acid.

What Does Trisodium citrate Do in Our products?
Trisodium citrate is often used as a pH adjuster and water softener. 
Trisodium citrate is common in liquid laundry detergent, though it is also often used in food and medical products.
In food, Trisodium citrate helps control the acidity of ice cream, candy, jelly, and gelatin desserts.
Trisodium citrate is also in dozens of personal care products, such as shampoo, conditioner, sunscreen, facial moisturizer, makeup, baby wipes, soap, and other products.

Why Puracy Uses Trisodium citrate
We use Trisodium citrate as a water softener and to adjust the acidity of products. 
The FDA has deemed the ingredient Generally Recognized as Safe, and Whole Foods has deemed the ingredient acceptable in its body care and cleaning product quality standards.
The Cosmetics Ingredient Review has also deemed the ingredient safe for use in cosmetic products.
Studies show the ingredient is not a skin irritant or sensitizer.

How Trisodium citrate Is Made
Trisodium citrate production occurs by neutralizing citric acid with sodium hydroxide.
Citric acid may be produced from fruits or other foods, through yeast fermentation, and by solvent extraction.
Most large-scale production occurs by fermenting molasses or other sugar stocks with Aspergillus niger.
The liquid is separated by filtration, and the citric acid is separated by precipitation.
Trisodium citrate is usually offered commercially as the white, crystalline triTrisodium citrate dihydrate.

2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid, trisodium salt
Citric acid sodium salt anhydrous
Citric acid trisodium salt, 99%
E-331(III)
CS-B1704
AKOS015915009
FEMA NO. 3026, ANHYDROUS-
Citrate Solution, pH ~3.0, 30 mM
DB09154
AC-15008
E331
K121
Trisodium citrate dihydrate USP Fine Granular
B7298
FT-0623960
1835-EP2269978A2
1835-EP2269985A2
1835-EP2269991A2
1835-EP2270017A1
1835-EP2270505A1
1835-EP2272817A1
1835-EP2272822A1
1835-EP2272843A1
1835-EP2275413A1
1835-EP2277565A2
1835-EP2277566A2
1835-EP2277567A1
1835-EP2277568A2
1835-EP2277569A2
1835-EP2277570A2
1835-EP2277867A2
1835-EP2280003A2
1835-EP2280010A2
1835-EP2281559A1
1835-EP2281817A1
1835-EP2281818A1

The dehydration processes of triTrisodium citrate (Na3C6H5O7) hydrates were investigated using thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). 
Trisodium citrate was found that the temperature of dehydration of triTrisodium citrate dihydrate was at 430.99 K. 
For triTrisodium citrate pentahydrate, there is a two-step dehydration process and the endothermal peaks appear at 337.23 K and 433.83 K, respectively. 
During the first step of dehydration process, the structure of triTrisodium citrate pentahydrate changed into the structure of triTrisodium citrate dihydrate. 
In addition, the kinetics of dehydration for trisoidum citrate hydrates was also investigated using TG data. 
According to the activation energies of dehydration calculated by Ozawa equation, it was found that the dehydration mechanisms of the two hydrates were different.

1835-EP2281823A2
1835-EP2284150A2
1835-EP2284151A2
1835-EP2284152A2
1835-EP2284153A2
1835-EP2284155A2
1835-EP2284156A2
1835-EP2284160A1
1835-EP2284164A2
1835-EP2287140A2
1835-EP2287148A2
1835-EP2287150A2
1835-EP2287155A1
1835-EP2287156A1
1835-EP2287160A1
1835-EP2287163A1
1835-EP2289871A1


Trisodium citrate is the sodium salt of citric acid. 
Trisodium citrate is white, crystalline powder or white, granular crystals, slightly deliquescent in moist air, freely soluble in water, practically insoluble in alcohol. 
Like citric acid, Trisodium citrate has a sour taste. 
From the medical point of view, Trisodium citrate is used as alkalinizing agent. 
Trisodium citrate works by neutralizing excess acid in the blood and urine. 
Trisodium citrate has been indicated for the treatment of metabolic acidosis.

Pharmacodynamics
Citrate prevents activation of the clotting cascade by chelating calcium ions. 
Citrate neutralizes acid in the stomach and urine, raising the pH 8.

Mechanism of action
Citrate chelates free calcium ions preventing them from forming a complex with tissue factor and coagulation factor VIIa to promote the activation of coagulation factor X 1 2. This inhibits the extrinsic initiation of the coagulation cascade. 
Citrate may also exert an anticoagulant effect via a so far unknown mechanism as restoration of calcium concentration does not fully reverse the effect of citrate 1. 
Citrate is a weak base and so reacts with hydrochloric acid in the stomach to raise the pH. 
Trisodium citrate further metabolized to bicarbonate which then acts as a systemic alkalizing agent, raising the pH of the blood and urine 8. 
Trisodium citrate also acts as a diuretic and increases the urinary excretion of calcium.

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Differences between sodium triscide and citric acid in chemical structure
The chemical structure of citric acid (a triabasic acid) is HOOCCH2.C (OH) COOH.CH2COOH. 
Citric acid trisodium salt is commonly called Trisodium citrate, in which all carboxylic hydrogens are replaced by sodium.

Alternative uses: 
Trisodium citrate can be used in cleaning; Trisodium citrate has been found to be a particularly effective agent in the removal of carbonate scale from kettles, as well as the cleaning of automobile radiators. 
Trisodium citrate is also used in detergents and dishwasher tablets. 
Trisodium citrate acts as a pH regulator and water softener.

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Yogurt
Citric acid adds sour taste to dairy products, but Trisodium citrates sour taste is strong, and the sour taste can be eased with the combination of Trisodium citrate, so these two ingredients are often used together in yogurt to adjust and improve the sour taste.

Cheese
Cheese is an emulsion of dairy fat, protein and water, and Trisodium citrate tends to break down at high temperatures. 
While Trisodium citrate is melting, Trisodium citrate works as an emulsifier to prevent cheese curdling or the separation of fat and protein by keeping fat and protein together and binding calcium ions in the cheese. 
The usage of Trisodium citrate in cheese is around 3%, depending on your recipes.
Cheese with Trisodium citrate can melt evenly and produce a smooth & creamy sauce. 
This property makes Trisodium citrate possible to obtain portable and sliceable cheese (in mold, can take everywhere) in home cooking.

Following cheese products may contain with Trisodium citrate:
-Cheese sauce 
-Nacho cheese
-Macaroni and Cheese

Beverage
Trisodium citrate is used to adjust the tartness in Coca Cola’s beverages. 
And you can find Trisodium citrate in the ingredient lists of Sprite, Vitamin water and other drinks. 
Trisodium citrate is also added in sports and energy drinks for such purposes, such as in the products of Redbull and Monster.

Is Trisodium citrate Safe to Eat?
Yes, Trisodium citrate has been approved safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), as well as the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). 

FDA
Trisodium citrate is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) when used in food with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. 

Trisodium citrate can be used in following products:
-Milk and cream 
-Cheeses and related cheese products 
-Artificial sweet fruit jelly, jam, and preserves

EFSA
MonoTrisodium citrate E331(i), diTrisodium citrate E331(ii) and triTrisodium citrate E331(iii) are listed in Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012 as an authorised food additive and categorized in “ additives other than colours and sweeteners”.

Approved uses of Trisodium citrate:
Trisodium citrates are classified into “Group I” with the maximum use levels “quantum satis”, and also listed in its separate uses. The following food may contain it: 
-UHT goat milk, dehydrated milk 
-Edible caseinates
-Cheese
-Frozen fruit and vegetables
-Canned or bottled fruit and vegetables
-Jam, jellies and marmalades 
-Meat preparations, unprocessed fish
-Table-top sweeteners in liquid, powder or tablet form

Infant formulae 
Processed cereal-based foods and baby foods

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Melting Point: 300°C
Molar Mass: 258.07 g/mol
Molecular Formula: Na3C6H5O7
NFPA 704: H-1,F-0,R-0,C-NA
RTECS Number: GE8300000
Related Compounds: MonoTrisodium citrate;DiTrisodium citrate;Calcium Citrate;Citric Acid
Solubility: 42.5 g/100 ml

Trisodium citrate is the sodium salt of citric acid with the chemical formula of Na3C6H5O7. 
Trisodium citrate possesses a saline, mildly tart, flavor. 
For this reason, citrates of certain Alkaline and Alkaline Earth metals (e.g. sodium and calcium citrates) are commonly known as sour salt (occasionally citric acid is erroneously termed sour salt). 
Trisodium citrate is chiefly used as a food additive, usually for flavor or as a preservative. 
Trisodium citrate is employed as a flavoring agent in certain varieties of club soda.
Trisodium citrate is common as an ingredient in lemon-lime and citrus soft drinks such as Ting, contributing to their tart tastes, and can also be found in such energy drinks as Rockstar and Red Bull.
In 1914, the Belgian doctor Albert Hustin and the Argentine physician and researcher Luis Agote successfully used Trisodium citrate as an anticoagulant in blood transfusions. 
Trisodium citrate continues to be used today in blood collection tubes and for the preservation of blood in blood banks. 
The citrate ion chelates calcium ions in the blood, disrupting the blood clotting mechanism.
As a conjugate base of a weak acid, citrate can perform as a buffering agent, resisting changes in pH. 
Trisodium citrate is used to control acidity in some substances, such as gelatin desserts. 
Trisodium citrate can be found in the mini milk containers used with coffee machines. 
The compound is the product of antacids such as Alka-Seltzer when they are dissolved in water.
Recently, Oopvik, et al. showed that use of Trisodium citrate (approx. 37 grams) improved running performance over 5 km by 30 seconds.
Trisodium citrate is used to relieve discomfort in urinary tract infections such as cystitis, to reduce the acidosis seen in distal renal tubular acidosis, and can also be used as an osmotic laxative.
Trisodium citrate was used by chef Heston Blumenthal in his television series In Search of Perfection as a key ingredient in making cheese slices

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Types of Trisodium citrate
As there are three carboxyl groups in the molecule of citric acid, so there can be three types of Trisodium citrates (mono, di and triTrisodium citrate) based on the partial or total neutralization of citric acid. 
Among them, triTrisodium citrate is the most used one in food, while diTrisodium citrate is seldom to see in food.

MonoTrisodium citrate
Also known as sodium dihydrogen citrate, is a monobasic salt of citric acid with a slightly salty and acidulous taste. 
Less prone to caking than citric acid and can be used as an acidulant (PH 3.5 to 3.8 of 1 % aqueous solution) or buffering agent in combination with free acidulants in dry blends, jellies and beverages, also can be used as a tablet disintegrant. 

DiTrisodium citrate
Also known as disodium hydrogen citrate with the PH from 4.9 to 5,2 (1 % aqueous solution), used less as a direct food additive.

Trisodium citrate
Trisodium citrate has two forms, triTrisodium citrate dihydrate and anhydrous. 
Trisodium citrate commonly refers to the dihydrate type when used as a flavoring agent, buffer, chelating agent, emulsifier, stabilizer, and preservative in food.

With the capability of absorbing water and free-flowing, triTrisodium citrate anhydrous can be used as a carrier in moisture-sensitive formulations by providing a longer shelf life for its low water content. 

How is Trisodium citrate made?
Trisodium citrate can be directly synthesized by the neutralization of sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide with citric acid, but several disadvantages may occur, such as the speed of reaction and quality of the final product.

The following manufacturing process was came up by a China manufacturer with better output:
Obtain calcium citrate by reacting calcium carbonate and/or calcium hydroxide with citric acid.
Calcium citrate reacts with citric acid further to produce calcium hydrogen citrate and/or calcium dihydrogen citrate.
Then neutralize with the sodium carbonate and/or the sodium hydroxide to produce Trisodium citrate.

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Trisodium citrate consists of colourless crystals, with a salty taste and barely perceptible odour.
Trisodium citrate is also known as citrosodine and trisodium salt.  
Monarch Chemical's TriTrisodium citrate products are non-toxic and fully biodegradable. 
Our Trisodium citrate is chemically stable if stored at ambient temperatures.
Trisodium citrate is manufactured when making citric acid and is used in similar applications including photography, soft drinks, and foods as it buffers PH levels to control acidity and also as a sequestering agent when Trisodium citrate attaches to calcium ions in water to stop lime scale interfering with soaps and detergents.

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Trisodium citrate, 0.5M buffer solution, pH 5.0
Trisodium citrate, 0.5M buffer solution, pH 5.5
Trisodium citrate, 0.5M buffer solution, pH 6.0
Trisodium citrate, 0.5M buffer solution, pH 6.5
Q409728
J-520101
Citric acid trisodium salt, anhydrous, >=98% (GC)
Citrate Solution, pH 3.6+/-0.1 (25 C), 27 mM
Citric acid trisodium salt, Vetec(TM) reagent grade, 98%
UNII-1Q73Q2JULR component HRXKRNGNAMMEHJ-UHFFFAOYSA-K
2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanenetricarboxylic acid trisodium salt dihydrate
Citrate Concentrated Solution, BioUltra, for molecular biology, 1 M in H2O
Buffer solution pH 5.0 (20 C), citric acid ~0.096 M, sodium hydroxide ~0.20 M
Citrate Concentrated Solution, BioReagent, suitable for coagulation assays, 4 % (w/v)

Appearance: White crystals or crystalline powder
Odor: Characteristic
Clarity and color of Solution: Conforms
Loss on drying: 11.0 - 13.0%
Usage: acidity regulator etc.
Pb: < 10ppm
Assay: 99.0 - 101.0%
Chemical formula: C6H5­O7Na3.2H2O
Sulfate (SO4): 150 ppm max
Chloride (Cl): 50 ppm max
Alkalinity: Conforms
Oxalate: 300 ppm max
Storage: in the shade cool
 

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