ANTIMICROBIALS

Antimicrobial is used to describe substances which demonstrate the ability to reduce the presence of microbes, such as bacteria and mould.
Many substances can be described as antimicrobial; such as disinfectants, antibiotics and of course Antimicrobial Additives.
An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth.
Antimicrobial medicines can be grouped according to the microorganisms they act primarily against. 
For example, antibiotics are used against bacteria, and antifungals are used against fungi. 
They can also be classified according to their function. 
Agents that kill microbes are microbicides, while those that merely inhibit their growth are called bacteriostatic agents. 
The use of antimicrobial medicines to treat infection is known as antimicrobial chemotherapy, while the use of antimicrobial medicines to prevent infection is known as antimicrobial prophylaxis.
The main classes of antimicrobial agents are disinfectants (non-selective agents, such as bleach), which kill a wide range of microbes on non-living surfaces to prevent the spread of illness, antiseptics (which are applied to living tissue and help reduce infection during surgery), and antibiotics (which destroy microorganisms within the body). 
The term "antibiotic" originally described only those formulations derived from living microorganisms but is now also applied to synthetic agents, such as sulfonamides or fluoroquinolones. 
Though the term used to be restricted to antibacterials (and is often used as a synonym for them by medical professionals and in medical literature), its context has broadened to include all antimicrobials. 
Antibacterial agents can be further subdivided into bactericidal agents, which kill bacteria, and bacteriostatic agents, which slow down or stall bacterial growth. 
In response, further advancements in antimicrobial technologies have resulted in solutions that can go beyond simply inhibiting microbial growth. 
Instead, certain types of porous media have been developed to kill microbes on contact.
Antimicrobials are substances or mixtures of substances used to destroy or suppress the growth of harmful microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi on inanimate objects and surfaces.


1-) CALCIUM PROPIONATE

Calcium propionate = E282 = Calcium propanoate

CAS Number: 4075-81-4 
EC Number: 223-795-8
E number: E282 (preservatives)
Chemical formula: C6H10CaO4
Molar mass: 186.2192 g/mol

Calcium propionate (also known as E282) is the calcium salt of propanoic acid. 
Calcium propionate is used as a food preservative and is commonly found in commercial bread and other baked goods. 
However, Calcium propionate can also be found in processed meat, whey, and other dairy products. 
Calcium propionate meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS). 
As a bread preservative, Calcium propionate helps keep baked goods fresher longer by preventing mold and bacterial growth. 
While you might find good mold in certain cheeses, moldy bread is never a good thing.
By prohibiting mold and bacterial growth, calcium propionate extends the normal shelf-life of bread and baked goods. 
Calcium propanoate or calcium propionate has the formula Ca(C2H5COO)2. 
Calcium propionate is the calcium salt of propanoic acid.

Calcium propionate is an organic salt that helps preserve food by interfering with the ability of microorganisms, such as molds and bacteria, to reproduce.
For large-scale baking operations, including bread that is found sliced, wrapped, or foiled in grocery stores, this cuts down on product spoilage and waste. 
Ordinarily, the high moisture content of bread is an ideal environment for mold growth. 
However, calcium propionate severely inhibits this problem. 
Calcium propionate’s best used with yeast-leavened bakery products because the calcium ions interfere with the chemical agents in non-yeast leavened bakery products.
Besides preserving the food for longer periods of time, calcium propionate also contributes to the nutritional value of the food because it is a source of calcium. 
Calcium is, of course, a very important mineral for the human body. 
Calcium contributes to bone and tooth health, blood clotting, nerve function, hormone and chemical regulation, and even helps keep a regular heartbeat in the human body.

Properties of Calcium propionate:
White crystal granules or crystalline powder. odorless; has hygroscopicity, easily soluble in water, insoluble in alcohols.
Calcium Propionate is a new food additive is approved for use by the WHO and FAO secure food and feed preservatives. 
Calcium Propionate for mold, yeast and bacteria with a wide range of antibacterial activity.
Calcium propionate is a food additive present in many foods, especially baked goods.
Calcium propionate acts as a preservative to help extend shelf life by interfering with the growth and reproduction of microorganisms.
Though Calcium propionate has its benefits for food manufacturers, you may wonder whether calcium propionate is safe to eat.

Uses of Calcium propionate:
As a food additive, Calcium propionate is listed as E number 282 in the Codex Alimentarius. 
Calcium propionate is used as a preservative in a wide variety of products, including but not limited to bread, other baked goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products.
In agriculture, Calcium propionate is used, amongst other things, to prevent milk fever in cows and as a feed supplement
Propionates prevent microbes from producing the energy they need, like benzoates do. 
However, unlike benzoates, propionates do not require an acidic environment.
Calcium propionate is used in bakery products as a mold inhibitor, typically at 0.1-0.4%
Calcium propionate can be used as a pesticide.

Calcium propionate uses
As a food additive, Calcium propionate is listed as E number 282 in the Codex Alimentarius. Calcium propionate is used as a preservative in a wide variety of products, including: bread, other baked goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products.
In agriculture, Calcium propionate is used, amongst other things, to prevent milk fever in cows and as a feed supplement.
Propionates prevent microbes from producing the energy they need, like benzoates do. However, unlike benzoates, propionates do not require an acidic environment.
Calcium propionate is used in bakery products as a mold inhibitor, typically at 0.1-0.4% (though animal feed may contain up to 1%). 
Mold contamination is considered a serious problem amongst bakers, and conditions commonly found in baking present near-optimal conditions for mold growth.
A few decades ago, Bacillus mesentericus (rope), was a serious problem, but today's improved sanitary practices in the bakery, combined with rapid turnover of the finished product, have virtually eliminated this form of spoilage.
Calcium propionate and sodium propionate are effective against both B. mesentericus rope and mold.

Metabolism of propionate begins with Calcium propionates conversion to propionyl coenzyme A (propionyl-CoA), the usual first step in the metabolism of carboxylic acids. 
Since propanoic acid has three carbons, propionyl-CoA can directly enter neither beta oxidation nor the citric acid cycles. 
In most vertebrates, propionyl-CoA is carboxylated to D-methylmalonyl-CoA, which is isomerised to L-methylmalonyl-CoA. 
A vitamin B12-dependent enzyme catalyzes rearrangement of L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA, which is an intermediate of the citric acid cycle and can be readily incorporated there.
Children were challenged with calcium propionate or placebo through daily bread in a double‐blind placebo‐controlled crossover trial. 
Although there was no significant difference by two measures, a statistically significant difference was found in the proportion of children whose behaviours "worsened" with challenge (52%), compared to the proportion whose behaviour "improved" with challenge (19%).
When propanoic acid was infused directly into rodents' brains, Calcium propionate produced reversible behavior changes and brain changes partially mimicking human autism.
Calcium propionate can be used as a fungicide on fruit.
In a 1973 study reported by the EPA, the waterborne administration of 180 ppm of calcium propionate was found to be slightly toxic to bluegill sunfish.

Calcium Propionate can be used as food and feed preservatives, bread and cakes for the preservation agent. 
Calcium Propionate easily mixed with flour, fresh as a preservative while providing essential calcium, Calcium Propionate play the role of fortified foods.
Propionate can cause bread to mold and produce sticky silk material aerobic Bacillus inhibit no inhibitory effect on yeast.
Calcium Propionate in starch, protein and fat substances on fungi, aerobic spore-producing bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, aflatoxin and other effective, Calcium Propionate has a unique anti-mildew, anti-corrosion properties.
Calcium Propionate food, brewing, feed, aspects of traditional Chinese medicines, a new, safe, efficient, broad-spectrum food and feed preservatives.
In addition, Calcium Propionate also be used as toothpaste, cosmetics additives, Calcium Propionate can play a good antiseptic.

Calcium propionate, also known as “calcium propanoate” in some places, is a chemical commonly used as a food additive to ward off mold and other bacterial growth in a range of different packaged and prepared foods. 
Calcium propionate is a carbolyic acid and is the calcium salt of propionic acid, and has the chemical formula Ca(C2H5COO)2. 
One of Calcium propionates primary jobs is to break down and decompose certain amino acids that occur in nature, and can be found pretty easily in human and animal sweat, as well as in situations of bacterial fermentation. 
Modern manufacturers often synthesize Calcium propionate in labs and isolate Calcium propionate specifically for food production. 
Calcium propionate’s a common addition to many commercial bread products since Calcium propionate helps them resist mold and makes it possible for grocers to store them for weeks on the shelf. 
Commercial dairy products often incorporate Calcium propionate, too, and Calcium propionate’s commonly mixed in with a range of canned foods to help keep them tasting fresh. 
Sometimes Calcium propionate can be added to livestock feed to help prevent diseases, particularly among dairy cows. 
In small quantities Calcium propionate’s generally considered safe for human consumption, though there have been some reports of side effects and allergies.

Calcium propionate is perhaps most commonly used as a preservative in bread and dairy products, since these are often at high risk of spoilage. 
The acid is typically added in small amounts, usually in liquid form, and works on the cellular level to prevent mold and bacterial growth. 
This allows retailers to keep foods looking and tasting fresh for far longer than they would otherwise, which can increase profits and sales margins; it can also benefit the consumer by allowing food to stay fresher for longer either on the counter or in the fridge.

Calcium propanoate is common in nature in settings where bacterial growth is likely, and v tends to be most prolific in moist, energy-rich environments. 
Raw milk generally contains trace amounts naturally. 
Researchers are also able to create Calcium propionate chemically, too, which tends to be a lot faster and less expensive than extracting it from pre-existing sources. 
The synthetic version is registered as "E number 282".
Codex General Standard for Food Additives, a document written by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization. 
The "E" rating means that Calcium propionate is accepted by the European Union for the same applications and definitions.

This acid’s ability to preserve and maintain biological balance also makes it attractive as an additive to livestock feed, particularly for animals used to produce milk. 
Sheep, goats, and dairy cows sometimes get food treated with this chemical from time to time, usually as a way to prevent the spread of milk fever disease. 
This is a blood disease that usually happens when milking animals are living in very close proximity to one another, and can contaminate the milk they produce and, in extreme cases, lead to serious illness and death. 
Farmers and ranchers sometimes also use the chemical in pesticides for food crops, though this isn’t common. 
There are usually several other more effective treatments to prevent mold and bacterial spread in plants.

Is Calcium Propionate Vegan?
When Calcium propionate comes to calcium, we often think of dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt. 
However, calcium is found in many foods, including those supplemented with additional minerals. 
Perhaps the strong association with calcium and animal products is why so many people wonder whether calcium propionate is vegan.

The short answer is yes, calcium propionate is vegan.
With the growing popularity of plant-based diets, there is always concern over reading labels and identifying possible ingredients that may prevent a food from being considered vegan. 
Calcium salt of propionic acid, or E282, is formed by the reaction of calcium hydroxide with propionic acid. 
Calcium propionate is also naturally-occurring in some foods and acts as a natural preservative. 
Swiss cheese is an example and can contain up to 1% natural propionic acid.
While calcium propionate can be found naturally in cheeses and may be used to preserve meat and dairy products, commercial E282 is synthesized in a lab and is, for all intents and purposes, vegan-friendly. 

Calcium propionate is a naturally occurring organic salt formed by a reaction between calcium hydroxide and propionic acid.
Calcium propionate’s commonly used as a food additive — known as E282 — to help preserve various food products, including:
-Baked goods: breads, pastries, muffins, etc.
-Dairy products: cheeses, powdered milk, whey, yogurt, etc.
-Beverages: soft drinks, fruit drinks, etc.
-Alcoholic drinks: beers, malt beverages, wine, cider, etc.
-Processed meats: hot dogs, ham, lunch meats, etc.
-Calcium propionate extends the shelf life of various goods by interfering with the growth and reproduction of molds and other microorganisms.

Calcium Propionate is generally immediately available in most volumes, including bulk quantities. 
American Elements can produce most materials in high purity and ultra high purity (up to 99.99999%) forms and follows applicable ASTM testing standards; a range of grades are available including Mil Spec (military grade), ACS, Reagent and Technical Grade, Food, Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Grade, Optical Grade, USP and EP/BP (European Pharmacopoeia/British Pharmacopoeia). 
We can also produce materials to custom specifications by request, in addition to custom compositions for commercial and research applications and new proprietary technologies. 
Typical and custom packaging is available, as is additional research, technical and safety (MSDS) data. 
Please contact us above for information on specifications, lead time and pricing.

Mold and bacterial growth are a costly issue in the baking industry, as baking provides conditions that are close to ideal for mold growth.
Calcium propionate has been approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), World Health Organization (WHO), and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

Calcium propionate description
Calcium propionate, also known as calcium salt and propanoic acid is a white powder that has a faint smell. 
Calcium propionate is stable at room temperature. 
Calcium propionate is hygroscopic and incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. 
Calcium propionate has a melting point of 300oC and a pH value of 7 to 9. 
Calcium propionate is slightly soluble in alcohol and fully soluble in water.
Calcium Propionate as the newer food antifungal agent, is the calcium salt of propanoic acid which is a antifungal agent. 
Calcium propionate appears as white crystalline or powder, odorless or having slight specific odor of propionic acid, stable under light and heat , hygroscopic, soluble in water while aqueous solution is alkaline, slightly soluble in methanol and ethanol, not soluble in benzene and acetone. 
Calcium propionate is deliquescent in moist air and loses crystal water when heated to 120 ℃ .
Calcium propionate changes phase at 200~210 ℃ and decomposes to calcium carbonate at 330~340 ℃ . 
Under acidic conditions, Calcium propionate generates free propanoic acid which is weaker than sorbic acid while stronger than acetic acid, and has an antibacterial effect on Aspergillus niger and gas bacillus rather than yeast . 
Calcium Propionate is a normal intermediate product of animal metabolism and is safe eaten by animals. 
Calcium propionate has a broad antibacterial activity to mold bacteria and yeast bacteria, inhibiting the propagation of microorganisms, preventing feed molding, which can be used as a fungicide on food and feed and a preservative for bread and pastries. 
As a feed additive , Calcium propionate can effectively prevent feed molding and prolong shelf life of feed . 
If combined with other inorganic complexes, Calcium propionate can also improve the appetite of livestock, increase milk production in cows, and its dosage is less than 0.3% of the combined feed (use propionic acid to count).

Calcium propionate as food preservative
Calcium Propionate is an acid-type food preservative, with its inhibitory effected by the environmental pH.
When PH5.0 minimum inhibitory concentration is 0.01%, PH6.5 is 0.5%. 
In the acidic medium , Calcium propionate has a strong inhibitory effect on the various types of fungi, aerobic bacillus or gram-negative bacilli. 
Calcium propionate has a specific effect on preventing the production of Aflatoxin streptozotocin, but has little effect on the yeast. 
In the food industry, Calcium propionate is mainly used in vinegar, soy sauce, bread, cakes and soy products,whose maximum usage (use propionic acid to count, the same below)is 2.5g/kg; while the largest usage in the wet dough products is 0.25g/kg . 
Calcium propionate can be used for feed antifungal agent.
Calcium propionate is used for breads, pastries and cheese preservatives and feed fungicide. 

Calcium Propionate as a food preservative, calcium propionate is mainly used for bread, because sodium propionate keeps pH of bread rising, delays the fermentation of the dough; sodium propionate is more widely used for cake, because the pastry gets bulky by using leavening agent, there is no problem about yeast development caused by tincrease in the pH . 
As a feed preservative, sodium propionate is better than calcium propionate. 
But Calcium Propionate is more stable than sodium propionate. 
In food industry , except uses for bread, pastries, cheese, Calcium Propionate can also be used for preventing soy sauce from getting moldy which inhibits the refermentation . 
In medicine, Calcium Propionate can be made into powders, solutions and ointments to treat skin disease caused by parasitic fungi. 
Ointment (liquid) contains 12.3% sodium propionate, while a powder contains15% Calcium Propionate.

Preparation of Calcium propionate:
Calcium propionate is produced by reacting calcium hydroxide with propionic acid.

Mechanism of Action of Calcium propionate:
Calcium propionate suppresses mold and bacteria growth on bread and cakes, but does not inhibit yeast. 
However, Calcium propionates addition to bread does not interfere with the fermentation of yeast. 
Calcium ion affects Calcium propionate leaving action, therefore is not usually utilized in cake. 
Since Calcium propionate can enrich bread and rolls, Calcium propionate is normally used in their production.

Calcium propionate uses

Calcium propionate in Food:
During dough preparation, calcium propionate is added with other ingredients as a preservative and nutritional supplement in food production such as bread, processed meat, other baked goods, dairy products, and whey. 
Calcium propionate is mostly effective below pH 5.5, which is relatively equal to the pH required in the dough preparation to effectively control mold. 
Calcium propionate can assist in lowering the levels of sodium in bread. 
Calcium propionate can be used as an browning agent in processed vegetables and fruits. 
Other chemicals that can be used as alternatives to calcium propionate is sodium propionate. 

Calcium propionate in Beverage
Calcium propionate is used in preventing the growth of microorganisms in beverages. 

Calcium propionate in Pharmaceuticals
Calcium propionate powder is utilized as an anti-microbial agent.
Calcium propionate is also used in retarding mold in key aloe vera holistic therapy for treating numerous infections. 
Large concentrations of aloe vera liquid that is normally added to feel pellets cannot be made without using calcium propionate to inhibit mold growth on the product. 

Calcium propionate in Agriculture
Calcium propionate is used as a food supplement and in preventing milk fever in cows. 
Calcium propionate can also be used in poultry feed, animal feed, for instance cattle and dog food. 
Calcium propionate is also used as a pesticide. 

Calcium propionate in Cosmetics 
Calcium propionate E282 inhibit or prevent bacterial growth, therefore protect cosmetic products from spoilage. 
Calcium propionate is also used in controlling the pH of personal care and cosmetic products.

Calcium propionate industrial Uses
Calcium propionate is used in paint and coating additives. 
Calcium propionate is also used as plating and surface treating agents. 

Calcium propionate in Photography 
Calcium propionate is used in making photo chemicals and photographic supplies. 

Regulatory Amount
FAO/WHO (1984): Processed cheese 3000mg/kg (alone or in combination with propionic acid, sorbic acid and its salts ).
Japan (use propionic acid to count): 2.5g/kg ( the product 3.15g).
Calcium propionate is mainly used for bread and pastry. 
1.0g calcium salt (monohydrate) equals 0.790g propanoic acid ). 
The excess of amount will prevent the growth of yeast in the bread, which damages the flavor. 
Calcium propionate can be used to prevent growth of Aspergillus niger (Asp.Niger), aerobic spore-forming bacteria (B.Subtilis) .
USDA, 9CFR, §318.7 (2000): flour products, 0.32% (use wheat flour amount to count, alone or together with the amount of sodium propionate).
USDA§381.147 (1994): The new pie dough 3% (use wheat flour amount to count).
Calcium salt is generally used in bread while sodium salt is used in West Point.
Alkalinity resulting from the use of sodium causes the delaying of the dough fermentation but use of calcium can strengthen the role of calcium. 
If calcium salt is used in West Point, then Calcium propionate can react to the sodium bicarbonate in the leavening agent, producing insoluble calcium carbonate, which reduces the amount of CO2 generated,so sodium salt is mainly used .

Calcium propionate description
Calcium propanoate or calcium propionate has the formula Ca(C2H5COO)2. 
Calcium propionate is the calcium salt of propanoic acid.

Calcium propionate chemical Properties
white powder(s) or monoclinic crystal(s); uses: mold-retardant additive for bread, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, antifungal agent [HAW93]

Calcium propionate uses
Calcium Propionate is the salt of propionic acid which functions as a preservative. 
Calcium propionate is effective against mold, has limited activity against bacteria, and no activity against yeast. 
Calcium propionate is soluble in water with a solubility of 49 g/100 ml of water at 0°c and insoluble in alcohol. 
Calcium propionate is less soluble than sodium propionate. 
Calcium propionates optimum effectiveness is up to ph 5.0 and it has reduced action above ph 6.0. 
Calcium propionate is used in bakery products, breads, and pizza crust to protect against mold and “rope.” 
Calcium propionate is also used in cold-pack cheese food and pie fillings. 
typical usage level of Calcium propionate is 0.2–0.3% and 0.1–0.4% based on flour weight.
As a food additive, Calcium propionate is listed as E number 282 in the Codex Alimentarius.
 
Calcium propanoate is used as a preservative in a wide variety of products, including but not limited to bread, other baked goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products. 
In agriculture, Calcium propionate is used, amongst other things, to prevent milk fever in cows and as a feed supplement Propanoates prevent microbes from producing the energy they need, like benzoates do. 
However, unlike benzoates, propanoates do not require an acidic environment.
Calcium propanoate is used in bakery products as a mold inhibitor, typically at 0.1- 0.4 % (though animal feed may contain up to 1 % ).
According to the Pesticide Action Network North America, calcium propionate is slightly toxic. 
This rating is not uncommon for food products; vitamin C is also rated by the same standards as being slightly toxic. 
Calcium propanoate can be used as a fungicide on fruit.
Calcium propionate is the most widely used antimycotic in breadmaking. 
Calcium propionate is often utilized at about 0.2%, flour basis; higher concentrations lead to flavor problems and begin to inhibit yeast fermentation.

What Is Calcium propionate?
Propionic Acid is a naturally occuring organic acid. 
Ammonium Propionate, Calcium Propionate, Magnesium Propionate, Potassium Propionate and Sodium Propionate are salts of Propionic Acid.

Why is Calcium propionate used in cosmetics and personal care products?
Propionic Acid, Ammonium Propionate, Calcium Propionate, Magnesium Propionate, Potassium Propionate and Sodium Propionate prevent or retard bacterial growth, and thus protect cosmetic products from spoilage. 
Propionic Acid is also used to control the pH of cosmetics and personal care products.

Scientific Facts about Calcium propionate: 
Ammonium Propionate, Calcium Propionate, Magnesium Propionate, Potassium Propionate and Sodium Propionate are salts of Propionic Acid. 
Propionic Acid is produced biologically from the metabolic breakdown of fatty acids and some amino acids.

Safety Information of Calcium propionate: 
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) includes Propionic Acid, Calcium Propionate and Sodium Propionate as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) as direct food substances. 
The European Commission permits the use of Propionic Acid and its salts including Ammonium Propionate, Calcium Propionate, Magnesium Propionate, Potassium Propionate and Sodium Propionate as preservatives in cosmetics and personal care products at a maximum concentration of 2%.

Ammonium Propionate, Calcium Propionate, Magnesium Propionate, Potassium Propionate and Sodium Propionate are salts of Propionic Acid, a carboxylic acid. 
In cosmetics and personal care products, these ingredients function as preservatives. 
Propionic Acid also functions as a pH adjuster.

Appearance: White crystalline solid
Solubility in water: 
49 g/100 mL (0 °C)
55.8 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Solubility: 
slightly soluble in methanol, ethanol
insoluble in acetone, benzene

Is Calcium propionate safe to eat?
Calcium propionate was extensively studied by the FDA before it was classified as “generally recognized as safe”.
What’s more, the WHO and FAO have not established an acceptable daily intake, which means it’s considered very low risk.
An animal study showed that feeding rats 1–3 grams of calcium propionate daily over 4–5 weeks had no impact on growth.
Similarly, a 1-year study in rats showed that consuming a diet comprising 4% calcium propionate — a higher percentage than people would consume daily — had no toxic effects.
Most lab studies on calcium propionate and toxicity came back negative, except for a few that used exceptionally high amounts.
For example, in one of these studies, researchers injected high amounts of calcium propionate into the yolk sacs of chicken embryos, resulting in abnormalities.
Calcium propionate’s also worth noting that your body does not store calcium propionate, which means it won’t build up in your cells. 
Instead, Calcium propionate is broken down by your digestive tract and readily absorbed, metabolized, and eliminated.
Calcium propionate has been extensively studied, and research shows that it is safe to eat, which is why the FDA labels it as “generally recognized as safe.”

Preferred IUPAC name: Calcium dipropanoate
Other names:
Calcium propionate
Calcium dipropionate
Mycoban

Calcium propionate is used as a preservative in bread and other baked goods, and it may be combined with propionic acid and sodium propionate.
Calcium propionate helps keep baked goods fresh by preventing mold and bacterial growth that would otherwise cause them to go bad. 
Calcium propionate also occurs naturally in butter and some types of cheese.
Sometimes consumers have questions about the safety of calcium propionate.
Many people are concerned about the idea of preservatives that are used as ingredients in the foods we eat. 
But think of Calcium propionate this way: Do you want to eat bacteria- or mold-infested bread? Probably not. 
Preservatives such as calcium propionate are important for keeping some healthy foods safe.

Calcium Propionate Safety Studies
Calcium propionate has been studied for potential toxicity and for any possibility that it might cause cancer.
For the most part, the laboratory findings were negative.
The accumulation of research evidence indicates that calcium propionate is non-toxic and safe to use in the amounts currently used by food manufacturers.
The research was enough for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Select Committee on Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) Substances to conclude in 1979:
"There is no evidence in the available information on propionic acid, calcium propionate, and sodium propionate that demonstrates or suggests reasonable grounds to suspect a hazard to the public when they are used at levels that are now current or that might reasonably be expected in the future."

What Happens When You Eat Calcium Propionate
Your body doesn't store calcium propionate, so Calcium propionate doesn't build up in any of your cells. 
When your digestive system is busy breaking down all the foods you eat, Calcium propionate also splits the calcium apart from the propionic acid, which is readily absorbed and metabolized, just like any other fatty acid.
Then your body eliminates Calcium propionate.
There are anecdotal claims that some people are sensitive to calcium propionate and may suffer from migraine headaches triggered by exposure to foods that contain the preservative. 
But there isn't enough scientific research that backs that claim. 
That doesn't mean Calcium propionate isn't possible that calcium propionate causes headaches in some people, though.
If you think you may have an issue with calcium propionate, it's a good idea to speak with your healthcare provider. 
They can help you determine what's causing your health problem and talk to you about eating (or avoiding) foods that contain calcium propionate.

Calcium propionate function
Calcium propionate is commonly used as a preservative in yeast-raised baked products such as pre-packed and sliced bread, and in some chemically-leavened goods like tortillas. 
Calcium propionate is added during the dough phase and its optimal use level is mainly dependent on the formula and the desired shelf life of the finished product.

Commercial production
Calcium propionate is formed by neutralizing chemically-synthesized propionic acid with calcium hydroxide. 
Although Calcium propionate has been a preservative of choice in bakery for decades, in recent years it has been increasingly challenged as non-clean label by many consumers and leading retailers, resulting in a push to reduce or altogether eliminate it from formulations. 

Application of Calcium propionate:
Here are some factors that bakers and formulators must consider when using this ingredient:
Calcium propionate is most active in the pH range below 5.5. Therefore, it is common to use acids to adjust the pH to optimize the activity. 
Moreover, salts of benzoic or sorbic acid are recommended for use in products with higher pH levels, such as in many chemically leavened sweet baked goods. 
In tortillas, calcium propionate and potassium sorbate are commonly used together, to achieve a broad spectrum of mold inhibition while maintaining product quality.  
Calcium propionate is the ideal preservative for bread and rolls because it has little effect on yeast and does not interfere with its fermentation. 
In some applications such as cakes, however, it may not be a good preservative option, as the high use level and its available calcium interfere with the chemical leavening.
In contrast, sodium propionate will delay fermentation of yeast and is not recommended for use in breads or rolls, but it is preferred for the preservation of cakes.
Calcium propionate is effective at inhibiting growth of mold and ropy bacteria when its dose relative to the number of microbial cells present is adequate to block cell metabolism. 
If the baked good is produced in an environment without effective current good manufacturing practices (cGMP), the dose may not be effective in inhibiting microbial growth.
Calcium propionate is used as a preservative in a wide variety of products, including but not limited to bread, other baked goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products. 
Calcium Propionate is preferred for yeast based pastry products. 
Use SODIUM propionate if Baking powder is used. 

Calcium propionate regulations
In the United States, calcium propionate is affirmed as a Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) food substance under the following conditions:
-Calcium propionate is used as an antimicrobial agent
-Calcium propionate is used in accordance with current good manufacturing practices and use does not exceed what is needed for desired effect
-Calcium propionate is used in baked goods, cheeses, confections, frostings, gelatins, puddings, fillings, jams or jellies.
-Meets the specifications of the Food Chemical Codex (FCC) 3rd edition.

Items: Standards
COLOR: WHITE POWDER OR GRANULAR
CONTENT: ≥99%
LOSS ON DRYING: ≤9.0%
ARSENIC: ≤0.0003%
HEAVY METAL(As Pb): ≤0.001%
FLUORIN: ≤0.003%
WATER IN SOLUBLE: ≤0.30%
FE: ≤0.005%

What is Calcium Propionate?
Calcium propionate is the calcium salt of propionic acid. 
Calcium propionate is a preservative commonly used in baked goods around the world, where it extends their shelf life by inhibiting the growth of spoilage microorganisms, namely mold and ropy bacteria.   

Characteristics of calcium propionate include: 
-Chemical formula: C6H10O4 Ca
-Molecular Weight: 186.22
-Works best at pH below 5.5
-Recommended usage level in bakery: 0.1-0.3% flour weight, but higher levels not uncommon
-Nutrition: 21 grams of calcium are present in 100 grams of calcium propionate5

Specific Uses of Calcium propionate:
“Propionic acid and Calcium propionates salts, sodium and calcium propionates are approved in the United States as GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) substances for food use. 
Their antimicrobial action is directed to molds and rope bacteria, with almost no effect on yeast, thus making them an ideal choice for products that use commercial yeast as an ingredient. 
Like other preservatives, propionates effectiveness is affected by the pH of the food, with 5.5 pH being the upper effective limit. 
They are used mainly as mold and rope inhibitors in bread; although they are also useful in cheese, non-alcoholic beverages, confections, fillings, frostings, fresh dough, pizza crust, puddings, gelatins, jams, jellies and some meat products.” 
“Typical usage level of propionic acid and propionates is 0.1 to 0.4 %. 
Federal regulations limit the maximum level for flour, white bread and rolls at 0.32% based on the weight of the flour; for whole wheat products at 0.38% based on the weight of the flour; and for cheese products at 0.3 %. 
Calcium propionate is important to know that the addition of sodium and calcium propionate to a food product will raise the pH by approximately 0.1 to 0.5 pH units depending on the amount, pH and type of product. 
Additional adjustment of the pH might be needed to keep the pH at a safe level.” 
“Calcium propionate is used as an inhibitor of mold and other microorganisms in food, animal feed, tobacco, pharmaceuticals in butyl rubber to improve process ability and Scorching resistance.” 

How Calcium propionate Is Produced
Calcium propionate is produced by the neutralization of an organic acid (propanoic acid) by a base (calcium hydroxide). 
The resulting salt – calcium propionate is then dried and packaged.
Calcium propionate is an antimicrobial agent often used in bread production. 
Calcium propionate is useful in extending the shelf life of bread by preventing all forms of microbial growth in the bread. 
Calcium propionate also suppresses the growth of bacteria on bread and does not affect the activity of yeast during bread making.
For a more effective result, calcium propionate should be used at a pH condition of slightly below 5.5. 
However, the pH should be effectively monitored and controlled because if the conditions become too acidic, dissociation of the propanoic acid occurs.
Calcium propionate also helps in the reduction of the concentration of sodium in bread. 
When the concentration of sodium in bread is reduced, its mold-free shelf life is usually increased but when increased, shelf life of bread is adversely affected.
The addition of calcium propionate in bread adds to its nutritional value as it supplies calcium. 
The calcium ions of calcium propionate does not interfere with the rising of bream since yeast, and not chemical rising agent is used.

CAS No.:4075-81-4
Other Names:CALCIUM PROPIONATE
MF:2(C3H6O2)CA
EINECS No.:223-795-8
FEMA No.:2997
Place of Origin:Hunan, China
Type:Preservatives
Brand Name:Arshine
Model Number:edon
Product Type:CALCIUM PROPIONATE
Appearance:white or a kind of white crystal powder

Calcium propionate or calcium propanoate, the calcium salt of propionic acid, is a common bread and meat preservative which functions by inhibiting the growth of mold & other bacterial and therefore prolong food shelf life. 
Calcium propionate also provides nutritional value as a source of calcium. 
The European food additive number for Calcium propionate is E282.

What is Calcium Propionate?
Calcium propionate is a new type of food preservative developed in recent decades with its considered safety over sodium benzoate (E211), and price lower than potassium sorbate (E202).
Calcium propionate is made from the reaction of propionic acid with calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide. 

Calcium propionate is a safe and reliable food and feed additive. 
Calcium propionate can be metabolized and absorbed by humans and animals as a precursor for glucose synthesis. 
In addition, calcium propionate provides essential calcium to mammals. 
In the perinatal period of dairy cows, many cows cannot adjust to the tremendous metabolic, endocrine, and physiological changes, resulting in ketosis and fatty liver due to a negative energy balance (NEB) or milk fever induced by hypocalcemia. 
On hot weather days, cow feed (TMR or silage) is susceptible to mildew, which produces mycotoxins. 
These two issues are closely related to dairy health and performance. 
Propionic acid is the primary gluconeogenic precursor in dairy cows and one of the safest mold inhibitors. 
Therefore, calcium propionate, which can be hydrolyzed into propionic acid and Ca2+ in the rumen, may be a good feed additive for alleviating NEB and milk fever in the perinatal period of dairy cows. 
Calcium propionate can also be used to inhibit TMR or silage deterioration in hot weather and regulate rumen development in calves. 
This paper reviews the application of calcium propionate in dairy cows.

The key difference between sodium propionate and calcium propionate is that sodium propionate contains a sodium cation bound to the propionate anion, whereas calcium propionate contains a calcium cation bound to two propionate anions.
Sodium propionate and calcium propionate are ionic compounds containing a cation and an anion. 
These compounds are two different salts of propionic acid. 
More importantly, both these compounds are important as food preservatives.

Calcium propionate or calcium propanoate is the calcium salt of propionic acid. 
The chemical formula of Calcium propionate is Ca(C2H5COO)2. 
Calcium propionate appears as a white crystalline solid, and the molar mass of this compound is 186 g/mol.
Calcium propionate is slightly soluble in water and alcohols such as methanol and ethanol. 
Moreover, Calcium propionate is insoluble in acetone and benzene. 
The crystal structure of this compound is monoclinic.

There are several uses of calcium propionate. 
Calcium propionate is mainly used as a food additive. We can list it as E 282. Further, it is an important food preservative. 
Calcium propionate is useful as a food additive in bread, bakery items, processed meat, whey, and most of the dairy products. 
Other than that, Calcium propionate is important in agriculture to prevent milk fever in cows, as a feed supplement, etc.

Is Calcium propionate Vegan?
Yes, Calcium propionate is vegan as made from the chemical reaction, the raw materials used are both manufactured without the use of animal matter or products derived from animal origin. 
So Calcium propionate is vegan and appropriate for vegetarians.

Does Calcium propionate Contain Dairy?
Calcium propionate is not derived from milk so Calcium propionate is dairy free. 
People who’re lactose intolerance or with milk allergy can eat the food with Calcium propionate.

Calcium propionate specification:

Appearance:
A white crystalline powder or granular, possessing not more than a faint odor of propionic acid, stable to heat and light.

Other Names: Calcium propanoate, Calcium dipropionate

Calcium Propionate Ca(C2H5COO)2 Calcium propanoate is used as a preservative in a wide variety of products, including but not limited to bread, other baked goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products. 
However, unlike benzoates, propanoates do not require an acidic environment. 
For acidic environment, use Sodium Propionate.
Calcium propanoate is used in bakery products as a mold inhibitor, typically at 0.1-0.4% against total weight

Properties:
-Solubility
-PH
-Antimicrobial Activity

Solubility
In water: Calcium propionate is freely soluble in water with the solubility 49 g/100 mL (0 °C), and 55.8 g/100 mL (100 °C). 
Calcium propionate dissociates propanoic acid which has antimicrobial activity.
In organic solvent: slightly soluble in methanol and ethanol, insoluble in acetone and benzene.
Water solubility is an important property as only dissolved preservatives can have antimicrobial action against microorganisms. 
That’s why another two preservatives, benzoic acid (E210) and sorbic acid (E200) are not commonly used in food due to their low solubility in water and made to their salts. 

Is used as a preservative in a wide variety of products, including but not limited to bread, other baked goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products. 
A mold inhibitor in bakery products at levels of 0.1 - 0.4%. 
In agriculture Calcium propionate is used to prevent milk fever in cows and as a feed supplement. 
Propionates prevent microbes from producing the energy they need, like benzoates do. 
However, unlike benzoates, propionates do not require an acidic environment.

PH of Calcium propionate:
PH value is another important role as preservatives need a suitable pH range for their antimicrobial activity. 
That’s to say, calcium propionate’s ability to inhibit the growth of mold and other microorganisms will be influenced if with an inappropriate PH value.

What is the Difference Between Sodium Propionate and Calcium Propionate?
The key difference between sodium propionate and calcium propionate is that sodium propionate contains a sodium cation bound to the propionate anion, whereas calcium propionate contains a calcium cation bound to two propionate anions. 
The chemical formula of sodium propionate is Na(C2H5COO), whereas the chemical formula of calcium propionate is Ca(C2H5COO)2.
Moreover, sodium propionate can be produced via the reaction between propionic acid and sodium carbonate while calcium propionate is produced via the reaction between propionic acid and calcium carbonate. 
When considering the uses of sodium propionate, it is important as a food preservative, food additive, important in bakery products, especially for mould inhibiting. 
Calcium propionate is useful as a food additive in bread, bakery items, processed meat, whey, and most dairy products.

Studies show that its bacteriostatic and fungistatic activity is better in acid than in neutral or slightly alkaline solution because the antimicrobial action is due to the undissociated acid. 
Calcium propionate has good activity in the PH below 5.5.
Meanwhile, its addition to food will raise the pH value.

What is Calcium propionate powder?
Propionate also commonly known as CP powder in the baking world is used as a preservative. 
Calcium propionate is an anti-bacterial used to extend the shelf life of baking goods and prevents the formation of mold and other bacteria.

Uses of Calcium propionate powder
-Recommended usage of calcium propionate is 0.1 to 0.3% of the dry flour, which is equals to approx. a pinch.
-Calcium propionate is completely safe for usage in edible goods, apart from baked goods it is also used in jams, jellies , puddings, fillings and cheeses to preserve.
-We have used Calcium propionate powder in the multigrain homemade bread recipe.

Antimicrobial activity of Calcium propionate:
Calcium propionate is more active than sodium benzoate against molds, but have no activity against yeast, thus making it an ideal choice for bakery products (proper amount at the concentration 0.1-0.4%) that use yeast as an ingredient. 
Calcium propionate can also be functioned as mold and rope inhibitors in cheese, non-alcoholic beverages, confections, fillings, frostings, fresh dough, pizza crust, puddings, gelatins, jams, jellies and some meat products.
Propionic acid (E280) will go into the cells of mold and then inhibits the enzyme metabolism; at the same time, Calcium propionate will inhibit microbial growth by competing with alanine or other essential amino acids which are needed for microbial growth. 
That is the mechanism of calcium propionate work to prevent mold and other microorganisms.
Propionic acid is also a preservative that can be found in natural foods. 
Calcium propionate has the best preservation activity when compared with calcium propionate and sodium propionate. 
Sodium propionate is also used as a mold inhibitor, but calcium form is better as Calcium propionate can help reduce sodium levels in food, also provide the nutritional value of calcium.

What are the Uses of Calcium Propionate?
Calcium propionate is used as a preservative in a wide variety of products that include bakery, cheese, meat, dairy products and etc. 
Calcium propionate is also used for the prevention of milk fever in cattle.

Calcium propionate is an organic salt formed by the reaction of calcium hydroxide with propionic acid (also known as propanoic acid). 
Calcium propionates chemical formula is Ca(OOCCH2CH3)2. 
The compound occurs in either crystalline or powder form. 
Calcium propionate is soluble in water and only very slightly soluble in alcohol .
Calcium propionate is used as a food preservative in breads and other baked goods because of its ability to inhibit the growth of molds and other microorganisms . 
Calcium propionate is not toxic to these organisms, but does prevent them from reproducing and posing a health risk to humans.
Propionic acid occurs naturally in some foods and acts as a preservative in those foods. 
Some types of cheese, for example, contain as much as 1% natural propionic acid.

Beyond Calcium propionates role as a food additive, calcium propionate finds some application in the manufacture of butyl rubber. 
Adding Calcium propionate to the raw product makes it easier to process the rubber and protects the rubber from scorching during manufacture.

Calcium propionate in food
Bread is easy to be contaminated with mold in a hot, humid environment and on the equipment although they were killed during the baking process. 
Calcium propionate is the mold inhibitor commonly used in bread and other yeast-based bakery goods without interfering with Calcium propionates fermentation as Calcium propionate has no activity against yeast.
In addition, Calcium propionate can enhance calcium nutrition. 
Sodium propionate is not recommended to use in bread or rolls because Calcium propionate will delay fermentation of yeast, but Calcium propionate is suggested in the preservation of cakes while calcium (from calcium propionate) alters the action of chemical leavening agents in cakes.

How to Use Calcium propionate in Bread?
Calcium propionate is commonly added with the other ingredients during the dough-mixing process. 

How Much to be Used Calcium propionate?
Baked goods with low pH (higher acidity) such as bread (ph 5.3-5.8), cheese (Swiss Gruyere cheese PH 5.1 – 6.6), and cakes (angel cake, PH 5.2 – 5.6) require smaller quantities; higher pH products such as cake chocolate (ph 7.2-7.6) require more as the dissociated propionic acid is less.
During periods of high humidity and high temperature, a higher use amount is required.

Calcium propionate is an organic salt formed by the reaction of calcium hydroxide with propionic acid (also known as propanoic acid). 
Calcium propionates chemical formula is Ca(OOCCH2CH3)2. The compound occurs in either crystalline or powder form. 
Calcium propionate is soluble in water and only very slightly soluble in alcohol.

Feed
Calcium propionate can also function as a mold inhibitor and treat milk fever for swine, ruminant (horses and cattles), poultry, fish, pet and other animal feed.

Metabolism
Calcium propionate will be hydrolyzed to propionic acid and calcium after entering into the feed body. 
Propionic acid is an important volatile fatty acid, a small amount of it will be converted to lactic acid, and the rest will turn to glucose or provide energy after oxidation. 
Calcium propionate can be seen that calcium propionate is an important energy substance.
Meanwhile, Calcium propionate is a supplement of calcium which benefits teeth, muscles, nerves, and cells work normally and also build and maintain strong bones. 

Treat Milk Fever
Milk fever is a disorder that mainly occurs in dairy cows. 
The absorption of calcium will be reduced and excretion will be increased after calving, resulting in the calcium concentration below 5.0 mg/dl in the blood which will lead to milk fever and accompanies body function disorder.
Calcium propionate can effectively prevent and treat nutritional metabolic diseases such as ketosis and milk fever. 

How to Use Calcium propionate in Feed?
Calcium propionate can be added directly to animal feed in the dry form or dissolved in water before the application due to its good solubility. 

HISTORY
As early as 1906, calcium propionate was discovered to be effective against ropy bacteria in bread. 
Both propionic acid and its calcium salt derivative have been well established as antimicrobials. 
Since the 1930s, propionates have been used to preserve bread in the U.S.

As a food additive, Calcium propionate is listed as E number 282 in the Codex Alimentarius. 
Calcium propionate is used as a preservative in a wide variety of products, including but not limited to: bread, other baked goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products. 
In agriculture, Calcium propionate is used, amongst other things, to prevent milk fever in cows and as a feed supplement Propionates prevent microbes from producing the energy they need, like benzoates do. 
However, unlike benzoates, propionates do not require an acidic environment.
Calcium propionate is used in bakery products as a mold inhibitor, typically at 0.1-0.4% (though animal feed may contain up to 1%). 
Mold contamination is considered a serious problem amongst bakers, and conditions commonly found in baking present near-optimal conditions for mold growth.

Calcium propionate PRODUCTION
Calcium propionate serves to mitigate a costly issue in the baking industry: mold and bacterial growth. 
As a food additive, Calcium propionate is used to extend the shelf life of various goods in a wide variety of products, including but not limited to: bread, other baked goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products. 

Cosmetics
Per the “European Commission database for information on cosmetic substances and ingredients”, calcium propionate acts as a preservative in cosmetic and personal care products.

Is Calcium Propionate Safe to Eat?
Yes, Calcium propionates safety when used as a food additive has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), as well as other authorities.
Calcium propionate is used as a food preservative in breads and other baked goods because of its ability to inhibit the growth of molds and other microorganisms. 
Calcium propionate is not toxic to these organisms, but does prevent them from reproducing and posing a health risk to humans.
Propionic acid occurs naturally in some foods and acts as a preservative in those foods. 
Some types of cheese, for example, contain as much as 1% natural propionic acid.

Calcium propionate is a food preservative also known as E282. 
Calcium propionate stops molds, bacteria, and other microorganisms from reproducing in the food. So it helps prevent the food from going bad.
If you’re interested in the chemistry: Calcium propionate is the calcium salt of propanoic acid, which is a carboxylic acid. 
All of the amino acids in protein are also carboxylic acids, and so is acetic acid in vinegar.

calcium dipropanoate
calcium dipropionate
calcium propionate FCC
calcium propanoate
calcium propionate FCC agglomerate
calcium propionate hydrate
calcium propionate powder FCC
calciumdipropionate
jarace CP
propanoic acid calcium salt
propanoic acid, calcium salt
propanoic acid, calcium salt (2:1)
propionic acid calcium salt

Is Calcium Propionate gluten free?
Calcium Propionate is gluten free and widely used in gluten free food to provide better appearance and longer shelf-life to bread, other baked goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products.

Why is Calcium Propionate gluten free?
To answer this question, we need to clarify another question: what is gluten. 
Gluten is protein composite found in wheat and related grains, including barley and rye. (Wikipedia) First, gluten is a protein. 
Second, gluten is mainly found in wheat and related grains. 
As we mentioned before, Calcium Propionateis a propionate salt which is significantly different from protein. 
Raw materials used in manufacturing of Calcium Propionate are Propionic acid with calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate; Calcium Propionate barely includes gluten impurity. 
So, Calcium Propionate is gluten free.

How is Calcium Propionate used in gluten free food?
Calcium Propionate is widely used in food processing to provide better appearance and longer shelf-life to bread, other baked goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products. 
Calcium Propionate is usually used in processed food rather than daily recipe.

Why should you go Gluten free?
Celiac disease: Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease that attacks the small intestine due to the presence of gluten, for which a gluten-free diet is the only medically-accepted treatment. 
In 2009 research showed between 0.5 and 1.0 percent of people in the US and UK are sensitive to gluten due to celiac disease. 
So people with Celiac disease have to stick to gluten free diet to avoid unexpected side effect caused by consumption of gluten.

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity: Some people may be sensitive to gluten but do not have celiac disease and feel better on a diet with less gluten. 
However, there are no specific symptoms confirmed. 
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity also drives more people to gluten free diet when people believe that they feel better when eating gluten free.

FDA
Calcium propionate is an antimicrobial agent used in food with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. 
Calcium propionate is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient in baked goods, cheeses, confections and frostings, gelatins, puddings, and fillings and jams and jellies. 

Calcium propionate was petitioned for use as a livestock treatment for Milk fever and a mold inhibitor. 
Calcium propionate is a synthetic substance. 
Calcium propionate is a safe and effective treatment given for one or two days to prevent milk fever and/or to support treatment of milk fever. 
Calcium propionate is an extra calcium source for cattle. 
Calcium propionate is used as a mold inhibitor in key dietary aloe vera holistic therapy for treating various infections. 
Large levels of aloe vera liquid is added to dry feed pellets and cannot be made without calcium propionate to prevent mold growth on the product.
Calcium propionate is not officially listed anywhere in the NOP final rule. 
As in section 205.600 of the NOP final rule, “any synthetic substance used as a processing aid or adjuvant will be evaluated against the following criteria: 
Calcium propionate’s manufacture, used and disposal do not have adverse effects on the environment and are done in a manner compatible with organic handling.” 
Calcium propionate is not explicitly listed in section 205.603 as a synthetic substance, allowed for use in organic livestock production nor is it listed in section 205.604 as a prohibited substance. 

EFSA
Calcium propionate (E282) is listed in Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012 as an authorised food additive and categorized as “additives other than colours and sweeteners” 

Safety Re-evaluation in 2014
After the studies of genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive & developmental toxicity and other researches, EFSA concluded that “it would not be a safety concern from the maximum concentrations of propionic acid and its salts at their currently authorised uses and use levels as food additives.” 

Authorised Uses And Use Levels
Calcium propionates application is listed together with propionic acid (E280), sodium propionate (E281) and potassium propionate (E283). 
Calcium propionates maximum permitted levels (MPLs) ranging from 1000 to 3000 mg/kg in foods. 
The following foods may contain with Calcium propionate:
-Ripened cheese
-Prepacked sliced bread and rye bread, energy-reduced bread; partially baked prepacked bread; prepacked rolls, tortilla and pitta   
-prepacked fine bakery wares
-UK Food Standards Agency
-Categorized in “Preservatives”
 
Calcium propionate is an approved ingredient in Australia and New Zealand with the code number 282.

Calcium propionate is widely used in the food industry as an edible preservative and antifungal agent; products such as fruit, packed meat, cheese, and bread are routinely sprayed with heavily diluted calcium propionate to prevent mold from taking root and causing spoilage. 
While the chemical is effective in Calcium propionates antifungal role, research suggests that calcium propionate may contribute to the development and exacerbation of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) due to its impact on the gut microbiome. 
As a result of the relationship between calcium propionate and autism, many consumers are now seeking to avoid products containing the preservative, and food producers are reformulating their offerings in response to this changing demand. 
However, simply limiting intake of calcium propionate might not be enough to restore gut health and prevent damage. 
Instead, those seeking to minimize or eliminate calcium propionate exposure should simultaneously support the body’s natural gastrointestinal defenses through butyric acid supplementation.

JECFA
Function Class: food additives, preservative. 

Acceptable daily intake: ADI “not limited” set in 1973. 

Product description
Calcium propionate is the most commonly used bread preservative globally. 
Calcium propionate is an effective growth inhibitor of most molds and some bacteria.

Benefits of Calcium propionate:
Calcium propionate is used in foods as a preservative and mold inhibitor.
Calcium propionate is a food additive used in food industry to extend the shelf life of numerous products.

Calcium propionate is found in either crystalline or powder form.
Quick details:
Works best at pH below 5.5
Recommended usage level in bakery: 0.1-0.3% flour weight, but higher levels not uncommon
Nutrition: 21 grams of calcium are present in 100 grams of calcium propionate

Health Concerns on Children
A study in 2002 found that calcium propionate may cause irritability, restlessness, inattention and sleep disturbance in some children in healthy foods consumed daily. 
And the adverse reactions can be reduced if lower its concentrations. 

Due to this study, an article posted in Forbs in 2018 said that McDonald might be getting rid of calcium propionate.

May Linked to Diabetes and Autism
An article published in MERCOLA in 2019 found that the addition of calcium propionate in food may create an imbalance in gut microbiota, triggering altered neurobehavior and insulin resistance.

Is Calcium propionate Safe for Pregnant?
Yes, Calcium propionate is generally safe but better consult with your doctor in the condition of use.

Frequently asked questions
Is Calcium propionate an Artificial Preservative?
Yes. Calcium propionate is obtained from the chemical synthesis, propionic acid and calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide as the main raw materials. 
So Calcium propionate is not natural.

Is Calcium propionate Halal?
Yes, Calcium propionate is generally recognised as halal as it is permitted under the Islamic Law and fulfill the conditions of Halal. 
And we can find some manufacturers certificated with MUI halal.

Is Calcium propionate Kosher?
Yes, Calcium propionate is kosher. 
Calcium propionate meets all the “kashruth” requirements and has been certified as kosher. 
Kosher is a Hebrew word that means fit, proper or correct. 
Nowadays, Calcium propionate mostly describes food and drink that complies with Jewish religious dietary law.

Function: Preservative – antimicrobial mould inhibitor, especially those which occur in bread.
Effects: Some reports link propionate with migraine headaches. 
The Bakers’s Union in the UK has banned it’s use in its pure form because it provokes skin rashes in bakery workers.

Do we really need mould inhibitors in our bread? 
Wouldn’t you rather eat it before Calcium propionate got old and stale? Especially if Calcium propionate can cause migraines in people with already sensitive immune systems and digestion.

Is Calcium propionate Gluten free?
Yes, Calcium propionate is typically gluten-free and people with celiacs can eat Calcium propionate. 
Calcium propionate is an ingredient commonly found in both gluten-free and gluten-containing food labels. 
The production complying with the FDA’s definition of gluten free, that Calcium propionate does not contain wheat, rye, barley, or crossbreeds of these grains.

Baked Goods
Bread and other baked goods that are stored for any length of time develop mold.
To extend the storage time of commercially prepared baked goods such as bread dough, pizza dough, bread and pastries, manufacturers add chemical preservatives, such as calcium propionate, that inhibit mold formation. 
Calcium propionate works best in baked goods with a pH of 5.5 or less and and in products that use yeast, rather than baking powder, as a rising agent. 
Other grain foods that may be preserved with calcium propionate include breakfast cereals, pasta and noodles.

Dairy Products
Dairy foods containing calcium propionate include dried and condensed milk; flavored milks and yogurt drinks; ripened, unripened and processed cheeses; dairy desserts such as flavored yogurts and puddings; and dairy-based spreads. 
Some cheeses, such as Emmentaler or Swiss cheese, contain naturally occurring calcium propionate, which develops as the cheese ripens and acts as a preservative in the cheese.

Meats
Meat products containing calcium propionate include processed meat, poultry and game products; sausage casings; and preserved fish, including canned fish and shellfish. 
Calcium propionate is also added as a preservative to livestock and poultry feed.

Other Foods
Other foods containing calcium propionate include alcoholic beverages such as beer, malt beverages, cider and distilled spirits with more than 15 percent alcohol. 
In addition, the preservative can be found in sports drinks, diet foods and beverages, commercially prepared salads such as potato salad, condiments such as vinegar and mustard, soups, sauces and dried or otherwise processed mushrooms, beans, seaweeds and nut butters.

Conclusion
Now you may have a knowledge of the preservative – Calcium propionate (E282), from the following aspects:

Manufacturing process
How Calcium propionate works as a preservative, the similarity with sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate
Calcium propionate uses in food and feed
Comparison with sodium propionate

Safety
Side effects
FAQs: is Calcium propionate vegan, does Calcium propionate contain dairy, and etc.

CAS Number: 4075-81-4
Chemical formula: Ca(OOCCH2CH3)2
Molar Mass: 186.22

Action:
“Propionic acid is rapidly absorbed from the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. 
Propionic acid is a normal intermediary metabolite in the body. 
Calcium propionate is utilized by most organs and tissues, and can be metabolized to glucose, carbohydrates, amino acids, and lipids. 
Calcium propionate is produced in large quantities in ruminants. 
In nonruminants, propionic acid is one of the metabolic products from the breakdown of several amino acids. 
Propionic acid is formed in the oxidation of fatty acids and from the side chain of cholesterol.”
“Propionic acid is not a component of the edible fats and oils, but arises in the intermediary metabolism of the body as the terminal three-carbon fragment in form of propionyl coenzyme A in the oxidation of odd-number carbon fatty acids. 
Oxidation of the side-chain of cholesterol by rat liver mitochondria yields propionate as the immediate product of cleavage.

Calcium propionate is has been widely used in low-cost foods to stop mold since the 1960s
Calcium propionate changes the mold (bacteria) in your gut
Consumption is correlated with increase in autism and diabetes

Compound Formula: C6H10O4Ca
Molecular Weight: 186.22
Appearance: White powder or colorless crystals
Melting Point: N/A
Boiling Point: N/A
Density: ~4 g/cm3
Solubility in H2O: N/A
Exact Mass: 186.0205
Monoisotopic Mass: 186.0205

Propionates are metabolized and utilized in the same way as normal fatty acids and even after large doses no significant amounts of propionic are excreted in the urine. 
In vitro propionic acid is completely oxidized by liver preparations to CO2 and water.
The metabolic fate of propionates varies in microorganisms. 
Some have enzyme systems converting succinate to propionyl-coenzyme A and by various further steps to propionate, CO2 or propionyl phosphate.
Others convert propionic acid to B-alanine or directly to CO2. 
The inhibiting effect for microbials is probably related to competition with acetate in the acetokinase systems, to blockage of pyruvate conversion to acetyl-coenzyme A and to interference with B-alanine in pantothenic acid syntheses. 
In mammals observations have shown easy absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and absence of any excretion in the urine whatever the mode of administration. 
Decomposition by bacteria in the gut also occurs .” 
“Many factors influence the effectiveness of mold inhibitors, and proper attention to these factors can enhance the benefits they provide. 
Mold inhibitors cannot be effective unless they are completely and thoroughly distributed throughout the feed. 

bioban-c
CAPROSIL SALZ
MAGNESIA 87264
MAGGRAN(R) CPR
CAPROSIL SALT G
calciumpropanoate
CALCIUM PROPIONATE
CalClum propionate
Calcium propiohate
propionatedecalcium

Ideally, this means that the entire surface of each feed particle should come in contact with the inhibitor and that the inhibitor should also penetrate feed particles so that interior molds will be inhibited. 
The particle size of the carriers for mold-inhibiting chemicals should be small so that as many particles of feed as possible are contacted. 
In general, the smaller the inhibitor particles the greater the effectiveness. 
Some propionic acid inhibitors rely on the liberation of the chemical in the form of a gas or vapor from fairly large particle carriers. 
Presumably, the inhibitor then penetrates the air spaces between particles of feed to achieve even dispersion. 
Certain feed ingredients may also affect mold inhibitor performance. 
Protein or mineral supplements (for example, soybean meal, fish meal, poultry by-product meal, and limestone) tend to reduce the effectiveness of propionic acid. 
These materials can neutralize free acids and convert them to their corresponding salts, which are less active as inhibitors.
Dietary fat tends to enhance the activity of organic acids, probably by increasing their penetration into feed particles. 
Certain unknown factors in corn also alter the effectiveness of organic acid inhibitors.” 

CALCIUM PROPIONATE
4075-81-4
Calcium dipropionate
Calcium propanoate
Propanoic acid, calcium salt
Mycoban
calcium;propanoate
UNII-8AI80040KW
Propanoate (calcium)
propionic acid calcium
Propionic acid calcium salt
Calcium propionate [NF]
8AI80040KW

Origin of Calcium propionate:
Calcium salt of propionic acid, a natural acid present in small quantities in many foods, sometimes in high concentrations produced by bacteria in fermented foods, such as types of Swiss cheese. 
Calcium propionate is also produced on a large scale by the bacteria in the large intestine.

Function & characteristics of Calcium propionate:
Propionic acid and propionates are used as preservatives, mainly against fungi.

Calcium propionate products:
bakery products

Calcium propionate is synthesized by reaction of calcium hydroxide with propionic acid, and it also occurs naturally in some types of butter and cheese. 
Calcium propionate is available in various forms in the market such as powder, liquid, and compressed. 
Calcium propionates use as a mold inhibitor is desirable in various dairy products, animal feedstock, and agricultural applications. 
Calcium propionate acts as a food preservative and is used to increase the shelf life of the bakery products. 
Calcium propionate is influenced by the varying storage conditions such as low temperature and humidity. 
Calcium propionate, changing climatic conditions is further influencing the market growth. 
Apart from the baked products, Calcium propionate is used as a food additive in wines, vinegar, soy sauce, and others. 
Additionally, Calcium propionate prevents milk fever in cows and provides nutritional supplement for dogs, cattle, and horse. 
The agricultural applications of Calcium propionate include its use as a pesticide and fungicide. 
Calcium propionate is also used as a leavening agent for delaying the fermentation in bakery products. 
Calcium propionate exhibits anti-microbial nature, which makes it useful in the pharmaceuticals and cosmetics industry.

The growing food industry is anticipated to fuel the global calcium propionate market during the forecast period. 
The changing food consumption pattern coupled with disposable income is expected to boost the calcium propionate market. 
Moreover, increasing demand for the processed and ready-to-eat food is likely to fuel the market growth in the coming future. 
Calcium propionate is cost-effective and relatively less toxic as compared to other substitutes such as sorbates and sulfites, which may further drive the market growth. 
Surging demand for the product in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics to inhibit microbial growth and prevent spoilage is also anticipated to favor the market growth during the years to follow. 
However, the shifting consumer patterns away from the consumption of food containing chemical additives and preservatives may hamper the market growth in the coming years.

Daily intake:
no limit

Side effects :
No side effects. Propionate is a normal small chain fatty acid and is used in many metabolic pathways in the body.

Dietary restrictions :
None, propionic acid and propionates can be consumed by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians.

Identification
Chemical names: Calcium Propionate
CAS: 4075-81-4
Molecular formula: Ca(C2H5COO)2
Molecular weight: 186.22
Other Names: Calciumpropionatemonohydrate; Propionic acid calcium salt hydrate; calcium dipropionate;
Calcium propionate hydrate; Calcium Propionate; Calcium propionate

calcium dipropanoate
Propanoic acid, calcium salt (2:1)
Bioban-C
Calcium propionate, 98+%
Calcium propionate;Bioban-C; Calcium dipropionate
Caswell No. 151
CHEBI:81716
Propionic acid, calcium salt
Propionic acid calcium salt hydrate
HSDB 907
MFCD00167354

General description of Calcium propionate
Calcium propionate is generally used as a food preservative in bread. 
Calcium propionate has also been reported to reduce milk fever in dairy cows.

Application of Calcium propionate
Calcium propionate was used as an antifungal agent in bread. 
Calcium propionate was also used to investigate the influence of calcium salts on growth, polygalacturonase activity and infection of peach fruit by Monilinia fructicola.

Calcium propionate is the most commonly used bread preservative globally. 
Calcium propionate is an effective growth inhibitor of most molds and some bacteria. 
Calcium propionate is widely employed in bread and other yeast-based bakery goods to prevent mold and rope formation and to extend their normal shelf life.
Used in foods as a preservative and mold inhibitor
White powder, possessing not more than a faint odor of propionic acid. 
One gram dissolves in about 3 ml of water.
Origin: USA. Other Name: Propanoic Acid, Sodium Propionate, Calcium Salt, Calcium Propanoate
Calcium propionate is a food additive used in food industry to extend the shelf life of numerous products. 
Calcium propionate is found in either crystalline or powder form. 
Calcium propionate is industrially obtained from calcium oxide and propionic acid.

EINECS 223-795-8
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 077701
Calcium propinate
ACMC-1AGCZ
Calcium Propionate, FCC
DSSTox_CID_7556
EC 223-795-8
C6H10CaO4
DSSTox_RID_78503
DSSTox_GSID_27556
SCHEMBL52363
CHEMBL3186661
DTXSID1027556
AMY37013
Tox21_202432
ANW-29489
AKOS015903218
NCGC00259981-01
M140
CAS-4075-81-4
FT-0623409
P0503
Q417394
Propionic acid calcium 1000 microg/mL in Acetonitrile:Water

As a food Preservatives, Calcium propionate is listed as E number 282 in the Codex Alimentarius. 
Calcium Propionate is used as a preservative in a wide variety of products, including but not limited to bread, other baked goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products. 
In agriculture, Calcium propionate is used, amongst other things, to prevent milk fever in cows and as a feed supplement Propionates prevent microbes from producing the energy they need, like benzoates do. 
However, unlike benzoates, propionates do not require an acidic environment.
Calcium propionate is used in bakery products as a mold inhibitor, typically at 0.1-0.4% (though animal feed may contain up to 1%). 
Mold contamination is considered a serious problem amongst bakers, and conditions commonly found in baking present near-optimal conditions for mold growth. 
Calcium propionate (along with propionic acid andSodium Propionate) is used as a preservative in bread and other baked goods. 
Calcium propionate also occurs naturally in butter and some types of cheese. 
Calcium propionate keeps bread and baked goods from spoiling by preventing mold and bacterial growth. 
Although you may be concerned about the idea of preservative use in food, on the flip-side, you certainly don want to eat bacteria- or mold-infested bread.

How to Made Calcium propionate:
“Propionic acid naturally occurs in animals and in dairy products in small amounts. 
Calcium propionate can be obtained from natural gas by the Fischer-Tropsch process, as a byproduct in the pyrolysis of wood, and by the action of microorganisms on a variety of materials in small yields. 
Very pure propionic acid can be obtained from propionitrile.” 
“Substantial levels of propionate occur naturally in the diet and as part of the metabolism of odd chain fatty acids.”

Calcium propionate properties:
Non-hazardous for air, sea and road freight.
Stability: Stable. Hygroscopic. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
Toxicology: May act as a skin, eye or respiratory irritant. 
Melting Point: 300 °C
pH (10% aqueous solution): 6.2 - 9.0
Solubility in water: 1g / 3 ml of water

Product Name: Calcium Propionate
Standard adopted: GB25548-2010
Assay: 99% ~ 99.58%
Appearance: White powder
Insoluble in water: ≤3    
Losing on drying: ≤9.5
As: <0.0003
Heavy metals: ≤0.001
Fluoride: ≤0.003
Fe: ≤0.005
Result: Qualified


2-) POTASSIUM SORBATE

Potassium sorbate = K-sorbate

CAS Number: 24634-61-5
EC Number: 246-376-1
Molecular Weight: 150.22
Chemical Formula: C6H7KO2
E number: E202 (preservatives)

Potassium sorbate is the potassium salt of sorbic acid, chemical formula CH3CH=CH−CH=CH−CO2K. 
Potassium sorbate is a white salt that is very soluble in water (58.2% at 20 °C). 
Potassium sorbate is primarily used as a food preservative (E number 202).
Potassium sorbate is effective in a variety of applications including food, wine, and personal-care products. 
While sorbic acid occurs naturally in some berries, virtually all of the world's supply of sorbic acid, from which potassium sorbate is derived, is manufactured synthetically.

Uses of Potassium sorbate:
Potassium sorbate is used to inhibit molds and yeasts in many foods, such as cheese, wine, yogurt, dried meats, apple cider, rehydrated fruits, soft drinks and fruit drinks, and baked goods.
Potassium sorbate is used in the preparation of items such as hotcake syrup and milkshakes served by fast-food restaurants such as McDonald's.
Potassium sorbate can also be found in the ingredients list of many dried fruit products. 
In addition, herbal dietary supplement products generally contain potassium sorbate, which acts to prevent mold and microbes and to increase shelf life. 
Potassium sorbate is used in quantities at which no adverse health effects are known, over short periods of time.
Labeling of this preservative on ingredient statements reads as "potassium sorbate" or "E202". 
Also, Potassium sorbate is used in many personal-care products to inhibit the development of microorganisms for shelf stability. 
Some manufacturers are using this preservative as a replacement for parabens. 
Tube feeding of potassium sorbate reduces the gastric burden of pathogenic bacteria.

Also known as "wine stabilizer", potassium sorbate produces sorbic acid when added to wine. 
Potassium sorbate serves two purposes. 
When active fermentation has ceased and the wine is racked for the final time after clearing, potassium sorbate renders any surviving yeast incapable of multiplying. 
Yeast living at that moment can continue fermenting any residual sugar into CO2 and alcohol, but when they die, no new yeast will be present to cause future fermentation. 
When a wine is sweetened before bottling, potassium sorbate is used to prevent refermentation when Potassium sorbate is used in conjunction with potassium metabisulfite. 
Potassium sorbate is primarily used with sweet wines, sparkling wines, and some hard ciders, but may be added to table wines, which exhibit difficulty in maintaining clarity after fining.

Some molds (notably some Trichoderma and Penicillium strains) and yeasts are able to detoxify sorbates by decarboxylation, producing piperylene (1,3-pentadiene). 
The pentadiene manifests as a typical odor of kerosene or petroleum.
Potassium sorbate (K-sorbate) is a food preservative commonly used in the baking industry to prevent mold, yeast, and microbes. 
Potassium sorbate is often used in cakes and icings, beverage syrups, cheese, dried fruits, margarine, pie fillings, wine, etc. at concentrations dependent on the specific application.
Potassium sorbate is a water soluble ingredient with molecular formula, C6H7KO2. 
K-sorbate is commercially available in the form of powder or pellets. 
Potassium sorbate is effective at pH up to 6 but drops rapidly at higher levels.

What is potassium sorbate?
Potassium sorbate is a chemical additive. 
Potassium sorbate’s widely used as a preservative in foods, drinks, and personal care products. 
Potassium sorbate is an odorless and tasteless salt synthetically produced from sorbic acid and potassium hydroxide.
Potassium sorbate prolongs the shelf life of foods by stopping the growth of mold, yeast, and fungi. 
Potassium sorbate was discovered in the 1850s by the French, who derived it from berries of the mountain ash tree. 
Potassium sorbates safety and uses as a preservative have been researched for the last fifty years. 
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recognizes Potassium sorbate as generally safe when used appropriately.

DESCRIPTION AND USES of Potassium sorbate:
Potassium sorbate is the potassium salt of sorbic acid, an organic compound. 
Although primarily Potassium sorbate is used as a food preservative, potassium sorbate is effective in a wide variety of applications such as wine and personal care products.

When used as a food preservative, potassium sorbate inhibits the growth of mold, yeast and other microorganisms for shelf life stability. 
Potassium sorbate is often used in foods such as cheese, dried fruit, yogurt, pet foods, dried meats, soft drinks, and baked goods.

TYPES of Potassium sorbate:
Potassium Sorbate Granular
Potassium Sorbate Powder
Potassium Sorbate Beads

Potassium Sorbate was first discoverd as sorbic acid and derived from the Mountain Ash Tree (sorbus amercanus). 
Potassium sorbate is a Naturally occuring," unsaturated fatty acid , and is "completely safe with regard to health. 
According to many sources Potassium Sorbate, has the lowest potential for allergies in food" as well, when used as a food preservative.
Potassum Sorbate is typically used at a rate of from 0.5 - 1.0% depending on the application.
Potassium sorbate is the potassium salt of sorbic acid, and is much more soluble in water than the acid. 
Potassium sorbate will produce sorbic acid once it is dissolved in water.
Potassium Sorbate is the most widely used preservative in the world. 
Potassium sorbate is effective up to pH 6.5. 
The effectiveness increases as the pH decreases.
Potassium sorbate has just at 74% of the antimicrobial activity of the sorbic acid.
Potassium sorbate is very effective against yeasts, molds, and select bacteria, and is widely used at 0.025 to 0.10 % levels in many food and beverage products as well as personal care products like lotions and creams.

In wine processing, sorbates are used to prevent refermentation. 
Maximum level allowable by law is 0.1% (check this yourself please). 
The addition of sodium benzoate and/or potassium sorbate to a food product will raise the pH by approximately 0.1 to 0.5 pH units depending on the amount, pH, and type of product. 
Additional adjustment of the pH might be needed to keep the pH at a safe level.
In some products, sorbate and benzoate are used together to provide greater protection against a wider variety of microorganisms. 
This only makes sense if the pH of Potassium sorbate is below 4.5. 
When using any preservative, Potassium sorbate's use must be declared in the list of ingredients on the label, along with a short explanation of intended use, such as "preservative," "mold inhibitor," or "to retard spoilage," etc.
Always dissolve the potassium sorbate in to your water phase at the beginning of the formulation, to ensure proper distribution within your product.
At proper usage level this is the most effective and cost effective preservative. 
Potassium sorbate is often used in foods like cheeses, meats, yogurt, and wine, little or no noticeable flavor at proper usage rate.
Potassium sorbate is also used often in personal care products like creams, lotions, sunscreen, and makeup.

Origin
Potassium sorbate is produced by combining potassium hydroxide and sorbic acid to create a potassium salt. 
Sorbic acid is naturally present in the lactone form in berries such as rowan berries, Sorbus aucuparia L, which it was first isolated from. 
Some fruits such as cranberries, currants, strawberries naturally contain sorbic acid.

Commercial production
Sorbic acid is commercially produced using the ketene–crotonaldehyde condensation method. 
Potassium sorbate is purified by treating sorbic acid with sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid and activated carbon. 
The potassium salt can be produced from batch or sorbic acid production streams prior to drying. 
Potassium sorbate is further granulated by extrusion and palletization.

Function
Similar to other sorbates, K-sorbate can:
-Inhibit microbial growth by changing the cell membrane morphology and integrity.
-Disrupt the transport functions and metabolic activity.
-Be more effective than other preservatives, such as calcium propionate and sodium benzoate in inhibiting mold growth in bakery products.
-Increase the product shelf life with limited impact on food quality. 
If used at very high concentration, Potassium sorbate can have an undesirable effect on taste and flavor.

Applications of Potassium sorbate:
K-sorbate is typically used in chemically-leavened products (dry blended with the flour) at a level of 0.03% to 0.4% of the batter weight. 
Because of Potassium sorbates deteriorative effect on yeast cells, K-sorbate can reduce loaf volume and generate a sticky dough that is difficult to process, therefore, it is not suitable for bread baking. 
K-sorbate can also be sprayed onto product surfaces after baking such as the case with tortillas.

What is potassium sorbate found in?
You’ll find potassium sorbate on the list of ingredients for many common foods. 
Potassium sorbate’s a popular preservative because Potassium sorbate’s effective and doesn’t change the qualities of a product, such as taste, smell, or appearance. 
Potassium sorbate’s also water-soluble, and Potassium sorbate works at room temperature.

You may find Potassium sorbate added to many food products, such as:
-apple cider
-baked goods
-canned fruits and vegetables
-cheeses
-dried meats
-dried fruit
-ice cream
-pickles
-soft drinks and juices
-wine
-yogurt

Uses of Potassium Sorbate
Potassium sorbate is a chemical that is added to food to help prevent the growth of fungi and mold. 
Potassium sorbate can be used in a wide range of foods without breaking down and it has no taste or smell, making it a popular food additive.

Food Preservative: Potassium sorbate is used particularly in foods that are stored at room temperature or that are precooked, such as canned fruits and vegetables, canned fish, dried meat, and desserts. 
Potassium sorbate’s also commonly used in food that is prone to mold growth, such as dairy products like cheese, yogurt, and ice cream. 
Many foods that are not fresh rely on potassium sorbate and other preservatives to keep them from spoiling. 
In general, potassium sorbate in food is very common.

Winemaking: Potassium sorbate is also commonly used in winemaking, to prevent wine from losing its flavor. 
Without a preservative, the fermentation process in wine would continue and cause the flavor to change. 
Soft drinks, juices, and sodas also often use potassium sorbate as a preservative.

Beauty Products: While the chemical is common in food, there are many other potassium sorbate uses. 
Many beauty products are also prone to mold growth and use the preservative to extend the life of skin and haircare products. 
Potassium sorbate is very likely that your shampoo, hair spray, or skin cream contains potassium sorbate.

Specific Uses of Potassium sorbate:
“When dissolved in water, potassium sorbate ionizes to form sorbic acid which is effective against yeasts, molds, and select bacteria, and is widely used at 250 ppm to 1000 ppm levels in cheeses, dips, yogurt, sour cream, bread, cakes, pies and fillings, baking mixes, doughs, icings, fudges, toppings, beverages, margarine, salads, fermented and acidified vegetables, olives, fruit products, dressings, smoked and salted fish, confections and mayonnaise. 
In many food products, sorbate and sodium benzoate are used together to provide greater protection against a wider variety of microorganisms (synergism).” 
“Although the minimum inhibatory concentration for many fungi and bacteria is approx. 
100 ppm, common usage levels range from 0.5 - 1.0%.” 
“Sorbic acid is widely used to inhibit yeast and mould growth in a variety of foods including cheese, baked products and wine. 
Potassium sorbate may be added directly to the food, or incorporated into the packaging method, usually at a concentration of 0.3% by weight of the food and at such values, contributes no flavour.”
“Furthermore, fur animal feed may be acidified intentionally when prolonged storage and improved hygienic quality of the wet feed are desired. 
This may be done by adding 0.3 - 0.6% of formic acid into the wet diet when mixing. 
Additionally, the feed may be acidified in order to alleviate urination problems with calculi.”

Action:
“Unfortunately, grain and feed provides an ideal environment for molds to proliferate. 
Raw materials or feeds in bulk storage are rich sources of energy, proteins and moisture and, thus, are highly conducive to mold growth.”
“Potassium sorbate is the potassium salt of sorbic acid, and is much more soluble in water than the acid. 
Potassium sorbate will produce sorbic acid once it is dissolved in water and is the most widely used food preservative in the world. 
Potassium sorbate is effective up to pH 6.5 but effectiveness increases as the pH decreases. 
Potassium sorbate has about 74% of the antimicrobial activity of the sorbic acid, thus requiring higher concentrations to obtain the same results that pure sorbic acid provides. 
Potassium sorbate is effective against yeasts, molds, and select bacteria, and is widely used at 0.025 to 0.10 % levels in cheeses, dips, yogurt, sour cream, bread, cakes, pies and fillings, baking mixes, doughs, icings, fudges, toppings, 

How is Potassium Sorbate made?
Potassium sorbate can be commercially synthesized by neutralizing sorbic acid (E200, also a food preservative, can be naturally found in berries, but the commercial one is made from chemical synthesis) with potassium hydroxide.

Here is the brief four steps manufacturing process:
Condensation reaction: obtain polymeric ester of 3-hydroxy-4-hexenoic acid by the condensation between ketene and crotonaldehyde. 
The following is the reaction equation: H2C=C=O + CH3–CH=CH–CHO = CH3CH=CH−CH=CH−COOH
Decomposition: decompose the polyester to produce sorbic acid.
Purification: through activated carbon, distillation, recrystallization or other processes.
neutralization with potassium hydroxide.

How does Potassium Sorbate work as a Preservative?
Potassium sorbate is an inhibitor of both yeasts and moulds, also active for several bacteria but less effective. 
Potassium sorbate is the sorbic acid (active form) that has the inhibitory activity which is generated after the ionization of potassium sorbate in water. 

Potassium sorbate is the potassium salt of sorbic acid. 
Potassium sorbates primary use is as a preservative, and can be used to retard re-fermentation.
Potassium sorbate inhibits microbial growth by changing the cell membrane morphology, integrity and function and then disrupting the transport functions and metabolic activity.
This mechanism of preservation is similar to sodium benzoate, but different with that of nisin and natamycin.

WHAT IS POTASSIUM SORBATE
Potassium sorbate is a chemical additive widely used as a preservative in foods, drinks, and personal care products. 
Potassium sorbate is an odourless and tasteless salt synthetically produced from sorbic acid and potassium hydroxide.

Synonyms: E202, 2, 4 - Hexadenoic acid, Potassium salt, Sorbic acid, Potassium salt
INCI: Potassium Sorbate
Chemical Formula: C6H7KO2
CAS Number: 24634-61-5

Chemical formula: C6H7KO2
Molar mass: 150.218 g·mol−1
Appearance: White crystals
Odor: Yes
Density: 1.363 g/cm3
Melting point: 270 °C (518 °F; 543 K) decomposes
Solubility in water: 58.5 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Solubility in other solvents:    
Soluble in ethanol, propylene glycol
Slightly soluble in acetone
Very slightly soluble in chloroform, corn oil, ether
Insoluble in benzene

Potassium sorbate is used as an antimicrobial and preservative in personal care items, as well, such as:
-eyeshadow and other cosmetics
-shampoos and moisturizers
-contact lens solution
-Potassium sorbate is also approved for safe use as a preservative in moist cat and dog foods and in other animal feed.

Production
Potassium sorbate is produced industrially by neutralizing sorbic acid with potassium hydroxide. 
The precursor sorbic acid is produced in a two-step process via the condensation of crotonaldehyde and ketene.

Is potassium sorbate safe to eat?
Regulatory agencies such as the FDA, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) have determined that potassium sorbate is “generally regarded as safe,” abbreviated as GRAS. 
When you eat potassium sorbate as a food additive, it passes through your system harmlessly as water and carbon dioxide. 
Potassium sorbate does not accumulate in your body.
The maximum acceptable daily intake for humans is 25 milligrams per kilogramTrusted Source (mg per kg) of body weight per day. 
For an adult of 150 pounds, this comes to 1,750 mg per day.

Potassium sorbate, the potassium salt of sorbic acid, is a naturally-occurring organic acid. 
Potassium sorbate is the most widely used food grade preservative and is not a broad spectrum preservative for cosmetic use. 
Potassium sorbate is used as a mold, bacterial and yeast inhibitor and as a fungistatic agent in foods. 
Potassium sorbate is also used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, tobacco and flavoring products.

Preferred IUPAC name:
Potassium (2E,4E)-hexa-2,4-dienoate
Other names:
E202
Sorbistat-K
Sorbistat potassium

Potassium salt of sorbic acid (natural fatty acid) It is the natural potassium salt of sorbic acid, which when dissolved in water based products is effective against yeasts, molds and select bacteria. 
Requires pH of product to be below 6 to be effective Add to the water phase of formulations at a temperature below 60°C (140°F)
We recommend using Potassium Sorbate as a secondary preservative - Potassium Sorbate is not a broad spectrum preservative for cosmetics; however it can be combined our Leucidal Line of Products or with other preservatives. 
Although Potassium Sorbate is a food grade product, it is packaged as Cosmetic Grade Raw Material only. 
External use only.

Foods That Contain Potassium Sorbate
Potassium sorbate is found in a wide variety of packaged and treated products, including:
-Processed and cured or smoked meats
-Dairy products like cheeses, dips, yogurt and sour cream
-Baked goods, including bread, cakes, pies and fillings, baking mixes, doughs, icings, fudges, toppings
-Beverages including ciders, juices and sodas
-Condiments including margarine, mayonnaise, dressings and oils
-Smoked and salted fish
-Cereals and snack foods

What Is Potassium Sorbate?
Potassium sorbate is a man-made, chemical preservative that has been used for almost 200 years to protect food, drinks and personal care products from being spoiled by fungi (such as mold), bacteria and other microorganisms, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Today, most potassium sorbate is made in labs and comes in the form of white crystals or powder, per a paper in Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 
Potassium sorbate also has no odor or taste, which makes it attractive as a food additive.

CAS Number: 24634-61-5 
CHEBI:77868 
ChemSpider: 4445644 
ECHA InfoCard: 100.042.145
E number: E202 (preservatives)
KEGG: D02411 
PubChem CID: 23676745
UNII: 1VPU26JZZ4 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID7027835

Solubility of Potassium sorbate:
Freely soluble in water and soluble in ethanol. 
As the solubility of sorbic acid is very low in water (0.16g/100ml at 20 °C), as this result, it is usually made into its soluble potassium salt – potassium sorbate (solubility 67.6g/100ml at 20 °C to as a preservative in food.

PH of Potassium sorbate:
Potassium sorbates antimicrobial effectiveness is in a wide pH range from 3.0 to 6.5), and better under acidic conditions with pH value less than 5-6. 
The activity increases as the pH decreases. 
Potassium sorbate is still effective at higher pH ranges, for example, PH 6.5, while sodium benzoate and potassium benzoate almost lost its antimicrobial activity which are effective to only below PH 4.5. 
However, potassium sorbate will also ineffective if pH above 7.0.

What’re the Uses of Potassium Sorbate?
Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate are often synergized (combined used) in acidic food to protect against a wider variety of microorganisms. 
Potassium sorbate inhibits the growth of mold, yeast and other microorganisms and thus increasing the preservation time of food products. 
The common preservation dosage ranges from 250 ppm to 1000 ppm levels, depending on PH, microbial types and other conditions.  
Potassium sorbate can be used by direct adding, spraying, in packing material or in other methods.

Soft Drink
Food grade potassium sorbate is commonly added to diet soft drinks as a preservative.

Coca Cola
Like sodium and potassium benzoate, potassium sorbate is the common preservative Coca Cola put in some non-carbonated and juice-containing drinks to protect taste. 
We can find Potassium sorbate in the ingredient lists of Sprite lymonade and Fanta Orange.

Pepsico
Potassium sorbate is used to preserve freshness and flavors in some Pepsico drinks. 
You’ll find Potassium sorbate in Potassium sorbates Fountain Drinks, such as Mtn Dew Kickstar – Black Cherry or Orange Citrus.

Wine
Potassium sorbate is an ingredient for winemaking and some winemakers think that adding Potassium sorbate can stop the wine fermentation process.
Potassium sorbate functions as a wine stabilizer which isn’t added until the fermentation process is complete. 
Potassium sorbates purpose is not to prevent the fermenting but to keep wines from starting to ferment again by inhibiting yeast reproducing. 
That is to say, existing yeast will die and new cells of yeast cannot be generated. 
The yeast will multiply several generations during a fermentation process, Potassium sorbate ensures the current generation of yeast is the last generation by adding potassium sorbate.
In this way, Potassium sorbate stabilizes wine and is always combined with potassium metabisulfite in sweet wines before bottling. 

Other food may with Potassium sorbate:
-Cheese
-Wine
-Mead
-Hard cider
-Dried meats and dried fruit
-Yogurt
-Pet foods
-Soft drinks
-Baked goods 

USE LEVEL OF POTASSIUM SORBATE:
Potassium Sorbate should only be used for the following food item. 
The usage as sorbic acid should be
1.Cheese: Not be more than 3.0 g/kg (if Potassium sorbate is used with propionic acid, sodium propionate, and calcium propionate, the total usage of propionic acid, sorbic acid should not be more than 3.0 g/kg.)
2.Meat products including poultry and game (packaged meat, marinated meat, crushed and meat products including poultry and game, processed rib products, bouillons and broth, beef tallow, and lard are excluded.), whale meat products, processed fish and fish product including mullusks, crustaceans and echinoderms, sea urchin products, peanut butter, cheese analogue : Not be more than 2.0 g/kg.
3.Salted and fermented seafood (with not more than 8% as salt), fermented soy bean paste, fermented hot pepper soybean paste, chunjang, cheonggukjang (limited to non dried products.), mixed bean paste, dried sea food, red bean paste, salted food, aloe gel concentrate, processed aloe gel products (edible aloe gel included), flour paste (Sugar, fats and oils, beef tallow, lard, powdered milk, or eggs are added to main ingredients such as wheat flour, starch, nuts, or its processed products, cocoa, chocolate, coffee, fruit juice, potatoes and pulses, legumes, or vegetables. 
Above foods are pasteurized and formed into a paste type), dressing, concentrated pineapple juice, Mango Chutney (after peeling mango, it is sliced, diced, or crushed, which is mixed with fruit vegetables, vinegar, garlic, etc and processed by heating) : Not be more than 1.0 g/kg.
4.Jams : Not be more than 1.0 g/kg (if Potassium sorbate is used with benzoic acid, sodium benzoate, potassium benzoate, calcium benzoate, methyl p-hydroxybenzoate, ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate, propyl p-hydroxybenzoate, propionic acid, sodium propionate, and calcium propionate, the total consumption of sorbic acid, benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and propionic acid should not be more than 1.0 g/kg)
5.Dried fruits, tomato ketchup, vinegar-preserved food, sugared food (sugared dried food excluded): Not be more than 0.5 g/kg.
6.Fermented dairy-based drinks (pasteurized beverages are excluded): Not be more than 0.05 g/kg.
7.Fruit Liquor: Not be more than 0.2 g/kg.
8.Margarine: Not be more than 1.0 g/kg. (if Potassium sorbate is used with  benzoic acid, sodium benzoate, potassium benzoate, and calcium benzoate, the sum of sorbic acid and benzoic acid should not be more than 2.0 g/kg and the usage of benzoic acid should not be more than 1.0 g/kg)
9.Low fat margarine (low fat spread): not be more than 2.0 g/kg (if Potassium sorbate is used with benzoic acid, sodium benzoate, potassium benzoate, and calcium benzoate, the sum of sorbic acid and benzoic acid should not be more than 2.0 g/kg and the usage of benzoic acid should not be more than 1.0 g/kg)
10.Processed saccharide products (limited to syrup or paste to be sprayed or packed into dried cookies, loaf bread, ice cream, and other food items.): Not be more than 1.0 g/kg.

HEALTH AND SAFETY INFORMATION:
Potassium Sorbate is one kind of nonsaturated fatty acid compounds. 
Potassium sorbate can be absorbed by human body rapidly, then decomposed into CO2 and H2O, no remaining in body.
1.ADI 0-25mg/kg (based on sorbic acid FAO/WHO 1994)
2.LD50 4920mg/kg (large mouse by mouth)
3.GRAS (FDA, 182.3640 1994)
4.Potassium sorbates toxicity only 1/12 times table salts and 1/40 times sodium benzoate.

Potassium sorbate (E 202) is made up of the potassium salt from sorbic acid and is used in cosmetics as well as in the food industry as a preservative. 
Potassium sorbate is considered safe because Potassium sorbate is metabolized in the human body into water and CO2. 
Potassium sorbate protects cosmetic products from yeasts and moulds and is very friendly to the skin.

Benefits
Effective preservative active against molds, yeast and aerophile bacteria
Effectiveness is enhanced further by chelating agents (e.g. EDTA)
Extends shelf life of personal care products typically to several months
Effective in a wide pH range of (2 to 6.5)

Cosmetics
Potassium sorbate is used as a preservative in cosmetics and personal care products. 
Potassium sorbate is a mild preservative that extends shelf life by inhibiting yeasts and molds, also it can replace parabens. 

Sorbistat K, Potassium Sorbate, ensures against renewed fermentation in wine when residual sugar is added post the initial ferment. 
Add at the rate of .5 to .75 grams per gallon (125-200ppm) in conjunction with .
3 grams of meta-bisulphite (50ppm) per gallon. 
Use the higher end of the range (200 ppm) as the wine's pH approaches or exceeds 3.5 or when the alcohol conent of the wine is below 10%. 
Note: Will not stop an active fermentation. 
Potassium sorbate should not be used if the wine underwent an ML fermentation because sorbic acid (in the potassium sorbate) will react with lactic bacteria to produce a "geranium" smelling off-flavor.

The common cosmetics including: 
-Sunscreen
-Moisturizers
-Creams
-Shampoos
-Skin care and hair products

Potassium Sorbate or the "wine stabilizer," dissolves completely in wine to prevent yeast from fermenting. 
Use in sweet wines, sparkling wines, and some hard ciders prior to bottling to prevent carbonating your wine. 
Potassium sorbate may be added to table wines which exhibit difficulty in maintaining clarity after fining. 
When added to wine, potassium sorbate produces sorbic acid, serving two purposes: At the point when active fermentation has ceased and the wine is racked for the final time after clearing, potassium sorbate will render any surviving yeast incapable of multiplying. 
Yeast living at that moment will be permitted to continue fermenting any residual sugar into CO2 and alcohol, but when they die no new yeast will be present to cause future fermentation. 
When a wine is sweetened before bottling, potassium sorbate is used to prevent refermentation when used in conjunction with potassium metabisulfite. 
Please note: this product will not stop an active fermentation. 
Use 1/2 tsp. per gallon.

Feed
Potassium sorbate can also be safely used as a preservative in feed, such as in animal food for pigs, poultry, cat and dog food.

Is Potassium Sorbate Safe to Eat?
Yes, Potassium sorbate has been approved as a safe ingredient by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), as well as Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). 

Metabolism:
Potassium sorbate is the salt of unsaturated fatty acids that participate in fat metabolism and finally metabolized into water and CO2 in the human body. 

FDA:
Potassium sorbate is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a chemical preservative when used in accordance with good manufacturing practice.

Potassium sorbate is the common name for potassium (2E,4E)-2,4-hexadienoate 1). 
The predominant use of potassium sorbate is as food additive (E 202) as mold and yeast inhibitor. 
Potassium sorbate (E 202) is used as a antimicrobial and fungistatic agent and preservative in foods, especially cheeses (unripened, ripened and whey cheese and cheese products), citrus fruits, chewing gum, processed potato products, potato gnocchi, meat pâté, processed meat, processed fish, processed eggs (dehydrated and concentrated frozen eggs), table-top sweeteners in liquid form, protein products, dietary foods for weight control, salads, fruit nectars, beer, wine, fruit wine and made wine, mead, aromatised wines and aromatised wine-based drinks and cocktails, potato-, cereal-, flour- or starch-based snacks, desserts and food supplements and processed nuts. 
Potassium sorbate has been also used as medication and in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. 
Potassium sorbate is also approved as a biocidal active substance.

How much to use:
Approved with the following concentration:
Cheeses < 0.3%
Fruit Butter & Art Sw Jelly & Preserves < 0.1%
Margarine & Oleomargarine < 0.1% or 0.2% total in combination w/other preservatives

Potassium sorbate is used to inhibit molds and yeasts in many foods, such as cheese, wine, yogurt, dried meats, apple cider and baked goods. 
Potassium sorbate can also be found in the ingredients list of many dried fruit products. 
In addition, herbal dietary supplement products generally contain potassium sorbate, which acts to prevent mold and microbes and to increase shelf life, and is used in quantities at which there are no known adverse health effects. 
Labeling of this preservative reads as 'potassium sorbate' on the ingredient statement. 
Also, Potassium sorbate is used in many personal care products to inhibit the development of microorganisms for shelf stability. 
Some manufacturers are using this preservative as a replacement for parabens. 
Also known affectionately as 'wine stabilizer', potassium sorbate produces sorbic acid when added to wine. 
Potassium sorbate serves two purposes. 

When active fermentation has ceased and the wine is racked for the final time after clearing, potassium sorbate will render any surviving yeast incapable of multiplying. 
Yeast living at that moment can continue fermenting any residual sugar into CO2 and alcohol, but when they die no new yeast will be present to cause future fermentation. 
When a wine is sweetened before bottling, potassium sorbate is used to prevent refermentation when used in conjunction with sodium metabisulfite. 
Potassium sorbate is primarily used with sweet wines, sparkling wines, and some hard ciders but may be added to table wines which exhibit difficulty in maintaining clarity after fining. 
Potassium sorbate is the most widely used preservative in the world. 
Potassium sorbate is effective up to pH 6.5. 
The effectiveness increases as the pH decreases. 
Potassium sorbate has 74% of the antimicrobial activity of the sorbic acid. 
Potassium sorbate is very effective against yeasts, molds, and select bacteria, and is widely used at 0.025 to 0.10 % levels in many food and beverage products as well as personal care products like lotions and creams.

Why do you add sulfites to wine?
There are two types of sulfites, also known as sulfur dioxide: natural and added. 
Natural sulfites are just that, totally natural compounds produced during fermentation. 
And you cannot escape them. 
Added sulfites preserve freshness and protect wine from oxidation, and unwanted bacteria and yeasts.

How much potassium sorbate should I use?
Potassium sorbate, aka “stabilizer,” prevents renewed fermentation in wine that is to be bottled and/or sweetened. 
Use 1/2 teaspoon per gallon.

Is potassium sorbate the same as Campden tablets?
Campden tabets are a convenient form of potassium metabisulfite. 
That’s what winemakers use as an antioxidant/preservative, commonly called “sulfites”. 
Potassium sorbate is used to inhibit yeast reproduction. 
Potassium sorbate’s used when wine/cider/mead is done fermenting, and Potassium sorbate is racked off of the lees and clear.

How do you stabilize wine without potassium sorbate?
Ale’s What Cures You.

Another stabilizer is sodium benzoate, sold as a chemical or as Stabilizing Tablets. 
Potassium sorbates action is much the same as potassium sorbate. 
One crushed tablet per gallon of wine, added in conjunction with one crushed Campden tablet per gallon, is usually sufficient to stop fermentation.

How do you dissolve potassium sorbate?
Potassium sorbate easily dissolves in cold water, but not in alcohol solutions or in warm water. 
A convenient solution can be made by dissolving 30 grams in 1 litre cold water.

Is potassium sorbate a natural preservative?
Potassium sorbate can prevent the growth of fungi, mold, yeast, and other potentially harmful foodborne pathogens. 
Potassium sorbate isn’t as effective against bacteria, and will need to be complemented with other preservatives, such as rosemary or sodium benzoate.

POTASSIUM SORBATE
24634-61-5
Sorbic acid potassium salt
Potassium 2,4-hexadienoate
590-00-1
Potassium (E,E)-sorbate
potassium (2E,4E)-hexa-2,4-dienoate
Potassium (E,E)-hexa-2,4-dienoate
UNII-1VPU26JZZ4
Potassium (E,E)-2,4-hexadienoate
Sorbistat-K
Potassium sorbate [NF]
MFCD00016546
potassium;(2E,4E)-hexa-2,4-dienoate
1VPU26JZZ4
CHEBI:77868
Sorbistat potassium

Is Potassium sorbate good for my skin?
Potassium sorbate is generally recognized as safe in skincare topical application up to 0.15%1.
Potassium sorbate, not being a broad spectrum preservative for cosmetic and should be combined with other preservatives. 
For example, potassium sorbate and Sodium benzoate are often combined in food additives that are generally employed for the prevention of food spoilage originating from bacteria, molds or yeasts2.
When Sodium benzoate is used as a preservative, the pH of the final formulation may have to be lowered to facilitate the release of the free benzoic acid for useful activity.  
Potassium sorbate is often combined with Sodium benzoate in low pH products to provide a synergistic preservative effect against yeast and mold.

Potassium sorbate is a stabilizer, to help prevent renewed fermentation when sweetening. Does not stop fermentation. 
Generally added to a finished wine to prevent further fermentation and potential carbonation.

Potassium sorbate is petitioned for use in organic livestock production as mold inhibitor. 
Sorbic acid was first discovered in the Mountain Ash Tree (Sorbus aucuparia or Sorbus americana). 
Today most potassium sorbate is made synthetically. 
Potassium sorbate is a naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acid and is completely safe with regard to health and have the lowest allergenic potential of all food preservatives.
Potassium sorbate was also petitioned for use in liquid livestock medications primarily aloe vera juice as a substitute for antibiotics and other various hormones. 
Studies have shown that a derivative of aloe (called Acemannan) has antitumor effects in animals and stimulates immune cells (principally macrophages) to produce cancer-fighting substances. 
Acemannan has now been approved for full use under the CarraVet® label by the USDA.
Potassium sorbate is not officially listed anywhere in the NOP final rule. 
As in section 205.600 of the NOP final rule, “any synthetic substance used as a processing aid or adjuvant will be evaluated against the following criteria: the substance’s manufacture, used and disposal do not have adverse effects on the environment and are done in a manner compatible with organic handling.” 
Potassium sorbate is not explicitly listed in section 205.603 as a synthetic substance, allowed for use in organic livestock production nor is it listed in section 205.604 as a prohibited substance.

Assay 98.0 – 101.0 %
Acidity    ≤ 1%
Alkalinity ≤ 1%
Lead ≤ 2 PPM
Loss on Drying ≤ 1%
Heavy Metal ≤ 10 PPM

Potassium Sorbate occurs as white to off white crystals, crystalline powder, or pellets. 
Potassium sorbate decomposes at about 270°. Potassium Sorbate is mainly used as preservatives in Food. 
Potassium Sorbate can restrain effectively the activity of mould, yeast and aerophile bacteria. 
Restrain growth and reproduction of the pernicious micro oraganism as pseudomonas, staphylococcus salmonella action to restrain growth is more powerful than killing. 
Potassium Sorbate occurs as white to light yellow brown flaky crystals, crystalline powder or granules. 
Potassium sorbate is odorless or has a slight odor.

USES AND APPLICATIONS FOR POTASSIUM SORBATE
INDUSTRIES
-Pharma
-Lubricants
-Water Treatment
-Oil & Gas
-Cleaning
-Animal Nutrition
-Coatings & Construction
-Food and Nutrition
-Agriculture
-Cosmetics
-Polymers
-Rubber

How do you mix potassium sorbate?
Potassium sorbate comes in a granulated powder form. 
Potassium sorbate needs to be mixed up as a 50% solution before you can use it; (for example 2kg to 4 litres of tap water). 
Add granules to water not water to granules.

What is the shelf life of potassium sorbate?
Potassium sorbate should be stored where Potassium sorbate is dry and out of direct sunlight. 
With proper care, shelf life is normally six to eight months.

What are the side effects of potassium sorbate?
Some people may have an allergic reaction to potassium sorbate in foods. 
These allergies are rare. 
Allergies to potassium sorbate are more common with cosmetics and personal products, where it can cause skin or scalp irritation.

Is potassium sorbate a sulfite?
A lot of dried fruit, such as figs, prunes and raisins, may be preserved with non-sulphite preservatives (eg potassium sorbate), and some, such as dates, may not always have added preservative at all.

Potassium Sorbate is a food preservative that helps prevent mould and yeast growth – ultimately increasing shelf life. 
Potassium sorbate is a very widely used food preservative that does not affect colour, taste or flavour.
One of the most common questions we get asked about Potassium sorbate is about how much should be added when it is used so we have compiled the table below with suggested dosage per kilogram of food product.

Potassium sorbate can be found in nature, for instance berries contain naturally high levels of this chemical. 
However, contrary to popular belief, the potassium sorbate that is added to food and cosmetics as a mild preservative is not a derived compound of berries - but rather an identical copy that is lab created. 
This process is similar to the vitamins and other nutritional supplements that people take - as those are generally "man made" as well.
Many natural and fresh food companies (fresh salsa immediately comes to mind), use potassium sorbate in their blends as a reliable preservative system. 
The same concept applies to cosmetics and toiletries. 
Potassium sorbate does like a more neutral pH level, so we recommend staying within the 4.0 to 6.0 pH for this product to be effective. 
Potassium sorbate is also water soluble - meaning it won't do anything to an oil-only based recipe. 
Potassium sorbate can, however, be used for any formulation consisting of a water phase.
We don't generally recommend relying solely on this product as a stand alone preservative system. 
In combination with other preservatives though, it will help boost the shelf life of your finished product. 
Potassium sorbate has been proven to be effective against mold (hence why its used in the food industry), "good" when dealing with yeast issues, and not very reliable against bacteria. 
So be sure to sterilize your utensils well and practice clean manufacturing guidelines, which is always the first part in creating a bullet proof preservative system.
Potassium sorbate usage ratio is about 0.2% of the water content portion of your recipe. 
Add at the cool down phase, generally when your formulation has reached 80 (or lower) degrees.

INCI: Potassium Sorbate FCC
This product is food grade and can be used for baking as well as cosmetic applications.

Potassium sorbate used for inhibiting mold and yeast growth on the surface of sausages during Dry Curing. 
Unless strict hygienic procedures are followed and a lab created, beneficial mold (such as Mold 600) is applied to the surface to dry curing sausage, there will be lingering doubt whether the wild flora that is speckling sausage is beneficial or safe. 
Using a clean cloth with vinegar/water solution for wiping mold away is often only a temporary fix, with mold re-emerging later. 
Potassium Sorbate will consistently inhibit mold growth. 
Dilute 1 oz sorbate per 10 oz of water and spray thoroughly or dip sausages in solution prior to hanging. 
Does not effect flavor of finished product.

Potassium Sorbate is a preservative that is the potassium salt of sorbic acid. 
Potassium sorbate is highly soluble in water and can be used for spraying and dipping. 
Potassium sorbate effective reduces yeast and molds and is typically seen in margarine, cheese, bread, dry sausage, and beverages.

Potassium sorbate (NF)
Potassium sorbate, 99%
Sorbic acid, potassium salt
2,4-Hexadienoic acid, potassium salt, (2E,4E)-
BB Powder
Sorbistat-potassium
2,4-Hexadienoic acid potassium salt
Caswell No. 701C
Potassium sorbate (E)
Potassium Sorbate [USAN]

Stable salt of sorbic acid derived from the berries of the mountain ash tree. 
Prevents renewed fermentation in sweet wines and inhibits reproduction of mould and yeast. 
Do not add until all fermentation is finished and the wine is clear and stable. 
Dissolve 0.5 teaspoons of Sorbate per gallon of wine (2.5 teaspoons in 5 gallons), in cool water and then stir in thoroughly. 
Must not be added until all fermentation has ceased. 
Sorbate present during malolactic fermentation will be converted to hexanedienol (geraniol), a compound with the strong odor of geraniums.

Potassium Sorbate Granular E202 
Potassium sorbate is the potassium salt of Sorbic Acid, chemical formula C6H7KO2. 
Potassium sorbates primary use is as a food preservative (E number 202). 
Potassium sorbate is effective in a variety of applications including food, wine, and personal care products.
Potassium sorbate is produced by reacting Sorbic Acid with an equimolar portion of potassium hydroxide. 
The resulting potassium sorbate may be crystallized from aqueous ethanol.

Potassium Sorbate Granular E202 Applications
Potassium sorbate is used to inhibit molds and yeasts in many foods, such as cheese, wine, yogurt, dried meats, apple cider, soft drinks and fruit drinks, and baked goods. 
Potassium sorbate can also be found in the ingredients list of many dried fruit products. 
In addition, herbal dietary supplement products generally contain potassium sorbate, which acts to prevent mold and microbes and to increase shelf life, and is used in quantities at which there are no known adverse health effects, over short periods of time.

FEMA No. 2921
CCRIS 1894
2,4-Hexadienoic acid potassium salt, (E,E)-
HSDB 1230
EINECS 246-376-1
2,4-Hexadienoic acid, potassium salt
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 075902
Potassium 2,4-hexadienoate, (E,E)-
potassium hexa-2,4-dienoate
AI3-26043
C6H7O2.K
E 202
2,4-Hexadienoic acid, potassium salt, (E,E)-
Sorbic acid, potassium salt, (E,E)-

Potassium sorbate is the potassium salt of a naturally occurring compound known as sorbic acid. 
Sorbic acid comes from the vibrant berries of the rowan tree (Sorbus aucuparia), a type of mountain ash known for its hardiness in cold weather.
Potassium sorbate has been valued for decades for Potassium sorbates antimicrobial properties, and is an especially effective food preservative found in dehydrated meats, dairy products, wine, and pastries. 
Potassium sorbate can prevent the growth of fungi, mold, yeast, and other potentially harmful foodborne pathogens.
This natural preservative isn’t as effective against bacteria, and will need to be complemented with other preservatives, such as rosemary or sodium benzoate.
While potassium sorbate can be naturally sourced, the most common way of producing potassium sorbate is through synthetic methods; specifically, by neutralizing sorbic acid with hydrogen peroxide. 
The result is a compound identical to that found in nature.
Potassium sorbate makes an effective preservative in food, but Potassium sorbate’s antimicrobial and antifungal properties are easily transferred to cosmetic products. 
Since this preservative is a viable alternative to more harmful parabens, Potassium sorbate’s become quite popular in clean skin care and natural makeup.
As a result, potassium sorbate is often used in products at a concentration of up to 1% as a preservative. 
However in recent years, the word “preservative” has developed a strange stigma as something that’s dangerous or harmful to our health – but this assumption needs to be unpacked to be fully understood.

2,4-Hexadienoic acid, potassium salt (1:1)
Potassium (E,E')-sorbate; Potassium sorbate
DSSTox_CID_7835
EC 246-376-1
SCHEMBL3640
2,4-Hexadienoic acid, (E,E)-, potassium salt
DSSTox_RID_78585
DSSTox_GSID_27835
potassium trans,trans-sorbate
2,4-Hexadienoic acid potassium
CHEMBL2106930
DTXSID7027835
HY-N0626A
trans-trans-Sorbic acid potassium
Tox21_202757
AKOS015915488
potassium trans,trans-2,4-hexadienoate
2,4-Hexadienoic acid, (E,E')-, potassium salt; 2,4-Hexadienoic acid, potassium salt
NCGC00260304-01
P893

What Is Potassium sorbate?
Potassium sorbate is white crystalline powder, pellet, or granule that is the potassium salt of sorbic acid.
Sorbic acid occurs naturally in the berries of the mountain ash (Sorbus aucupario L. Rosaceae).

What Does Potassium sorbate Do in Our products?
Potassium sorbate is a preservative; it keeps microorganisms from growing. 
Potassium sorbate is a common ingredient in cheese, baked goods, juice, produce, wine, soda, pickled products and some protein products.
Potassium sorbate in also present in thousands of personal care products, including shampoo, conditioner, body wash, moisturizers, makeup, sunscreen and other items.
Potassium sorbate dissolves in alcohol and slightly in water.

Why Puracy Uses Potassium sorbate
We use potassium sorbate in several of our products as a preservative, and it is better than harsh alternatives such as formaldehyde. 
The Cosmetics Ingredient Review has deemed the ingredient safe for use in cosmetics, and Whole Foods has deemed the ingredient acceptable in its body care quality standards.
The FDA has deemed the ingredient Generally Recognized as Safe,.
In addition, several studies show the ingredient is not a strong skin or eye irritant or sensitizer.
Studies also show Potassium sorbate has antimicrobial activities.

How Potassium sorbate Is Made
The main component of potassium sorbate, sorbic acid, occurs naturally as para-sorbic acid in berries of the mountain ash tree. 
Potassium sorbate is often synthesized by various processes.
Potassium sorbate can include, for example, condensing crotonaldehyde and acetic or malonic acid in pyridine solution, condensing crotonaldehyde and ketene in the presence of boron trifluoride, and other processes.
Potassium sorbate is manufactured by reacting sorbic acid with an equimolar portion of potassium hydroxide. 
The manufacturer then crystallizes the resulting potassium sorbate from aqueous ethanol.

Summary: Potassium sorbate is a food preservative that has fungicidal and other antimicrobial properties. 
Potassium sorbate is also an ingredient in insect repellents, and it is often used as to prevent the degradation of other active ingredients. 
Formed as the potassium salt of sorbic acid, which occurs naturally in foods, potassium sorbate inhibits bacterial and fungal growth through biocidal modes of action.
Pesticidal Uses: Primarily used as a fungicide, bactericide and algicide. 
Potassium sorbate used as a seed treatment and a post-harvest handling fungicide. 
Also Potassium sorbate is used with various essential oils as an insect repellent.
Formulations and Combinations: Potassium sorbate can be used as a seed treatment with sodium propionate and various polymers. 
Potassium sorbate is also used in a number of combinations for control of
spoilage organisms in food and feed processing. 
Citric acid can be used as a stabilizer for sorbic acid and its salts. 
Previously registered pesticides contained potassium sorbate as an active ingredient with parathion.

CAS-24634-61-5
CS-0102519
P1954
S0057
9207-EP2270004A1
9207-EP2270005A1
9207-EP2277876A1
9207-EP2292614A1
9207-EP2295412A1
9207-EP2295413A1

What is Potassium sorbate?
Potassium is a mineral that is found in many foods and is needed for the body, especially for heart functions. 
Potassium, a chemical element with symbol K, is a necessary ion to sustain life. 
Dietary supplements of potassium are often given to patients who require additional potassium, for example, for some patients who take certain diuretics. 
Major potassium chemicals include potassium bitartrate, potassium hydroxide, potassium carbonate, potassium sulfate, and potassium chloride. 
Pure potassium appears as a silver-to-white alkali metal that will ignite if placed in water, and is usually stored in liquid paraffin.

9207-EP2295550A2
9207-EP2298783A1
9207-EP2305669A1
9207-EP2305683A1
9207-EP2308844A2

Applications:Potassium Sorbate widely used in food, beverages, tobacco, pesticides, cosmetics, etc. industry, as the unsaturated acid can also be used for resins, spices and rubber industry.
CAS No. 24634-61-5
Potassium sorbate (E202) is a preservative used in a wide range of foods including yogurt, cheese, wine, dips, pickles, dried meats, soft drinks, baked goods, and even ice cream.

What makes a preservative?
Processed food is not evil. 
Potassium sorbate helps us spend less time in the fields or in the kitchen and more time doing important things such as playing with our kids or working overtime. 
One of the tenets of processed foods is an extended shelf life. 
Often, Potassium sorbate is achieved by the use of food additives known as preservatives.

Preservatives have been around for thousands of years! perhaps the best known preservative is salt. 
Modern food science has brought forth many new chemical preservatives. 
Unfortunately, some of them may have unintended side effects on our health.

Potassium Sorbate stabilizer suppresses yeast and mold growth. 
Potassium sorbate prevents secondary fermentation in filled bottles, which might be caused by reinfection with yeasts after the final sterilizing filtration.
By using stabilization products, the beverages are microbiologically and chemically/physically stabilized and their shelf life is increased.

Potassium sorbate inhibits the growth of mold
Potassium sorbate is important because otherwise you'd open a packaged food product.
So we should be happy that food companies use this preservative.
Though found naturally in some berries, potassium sorbate used by the food industry is synthetically mass produced. 
No harm in that, especially since it makes Potassium sorbate cheaper than sourcing from some wild berry in the Himalayas.

Potassium sorbate - safety issues
Potassium sorbate is a mild skin and eye irritant. 
However, the quantities used in food are miniscule, so this is not an issue, expect for very rare occasions.

Having said that, two studies have shown that potassium sorbate has the potential to mess with our DNA. 
In one study, PS is clearly seen to be genotoxic to the human peripheral blood lymphocytes (white blood cells).

In another study, potassium sorbate mixed with ascorbic acid (vitamin C, which is present in many foods), caused mutagenicity and DNA-damaging activity. 
The risk demonstrated in the studies is very low, but it is statistically significant.

Potassium sorbate is the inactive salt of sorbic acid. 
Potassium sorbate readily dissolves in water where Potassium sorbate converts to sorbic acid, Potassium sorbates active form, at a low pH. 
Sorbic acid is very pH dependent. 
While Potassium sorbate shows some activity up to pH 6 (about 6%), Potassium sorbate is most active at pH 4.4 (70%). 
At pH 5.0 Potassium sorbate is 37% active. 
As sorbic acid, Potassium sorbate is considered to be active against mold, fair against yeast and poor against most bacteria. 
Sorbic acid is an unsaturated fatty acid and as such is subject to oxidation (use of an antioxidant like Mixed Tocopherols T50 is recommended). 
Potassium sorbate is also sensitive to UV light and may turn yellow in solution.  
Gluconolactone is reported to stabilize potassium sorbate against discoloration and darkening in aqueous solutions and may be useful in stabilizing sorbic acid in the water phase of a product.

While sorbic acid is naturally occurring in some fruits (like the berries of the mountain ash), virtually all of the world's production of sorbic acid, from which potassium sorbate is derived, is manufactured synthetically, and is a nature-identical compound chemically equivalent to the molecule found in nature.
Sorbic acid can cause contact dermatitis at concentrations above or below 0.5%. 
Studies show that if Potassium sorbate is used at a concentration of no more than 0.2% Potassium sorbate is unlikely to constitute a safety hazard.
Potassium sorbate is not a broad spectrum preservative for cosmetic use and should be combined with other preservatives. 
If potassium sorbate is used as a preservative, the pH of the finished product may need to be reduced for potassium sorbate to be effective.  
This is because potassium sorbate is the inactive salt form of sorbic acid.  
To be useful, the pH of the formulation must be low enough to release the free acid for useful activity. 

9207-EP2308845A2
9207-EP2308846A2
9207-EP2308872A1
9207-EP2311837A1
9207-EP2311839A1
9207-EP2314589A1
9207-EP2316829A1
9207-EP2316834A1
9207-EP2316835A1
9207-EP2316837A1
D02411
A817411
Q410744
J-015607
J-524028
2,4-Hexadienoic acid, potassium salt, (E,E)- (9CI)

Potassium Sorbates physical properties:
Potassium Sorbates as a white to light yellow flake-like crystals, crystal grains or crystalline powder, odorless or slight odor, E202-term exposure to air, easy to absorb moisture, oxidation decomposition and discoloration. 
E202 soluble in water, 67.6g/100ml (20 ℃); 5% salt water, 47.5g/100ml (room temperature); 25% sugar, 51g/100ml (room temperature). 
Dissolved in propylene glycol, 5.8g/100ml; ethanol, 0.3g/100ml. 
1% Potassium Sorbates solution of PH7 ~ 8.

Potassium Sorbates use of:
Currently Potassium Sorbates has been widely used in food, beverages, pickles, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, agricultural products, feed and other industries, the development trend, E202-590-00-1 is still expanding range of applications . 
Potassium Sorbates preservatives are acidic, near neutral (PH6.0-6.5) the food is still a good antiseptic, and benzoic acid (sodium) and anti-corrosion effect in PH> 4, the effect has decreased significantly, and there bad taste.

Potassium Sorbates corrosion resistance
Potassium Sorbates can effectively inhibit mold, yeast and aerobic bacteria activity, but also to prevent botulism, staphylococcus, salmonella and other harmful micro-organisms grow and reproduce, but the anaerobic bacteria and Bacillus Lactobacillus acidophilus and other beneficial microorganisms almost ineffective, Potassium Sorbates restrain the development of a stronger role than sterilization, so as to achieve effectively extend the shelf life of food, and keep the original flavor of food. 
Potassium Sorbates preservative effect is of similar products is 5-10 times sodium benzoate.

Potassium Sorbates security
Because Potassium Sorbates is an unsaturated fatty acid (salt) which can be absorbed by the bodys metabolic system and quickly broken down into carbon dioxide and water, E202 is no residue in the body.

Potassium Sorbates stability
Potassium Sorbates is stable in a sealed state, exposure to moist air, easy to absorb, Potassium Sorbates oxidation and discoloration. 
Potassium Sorbates on the thermal stability is good, the decomposition temperature of up to 270 ℃.

Potassium sorbate is a preservative and antimicrobial agent for foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. 
Potassium sorbate is used as mold and yeast inhibitors in dairy products, chemically leavened baked goods, fresh and fermented vegetables, dried fruit, beverages, confections, and smoked meat and fish.
Potassium sorbate is the potassium salt of the carboxylic acid, sorbic acid. 
Sorbic acid occurs naturally in small quantities in the fruits of various plants. 
In the berries of the mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia) Potassium sorbate occurs as the lactone, and is called parasorbic acid.
The antimicrobial properties of sorbic acid were first discovered in the late 1930s and early 1940s. 
The potassium salt of sorbic acid is the preferred form for food applications. 
Potassium sorbate disassociates in solution to ionic potassium and sorbic acid. 
Sorbic acid inhibits the transport of carbohydrates into yeast cells, inhibits oxidative and fermentative assimilation, and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation in a variety of bacteria.

Some people may have an allergic reaction to potassium sorbate in foods. 
These allergies are rare. Allergies to potassium sorbate are more common with cosmetics and personal products, where Potassium sorbate can cause skin or scalp irritation. 
However, the Environmental Working Group has rated potassium sorbate with a low risk as a skin irritant.
If you use potassium sorbate as a pure ingredient, for example in winemaking, it can irritate your eyes and skin if you spill Potassium sorbate.

Despite purity requirements for manufacturers, Potassium sorbate’s possible that potassium sorbate as a food additive can be contaminated. 
Potassium sorbate may be contaminated with:
-lead
-arsenic
-mercury


3-) SODIUM BENZOATE

SODIUM BENZOATE = E211 = Benzoate of Soda = Benzoic acid, sodium salt


EC / List no.: 208-534-8
CAS no.: 532-32-1

Applications
Sodium benzoate is widely used as a preservative in food, medicine, cosmetics and animal feeds. It is used in the treatment of hyperammonemia and urea cycle disorders. It is used in the fireworks as a fuel in whistle mix. It is also used in the preparation of toothpaste and mouthwashes. It finds application in most of the acidic foods such as salad dressings (vinegar), carbonated drinks (carbonic acid), jams and fruit juices (citric acid), pickles (vinegar), and condiments.

Notes
Hygroscopic. Incompatible with alkalis, mineral acids and strong oxidizing agents.

Sodium benzoate is a substance which has the chemical formula C6H5COONa. 
Sodium benzoate is a widely used food pickling agent, with an E number of E211. 

Sodium benzoate is a food preservative which prevents decomposition of food by preventing the growth of fungi or bacteria

Sodium benzoate is a preservative added to some sodas, packaged foods, and personal care products to prolong shelf life.
Sodium benzoate is food preservative that inhibits microbial growth
Sodium benzoate is also used as a cosmetic preservative to provide protection against the growth and proliferation of fungi and bacteria in products.

Sodium benzoate is an organic sodium salt resulting from the replacement of the proton from the carboxy group of benzoic acid by a sodium ion.

Sodium benzoate is produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium hydroxide


Sodium Benzoate has a long history of use as a globally trusted, nature identical preservative. 
Sodium Benzoate is used to safely and effectively inhibit microbial growth in foods, beverages, cosmetics, toiletries, and pharmaceuticals up to pH 6.5.

Sodium benzoate is used as an antifungal preservative in cosmetics and in food under the name E211. It is therefore very effective against fungi, yeasts and bacteria. It is made quite easily with soda, water and benzoic acid. It is found naturally in some fruits such as plums, prunes or apples. It is authorized in organic.

Application Group /Application: Description    

Agricultural
Corrosion inhibition: Sodium Benzoate is useful in protecting the metal containers used for Agricultural chemical solutions    

Automotive    
Corrosion Inhibition: Sodium Benzoate is a Corrosion inhibition for steel, zinc, copper, copper alloys, soldered joints, aluminum and aluminum alloys    

Beverage    
Preservation    
Preservative for carbonated and still beverages and juice, Orange juice products, Yucca juice extract.    

Household Care    
Corrosion inhibition: Sodium Benzoate is useful in protecting the metal containers used for Household products, Waxes, Polishes and Aerosol Products.    

Paper    
Corrosion inhibition    
Sodium Benzoate is used in Paper wrappers to inhibit corrosion of Tin, Steel, Chrome Plated and Galvanized Surfaces even in humid environments.    

Pharmaceutical & Medical    
Products with USP/EP Certification    
Sodium Benzoate is used in topical formulations for the treatment of lice and scabies and in formulations to repel insects.    

Plastics    
Polyolefin Manufacture    
Sodium Benzoate is is Nucleating agent for polyolefin manufacture.    


Preferred IUPAC name: Sodium benzoate
Other names: E211, benzoate of soda
CAS Number: 532-32-1 check


Chemical formula: C7H5NaO2
Molar mass: 144.105 g·mol−1
Appearance: white or colorless crystalline powder
Odor: odorless
Density: 1.497 g/cm3
Melting point: 410 °C (770 °F; 683 K)

Solubility in water: 62.69 g/100 mL (0 °C)
62.78 g/100 mL (15 °C)
62.87 g/100 mL (30 °C)
71.11 g/100 mL (100 °C)[1]

Solubility: soluble in liquid ammonia, pyridine

Solubility in methanol: 8.22 g/100 g (15 °C)
7.55 g/100 g (66.2 °C)[1]

Solubility in ethanol    2.3 g/100 g (25 °C)
8.3 g/100 g (78 °C)
Solubility in 1,4-Dioxane: 0.818 mg/kg (25 °C)


Sodium benzoate is a common food preservative and a mold inhibitor. It is most effective in low acid foods and beverages and baked goods such as breads, cakes, pies, tortillas and many others.1

Benefits of sodium benzoate include its activity against:

Molds
Fungus
Bacteria

Sodium benzoate is a helper ingredient that helps to make the products stay nice longer, aka preservative. Sodium benzoate works mainly against fungi. 

It’s pH dependent and works best at acidic pH levels (3-5). It’s not strong enough to be used in itself so it’s always combined with something else, often with potassium sorbate.


Sodium benzoate is the sodium salt of benzoic acid and exists in this form when dissolved in water. Sodium benzoate can be produced by reacting sodium hydroxide with benzoic acid.


Production
Sodium benzoate is produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid,  which is itself produced commercially by partial oxidation of toluene with oxygen.

Natural occurrence
Benzoic acid, its salts like sodium benzoate and its esters are found in many natural food sources.
Fruits and vegetables can be rich sources, particularly berries such as cranberry and bilberry. 
Other sources include seafood, such as prawns, and dairy products like milk, cheese, and yogurt.

Uses
Preservative
Sodium benzoate is a preservative, with the E number E211. 
It is most widely used in acidic foods such as salad dressings (i.e. acetic acid in vinegar), carbonated drinks (carbonic acid), jams and fruit juices (citric acid), pickles (acetic acid), condiments, and frozen yogurt toppings. It is also used as a preservative in medicines and cosmetics.[5][6] Under these conditions it is converted into benzoic acid (E210), which is bacteriostatic and fungistatic. Benzoic acid is generally not used directly due to its poor water solubility. Concentration as a food preservative is limited by the FDA in the U.S. to 0.1% by weight.[7] Sodium benzoate is also allowed as an animal food additive at up to 0.1%, per the Association of American Feed Control Officials.[8] Sodium benzoate has been replaced by potassium sorbate in the majority of soft drinks in the United Kingdom.[9]

Sodium benzoate was one of the chemicals used in 19th century industrialised food production that was investigated by Dr. Harvey W. Wiley with his famous 'Poison Squad' as part of the US Department of Agriculture. 
This led up to the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act, a landmark event in the early history of food regulation in the United States.

Pharmaceutical applications
Sodium benzoate is used as a treatment for urea cycle disorders due to its ability to bind amino acids.
This leads to excretion of these amino acids and a decrease in ammonia levels. 


Sodium benzoate, along with caffeine, is used to treat postdural puncture headache, respiratory depression associated with overdosage of narcotics,[17][18] and with ergotamine to treat vascular headache.

Other uses
Sodium benzoate is also used in fireworks as a fuel in whistle mix, a powder that emits a whistling noise when compressed into a tube and ignited.

Mechanism of food preservation
The mechanism starts with the absorption of benzoic acid into the cell. 
If the intracellular pH falls to 5 or lower, the anaerobic fermentation of glucose through phosphofructokinase decreases sharply, which inhibits the growth and survival of microorganisms that cause food spoilage.

Health and safety

1909 Heinz advertisement against sodium benzoate
In the United States, sodium benzoate is designated as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration.
The International Programme on Chemical Safety found no adverse effects in humans at doses of 647–825 mg/kg of body weight per day.

Cats have a significantly lower tolerance against benzoic acid and its salts than rats and mice.

The human body rapidly clears sodium benzoate by combining it with glycine to form hippuric acid which is then excreted.
The metabolic pathway for this begins with the conversion of benzoate by butyrate-CoA ligase into an intermediate product, benzoyl-CoA, which is then metabolized by glycine N-acyltransferase into hippuric acid.

Association with benzene in soft drinks
Main article: Benzene in soft drinks
In combination with ascorbic acid (vitamin C, E300), sodium benzoate and potassium benzoate may form benzene. In 2006, the Food and Drug Administration tested 100 beverages available in the United States that contained both ascorbic acid and benzoate. 
Four had benzene levels that were above the 5 ppb Maximum Contaminant Level set by the Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water.
Most of the beverages that tested above the limit have been reformulated and subsequently tested below the safety limit.
Heat, light and shelf life can increase the rate at which benzene is formed.


Sodium benzoate is best known as a preservative used in processed foods and beverages to extend shelf life, though it has several other uses.

It’s an odorless, crystalline powder made by combining benzoic acid and sodium hydroxide. 
Benzoic acid is a good preservative on its own, and combining it with sodium hydroxide helps it dissolve in products.

Sodium benzoate does not occur naturally, but benzoic acid is found in many plants, including cinnamon, cloves, tomatoes, berries, plums, apples, and cranberries (2Trusted Source).

Additionally, certain bacteria produce benzoic acid when fermenting dairy products like yogur

Various Uses in Different Industries
Aside from its use in processed foods and beverages, sodium benzoate is also added to some medicines, cosmetics, personal care products, and industrial products.

Here’s a closer look at its many functions.

Foods and Beverages
Sodium benzoate is the first preservative the FDA allowed in foods and still a widely used food additive. 
It’s classified as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS), meaning that experts consider it safe when used as intended.

It’s approved internationally as a food additive and is assigned the identifying number 211. 
For example, it’s listed as E211 in European food products.

Sodium benzoate inhibits the growth of potentially harmful bacteria, mold, and other microbes in food, thus deterring spoilage. 
It’s particularly effective in acidic foods (6Trusted Source).

Therefore, it’s commonly used in foods, such as soda, bottled lemon juice, pickles, jelly, salad dressing, soy sauce, and other condiments.

Medications
Sodium benzoate is used as a preservative in some over-the-counter and prescription medications, particularly in liquid medicines like cough syrup.

Additionally, it can be a lubricant in pill manufacturing and makes tablets transparent and smooth, helping them break down rapidly after you swallow them.

Lastly, larger amounts of sodium benzoate may be prescribed to treat elevated blood levels of ammonia. 
Ammonia is a byproduct of protein breakdown, and blood levels may become dangerously high in certain medical conditions.

Other Uses
Sodium benzoate is commonly used as a preservative in cosmetics and personal care items, such as hair products, baby wipes, toothpaste, and mouthwash (2Trusted Source).

It also has industrial uses. One of its biggest applications is to deter corrosion, such as in coolants for car engines.

What’s more, it may be used as a stabilizer in photo processing and to improve the strength of some types of plastic.


Uses
Sodium benzoate has been used in a wide variety of products because of its antimicrobial and flavor characteristics. 
Sodium benzoate is the most widely used food preservative in the world, being incorporated into both food and soft drink products. 
Sodium benzoate is used in margarine, salsas, maple syrups, pickles, preserves, jams, and jellies. 
Almost every diet soft drink contains sodium benzoate, as do some wine coolers and fruit juices. 
Sodium benzoate is also used in personal care products like toothpaste, dentifrice cleaners, and mouthwashes. 
As a preservative, sodium benzoate has the advantage of low cost. 
A drawback is its astringent taste that can be avoided by using lower levels with another preservative like potassium sorbate.


In addition to its use in food, it is used as an intermediate during the manufacture of dyes. 
Sodium benzoate is an antiseptic medicine and a rust and mildew inhibitor. 
Sodium benzoate is also used in tobacco and pharmaceutical preparations. 
In the free-acid form, Sodium benzoate is used as a fungicide. 
A relatively recent use for sodium benzoate is as a corrosion inhibitor in engine coolant systems. 
Sodium benzoate has recently been incorporated into plastics, like polypropylene, where it has been found to improve clarity and strength.


Sodium benzoate

Although undissociated benzoic acid is the more effective antimicrobial agent for preservation purposes, sodium benzoate is used preferably, as it is about 200 times more soluble than benzoic acid.

About 0.1% is usually sufficient to preserve a product that has been properly prepared and adjusted to pH 4.5 or below (Chipley, 1983).

A major market for sodium benzoate is as a preservative in the soft drink industry, as a result of the demand for high-fructose corn syrup in carbonated beverages. 
Sodium benzoate is also widely used as a preservative in pickles, sauces, and fruit juices (Srour, 1998).

Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate are used as antimicrobial agents in edible coatings (Baldwin et al., 1995).

Sodium benzoate is also used in pharmaceuticals for preservation purposes (up to 1.0% in liquid medicines) and for therapeutic regimens in the treatment of patients with urea cycle enzymopathies 
   

Possibly the largest use of sodium benzoate, accounting for 30-35% of the total demand (about 15 000 tonnes of benzoic acid), is as an anticorrosive, particularly as an additive to automotive engine antifreeze coolants and in other waterborne systems (Scholz & Kortmann, 1991; Srour, 1998). 
A new use is the formulation of sodium benzoate into plastics such as polypropylene, to improve strength and clarity (BFGoodrich Kalama Inc., 1999). 
Sodium benzoate is used as a stabilizer in photographic baths/processing (BUA, 1995).

Sodium benzoate Chemical Properties, Uses and Production

Sodium benzoate, also known as benzoic acid sodium, is commonly used as food preservatives in food industry, odorless or with slight smell of benzoin, and tastes sweet astringency. Stable in air, can absorb moisture in open air. It’s naturally found in blueberry, apple, plum, cranberry, prunes, cinnamon and cloves, with weaker antiseptic performance than benzoic acid. Antiseptic performance of 1.180g sodium benzoate is equivalent of about 1g benzoic acid. In acidic environment, sodium benzoate have obvious inhibitory effect on a variety of microorganisms: when pH is at 3.5, 0.05% solution can completely inhibit the growth of yeast; while when pH is above 5.5, it has poor effect on a lot of mold and yeast; hardly has any effect in alkaline solution. After sodium benzoate enters into the body, in the process of biotransformation, it would combine with glycine to be uric acid, or combine with glucuronic acid to be glucosiduronic acid, and all to be eliminated from the body in urine, not to accumulate in the body
As long as it is within the scope of the normal dosage, it would be harmless to the human body, and it is a safe preservatives. It also can be used for carbonated beverages, concentrated juice, margarine, chewing gum base, jam, jelly, soy sauce, etc. Human acceptable daily intake (ADI) < 5 mg/kg body weight (take benzoic acid as calculation basis).

Sodium benzoate has big lipophilicity, and it is easy to penetrate cell membrane into the cells, interfere in permeability of cell membrane, and inhibit cell membrane’s absorption of amino acids; cause Ionization acidification of alkaline storage in the cell when entering into, inhibit activity of respiratory enzymes, and stop condensation reaction of acetyl coenzyme A, and thereby achieve the purpose of food antiseptic.
The above information is edited by the Chemicalbook He Liaopu.

Chemical properties
White crystals or granules, or colorless powder, with sweet astringency. Soluble in water, ethanol, glycerol and methanol.

Uses
1. Sodium benzoate is also an important preservative of acid type food. It transforms into effective form of benzoic acid during application. See benzoic acid for application range and dosage. In addition, it also can be used as fodder preservative.
2. Preservatives; antimicrobial agent.
3. Sodium benzoate agent is a very important preservative of acid type fodder. It transforms into effective form of benzoic acid during application. See benzoic acid for application range and dosage. In addition, it also can be used as food preservative.
4. Used in the research of pharmaceutical industry and plant genetic, also used as dye intermediates, fungicide and preservatives.
5. The product is used as food additive (preservative), fungicide in pharmaceutical industry, dye mordant, plasticizer in plastic industrial, and also used as organic synthetic intermediate of spices and others.

Content Analysis
Take dried sample 1.5g into a 250ml conical flask, dissolve it with 25ml water, and then add 50ml ether and bromophenol.

Toxicity
ADI 0~5mg/kg (take benzoic acid as calculation basis, total value of ADI including benzoic acid and its salts and esters; FAO/WHO, 2001).
LD50 4070mg/kg (rats, by oral).
GRAS(FDA,§184.1733,2000).

Production methods
1. Neutralized by benzoic acid and sodium bicarbonate. Put water and sodium bicarbonate into the neutralizing pot, boil it and make it dissolved into sodium bicarbonate solution. Mix it with benzoic acid until PH value of the reaction solution reaches to 7-7.5. Heat it to emit over carbon dioxide, and then add active carbon to decolorize it for half an hour. Do suction filtration, after filtrate gets concentrated, put it into flaker tray, dry it to be sheets in the drum, crush it, and then sodium benzoate is made. Consumption rate of benzoic acid (99.5%) 1045kg/t and sodium bicarbonate (98%) 610kg/t.
2. Use 32% soda solution to neutralize benzoic acid in the pot to reach PH value of 7.5, and neutralization temperature is 70℃. Use 0.3% active carbon to decolorize the neutralized solution, vacuum filter it, concentrate, dry it and then it comes to powdered sodium benzoate.
C6H5COOH+Na2CO3→C6H5COONa
3. To get it by toluene oxidation made benzoic acid reacting with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide.

Description
Sodium benzoate has the chemical formula NaC7H5O2; it is a widely used food preservative, with E number E211. It is the sodium salt of benzoic acid and exists in this form when dissolved in water. It can be produced by reacting sodium hydroxide with benzoic acid.

Chemical Properties
Benzoic acid is almost odorless or exhibits a sweet, faint, balsamic odor and a sweet–sour to acrid taste. For a detailed description, refer to Burdock (1997).

Chemical Properties
white crystalline powder

Chemical Properties
Sodium benzoate is a white crystalline solid. It is odorless and nonflammable
Chemical Properties
Sodium benzoate occurs as a white granular or crystalline, slightly hygroscopic powder. It is odorless, or with faint odor of benzoin and has an unpleasant sweet and saline taste.

Occurrence
Benzoic acid occurs naturally in many plants and in animals. The salt is not found to occur naturally.

Uses
Sodium benzoate is a preservative. It is bacteriostatic and fungistatic under acidic conditions. It is most widely used in acidic foods such as salad dressings (vinegar), carbonated drinks (carbonic acid), jams and fruit juices (citric acid), pickles (vinegar), and condiments. It is also used as a preservative in medicines and cosmetics. As a food additive, sodium benzoate has the E number E211.
It is also used in fireworks as a fuel in whistle mix, a powder that emits a whistling noise when compressed into a tube and ignited. The fuel is also one of the fastest burning rocket fuels and provides a lot of thrust and smoke. It does have its downsides: there is a high danger of explosion when the fuel is sharply compressed because of the fuel's sensitivity to impact.

Uses
Sodium Benzoate is a preservative that is the sodium salt of benzoic acid. it converts to benzoic acid, which is the active form. it has a solubility in water of 50 g in 100 ml at 25°c. sodium benzoate is 180 times as soluble in water at 25°c as is the parent acid. the optimum functionality occurs between ph 2.5 and 4.0 and it is not recom- mended above ph 4.5. it is active against yeasts and bacteria. it is used in acidic foods such as fruit juices, jams, relishes, and bever- ages. its use level ranges from 0.03 to 0.10%.

Uses
Vasodilator

Uses
A benzene compound used as a synthetic reagent.

Uses
Antimicrobial agent, flavoring agent and adjuvant in food; not to exceed a maximum level of 0.1% in food (21 CFR, 184.1733, 582.3733). Antifungal and bacteriostatic preservative in pharmaceuticals at concentrations of ~0.1%. Clinical reagent (bilirubin assay).

Uses
Sodium benzoate is a non-toxic, organic salt preservative that is particularly effective against yeast, with some activity against molds and bacteria. It is generally used in concentrations of 0.1 to 0.2 percent.


Sodium benzoate is antimicrobial preservative in foods, e.g. margarine and artificially sweetened fruit preserves. Flavouring agent and adjuvant Sodium benzoate is a preservative. It is bacteriostatic and fungistatic under acidic conditions. It is used most prevalently in acidic foods such as salad dressings (vinegar), carbonated drinks (carbonic acid), jams and fruit juices (citric acid), pickles (vinegar), and condiments. It is also found in alcohol-based mouthwash and silver polish[citation needed]. It can also be found in cough syrups like Robitussin. Sodium benzoate is declared on a product label as 'sodium benzoate' or E211.


Definition
ChEBI: An organic sodium salt resulting from the replacement of the proton from the carboxy group of benzoic acid by a sodium ion.

Production Methods
Sodium benzoate is prepared by adding benzoic acid to a hot concentrated solution of sodium carbonate until effervescence ceases. The solution is then evaporated, cooled and allowed to crystallize or evaporate to dryness, and then granulated.
Production Methods
Prepared by the treatment of benzoic acid with either sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate.

Definition
sodium benzoate: An either colourlesscrystalline or white amorphouspowder, C6H5COONa, soluble inwater and slightly soluble in ethanol.It is made by the reaction of sodiumhydroxide with benzoic acid and isused in the dyestuffs industry and asa food preservative. It was formerlyused as an antiseptic.

Preparation
Produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide.

Hazard
Use in foods limited to 0.1%.
Pharmaceutical Applications
Sodium benzoate is used primarily as an antimicrobial preservative in cosmetics, foods, and pharmaceuticals. It is used in concentrations of 0.02–0.5% in oral medicines, 0.5% in parenteral products, and 0.1–0.5% in cosmetics. The usefulness of sodium benzoate as a preservative is limited by its effectiveness over a narrow pH range.
Sodium benzoate is used in preference to benzoic acid in some circumstances, owing to its greater solubility. However, in some applications it may impart an unpleasant flavor to a product. Sodium benzoate has also been used as a tablet lubricant at 2–5% w/w concentrations. Solutions of sodium benzoate have also been administered, orally or intravenously, in order to determine liver function.

Safety Profile
Poison by subcutaneous and intravenous routes. Moderately toxic by ingestion, intramuscular, and intraperitoneal routes. An experimental teratogen. Experimental reproductive effects. Mutation data reported. Larger doses of 8-10 g by mouth may cause nausea and vomiting. Small doses have little or no effect. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Na2O. See also BENZOIC ACID.

Safety
Ingested sodium benzoate is conjugated with glycine in the liver to yield hippuric acid, which is excreted in the urine. Symptoms of systemic benzoate toxicity resemble those of salicylates. Whereas oral administration of the free-acid form may cause severe gastric irritation, benzoate salts are well tolerated in large quantities: e.g. 6 g of sodium benzoate in 200mL of water is administered orally as a liver function test.
Clinical data have indicated that sodium benzoate can produce nonimmunological contact urtcaria and nonimmunological immediate contact reactions. However, it is also recognized that these reactions are strictly cutaneous, and sodium benzoate can therefore be used safely at concentrations up to 5%. However, this nonimmunological phenomenon should be considered when designing formulations for infants and children.
Other adverse effects include anaphylaxis and urticarial reactions, although a controlled study has shown that the incidence of urticaria in patients given benzoic acid is no greater than that with a lactose placebo.
It has been recommended that caffeine and sodium benzoate injection should not be used in neonates; however, sodium benzoate has been used by others in the treatment of some neonatal metabolic disorders. It has been suggested that there is a general adverse effect of benzoate preservatives on the behavior of 3-yearold children, which is detectable by parents, but not by a simple clinical assessment.
The WHO acceptable daily intake of total benzoates, calculated as benzoic acid, has been estimated at up to 5 mg/kg of bodyweight.
LD50 (mouse, IM): 2.3 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, IV): 1.4 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, oral): 1.6 g/kg
LD50 (rabbit, oral): 2.0 g/kg
LD50 (rat, IV): 1.7 mg/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 4.1 g/kg

Safety
In combination with ascorbic acid (vitamin C, E300), sodium benzoate and potassium benzoate form benzene, a known carcinogen. However, in most beverages that contain both, the benzene levels are below those considered dangerous for consumption. Heat, light and shelf life can affect the rate at which benzene is formed.

Potential Exposure
Sodium benzoate is used as a food and feed additive, flavor, packaging material; pharmaceutical; preservative for food products and tobacco; anti-fungal agent; antiseptic, rust, and mildew inhibitor; intermediate in the manufacture of dyes. Used as a human hygiene biocidal product.

storage
Aqueous solutions may be sterilized by autoclaving or filtration. The bulk material should be stored in a well-closed container, in a cool, dry place.

Shipping
UN2811 Toxic solids, organic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials, Technical Name Required.

Purification Methods
Crystallise it from EtOH (12mL/g). [Beilstein 9 IV 27.]

Mechanism of food preservation
The mechanism starts with the absorption of benzoic acid into the cell. If the intracellular pH changes to 5 or lower, the anaerobic fermentation of glucose through phosphofructokinase is decreased by 95 %, thereby inhibiting the growth and survival of micro-organisms that cause food spoilage.

Incompatibilities
Incompatible with quaternary compounds, gelatin, ferric salts, calcium salts, and salts of heavy metals, including silver, lead, and mercury. Preservative activity may be reduced by interactions with kaolin or nonionic surfactants.

Incompatibilities
Dust may form explosive mixture with air. Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides.

Regulatory Status
GRAS listed. Accepted as a food additive in Europe. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (dental preparations; IM and IV injections; oral capsules, solutions and tablets; rectal; and topical preparations). Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.


Antimol
Benzoan sodny
Benzoate of soda
Benzoate sodium
Benzoesaeure (na-salz)
Benzoic acid, sodium salt
Benzoic acid, sodium salt (1:1)
Natrium benzoicum
Sobenate
Sodium benzoate
Sodium Benzoate
Sodium benzoate
sodium benzoate

Translated names
Benzoat de sodiu (ro)
Benzoate de sodium (fr)
Benzoato de sodio (es)
Benzoato de sódio (pt)
Benzoato di sodio (it)
Benzoesan sodu (pl)
Benzoát sodný (cs)
Benzoát sodný (sk)
Benżoat tas-sodju (mt)
Naatriumbensoaat (et)
Natrijev benzoat (hr)
Natrijev benzoat (sl)
Natrio benzenkarboksilatas (lt)
Natriumbensoat (sv)
Natriumbentsoaatti (fi)
Natriumbenzoaat (nl)
Natriumbenzoat (da)
Natriumbenzoat (de)
Nátrium-benzoát (hu)
Nātrija benzoāts (lv)
Sodium benzoate (no)
Βενζοϊκό νάτριο (el)
Натриев бензоат (bg)

CAS names
Benzoic acid, sodium salt (1:1)


IUPAC names
Benzoic acid sodium salt
Benzoic acid, sodiium salt (1:1)
Benzoic acid, sodium salt
benzoic acid, sodium salt
Benzoic acid, sodium salt (1:1)
Benzoic acid, sodium salt (1:1)
SODIUM BENZOATE

Trade names
Palmarole Mi.Na.08
SODIO BENZOATO


sodium benzoate
532-32-1
Benzoic acid, sodium salt
Benzoic acid sodium salt
Sobenate
Antimol
Benzoate sodium
Benzoate of soda
sodium;benzoate
FEMA No. 3025
UNII-OJ245FE5EU
MFCD00012463
OJ245FE5EU
E211
Benzoic acid, sodium salt (1:1)
Benzoate, sodium
Sodiumbenzoate
Natrium benzoicum
Caswell No. 746
Benzoan sodny [Czech]
Benzoan sodny
FEMA Number 3025
Sodium benzoate, 99+%, extra pure
Sodium benzoate, 99%, for biochemistry
CCRIS 3921
HSDB 696
Benzoesaeure (na-salz) [German]
Benzoesaeure (na-salz)
Sodium benzoate solution
EINECS 208-534-8
C7H5NaO2
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 009103
AI3-07835
BzONa
Sodium benzoate [USAN:JAN:NF]
benzoic acid sodium
Sodium Benzoate USP
NATRII BENZOAS
Sodium Benzoate,(S)
Sodium benzoate (TN)
SODIUM BENZONATE
PUROX S
BENZOTRON(R)
DSSTox_CID_140
SCHEMBL823

Sodium benzoate is a preservative that can be found in acidic foods such as salad dressings, carbonated drinks, jams, juices, and condiments. It is also found in mouthwashes, silver polishes, cough syrups, soaps, and shampoos.


• AI3-07835
• Antimol
• Benzoan sodny
• Benzoan sodny [Czech]
• Benzoate of soda
• Benzoate sodium
• Benzoesaeure (na-salz)
• Benzoesaeure (na-salz) [German]
• CCRIS 3921
• Caswell No. 746
• EINECS 208-534-8
• EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 009103
• FEMA No. 3025
• FEMA Number 3025
• HSDB 696
• Natrium benzoicum
• Sobenate
• Sodium benzoate


What are some products that may contain sodium benzoate?
Body washes
Cleansers
Household products
Mouthwashes
Pet care
Shampoos/conditioners
Soaps
Toothpastes

Sodium benzoate is a preservative commonly used in fruit pies, jams, beverages, salads, relishes, and sauerkraut—foods that have an acidic pH. 
Chemical preservatives such as sodium benzoate are frequently used in processed foods to prevent the growth of bacteria, yeast, or other unwanted microorganisms that could spoil your food.



When sodium benzoate is combined with water, benzoic acid is produced. 
Benzoic acid is the active form of the preservative—the form that protects foods. 
Benzoic acid is also found naturally in some fruits, such as cranberries, plums, and apples.

Sodium benzoate is a salt of benzoic acid that is found naturally in cranberries, prunes, plums, apples, and other fruits.  
In its solid form it is a white, granular or crystalline powder.  
While benzyl alcohol is an organic alcohol with a hydroxyl group (-OH), the related compound benzoic acid has a carboxyl group (-COOH). 
Sodium benzoate is used in a wide variety of cosmetics and personal care products where it acts as a corrosion inhibitor, fragrance ingredient, and preservative.  

As a preservative, sodium benzoate is primarily an anti-fungal agent but also has some effectiveness against bacteria.  
It is not a broad-spectrum preservative for cosmetic use and should be combined with other preservatives.  
Sodium benzoate is often combined with potassium sorbate in low pH products in order to benefit from the ingredients’ synergistic effects against yeast and mold.  
When combined with caffeine, it can have a sunscreen effect and provide UVB protection with antioxidant activity.

While there has been some controversy over the use of sodium benzoate as a food preservative due to its potential to interact with ascorbic acid (a derivative of vitamin C) and produce benzene, the amount of sodium benzoate in foods is so low that it is FDA approved and deemed safe.  
Soft drinks are the main source of sodium benzoate in the diet where the ingredient is limited to a maximum of 0.1% by weight.  
It is absorbed, metabolized and excreted rapidly after ingestion.  
Sodium benzoate is not a toxin or carcinogen on its own, and large amounts of it would have to be consumed, not applied topically, for any adverse effects to be seen. 

So then, is the combination of sodium benzoate and vitamin C in skin care products a potential concern?  
Fortunately, there are ways of formulating these products to prevent a reaction between the two ingredients from occurring.  
Benzene does not form at all in cosmetic products with a high concentration of vitamin C and a low concentration of sodium benzoate, because higher amounts of vitamin C cause it to act as a free radical scavenger rather than react with sodium benzoate.  
Products with a pH of 3 or higher are generally safer in terms of preventing benzene formation, and above a pH of 7 no benzene forms at all.  
Protecting products from light and heat exposure also limits the potential for benzene formation.  
Manufacturers that follow safe practices can effectively prevent the formation of benzene in cosmetic products that also contain vitamin C.  
And for the most part, sodium benzoate is only used in formulas that do not contain significant levels of vitamin C.  


Preservatives are the substances added to food to prevent decompositions by microbial growth or undesirable chemical changes. 
There are many preservatives which are commonly used in food industries including benzoate group, which is used as bacteriostatic and fungistatic in acidic food and drink such as vinegar, carbonated drinks, jams, fruit juice, and condiments. 
Sodium benzoate is commonly used in worldwide food. Nowadays food and drink consumption involve with these preservatives, due to almost products even fresh or dried food are always added preservatives to extend lifespan. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the amount of food additives allowable in foods or other goods to help ensure safety and reduce the possibility of overconsumption. 
For using benzoate group such as sodium benzoate and potassium benzoate in dairy products such as ice cream, pudding, and yoghurt, FDA allows using sodium benzoate at 300 mg/1 kg. 
As the result of long term intake even though it is small amount, the preservatives may cause harm to consumers within some sickness and in chromosomes level. 
The following adverse effects of food preservatives are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rhinitis, bronchospasm, migraine, anaphylaxis, and hyperactivity in children [1].

Sodium benzoate in non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks: Exposure and health risks
Author links open overlay panelS.L.AzumaN.K-A.QuarteyI.W.Ofosu
Show more
Add to Mendeley
Share
Cite
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2020.e00611Get rights and content
Under a Creative Commons license
open access


Abstract

There is a serious concern about the use of sodium benzoate in non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks because of its mechanistic ability to convert to benzene, a classified carcinogen. 
It is this concern that drove this study to determine consumer exposures to sodium benzoate and possible health risks from intake of such soft drinks. 
A survey was conducted during which Google Forms were used to collect drink consumption data from 113 consumers including males and females. 
During this same period, 38 varieties of non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks were collected from two major markets in Ghana. 
These drink samples were subsequently subjected to extraction protocols and the levels of sodium benzoate quantified using HPLC. 
Information from the Google Forms together with the quantification of sodium benzoate formed the basis of the determination of exposure of sodium benzoate according to the USEPA protocols. Using the Palisade @Risk software, elements of exposure of sodium benzoate (mg/mL ingested, volume-mL of non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drink consumed, and body weight-kg of consumers) were integrated and iterated (at 105) to estimate the simulated chronic exposures. 
Simulated risks (hazard quotient, HQ, margin of exposure, MoE, and cancer risk, LTCR) were determined using thresholds obtained from regulatory bodies. 
High levels of sodium benzoate, above the acceptable limit of 150 mg/L based on USEPA recommendations, were detected in 6 (16%) of the 38 non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks sampled. 
The results of the study showed that the concentrations of sodium benzoate ranged from a minimum of 51.0 mg/L to a maximum of 277.0 mg/L. 
It was clear that the consumption patterns of males created relatively high exposures leading to unsurprisingly higher risks compared to female consumers. 
The high-risk indices determined in this study, relative to regulatory thresholds (HQ>1, MoE<104 and LTCR >10−6) are all serious indicators of grave public health concerns. 
These observations emphasize potential benzenes in our food chains and a call for a more forceful monitoring of product quality and safety to ensure adherence to standards.
•    Previous article in issue
•    Next article in issue


Keywords
Sodium benzoate
Margin of safety
Cancer risk


Introduction
The use of chemical conserving agents in food and drinks has attracted attention worldwide and attempts have been made to decrease the impacts of these substances on human health and the environment by international and national regulatory authorities [1]. 
Benzoic acid and its salts which are used as food preservatives against fungal and bacterial activity, have been found to present health risks [2]. 
Benzoic acid reacts with ascorbic acid in soft drinks to form benzene, a chemical classified by the IARC as a Group 1 carcinogen [3]. 

A series of epidemiological studies have evidently identified the role of benzene as a leukomogen [4] and have also revealed that persons exposed to 1–2 ppm of benzene over a 40-year period stands a higher risk of developing leukemia and genotoxicity [5]. Furthermore, studies have shown that high concentrations of benzoates and high market storage temperatures enhance benzene formation from benzoic acid in the presence of ascorbic acid [6]. 
There is heightened focus on benzene exposure through consumption of carbonated and non-alcoholic beverages because they have higher sodium benzoate (E211) concentrations relative to other food commodities. 
The increased consumption of non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks in urban areas and cities [7] make the inherent risks posed by the presence of benzene precursors in these products a health concern. 
It has therefore become imperative to consider all the elements that will best aid to assess and judge the risks posed by the presence of this hazard in non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks.
One risk index which can be used to quantify the risk associated with benzene exposure is the hazard quotient (HQ); defined as the ratio of the chronic dietary intake (CDI) to the reference dose of benzene [8]. 

The lifetime risk estimate for developing cancer, another risk index, uses the product of the CDI of human exposures and the potency factor (PF) for the hazard. 
The potency factor which is the risk produced by ingesting an average dose of 1 mg/kg(bw)-d of the hazard over a lifetime, is also referred to as the slope factor and is often obtained from institutional compendia [8]. 
The margin of exposure (MoE), which can also be used to evaluate any inherent risk defined as the ratio between the lower limit benchmark dose (BMDL10) to the estimated daily exposures of the hazard. 
To make concise judgements on the exposure of benzene precursors in consumers, a detailed consumption data covering the elements for determining chronic daily exposures must be analyzed. The elements for determining CDI are integrated as the product of the average daily intake and consumption level, related to exposure frequencies and exposure durations per the averaging time [8]. 
Even though exposure to benzene may be determined using information from a national food consumption database, the reliability of such data may be flawed and this information is virtually non-existent for the subpopulation under study.
For health risk estimates to generate any significant food safety discussions, the estimated values must be compared to established thresholds. 
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) state that a HQ>1 represents considerable risk and necessitates public health concern [8]. 
In estimating MoE for hazards that are both carcinogenic and genotoxic, EFSA guidelines state that MoE values greater than 10,000 are desired whereas those values lower than 10,000 raise public health concern. 
Similarly in estimating life time cancer risks, the estimated values are compared with the recommended de minimis (10−6) and values greater than this are deemed to imply excess risk of developing cancer [9]. Documenting results from these indices of health risk empower risk communicators and managers to review the preparedness to deal with public safety.
A range of 0–5 mg/kg(bw)-d allowable daily intake (ADI) has been established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) for benzoic acid and benzoate salts [10]. 
During its 51st meeting, JECFA evaluated intake assessment information of benzoic acid from nine member states to guarantee consumer safety from its intake. 
It was observed that the mean estimated intake of benzoates in reference to specified national maximum limits were below the ADI but exceed the range of use specified in the draft General Standard for Food Additives [11]. It is noteworthy that benzene in such soft drinks do not arise as environmental contaminant but forms as a result of the decomposition reaction gradually going on in the matrix with the passage of time. 
Thus, the longer the product is kept on the shelf, the higher the probability of formation of benzene from its precursors [12].
Internationally, there is no legal standard reference value beyond which benzene poses lifetime cancer risk to consumers. 

However, an Expert report by WHO sets a reference limit of 10 µg/L [13]. 
USEPA also set a 5 µg/L [14] benchmark, while the European Commission has set a limit of 1 µg/L for benzene in non-alcoholic carbonated drinking water [9].
Statistics available from the WHO indicates that in 2015, more than 8.8 million deaths globally were due to cancer and 70% of that number was from low to middle income countries like Ghana [15]. Cancer is the fourth cause of mortality in Ghana, with approximately 16,600 cases reported yearly [16]. 
Diet and disease outcome studies suggest that 20–50% of cancer cases are diet related [17] and thus, dietary intakes require particular attention.
Experts have reported that precursors of benzene such as benzoic acid and sodium benzoate which though are regulated to be used as food additives are often abused. 
It is such misuse that often present several disease outcomes including DNA damage, allergies, hypersensitivity, asthma, urticaria and certain types of cancer [18]. 
It has also been shown to have significant effects on cognitive functions (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children) and causing partial infertility in males [19]. 
These findings have urged many advanced countries to work extensively to determine sodium benzoate and thus, benzene, exposures through non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks intake. 
However, for developing countries such as Ghana, this task faces the challenge of the absence of an updated national food consumption data. 
It is highly unreliable to extrapolate risk values from the risk assessments of benzene exposure from developed countries due to the indisputable variations in non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks formulations, intake patterns and consumption quantities worldwide. 
This necessitates a study to investigate whether the concentrations of benzene precursors, benzoic acid and its salts, in carbonated non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks on the local market are enough to pose carcinogenic or genotoxic health risks.
The objective of this study was to assess the levels of sodium benzoate in non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks available on the local market and quantify risk indices for carcinogenicity and genotoxicity among consumers.

Materials and methods

Materials
Sample collection
Samples of non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks produced by both local and international companies were collected from the Makola market, Greater Accra region and the Kejetia market, Ashanti region using a convenient random sampling method. A total of 38 samples consisting of 19 different known brands and consumer stated brands, of non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks containing sodium benzoate (E211), as preservative, were collected and analyzed.
Standards and reagents
Sodium benzoate standard, HPLC grade sodium phosphate, and acetonitrile reagents were obtained from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany).

Methods
Study area
The study was conducted in Accra and Kumasi, two principal cities in Ghana. Accra the capital and largest city of Ghana lies on GPS coordinates Latitude 5° 33′ 21.67″ N and Longitude 0 ° 11′ 48.84″ E on the coast of the Gulf of Guinea. It is the most populous city, inhabited by some four million people [20]. Accra's largest market and trading hub is the Makola market with other notable ones being Kaneshie and Madina markets [20]. Kumasi the second largest city, and second most densely populated metropolis is in the Ashanti region and lies between Latitude 6.35°N and 6.40°S, and Longitude 1.30°W and 1.35°E, with a population of about two million according to the 2010 population census [21]. Many people from different regions of Ghana access Kumasi for a number of business activities daily, mainly because it serves as the primary trading center for several commodities [21]. The city has a number of large markets including Bantama and Tafo with Kejetia markets being the largest [21].
Outline of questionnaire and carbonated soft non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks consumption data
A structured questionnaire to collect relevant information was used to capture the intake of non- carbonated (soft) drinks by consumers. It comprised of the number of times respondents consumed these non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks, the volume they consumed, how often they consumed them in a year and the number of years respondents have consumed them. The biodata of the consumers was also captured which included age, weight, gender, religion, work and the level of education. The data obtained from about 113 respondents were captured into Microsoft Excel worksheet for further analysis.

Sample preparation
An ultra-sonic bath was used to degas the samples for 15 min. 
The degassed samples were further filtered through a 0.45 µm filter paper and pipetted into 2 mL amber HPLC vials for analysis.

Determination with HPLC
A Dynamic Absorbance detector coupled to a Cecil-Adept binary pump HPLC (Cambridge, UK) was employed in the HPLC analysis. 
A Waters Column (3.9 × 300 mm, 5 µm) was used and the column oven temperature was set at 40 °C. The mobile phase constituted a sodium phosphate and acetonitrile buffer (60:40 v/v) with a pH 4.4. A flow rate of 1 mL/min was set for the mobile phase, and the bands were detected at 225 nm. A 20 µL volume of the samples and internal standards were injected by the auto sampler into the HPLC for the analysis. The presence of sodium benzoate was detected and quantified as peaks, which were then matched with the standard retention time, and the concentrations of sodium benzoate subsequently quantified.

Quality control
The recovery was determined by spiking different quantities of standard sodium benzoate (20, 50 and 100 µg) in 2 mL deionized water. 
Extraction and purification were done in the same manner for the various sampled non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks. 
The method used was accurate and efficient since the mean recovery obtained was 98% [22]. 
The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.23 µg/g and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.76 µg/g. 
A linear calibration curve was obtained with an R2 = 0.999.
Data analysis
The survey data was aggregated and keyed into a Microsoft Excel and classified according to gender. 
The Palisade @Risk software was then used as a Microsoft Excel add-on to fit the variables that indicate risk to their various distributions. 
The variables included: the product of the hazard concentration (CH) in mg/g, total volume of non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks consumed per day (VD) in mg/L; and exposure frequency (EF) in days/year respondents and exposure duration (ED) in years representing the number of years the non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks has been consumed by the respondent. These were expressed as ratio of respondents’ body weight (BW) in kg and averaging time (AT).

Exposure, expressed as CDI, was estimated using Eq. (1). 
All the variables were fitted to their specific distributions and subsequently iterated 100,000 times using Palisade @RISK (Palisade, 2018) software to determine the CDI.
(1)CDI=CH×VD×EF×EDBW×ATAveraging times of either 30 years or 70 years were used to obtain exposures for both non-carcinogenic or carcinogenic determinations respectively [23].
To properly characterize the tumorigenic and genotoxic effects of dietary exposure to benzene precursors, the margin of exposure (MoE), was determined using Eq. (2).
(2)MoE=BMDL10CDIA BMDL10 (bench mark dose lower limit) of 17.6 mg/kg(bw)-d was adopted for this study [24].
The hazard quotient (HQ), a non-cancer risk measure for systemic toxicity, was estimated using Eq. (3), where a reference dose (RfD) of 4 × 10−3 mg/kg(bw)-d as adopted from USEPA [25].(3)HQ=CDIRfDThe risk of developing cancer during one's lifetime, lifetime cancer risk (LTCR), through dietary exposure to sodium benzoate was estimated based on USEPA protocols using Eq. (4) (3). The potency factor (PF) for benzene 1.5 × 10−2 mg/kg(bw)-d was adopted for this study [25].(4)R=CDI×PFThe carcinogenic risks, and margin of exposure were all iterated 100,000 as before.


Results and discussions
Sodium benzoate levels in non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks


The sodium benzoate concentrations sampled from the non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks in the study area, ranged between a minimum-maximum of 5.1–277 mg/L. 
The 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles of the benzoate concentration were 51.8 mg/L, 131.5 mg/L and 211.3 mg/L respectively (Table 1). 
The 5th and 50th percentile benzoate concentrations fall within the institutionally permissible level of 150 mg/L [14].

The mean benzoate concentration, 131.5 mg/L, for this study was higher than the mean of 70.20 mg/L reported in a study involving 34 different brands of non-alcoholic and fruit juices sampled from markets in Ghana [26]. This value is also higher than a mean reported in England (54 mg/L), Japan (20 mg/L) and Philippines (50 mg/L) [27]. The wide differences in sodium benzoate in non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks may have arisen because of the uniqueness of brands sampled, and also laxity among regulatory measures [28].
The maximum concentration of the benzoate (277 mg/L) for this study was lower relative to the maximum concentration (548 mg/L) obtained in another study conducted in Ghana [26]. Though, lower than the sodium benzoate concentration recorded for studies in the Philippines (2000 mg/L) and Brazil (804 mg/L) [27], the maximum sodium benzoate concentration in this study was higher relative to the maximum reported in studies in Japan (200 mg/L), England (100 mg/L) [27] and Iran (130 mg/L) [29]. Again, the maximum and also the simulated 95th percentile sodium benzoate concentration exceeded acceptable limits however, the frequently occurring (modal) concentrations (131.2 mg/L) was within the acceptable limit (150 mg/L) [30].
Exposure of sodium benzoate in male and female respondents
The non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks consumption data profile of the survey respondents presented in Table 1, show variables that were integrated to obtain the chronic exposures. These variables which include sodium benzoate concentration, volume of non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks (VD), exposure frequency (EF), exposure duration (ED) and body weight (BW), all presented different statistical distributions. Both male and female respondents were exposed to almost the same quantities of the benzoate. The mean exposure values were the same for both genders with marginal variation of the modal benzoate concentration: 131.2 mg/L and 131.9 mg/L for males and females respectively. There was also no significant difference in volume of non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks consumed per day by male and female respondents. However, the maximum volume drank per day and the simulated 95th percentile consumption were different for males and females (Table 1). The exposure frequency was uniformly distributed for both male and female respondents, but females were more frequently exposed (modal value); 183 days/year than males; 85 days/year. 
The exposure duration was also uniformly distributed and followed the pattern of the exposure frequency for males and females. 
Females recorded a higher modal value; 25 years than males; 7.9 years, indicating a longer time of exposure in females (Table 1).
Volume of non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks consumed
The general trend was such that the mean, median, 5th and 95th percentile of volume of non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks consumed per day indicated a similar consumption pattern for both males and females. However some studies have shown that generally, males consume more non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks than females [31,32]
Chronic exposures
The chronic daily intake of the benzoate for consumers with regard to non-cancer and cancer risks ranged from 0.0025 to 82.89 mg/kg(bw)-d (Table 2). 
However, regulatory authorities such as the Human Exposure Characterization of Chemical Substances (HEXPOC) reported human dietary exposure to benzene as varying from 3 to 50 ng/kg(bw)-d [33]. This suggests that the accumulation of benzene, through benzoate ingestion obtained in this current study is relatively high. 
There were differences in the chronic daily intake estimated for both male and female respondents. 
The maximum cancer and non-cancer CDI for male respondents which is extremely high, comparatively (Table 2), might point to an outlier consumer whose intake is too high [34]. The values for CDI leading to non-cancer related health risks for both genders were only marginal relative to the CDI for the cancer related health risks. 
Following this, the modal CDI seems to attribute more risk to males than females (Table 2). 
These exposures might appear to be marginal relative to lethal oral dose of benzene that stands at 125 mg/kg [5] for humans. 
However, it is the chronic exposures that cause genotoxicity and adversely impacts the hematopoietic system [5,35].

Risk characterization
The hazard quotient for all respondents, male and female, except at minimum consumption was above 1 (HQ>1) (Table 2), showing that there are considerable adverse health concerns. 
While the HQ recorded for both males and females at maximum consumption levels may be explained as a possibility of an outlier consumer with high intake, it appears male consumers are relatively at higher risk compared to females (Table 2). The frequently occurring values of hazard quotient for males and females were 7.37 and 1.95 respectively.
The margin of exposure (MoE) in this study, took into account the carcinogenic and genotoxic effects of benzene. 
The maximum MoE for both males and females was > 104, meaning there were very few isolated cases of low public health concern. 
However, there were indications that there were frequently occurring (modal) public adverse health concern (MoE < 104) in the study area for genotoxicity (Table 2). 
Though the results in this study strongly suggest adverse health effect (MoE < 104), other authors reported such MoEs (103–106) as too low to cause public health problems [24].
 However, these authors suggested further studies to be conducted.
For this current study, the lifetime cancer risks from exposures to sodium benzoate in non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks ranged from 3.7 × 10−5 to 0.61. 
As indicated in Table 2, male consumers appear to be at higher risk relative to female consumers. The values obtained for the lifetime cancer risk (LTCR) of the consumers show > 10−6 or 1 out of 1 million (an acceptable risk, de minimis). This indicate that there is a serious public health concern for ingestion of benzoates in non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks. 
The mean lifetime cancer risk (1.8 × 10−3) for male consumers in particular is disturbing (Table 2). In fact, at least 50% of male consumers show a cancer risk of 7 out of 10,000; relative to female consumers who show a risk of 5 out of 10,000. This observation was enforced by the frequently occurring cancer risk of males as 6 out of 100,000; relative to females which was 2 out of 100,000 consumers (Table 2).


Conclusion
The results from this study showed that although males and females are similarly exposed to dietary sodium benzoate through non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks intake, consumption patterns create high exposures in males than in females. Thus, male consumers are unsurprisingly more at risk than female consumers. The high-risk indices relative to regulatory thresholds: HQ >1, MoE<104 and LTCR >10−6, are all serious indicators of grave public health concern of potential benzene in our food chains. 
In this study, the source of dietary exposure to benzene through sodium benzoate consumption was determined only from non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks. 
However, since benzene might not come from such soft drinks only, we must bear in mind that the total exposure might be seriously greater. 
Thus, because benzene tends to accumulate in human tissues over a relatively long period, grave impact on public health is bound to occur.

Policy brief
Sodium benzoate in non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks: exposure and health risks

Background
Non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks containing benzoates has gained worldwide consumption especially among the working class. 
Sadly, studies also show that these benzoates are sources of benzene, which has been classified by experts as a human carcinogen. 
There is evidence to show that these non-alcoholic carbonated beverages present the highest benzene concentrations relative to the quantities found in other foods. 
Thus, long term consumption of such products put consumers at great risk. The problem is further exacerbated in developing economies where lack of standards makes it easier for producers to flood markets with such unsafe products either out of irresponsibility or lack of knowledge. Therefore, this study sought to quantify levels of benzoate salts in non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks and provide a guide by which safety standards in such drinks can be monitored. It is hoped that the results would serve as a guide for policy making and also to fill a knowledge gap for public health practitioners and regulators.
Need to carry out the study
It is very important that this study is periodically carried out in order to monitor compliance to quality and safety benchmarks of non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks. 
These studies would also monitor the distribution of risks across consumers’ non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks consumption habits. 
Similarly, the distribution of exposure and risks among consumers will show the dynamics of safety. 
Again, through such studies, production of these drinks, sampled from the market place would serve to determine quality and safety of drinks that are being consumed. 
This feedback can then be used to control the product safety during production.

Our goal
The goal of this study was to develop capacity for our regulatory institutions to periodically monitor the levels of such carcinogens in our foods, and also to accumulate data which can be used for robust monitoring and evaluation in the long term.
Results obtained

The frequently occurring (mode) sodium benzoate levels in the sampled non-alcoholic carbonated (soft) drinks from the study area was below the threshold set by standards (150 mg/L), though the top 5% distribution of the drinks, show levels above the standards.

Health risks are often probabilistic events expressed in safety indices as: hazard quotient (HQ), representing the ratio of exposures of the chemical ingested (per body weight), to recommended safe exposures (reference dose). HQ is a tool often used to screen for non-cancer related risks. In its application, when the HQ>1, risk is implicated. 
The frequently occurring (mode), and also 50% of consumers sampled in the study area, presented HQ>1, meaning the situation is seriously unsafe for both sexes in connection with non-cancer related health risks.

There is another tool referred to as margin of exposure (MoE). 
It expresses the level of public health concern about safety of chemical exposures. 
This is also often determined as exposures per a defined regulatory reference value. Higher values usually indicate less public health concern. 
This study presented low frequently occurring (mode) MoE indices for both sexes. Lower values were recorded for males relative to females for cancer related toxicities. 
This observation again, show high public adverse health concern.

Regulatory institutions often recommend values of risks approaching zero to be ideal for cancer studies. 
However, this is practically impossible for many reasons including commerce. For scientific or academic purposes however, a risk of 1 person in over 1 million consumers is acceptable. 
This approach is yet another tool used to determine cancer risks directly. 
It is often determined as the product of the exposures of the concentration of the chemical hazard (in this case, benzoate) and its regulatory defined referenced risk factor (benzoate exposed as 1 mg/ kg-d in a lifetime). In this study, there were reportedly frequently occurring(mode) lifetime cancer risks (LTCR) of 6 out of 10 thousand in male consumers, as against 2 out of 10 thousand in female consumers. 
This observation again emphasizes the real threats underlying the consumption of such drinks.

Conclusion
Since the health risk indicators obtained from the study area are significantly greater than the recommended values, there must be a renewed call to intensify safety actions. 
The demand of processed food is growing and this trend requires the application of benzoates as preservatives against microbial growth. 
Thus, the application of sodium benzoates in foods is likely to surge. Unfortunately, food is a matrix containing many elements, some of which may initiate processes leading to the formation of benzene. Thus, regular monitoring and evaluation of strategies, especially in production facilities to control reckless applications of benzoates and also educate producers and consumers would safeguard life.

Funding
This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, private, or not-for-profit sectors.
Authors contribution
Sahadatu L. Azuma wrote the final manuscript; and Naa Kwarley-Aba Quartey contributed significantly in writing the final manuscript. Isaac W. Ofosu, designed the study, worked on the final manuscript and made significant corrections prior to submission.
Declaration of Competing Interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Origin
The preservative activity of benzoic acid was described as early as 1875 by H. Fleck and was the first preservant permitted by the FDA. It is used in foods, cosmetics and drug formulations.

Function
Although benzoic acid is found in many plants, it is converted to the active sodium benzoate form to overcome its solubility challenges.

It is an effective preservative in baked products due to its activity against molds responsible for spoilage of most baked products. It is also used to control yeast, pathogenic and spore forming bacteria.2

In aqueous media and pH around 5.0, sodium benzoate transforms to benzoic acid which in the undissociated form can disrupt microorganisms’ cell wall. This retards their growth.  At pH 4.0, 60% of the molecule is in the undissociated form compared to only 1.5% at pH 6.0.2

Nutrition
Despite the potential adverse effect of combining sodium benzoate and vitamin C and formation of benzene, the FDA states that levels of benzene are well below dangerous limits in properly formulated foods.3

Commercial production
Sodium benzoate is commercially produced using the following process1

Neutralization: benzoic acid is mixed in a tank containing sodium hydroxide. The pH  is controlled at 7.5-8.0 and a temperature of 95-98 °C (203-208 °F). The reaction is completed in 30-40 min
Bleaching: removes undesirable colors
Filtering: typically under pressure (0.3-0.4 Mpa) to obtain a clean solution
Drying: it is oven-dried at 150-155 °C (302-311 °F)
Packaging: particulates  of 1.5-2.0 mm are packed in suitable containers
Application2,4,5
Similar to other preservatives, sodium benzoate can be mixed in the baked good formula or can be dusted onto the surface. Permitted usage levels of in food products are:

Product    Recommended Level    Benefits    Drawbacks
Carbonated beverages    0.02%    Prevents yeast spoilage    In presence of ascorbic acid and metal ions, may produce benzene in ppb concentration
Fruit juices    0.05 – 0.1 %    Protects against mold and fermentation.
Usage with sulfur dioxide or other antioxidants increases antioxidation effect.

Ineffective against oxidation and enzymatic spoilage
Pickles and sauerkraut    0.1%    Highly effective at prevailing low pH    Risk of impairing the flavor
Mayonnaise    0.05 – 0.1%    Imparts a stronger anti-bacterial effect when combined with potassium sorbate.    Risk of impairing product sensory properties
Baked goods    0.1%    At low water activity and pH of 4.5 presents the optimal antimicrobial effect.    At high water activity (>0.8) only limited antimicrobial effect.
White layer cake    0.1%    At pH value 6.4 presents the highest antimicrobial and antifungal effect in comparison with nisin and sulphite.    May slightly decrease cake volume.

FDA regulations
Sodium benzoate is generally recognized as safe by the FDA, when used for its intended purpose.6

References
“Sodium Benzoate.” National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database. U.S. National Library of Medicine. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/517055. Accessed 23 July 2020.
Jay, J M., Loessner,M.J and Golden, D.A . Modern food microbiology.7 th ed., Springer Science & Business Media, 2005.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA). US Department of Health and Human Services. “Chemical Contaminants – Questions and Answers on the Occurrence of Benzene in Soft Drinks and Other Beverages.” Questions and Answers on the Occurrence of Benzene in Soft Drinks and Other Beverages, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, https://www.fda.gov/food/chemicals/questions-and-answers-occurrence-benzene-soft-drinks-and-other-beverages, Accessed 24 July 2020.
Guynot, M. E., Ramos, A.J., Sanchis, V. and Marín, S. “Study of benzoate, propionate, and sorbate salts as mould spoilage inhibitors on intermediate moisture bakery products of low pH (4.5–5.5).” International Journal of Food Microbiology 101.2 (2005): 161-168.
Adeoye, B . “Comparative Evaluation of the Preservative Effect of Benzoate, Sulphite and Nisin on the Quality of White Layer Cake”. Greener Journal of Science, Engineering and Technological Research. 2. 048-052. 10.15580/GJSETR.2012.3.1212. (2012).
Food and Drug Administration (FDA). US Department of Health and Human Services. CFR Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Part 184 Direct Food Substances Affirmed As Generally Recognized As Safe, https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/Cfdocs/cfCFR/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=184.1733, Accessed 23 July 2020.

Once synthesized, sodium benzoate inhibits the growth of yeast, mold and nasty bacteria that could grow and thrive in acidic conditions. 
When it combines with asorbic acid—a.k.a. vitamin C—if can cause a reaction that produces benzene, which is a component in gasoline. 
Sodium benzoate can also be found in non-edible things such as cosmetics, shampoo, fireworks.

[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 3]
[Revised as of April 1, 2020]
[CITE: 21CFR184.1733]

TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
SUBCHAPTER B - FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED)
PART 184 -- DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE

Subpart B - Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS

Sec. 184.1733 Sodium benzoate.
(a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium hydroxide. The salt is not found to occur naturally.

(b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the "Food Chemicals Codex," 3d Ed. (1981), p. 278, which is incorporated by reference. Copies may be obtained from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20418, or may be examined at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). 
For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

(c) The ingredient is used as an antimicrobial agent as defined in § 170.3(o)(2) of this chapter, and as a flavoring agent and adjuvant as defined in § 170.3(o)(12) of this chapter.

(d) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed good manufacturing practice. Current usage results in a maximum level of 0.1 percent in food. (The Food and Drug Administration has not determined whether significally different conditions of use would be GRAS.)

(e) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this section, or different from that set forth in part 181 of this chapter, do not exist or have been waived.

[42 FR 14653, Mar. 15, 1977, as amended at 49 FR 5613, Feb. 14, 1984]

Abstract
Sodium benzoate has been shown to be an effective inhibitor of the corrosion of mild steel in distilled water, a moderately hard mains‐water and very dilute (e.g. 0·03%) sodium chloride solutions. 
The concentration of benzoate required for inhibition is greater (0·5%) for machined than for emeried surfaces (0·1% in favourable conditions) and for mains water or chloride solutions (1·0 or 1·5%) as compared with distilled water (0·5%).

Movement of the solution, or saturation with oxygen, assists inhibition, but a pH below 6 causes breakdown. 

Comparisons with sodium chromate show that sodium benzoate is less efficient; it is, however, a ‘safe’ inhibitor since it does not lead to intense localized corrosion when the concentration is just below the minimum for protection. 
The following benzoates have also been shown to possess inhibitive properties: potassium, lithium, zinc and magnesium. 
Zinc is partly, and copper and aluminium completely, protected in 0·05% sodium benzoate solution at room temperature.

An unusually high rate of hydrogen gas evolution occurs in dilute sodium chloride solutions containing insufficient sodium benzoate for complete inhibition. 
A tentative explanation is suggested. The detailed mechanism of the protective action of sodium benzoate is not yet established, but electrode‐potential measurements and film‐stripping experiments provide evidence for the view that anodio inhibition produces and maintains a continuous film. 
Electron‐diffraction examination of the stripped film has so far yielded definite evidence of γ‐ferric oxide (or Fe3O4) only.

Sodium benzoate is a food-grade, biodegradable preservative made from the salt of benzoic acid.


Use: This product is Paraben and Formaldehyde Free. It will fight against Yeast, Molds Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria. 
Sodium benzoate can be used in leave-on and rinse-off applications. 
Challenge Test studies have been done on shampoo and creams. 
It is permitted in natural and organic cosmetics

Use: Purox® S has an extremely high purity, which is achieved through the use of Purox® B top quality benzoic acid, produced in the Emerald Kalama Chemical plant in the Netherlands. 
Its low impurity levels give Purox® S an excellent taste and odor profile, making it the right choice for the most demanding end-product requirements. 
In addition to its exceptional purity, Purox® S offers outstanding physical properties for consistently high performance in all your handling, production and packaging processes. 
Thanks to the unique shaping process, Purox® S has almost perfectly round particles with a narrow particle size distribution. 
The result of this tailor-made particle size distribution is an optimal combination of low dust content, high flow and excellent dissolution properties. 
Dust-free processing is achieved by the minimal content of small particles, and optimal dissolution performance by the absence of large particles.


Synonyms:
     ammonul
     antimol
     benzoate of soda
     benzoate, sodium
     benzoic acid sodium salt
     benzoic acid, sodium salt
     benzoic acid, sodium salt (1:1)
     benzotron
     natrium benzoicum
     sobenate
     sodium benzoate FCC
     sodium benzoate N.F.
     sodium benzoate NF FCC 33 solution
     sodium benzoate NF FCC dust free agglomerate
     sodium benzoate NF FCC powder
     sodiumbenzoate

Sodium Benzoate
Excipient (pharmacologically inactive substance)

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Oct 26, 2020.

What is it?
Sodium benzoate has a chemical formula of C7H5NaO2. Sodium benzoate is an antimicrobial preservative and flavoring agent used in the food industry and a tablet and capsule lubricant used in the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry.

Sodium benzoate is synthesized by combining benzoic acid with sodium hydroxide. Sodium benzoate does not occur naturally, but when it is mixed with water it produces benzoic acid, which can be found naturally in certain fruits such as plums, cranberries and apples. In the food industry, sodium benzoate is used in foods with an acidic pH such as pickles and salad dressings, in carbonated beverages, and in some fruit juice products.


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) specifies a maximum level of 0.1 percent of sodium benzoate in food and at this level sodium benzoate is generally recognized as safe by the FDA. Toxicity of any type would not typically occur until a human ate a diet that contained ninety times the amount specified by the FDA. These low levels are most likely used in the pharmaceutical industry, as well.[1][2][3]

When sodium benzoate is combined with vitamin C, as in some soft drinks and other beverages, and exposed to elevated temperatures or light the cancer-causing chemical benzene may form. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum benzene level is set at 5 parts per billion (ppb) for drinking water, as a quality standard. In 2005-2007, the FDA sampled various soft drinks and other beverages that contained both single sodium benzoate and combined sodium benzoate and vitamin C and found that the vast majority of these beverages fell below the maximum level. Those products that were above the upper limit have since been reformulated. However, the FDA did not test every beverage on the market.[4] FDA believes that the results of the surveys indicate that the levels of benzene found in soft drinks do not pose a safety concern.
2


Sodium Benzoate is the sodium salt of benzoic acid. It has the appearance of white or colorless crystalline powder. It is soluble in water and alcohol.

Sodium Benzoate is widely used as a food preservative, but also has common applications in pharmaceuticals, tobacco products, and as an intermediate for certain dyes. It is often favored for its bacteriostatic and fungistatic properties.


odium Benzoate is used as a preservative to prevent food from molding. It helps keep our products shelf-stable for at least two years from the date of purchase and is used in concentrations of less than 0.5% by volume.

While sodium benzoate is considered safe, scientists have shown that negative side effects occur when it's mixed with ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Their studies indicate that it then turns into benzene, a known carcinogen that may cause cancer.

Uses of Sodium Benzoate
Food. In the food industry, sodium benzoate is used to prevent spoilage from harmful bacteria, yeasts, and molds. It also helps maintain freshness in food by helping to slow or prevent changes in color, flavor, PH, and texture.

Other foods that commonly include sodium benzoate include:

Salad dressings
Pickles
Sauces
Condiments
Fruit juices
Wines
Snack foods
Drink. Sodium benzoate is used as a preservative in soft drinks to increase the acidity flavor and as a preservative to extend the shelf life.

Sodium benzoate, potassium benzoate, and potassium sorbate are the three common preservatives in Coke's drink. 
Sodium benzoate is used to protect the taste and it's used as an antimicrobial agent. 
Additionally, we can commonly find sodium benzoate in the ingredient lists

 Sodium benzoate is also used to preserve freshness in carbonated soft drinks. However, it’s used less in  popular sodas, Diet Coke, which use potassium benzoate as the main preservative. 

Cosmetics: Like food and drink products, cosmetics also need preservatives to prevent the growth of bacteria. Preservative-free, natural products cannot be stored for a long time. 

Personal care products: Sodium benzoate can be used as an anti-corrosive and preservative in a large variety of personal care products such as:


Mouthwash
Hair products
Sunscreen 
Moisturizers 
Serums 
Baby wipes
Toothpaste. To inhibit the growth of microorganisms in toothpaste, producers usually add a certain amount of preservatives. When considering the antimicrobial effect, safety, and price, sodium benzoate is often the better choice compared with other commonly used preservatives in toothpaste. 

Pharmaceuticals. Sodium benzoate can also be used in pharmaceutical products for its antimicrobial properties, such as in the formulation of tablets, capsules, and cough syrup. 

Is Sodium Benzoate Safe?
Sodium benzoate is generally recognized as safe and can be used as an antimicrobial agent and flavoring agent in food with maximum usage of 0.1%. It’s also generally recognized as safe (GRAS) when used as a preservative in feed.

The FDA considers the maximum allowable level for sodium benzoate in drinking water as 5 ppb. Almost all beverage products are under this number and will not pose a threat to our health.

Many customers have concerns about preservatives such as sodium benzoate. It’s commonly thought that sodium benzoate is bad for your health and comes with several side effects.

The Chemistry of Sodium Benzoate
Sodium benzoate is the sodium salt obtained when benzoic acid reacts with sodium hydroxide. This is an acid-base reaction that produces a salt, which is sodium benzoate, and water. The chemical formula is:

C7H6O2 + NaOH = NaC7H5O2 + H2O

In water, the compound dissolves and dissocates into a sodium ion and a benzoic acid ion. In its solid form it is a white, granular or crystalline powder that can be added to food or cosmetics.

Other sodium compounds with similar names are sodium borate or borax and sodium carbonate or soda. They are sometimes confused with sodium benzoate but are completely different chemicals. Borax is a salt of boric acid and contains boron while soda, distinct from baking soda or sodium bicarbonate, is a salt of carbonic acid. Neither is commonly used as a food additive because they are not as safe as sodium benzoate.

Where Is Sodium Benzoate Found?
Sodium benzoate keeps molds and bacteria from growing in food and cosmetics. It is found in many fruit drinks, in salad dressings and oils, and in jams. Cosmetic manufacturers use it in skin creams and other cosmetics to keep them fresh. It is found naturally in fruits such as plums and cranberries and in spices such as cinnamon. Use of the chemical is widespread because it is inexpensive and because small concentrations, typically 0.05 - 0.1 percent, are effective.

In solution, the benzoic acid ion is the active ingredient and acts directly on micro-organisms to limit their activity. When used in certain foods such as acid citrus drinks, the sodium benzoate may react with the other acids such as citric or ascorbic acids to form benzene, a potential carcinogenic compound. Because the levels of sodium benzoate in most foods are so low, the corresponding concentration of benzene will also be below dangerous levels. In general, sodium benzoate is a safe, common, inexpensive and effective food additive with possibly some restrictions for a high consumption of certain acid foods.

Benzoic acid is one of the oldest chemical preservatives used in the food industry. Gabel (1921) was one of the fi rst to demonstrate that benzoic acid was effective against bacteria. Similar results were reported for fungi and yeasts. The principle mechanism responsible for the antimicrobial activity is the uptake of the benzoic acid molecule by diffusion through the bacterial membrane of the un-dissociated form of the acid which is not charged and lipophilic.

Because of the low solubility, benzoic acid is slowly absorbed and because of a higher dissociation constant (pKa = 4.19) benzoic acid is able to exercise a good antimicrobial effect, not only in the acidic gastric environment but also in the more neutral intestinal environment of piglets. The kinetics of dissociation of benzoic acid is given in Table 1. Benzoic acid might also change the permeability of the microbial cell membranes and can also inhibit specifi c enzyme systems within cells. This makes benzoic acid effective against gram negative as well as against gram positive bacteria, as shown in Table 2 and 3.

A comparative study of six organic acids showed that the inhibiting effect of the acids was more pronounced in stomach content than in content of the small intestine and it appears that coliform bacteria, in contrast to lactic acid bacteria, were unable to grow in stomach content at pH 4.5. Benzoic acid had the highest growth inhibitory effects compared to the fi ve other short chain fatty acids (SCFAs).

Less ammonia
Benzoic acid or benzoate does not accumulate in the body. Once the acid is absorbed from the intestines, it will be metabolised in the liver and be transformed into hippuric acid (by reacting with glycine). Hippuric acid is excreted by the kidneys via the urine. As such, more nitrogen from the protein catabolism is excreted as hippuric acid instead of being excreted as urea. This results in an acidifi cation of the urine and the urinary tract and leads to less ammonia being released from the slurry in the manure pit. Indeed, at a lower pH the urease activity, which transforms urea into ammonia, is inhibited: ammonia is mainly formed from urea in the urine, catalysed by the enzyme urease from faeces according to the formula:

urease
CO(NH2)2 + H20 2 NH4 + CO2

The use of benzoic acid in rearing piglets has gained a lot of interest, however, disadvantages of benzoic acid are the low water solubility, the pungent smell and it creates a dusty environment.

Benzoic acid in another form
Sodium benzoate was the fi rst chemical preservative approved for use in foods by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It is a naturally occurring substance and is found in cranberries, prunes, greengage plums, cinnamon, ripe cloves, apples and many more. The product is bacteriostatic and fungi static under acidic conditions. The FDA labels sodium benzoate as GRAS (generally recognised as safe) and it is authorised in the EU as a food additive: Council Directive No 95/2/EC, E No 211, Annex III: Conditionally permitted preservatives and antioxidants.

It has been reported as sweet, salty and bitter. Results have shown that there may be some differences in the palatability of different organic acid-supplemented diets. When allowed to choose, piglets preferred diets supplemented with sodium benzoate.

Although un-dissociated benzoic acid is the most effective antimicrobial agent for preservation purpose, sodium benzoate is widely used, because it is about 200 times more soluble than benzoic acid. Sodium benzoate converts to benzoic acid when it arrives in the acidic environment of the stomach.

Trials from the Animal Science Group at Wageningen University (The Netherlands, 2007) have shown that sodium benzoate outperformed all other essential oils or plant derived additives in a piglet trial challenged with rotavirus and E.coli 0149K91+K88(ETEC). Feed intake was the highest in the benzoate group compared to the negative control, the carvacrol and the butyrate group. As a consequence, body weight gain after ETEC challenge was highest in the benzoate group compared to the negative control, the carvacrol, the butyrate and the allicin groups.

Kemira sodium benzoate
The weaning period of piglets is worldwide frequently associated with infectious diseases and post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) or post-weaning enteric colibacillosis. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of this disease and antibiotics have been used over decades as growth promoters in animal production as well as a therapeutic agent, but many bacteria are becoming resistant to antibiotics.

Protural is the sodium benzoate registered in the EU by Kemira Oyj as a zootechnical feed additive for piglets. In January 2011 the EFSA gave a scientifi c opinion on the safety and efficacy of Protural and said that sodium benzoate is a natural substance widely occurring in the environment and safe for the animal and the environment. It is not an irritant to skin and eyes and has a limited exposure of the respiratory system.

Protural is highly soluble and converts easily into benzoic acid in the acidic environment of the stomach:

– solubilisation of sodium benzoate:
C6H5COONa C6H5COO-(sol.) + Na+(sol.)

– precipitation of benzoic acid at pH 4:
C6H5COO– + H+ C6H5COOH(precipitation)

In a laboratory trial this precipitated benzoic acid showed to be very fine and dispersible compared to an industrial produced benzoic acid and thus could present a much higher active surface.

A meta-analysis from fi ve piglet trials showed that the addition of Protural at 4 kg/tonne feed results in signifi cant improvements in growth parameters of piglets as shown in Table 4. Daily growth and fi nal weight are significantly higher in weaning piglets, daily feed intake is consistently increased and feed efficiency (FCR) improved. Moreover treated piglets that received Protural in their diets had more consistent faeces than the control group. The number of piglets treated with antibiotics for diarrhoea was lower in the Protural group than in the control group. Mortality, although statistically not significant, was reduced in all trials. It was mentioned that most of mortalities in the control group are due to Streptococcus suis infection. Faecal samples taken from piglets showed that sodium benzoate dietary supplementation reduced the number of total aerobes, total anaerobes, Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococci.

SCFA combinations
No antimicrobial is completely effective against all microorganisms present in the GI-tract of animals. In theory one should be able to combine various antimicrobials having different modes of action to compensate for this deficiency. It should then be possible to achieve a broader spectrum of action or an increased antimicrobial action– the eubiotic effect – by using such a combination, improving animal performances. Indeed, the practice of dietary acidifi cation is one of the most consistent and economical alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters and especially in piglet diets. Over the past two decades various acids and salts have been used for this purpose. Organic acids lower the stomach pH, improving digestion and increasing the barrier function against harmful microbes. The short chain fatty acids (SCFA) have a bactericidal effect in an acidic environment, mostly against gram negative bacteria. Formic acid is the smallest of the SCFAs, but has the highest acidic character and bactericidal effect in feed and animals. It is widely accepted that combinations of organic acids have a broader antimicrobial effect compared to single acids. Contrary to the SCFA, Protural works as well in the more neutral environment throughout the intestinal tract and is effective also against gram-positive pathogens.

Trials at the University of Leuven- Belgium (2004) with growing piglets showed that acid mixtures with sodium benzoate improve overall feed effi ciency and daily growth significantly better than mixtures with benzoic acid or benzoic acid alone. Sodium benzoate mixtures consistently showed an increased feed intake. At Wageningen University, the Netherlands (2008), it was shown in weaned piglets that feeding sodium benzoate increased the external surface area of both jejunum and total small intestine. This effect was associated with increased daily feed intake since the external surface area of the gut showed a positive correlation with daily feed intake, comparing pigs of all dietary groups. The greater gut surface was not associated with any acute pathological symptoms such as absence of mucus, gastric ulcers, local erosions or local haemorrhages. This was also confi rmed in the experimental farm of Kasetsart University in Bangkok, Thailand in 2010. Piglets fed a combination of acids with Protural have shown a signifi cant increase in villous height versus piglets receiving high inclusions of zinc oxide.

Moreover, this mix with Protural significantly increased feed intake and final weight of piglets, replacing zinc oxide. In many countries indeed zinc oxide is prescribed by veterinarians and used at therapeutic dosages (up to 3,000 ppm) to overcome diarrhoea problems, leading to an enormous environmental challenge.

Discussion
It may be concluded that sodium benzoate has a positive effect on the intestinal morphology in piglets, showing an increased surface area of jejunum which is associated with increased daily feed intake. These are very important observations as small intestinal development is a nutritional strategy to adapt piglets to solid feed during the weaning period. Moreover, trials confi rmed that Protural can control the intestinal microflora, creating a healthy gastrointestinal tract. It can also be concluded that Protural or mixtures with Protural do not show any taste-aversion, on the contrary they consistantly increase daily feed intake, resulting in a signifi cant increased average daily gain. Feed effi ciency is also signifi cantly improved in the period immediate after weaning.


Sodium benzoate, sometimes also called benzoate of soda, is the sodium salt of benzoic acid. It is an aromatic compound denoted by the chemical formula C7H5NaO2 with a molecular weight of 144.11. Sodium benzoate can be made by chemically combining sodium hydroxide with benzoic acid. In its refined form, sodium benzoate is a white, odorless compound that has a sweet, astringent taste, and is soluble in water. Sodium benzoate has antimicrobial characteristics, and is typically used as a preservative in food products.

Chemical And Physical Properties
Sodium benzoate has a density of 1.44 g/cm3. It melts when over 570°F (300°C), and it does not have a boiling point. Sodium benzoate is supplied as a white powder or flake. During use, it is mixed dry in bulk liquids where it promptly dissolves. Approximately 1.75 oz (50 g) will readily dissolve in 3 fl oz (100 ml) of water. In contrast, benzoic acid has a significantly lower water solubility profile. When placed in water, sodium benzoate dissociates to form sodium ions and benzoic acid ions. Benzoic acid is a weak organic acid that contains a carboxyl group, and occurs naturally in some foods, including cranberries, prunes, cinnamon, and cloves. It is also formed by most vertebrates during metabolism.

Sodium benzoate is an antimicrobial active against most yeast and bacterial strains. It works by dissociating in the system and producing benzoic acid. Benzoic acid is highly toxic to microbes, however, it is less effective against molds. Overall, it is more effective as the pH of a system is reduced with the optimal functional range between pH 2.5 to 4.0. The antimicrobial effect is also enhanced by the presence of sodium chloride.

Production
There are three methods for the commercial preparation of sodium benzoate. In one method, naphthalene is oxidized with vanadium pentoxide to give phthalic anhydride. This is decarboxylated to yield benzoic acid. In a second method, toluene is mixed with nitric acid and oxidized to produce benzoic acid. In a third method, benzotrichloride is hydrolyzed and then treated with a mineral acid to give benzoic acid. Benzotrichloride is formed by the reaction of chlorine and toluene. In all cases, the benzoic acid is further refined to produce sodium benzoate. One way this is done is by dissolving the acid in a sodium hydroxide-solution. The resulting chemical reaction produces sodium benzoate and water. The crystals are isolated by evaporating off the water.

Jump to main contentJump to site nav

Home
About us
Web APIs
Help
 Sign in
ChemSpider
Search and share chemistry
Search ChemSpider

For medical information relating to Covid-19, please consult the World Health Organisation or local healthcare provision.
Simple
Structure
Advanced
History

COMMENT ON
THIS RECORD
ChemSpider 2D Image | Sodium Benzoate | C7H5NaO2Save3DZoom
Sodium Benzoate
Molecular FormulaC7H5NaO2
Average mass144.103 Da
Monoisotopic mass144.018723 Da
ChemSpider ID10305
Charge - Charge

More details:
Featured data source
The Merck Index Online
antifungal agent

TAG
Names
Properties
Searches
Spectra
Vendors
Articles
More 
Names and SynonymsDatabase ID(s)
Validated by Experts, Validated by Users, Non-Validated, Removed by Users
208-534-8 [EINECS]
532-32-1 [RN]
Benzoan sodny [Czech]
Benzoate de sodium [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Benzoate, sodium
Benzoic acid sodium salt
BENZOIC ACID, SODIUM SALT
Benzoic acid, sodium salt (1:1) [ACD/Index Name]
BENZOTRON(TM)
MFCD00012463 [MDL number]
Natriumbenzoat [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Natriumbenzolcarboxylat [German]
Sodium Benzoate [ACD/IUPAC Name] [JAN] [JP15] [NF] [USAN] [Wiki]
1173022-20-2 [RN]
62790-26-5 [RN]
AMMONUL
Antimol
Benzoesaeure (na-salz) [German]
Benzoic acid sodium
BENZOIC ACID, SODIUM SALT-D5
BENZOTRON
E211
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:113455
Natrium benzoicum
Sobenate
Sodium [ACD/Index Name] [ACD/IUPAC Name] [Wiki]
sodium and benzoate
Sodium Benzoate NF FCC
Sodium Benzoate USP
Sodium benzoate, 99.5%
SODIUM BENZOATE-3,4,5-D3
Sodium Benzoate-d5
UCEPHAN
苯甲酸钠 [Chinese]

A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid. As the sodium salt form, sodium benzoate is used as a treatment for urea cycle disorders due to its ability to bind amino acids. This leads to excretion of these amino acids and a decrease in ammonia levels. Recent research shows that sodium benzoate may be beneficial as an add-on therapy (1 gram/day) in schizophrenia. Total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores dropped by 21% compared to placebo.

What is Sodium Benzoate?
Sodium benzoate is a salt made of sodium and benzoic acid. It can be found naturally in fruit and spices like apples, cranberries and cinnamon. Despite being naturally occurring, it is usually synthesised in a lab when needed in large quantities for cosmetics. It is also used as a preservative in food and drink.

Sodium benzoate is a popular ingredient in cosmetics, not because of some amazing skin care property but because it works as a preservative. When an active ingredient in a skin care product like a nutrient or vitamin is used to nourish your skin cells, chances are the same nutrients also make good food for microbes in the air which can colonise your product and turn it mouldy. By including sodium benzoate alongside the active ingredient, you can extend the life span of the product and fight off the growth of mould.

 

How does it work?
Just like animals and plants, the yeast cell that make up mould need sugar to survive. In yeast, the sugar gets processed by the cells to give energy, carbon dioxide and ethanol, the same process used in wine and beer making. Benzoic acid gets taken up into the yeast cells where it messes with the acidity and stops them turning sugar into alcohol. As they can’t make energy, they die and won’t form a mould colony on the product.

Safety
It’s possible to be allergic to benzoic acid and if so it can cause severe swelling, itching and difficulty breathing.

It may cause a burning sensation even in those who are not allergic to it.

Benzoic acid can form trace amounts of benzene under certain conditions like UV light exposure, heat and combination with vitamin C. Benzene is a known carcinogen but as benzoic acid should not be in concentrations above 0.5% and only a fraction of this may for benzene, the amount formed is unlikely to be hazardous. Benzoic acid is not thought to accumulate in the body so regular small, safe doses shouldn’t add up into one large, hazardous dose.

Medicine interactions:

Sodium benzoate may interact with corticosteroids, haloperidol, sodium valproate and valoproic acid.

 

Other Names
Sobenate, antimol, benzoic acid sodium salt, benzoate of soda, natrium benzoicum, carboxybenzene sodium salt


4-) SODIUM ASCORBATE

Sodium ascorbate = Vitamin C sodium = Sodium salt of Ascorbic acid

CAS Number: 134-03-2 
EC Number 205-126-1
E number: E301 (antioxidants, ...)
Chemical formula: C6H7NaO6
Molecular Weight: 198.11

Sodium ascorbate is one of a number of mineral salts of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). 
The molecular formula of Sodium ascorbate compound is C6H7NaO6. 
As the sodium salt of ascorbic acid, Sodium ascorbate is known as a mineral ascorbate. 
Sodium ascorbate has not been demonstrated to be more bioavailable than any other form of vitamin C supplement.
Sodium ascorbate normally provides 131 mg of sodium per 1,000 mg of ascorbic acid (1,000 mg of sodium ascorbate contains 889 mg of ascorbic acid and 111 mg of sodium).

Sodium ascorbate (C6H7NaO6) is the sodium salt form of vitamin C that is more easily absorbed than ascorbic acid. 
Sodium ascorbate can be given as an injection. 
Sodium ascorbate is also found in osmotic laxatives indicated for cleansing of the colon as a preparation for colonoscopy. 
Sodium ascorbate may also be found as an ingredient in other pharmaceutical products. 
Sodium ascorbate can also be used as a food additive and is listed on the FDA list of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substances.

As a food additive, Sodium ascorbate has the E number E301 and is used as an antioxidant and an acidity regulator. 
Sodium ascorbate is approved for use as a food additive in the EU, USA, Australia, and New Zealand.
In in vitro studies, sodium ascorbate has been found to produce cytotoxic effects in various malignant cell lines, which include melanoma cells that are particularly susceptible.
Sodium ascorbate is a form of vitamin C that has sodium components that help lower its acidity levels. 
The sodium content helps vitamin C to be easily absorbed and stay longer in the body. 
Sodium ascorbate serves as an antioxidant that helps keep your cells from damage and keep them healthy.

Sodium Ascorbate is a non-bitter, non-acidic, fully reacted, buffered, crystalline powder combining 100% pharmaceutical grade vitamin C and sodium in a highly soluble form.
Vitamin C and sodium are essential nutrients that help support the body. 
Sodium ascorbate provides antioxidant protection to the immune system, as well as maintains the health of blood vessels, tissue, cartilage, bones, eyes, and other organ systems. 
Sodium ascorbate is also required for the biosynthesis of collagen, L-carnitine, and neurotransmitters. 
Sodium is an electrolyte that helps maintain the balance of water in and around cells, maintain stable blood pressure, and is important for muscle and nerve function. 
The combined positive effects of vitamin C and sodium make them vital to the body’s overall health. 
Each serving supplies 1100 mg of vitamin C and 120 mg of sodium.
Sodium Ascorbate is manufactured by dissolving L-ascorbic acid with sodium hydrogen carbonate mined from the earth. 
The sodium in Sodium ascorbate differs from common table salt, as it is not combined with chloride.
Sodium Ascorbate is ideal for individuals looking for an alkaline (buffered) form of vitamin C.

Sodium Ascorbate is the sodium salt of ascorbic acid.  
Sodium ascorbate can be used both as a nutrient (vitamin C) and as an additive (antioxidant).
We have two types of sodium ascorbate available: ‘P1914’ is the regular sodium ascorbate, ‘P19141’ is the DC (Directly Compressible) grade. 
The DC grade material is more granular and is more suitable for tablet/capsule applications. 
The DC grade material contains 1% Corn Starch to help with the compressibility and therefore is only 99% sodium ascorbate.
Sodium ascorbate might be beneficial over ascorbic acid because it is buffered by the sodium, making it less acidic. 
This might be beneficial for those who suffer from gastrointestinal side effects when they take other forms of vitamin C. 
Please note that doses (more than 1000mg of vitamin C) may cause mild stomach upset in sensitive individuals.
 
Applications of Sodium ascorbate:
Sodium Ascorbate is a mineral salt of Ascorbic Acid, a physiological antioxidant. 
Coenzyme for a number of hydroxylation reactions; required for collagen synthesis. 
Widely distributed in plants and animals. Inadequate intake results in deficiency syndromes such as scurvy. 
Sodium ascorbate is used as antimicrobial and antioxidant in foodstuffs.

Sodium ascorbate is a vitamin C supplement that’s available as a powder or capsule supplement. 
Sodium ascorbate delivers extra vitamin C when your diet is lacking or if you have a condition that calls for an extra dose of this crucial nutrient.

Sodium ascorbate is a form of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) which is more bioavailable and “alkaline”, unlike the ascorbic acid form of the C vitamin, which leads to stomach upset in some people. 
However, the drawback is the sodium content of this preparation, which is 131 mg of sodium salt per 1,000 mg of ascorbic acid, enough to aggravate existing hypertension or heart failure among some of these patients. 
Also, in general, minimizing salt (sodium) intake is recommended for everyone, except for patients with diarrhea or other conditions where sodium deficiency is present. 
Sodium ascorbate is also used as a food additive.

What Is Sodium Ascorbate Powder (Vitamin C)?
Sodium ascorbate powder is a mineral salt of ascorbic acid that is made by combining sodium bicarbonate with ascorbic acid (vitamin C). 
Vitamin C is an essential vitamin that is well known for its effects on the immune system. 
Sodium ascorbate powder has a natural sour taste, which is why Sodium ascorbate's commonly used in candy. 
When Sodium ascorbate is ingested, Sodium ascorbate helps in the fortification of collagen while acting as an antioxidant.
Sodium ascorbate also assists in the repair of damaged tissue, and in helping to maintain healthy levels of collagen. 
Sodium ascorbate also has a host of other general uses.

Sodium Ascorbate Powder (Vitamin C) Benefits
Sodium ascorbate powder (vitamin C) is an essential vitamin and is well known for working with other enzymes and solutions. 
Sodium ascorbate assists the body in building new tissue and helps fortify the immune system. 
Sodium ascorbate can help strengthen collagen and assists in synthesizing carnitine and supporting healthy metabolism. 
Sodium ascorbate also helps fortify the teeth and bones. 
Sodium ascorbate is known for its antioxidant properties, and it supports cardiovascular health. 
When used topically, Sodium ascorbate may also help promote healthy skin.
-Fortifies the immune system
-Supports healthy tissue and cartilage
-Helps support healthy metabolism
-Supports the joints
-Contributes to healthy bones & teeth
-Promotes healthy skin
-Antioxidant
-Supports cardiovascular health

Sodium Ascorbate is a form of the mineral salt of ascorbic acid. 
Sodium Ascorbate provides 131 mg of sodium per 1,000 mg of ascorbic acid. 
These are mainly used as a food additive and are also used as an antioxidant, and an acidity regulator.

Sodium Ascorbate acts as a vitamin in a case of there being a deficiency of vitamin C in the body and it is known for its antioxidant properties.
However, the primary use of Sodium Ascorbate is to prevent and treat the vitamin C deficiency in the body. 
Due to the vitamin C deficiency, a disease called Scurvy can occur due to which one may suffer from body rashes, muscle weakness, joint pain, and tooth decay. 
Sodium Ascorbate, commonly known as vitamin C, is used in various important ends use industries such as pharmaceuticals, personal care, food and beverages, and others. 
However, pharmaceutical industry holds for the largest consumer of Sodium Ascorbate. 
As vitamin C helps in the reprocessing on vitamin E, the earlier is used for formulating vitamin C supplements in the pharmaceutical industry. 
In the food and beverages industry, Sodium Ascorbate is used as an additive to enhance food quality and improve the stability of food. 
Also, the added benefit of using these in food products is that Sodium ascorbate helps to preserve the aroma, color and nutrient content of the food.

Origin
Sodium ascorbate is found in citrus fruits and vegetables. 
Sodium ascorbate is synthesized from ascorbic acid and sodium bicarbonate. 
In 1935, the inhibiting effect of ascorbates and other salts on proteases was reflected in improved flour quality.

Function of Sodium ascorbate:
This ingredient serves several purposes in baked goods:

Antioxidant and reducing agent: by reacting with free radicals it produces inactive compounds that disrupt free radical chain reactions.
Dough conditioner: stabilizes the gluten network by reducing extensibility and increasing elasticity.
Acidity regulator: contributes to acidity regulation unlike ascorbic acid that tends to increase dough acidity.
Bread improver: helps improve  volume, shape and texture of baked goods.
Taste: provides a desirable tart flavor in candies and fruit juices.

The commercial claims about sodium ascorbate are exemplified by the following: ”Sodium ascorbate can reverse the development of atherosclerotic disease, helps in heart attack prevention. 
In addition sodium ascorbate plays a significant role in the elimination of chronic and acute infections. 
Moreover, Sodium ascorbate is considered to be an anti-cancer agent. 
Sodium ascorbate produces cytotoxic effect in an array of malignant cell lines, which include melanoma cells that are particularly susceptible.”
The pertinent ingredient in this formulation is the vitamin C in it and NOT the sodium or its ascorbate form, and yet the misleading implication is that the sodium ascorbate form is a “wonder drug.” 
This assertion (bordering on public deception) that sodium ascrobate has “that exclusive action” compared to regular ascorbic acid (vitamin C), is a myth, and could not be further from the truth. 
The main active ingredient in both is the ascorbic acid. 
The benefits Sodium ascorbate each confer to the body are the same.
The “special” formulation, which costs 4 or 8 times more, is obviously for marketing purposes, a gimmick that is part of the trillion dollar food supplement scam around the world, rampant today. 
If one needs vitamin C, ascorbic acid or calcium ascorbate will work just as well, minus the sodium and its bad effect, and at a fraction of the price also.

Who needs vitamin C?
All of us need Vitamin C for health and deficiency of this vitamin causes scurvy, which afflicted sailors on long voyages centuries ago, because their diet was deficient in this vitamin for lack of vegetables and fruits on their ships. 
But today, as a rule, people who eat normally do not lack vitamin C in their system. 
Vitamin C supplement is actually not necessary unless gastrointestinal problem, like mal-absorption, is present. 
Also, the multivitamin and minerals most people take once daily already contain 60 mg – 90 mg of ascorbic acid, which meets our daily need. 
Megadose of any vitamin is unsafe.

What does vitamin C do?
Sodium ascorbate is essential to maintain health of our skin, bones, teeth, cartilage, and blood vessels. 
Vitamin C is needed by the body to form collagen and also enhances the absorption of iron from plant-based foods we eat. 
Together with the other vitamins and minerals, ascorbic acid is important for those with macular (eye) degeneration. 
Sodium ascorbate is also an antioxidant that helps protect our body cells from damages from daily wear and tear, and useful for the integrity of our immune system.

What are the side effects?
Most people can tolerate vitamin C, in either form. 
Some may develop abdominal cramps, heartburns, nausea, vomiting, constipation or diarrhea, while others may be allergic to it, causing itching, swelling, dizziness, and some, difficulty in breathing. 
But these are not very common. 
In general, vitamin C (ascorbic acid or sodium ascorbate, or calcium ascorbate) are well-tolerated. 
When taken in excess, vitamin C will lead to nausea, diarrhea, and stomach cramps. 
Among those with a disease called Hemochromatosis, where the body stores too much iron, high doses of Vitamin C could result in worsening of the iron overload and damage body

Nutrition
Vitamin C is essential for human health mainly to prevent common cold, infections and gum disease and in maintaining proper immune function. 
One concern with this ingredient is Sodium ascorbates sodium content which may have undesirable consequences such as water retention, hypertension, kidney and heart disease.

Commercial production of Sodium ascorbate:
Sodium ascorbate can be industrially produced by two methods: reacting ascorbic acid with sodium bicarbonate, and via gulonic acid.

Ascorbic acid and sodium bicarbonate method:

Reaction: ascorbic acid is dissolved in water followed by addition of alkaline sodium bicarbonate.
Solvent addition: to  precipitate sodium ascorbate.
Filtration: resulting sodium ascorbate is filtered and washed with a small amount of solvent.
Drying: the obtained salt is air-dried.

Applications of Sodium ascorbate:
In addition to Sodium ascorbates dough conditioning power, Sodium ascorbate can help increase shelf life and dough quality of breads and rolls. 
Sodium ascorbate is best used in no-time doughs.

Sodium ascorbate can be added dry to the flour or as a solution in the dough, at a 0.1%. 
Substituting ascorbic acid by sodium ascorbate should take into consideration that one part of the salt is equivalent to 1.09 parts of ascorbic acid. 
Therefore, for 1-20 g ascorbic acid/Kg flour is equivalent to 0.9 – 18.35 g/100 Kg sodium ascorbate.

Applications of Sodium ascorbate:
(+)-Sodium L-ascorbate has been used:
Sodium ascorbate is used as a component of cutting solution for storing brain slices of rats
Sodium ascorbate is used as a component of patch pipette internal solution for imaging Ca2+ transients evoked by action potential in rat brain slices
Sodium ascorbate is used as a supplement for arterial smooth muscle cell (SMC) cultures to encourage collagen production

Production of Sodium ascorbate:
Sodium ascorbate is produced by dissolving ascorbic acid in water and adding an equivalent amount of sodium bicarbonate in water. 
After cessation of effervescence, the sodium ascorbate is precipitated by the addition of isopropanol.

Sodium Ascorbate is the sodium salt of ascorbic acid. 
Sodium ascorbate appears in small white to yellow crystals and is soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol.
Sodium Ascorbate is approved as a food additive in the USA, EU, Australia, and New Zealand. 
Sodium ascorbate is used as an antioxidant and an acidity regulator. 
Occasionally, Sodium ascorbate is used for preservation of diagnostic medicinals.

What is Sodium Ascorbate?
Sodium ascorbate is one of the mineral sales of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). 
Sodium ascorbate is alkaline. 
Ascorbic acid is acidic and may cause stomach issues related to acid reflux. 
Since sodium ascorbate is alkaline, it is much less likely to cause such issues. 
Sodium ascorbate taken as a supplement will supply your body with both vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and sodium.

What is Sodium Ascorbate used for?
Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble, unstable vitamin that is the main antioxidant compound for our skin. 
Sodium ascorbate is a vital component of our skin structure and function. 
Topical vitamin C has a wide range of clinical applications, from antiaging and anti-pigmentation to skin photoprotection as well as being a known enhancer of skin collagen and elastin production. 
Humans, unlike most animals, are unable to synthesize vitamin C endogenously, so it is an essential dietary component. 
Sodium ascorbate can be successfully applied topically to our skin to deliver significant benefits

How Sodium Ascorbate is classified
Antioxidants, Vitamins

Recommendation for Sodium Ascorbate in pregnancy and breastfeeding
Limited data suggests no known risk

CAS Number: 134-03-2 
CHEBI:113451 
ChEMBL: ChEMBL591665 
ECHA InfoCard: 100.004.661
EC Number 205-126-1
E number: E301 (antioxidants, ...)
KEGG: D05853 
PubChem CID: 23667548
RTECS number: CI7671000
UNII: S033EH8359 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID0020105

Sodium ascorbate will also neutralize chlorine. 
Sodium ascorbate is pH neutral and will not change the pH of the treated water. 
Sodium ascorbate is preferable for neutralizing high concentrations of chlorine. 
If a large amount of treated water is going to be discharged to a small stream, the pH of the treated water and the stream should be within 0.2 to 0.5 units of the receiving stream.

The reaction (Tikkanen and others 2001) of sodium ascorbate with chlorine is shown below:
C5H5O5CH2ONa + HOCL → C5H3O5CH2OH + NaCl + H2O

Sodium ascorbate + Hypochlorous acid → Dehydroascorbic acid + Sodium chloride + water

Approximately 2.8 parts of sodium ascorbate are required to neutralize 1 part chlorine. 
When vitamin C is oxidized, a weak acid called dehydroascorbic acid forms.

Several studies have evaluated the use of ascorbic acid and sodium ascorbate to neutralize low levels of chlorine less than 2 milligrams per liter. 
Only one study (Tacoma Water Utility Report) evaluated the use of ascorbic acid to neutralize high levels of chlorine up to 100 milligrams per liter. 
The Tacoma, WA, Water Utility Engineer recommends against using ascorbic acid to neutralize high levels of chlorine in large volumes of water because it lowers the pH of the treated water. 
The Tacoma Water Utility engineer recommends using sodium ascorbate instead.

Chemical formula: C6H7NaO6
Molar mass: minute white to yellow crystals
Odor: odorless
Density: 1.66 g/cm3
Melting point: 218 °C (424 °F; 491 K) (decomposes)
Solubility in water: 
62 g/100 mL (25 °C)
78 g/100 mL (75 °C)
Solubility: 
very slightly soluble in alcohol
insoluble in chloroform, ether

Physical Appearance: A solid
Storage: Store at -20°C
M.Wt: 198.11
Cas No.: 134-03-2
Formula: C6H7NaO6
Solubility: insoluble in EtOH; insoluble in DMSO; ≥9.1 mg/mL in H2O
Chemical Name: sodium (R)-2-((S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl)-4-hydroxy-5-oxo-2,5-dihydrofuran-3-olate

Canonical SMILES
O=C1C(O)=C([O-])[C@@H]([C@@H](O)CO)O1.[Na+]

Shipping Condition
Evaluation sample solution: ship with blue ice. 
All other available sizes: ship with RT, or blue ice upon request.

L-ascorbate, sodium
L-ascorbic acid sodium salt
L(+)-ascorbic acid sodium salt
laevo-ascorbic acid sodium salt
laevo-ascorbic acid sodium salt (1:1)
L-ascorbic acid, monosodium salt
L-ascorbic acid, sodium salt (1:1)
sodium (2R)-2-[(1S)-1,2-bis(oxidanyl)ethyl]-4-oxidanyl-5-oxidanylidene-2H-furan-3-olate
sodium (2R)-2-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-4-hydroxy-5-oxo-2,5-dihydrofuran-3-olate
sodium (2R)-2-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-4-hydroxy-5-oxo-2H-furan-3-olate
sodium L-ascorbate
(+)-sodium L-ascorbate
monosodium L-ascorbate
monosodium laevo-ascorbate
vitamin C sodium
vitamin C sodium salt

Vitamin C with Sodium Ascorbate:
Sodium Ascorbate is a highly absorbable form of Vitamin C that is non-acidic and gentle on the stomach. 
Vitamin C powder is buffered with 100% pure Sodium Ascorbate for maximum absorption.

General tips about Sodium ascorbate:
For obtaining a higher solubility, please warm the tube at 37°C and shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while. 
Stock solution can be stored below -20°C for several months.

Active ingredient: Sodium ascorbate
Description: White, fine granular
Primary Use: Dechlorination of water
Synonyms: Vita-D-Chlor Neutral; sodium ascorbate, vitamin C
Certification: NSF/ANSI Standard 60 to 12 mg/L (Vita-D-Chlor, Neutral manufactured by Integra Chemical Co.)
Shelf life: Up to 3 years
Solution pH: Great for treatment of high chlorine levels because it remains pH neutral (pH 7) at all concentrations
Solubility in water: Highly soluble for concentrations of up to 50% (4 lbs per gallon)
Usage rate to neutralize 1 ppm Cl in water: ~1 gram/100 gallons or 1 lb per 45,000 gallons

Sodium Ascorbate is a form of Vitamin C. 
Trade Ingredients are a global supplier of Buffered Sodium Ascorbate Powder. 
We purchase this product in huge bulk enabling us to sell at very competitive prices. 
Our Sodium Ascorbate Powder is widely used in pharmaceutical applications, nutritional produacts and food & beverage products throughout the world. 
Our Sodium Ascorbate is soluble in water. 
Our Sodium Ascorbate is manufactured in an FDA approved facility and to all of the relevant Pharmacopoeia requirements. 
Sodium Ascorbate is found to be gentler on the stomach than Ascorbic Acid.

Melting point:220 °C (dec.)(lit.)
alpha 104 º (c=1, H2O 25 ºC)
Boiling point:235 °C
Density 1.66
refractive index 105.5 ° (C=10, H2O)
storage temp. Store at RT.
solubility H2O: 50 mg/mL
form powder
color white to slightly yellow
PHpH (20g/l, 25℃) : 6.5~8.0
Odorodorless
optical activity[α]20/D +105±2°, c = 5% in H2O
Water Solubility 620 g/L (20 ºC)
Merck 14,830
BRN 3767246
Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.

Sodium ascorbate (vitamin C) is particularly useful for dechlorination of large tanks due to its quick dissolve rate. 
Sodium ascorbates viability as a substitute for sulfite dechlorination is only an economic decision as its benefits are clear on an environmental basis due to the tendency of sulfites to deplete oxygen. 
When compared with ascorbic acid (also vitamin C), the neutral pH of sodium ascorbate makes it the preferred option for treating large volumes of water that contain high levels of chlorine (>10 ppm).

SODIUM ASCORBATE
134-03-2
L-Ascorbic acid sodium salt
Sodium L-ascorbate
Vitamin C sodium
Ascorbic acid sodium salt
Monosodium L-ascorbate
Ascorbicin
Sodascorbate
Natrii ascorbas
Vitamin C, sodium salt
ascorbate
Ascorbate de sodium

Chemical Properties
Sodium ascorbate occurs as a white or slightly yellow-colored, practically odorless, crystalline powder with a pleasant saline taste.
white to off-white solid

Uses of Sodium ascorbate:
L-Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) is a water soluble molecule used in a wide variety of applications, including cell culture, as a reducing agent that helps reduce oxidative stress.
As antimicrobial and antioxidant in foodstuffs.
Sodium Ascorbate is an antioxidant that is the sodium form of ascorbic acid. 
Sodium ascorbate is soluble in water and provides a nonacidic taste. a 10% aqueous solution has a ph of 7.3–7.6. 
in water, Sodium ascorbate readily reacts with atmospheric oxygen and other oxidizing agents, making it valuable as an antioxidant. 
one part sodium ascorbate is equivalent to 1.09 parts of sodium erythorbate. 

Definition of Sodium ascorbate:
ChEBI: An organic sodium salt resulting from the replacement of the proton from the 3-hydroxy group of ascorbic acid by a sodium ion.

Sodium ascorbate production Methods:
An equivalent amount of sodium bicarbonate is added to a solution of ascorbic acid in water. 
Following the cessation of effervescence, the addition of propan-2-ol precipitates sodium ascorbate.

L-Ascorbic acid, monosodium salt
Ascorbin
MFCD00082340
UNII-S033EH8359
L(+)-Ascorbic acid sodium salt
Vitamin C Sodium Salt
(+)-Sodium L-ascorbate
Sodium (R)-2-((S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl)-4-hydroxy-5-oxo-2,5-dihydrofuran-3-olate
S033EH8359
Cebitate
Aminofenitrooxon
sodium (2R)-2-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-4-hydroxy-5-oxo-2H-furan-3-olate
Iskia-C
Natri-C
sodium (L)-ascorbate
sodiumascorbate
C6H7NaO6
Ascorbato sodico
Ascorbato sodico [DCIT]

Sodium ascorbate description:
Sodium ascorbate is sodium salt of ascorbic acid (commonly known as vitamin C), which is approved for use as a food additive in many countries. 
Sodium ascorbate is consisted of a combination of sodium and vitamin C, which commonly serve as an antioxidant and an acidity regulator in pharmaceutical manufacturing and in the food industry. 
In this mixture, sodium acts as a buffer, creating a less acidic supplement than those made entirely from vitamin C. 
Sodium ascorbate can be easier to tolerate if the digestive system is sensitive to acid. 
As a vitamin C supplement, Sodium ascorbate provides both sodium and vitamin C for human body, which is effective to prevent or treat vitamin C deficiency. 
Besides, studies have shown that taking sodium ascorbate is helpful with cancer prevention and treatment.

sodium;(2R)-2-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-4-hydroxy-5-oxo-2H-furan-3-olate
Natrii ascorbas [INN-Latin]
Ascorbic acid sodium derivative
CCRIS 3291
HSDB 694
3-Oxo-L-gulofuranolactone sodium
HBL 508
L-Ascorbic acid sodium
Ascorbate de sodium [INN-French]
EINECS 205-126-1
Tianafacacid
Sodium ascorbate [USP:INN]
L-Ascorbic acid, sodium salt (1:1)
Sodium derivative of 3-oxo-L-gulofuranolactone
ascorbic acid sodium
E301

Dosage:
Sodium Ascorbate contains 88.9% Vitamin C and 11.1% Sodium by mass.  
As this material is only 99% Sodium Ascorbate, the overall material contains ~88% Vitamin C and ~11% Sodium. 
Therefore, to obtain the following label claims, you would require these quantities of DC grade sodium ascorbate preparation

12mg Vitamin C (15%) RI:*  :  13.6mg of Sodium Ascorbate
24mg Vitamin C (30%) RI:*  :  27.3mg of Sodium Ascorbate 
80mg Vitamin C (100%) RI*  :  90.9mg of Sodium Ascorbate

sodium L-ascorbate salt
DSSTox_CID_105
58657-35-5
EC 205-126-1
SCHEMBL3745
DSSTox_RID_75369
DSSTox_GSID_20105
L(+)Ascorbic acid sodium salt
CHEMBL591665
INS NO.301
DTXSID0020105
HY-B0166A
INS-301
CHEBI:113451
L-Ascorbic Acid Sodium Salt,(S)
L-Ascorbic Acid - Monosodium Salt
Tox21_300556
AKOS015895058
CS-6063
DB14482
sodium (2R)-2-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-4-hydroxy-5-oxo-2,5-dihydrofuran-3-olate

Both ascorbic acid and sodium ascorbate are good sources of antioxidants and help boost your immune health. 
However, since ascorbic acid is an organic acid, it can increase in the PH levels in your stomach and may trigger hyperacidity for those who are suffering from it.

NCGC00254355-01
BP-30077
CAS-134-03-2
M609
A0539
B1834
E-301
A806721
Q424551
J-006471
sodium (2R)-2-[(1S)-1,2-bis(oxidanyl)ethyl]-4-oxidanyl-5-oxidanylidene-2H-furan-3-olate


5-) SODIUM METABISULFITE

Sodium metabisulfite = SMBS

CAS Number: 7681-57-4
EC Number: 231-673-0
E number: E223 (preservatives)
Linear Formula: Na2S2O5
Molecular Weight: 190.11

Sodium metabisulfite or sodium pyrosulfite is an inorganic compound of chemical formula Na2S2O5. 
Sodium metabisulfite is sometimes referred to as disodium metabisulfite. 
Sodium metabisulfite is used as a disinfectant, antioxidant, and preservative agent.
Sodium Metabisulfite is generally immediately available in most volumes. 
Sodium metabisulfite has a high purity, submicron and nanopowder forms may be considered. 

Sodium Metabisulfite (sodium bisulfite anhydrous, sodium pyrosulfate, SMBS, MBS) is a white inorganic crystalline compound with the chemical formula Na2S2O5.
Sodium metabisulfite is an inorganic compound used as an antioxidant, a preservative in food, or for dichlorination in a broad range of industrial applications.

Sodium metabisulfite uses
Sodium metabisulfite have many major and niche uses. 
Sodium metabisulfite is widely used for preserving food and beverages.
Sodium metabisulfite is added as an excipient to medications which contain adrenaline (epinephrine), in order to prevent the oxidation of adrenaline.
For example, Sodium metabisulfite is added to combination drug formulations which contain a local anaesthetic and adrenaline, and to the formulation in epinephrine autoinjectors, such as the EpiPen.
This lengthens the shelf life of the formulation, although the sodium metabisulphite reacts with adrenaline, causing Sodium metabisulfite to degrade and form epinephrine sulphonate.
In combination with sodium hydrosulfite Sodium metabisulfite is used as a rust-stain remover
Sodium metabisulfite is used in photography.
Concentrated sodium metabisulfite can be used to remove tree stumps. 
Some brands contain 98% sodium metabisulfite, and cause degradation of lignin in the stumps, facilitating removal.
Sodium metabisulfite is also used as an excipient in some tablets, such as paracetamol.

A very important health related aspect of this substance is that Sodium metabisulfite can be added to a blood smear in a test for sickle cell anaemia (and other similar forms of haemoglobin mutation). 
The substances causes defunct cells to sickle (through a complex polymerisation) hence confirming disease.
Sodium metabisulfite is used as a bleaching agent in the production of coconut cream
Sodium metabisulfite is used as a reducing agent to break sulfide bonds in shrunken items of clothing made of natural fibres, thus allowing the garment to go back to its original shape after washing
Sodium metabisulfite is used as a SO2 source (mixed with air or oxygen) for the destruction of cyanide in commercial gold cyanidation processes.
Sodium metabisulfite is used as a SO2 source (mixed with air or oxygen) for the precipitation of elemental gold in chloroauric solutions.
Sodium metabisulfite is used in the water treatment industry to quench chlorine residual
Sodium metabisulfite is used in tint etching iron-based metal samples for microstructural analysis.
Sodium metabisulfite is used as a fungicide for anti-microbe and mould prevention during shipping of consumer goods such as shoes and clothing. 

Sodium metabisulfite (also known as sodium bisulfite) is an affordable and effective selective precipitant for gold. 
Sodium metabisulfite can recover up to 99.95% of pure gold when the precipitated gold is thoroughly rinsed. 
Sodium metabisulfite works well even at room temperature. 
This product has a chemical grade purity of 99.98%.
Proper ventilation is required. 
Sodium metabisulfite has a very strong, pungent, acid odor and is corrosive.
Precipitated gold particles vary in size, but tend to be small and float easily in the rinse water. 
For this reason, special care must be taken to avoid accidentally pouring off gold with the rinse water.

Plastic stickers and packaging containing the anhydrous, sodium metabisulfite solid active ingredient are added prior to shipping. 
The devices absorb moisture from the atmosphere during shipping and release low levels of sulfur dioxide.
Sodium metabisulfite is used for preserving fruit during shipping.
Sodium metabisulfite is used as a solvent in the extraction of starch from tubers, fruit, and cereal crops.
Sodium metabisulfite is used as a pickling agent to treat high pressure reverse osmosis water desalination membranes for extended storage periods between uses.

Sodium metabisulphite is used as an antioxidant agent in many pharmaceutical formulations. 
Sodium metabisulfite is extensively used as a food preservative and disinfectant. 
Sodium metabisulfite has been demonstrated that sulphite exposure can affect some organs. 
Curcumin, the main element of Curcuma longa, has been identified to have multiple protective properties. 

Sodium metabisulfite applications
-Cyanide destruction and leaching in the mining industry (Manganese, Gold, Cobalt, Iodine, Nickel and Silver)
-Dechlorination in municipal wastewater, pulp & paper, power, and textile water treatment plants
-Disinfectant
-Water treatment in leather tanning process
-Oxygen scavenger
-Cherry brining process
-Preservative in photo developer solutions
-Antioxidant
-Used in production of cleaning agents, detergents, and soaps

Sodium metabisulfite is used as a food additive, mainly as a preservative and is sometimes identified as E223. 
As an additive, Sodium metabisulfite may cause allergic reactions, particularly skin irritation e.g. eczema; gastric irritation and asthma. 
Sodium metabisulfite is not recommended for consumption by children. 
Sodium metabisulfite is present in many dilutable squashes. 
Sodium metabisulfite is commonly used in home brewing preparations to sanitize equipment. 
Sodium metabisulfite is used as a cleaning agent for potable water reverse osmosis membranes in desalination systems. 
Sodium metabisulfite is also used to remove chloramine from drinking water after treatment.

Sodium metabisulphite (SMBS), the commercially produced salt of sulphurous acid, is a preservative used to extend the shelf life of meat products such as fresh sausages and burgers, even though it can have adverse effects on some people, especially asthmatics. 
SMBS is not permitted in several countries for use in meat products. 
Chemically, SMBS contains 67% sulphur dioxide (SO2). 
When SMBS is applied to a meat product, the SMBS instantly reacts with water and, as a rule of thumb, around 50–55% added SMBS can be found analytically in the meat product as SO2. 
Some SO2 is ‘lost’ as a result of countless reactions and cannot be detected any longer. 
Therefore meat products are not analysed with regard to their SMBS content. 
The level of SO2 has to be measured instead and food standards refer to the SO2 level, rather than the SMBS level, of a product. 
In countries such as Australia and New Zealand, 500 ppm of SO2 is the maximum per kilogram of fresh sausage. 
In the UK, SMBS is permitted in certain meat products only and Sodium metabisulfite is not permitted in most other countries within the EU. 
One of the reasons that Sodium metabisulfite is not permitted in some countries is that SMBS causes a significant loss in vitamins such as thiamin in foods.

Sodium metabisulfite preparation
Sodium disulfite can be prepared by treating a solution of sodium hydroxide with sulfur dioxide.
When conducted in warm water, Na2SO3 initially precipitates as a yellow solid. 
With more SO2, the solid dissolves to give the disulfite, which crystallises upon cooling.
SO2 + 2 NaOH → Na2SO3 + H2O
SO2 + Na2SO3 → Na2S2O5
which yields a residue of colourless solid Na2S2O5.

What is Sodium Metabisulfite?
Sodium metabisulfite is a reducing agent used in  dough. 
Sodium metabisulfite is used frequently in cookie and cracker production. 
Sodium metabisulfite is also used as a preservative for baked goods, wine, dried fruit and jams due to its antioxidant capacity.

Sodium metabisulfites chemical structure
The anion metabisulfite consists of an SO2 group linked to an SO3 group, with the negative charge more localised on the SO3 end. 
The S–S bond length is 2.22 Å, and the "thionate" and "thionite" S–O distances are 1.46 and 1.50 Å, respectively.

CAS Number: 7681-57-4 
CHEBI:114786 
ChEMBL: ChEMBL2016976 
ECHA InfoCard: 100.028.794 
EC Number: 231-673-0
E number: E223 (preservatives)
PubChem CID: 656671
RTECS number :UX8225000
UNII: 4VON5FNS3C
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID0029684

Sodium metabisulfite is commonly used as preservative in foods but can oxidize to sulfite radicals initiating molecular oxidation. 
Ghrelin is a peptide hormone primarily produced in the stomach and has anti-inflammatory effects in many organs. 
Sodium Metabisulfite is a common additive used to preserve and stabilize wines, ciders, and occasionally beers. 
When added to wine or must, Sodium metabisulfite forms sulfur dioxide gas (SO2). 
This prevents most wild microorganisms from growing and acts as a potent antioxidant, protecting both the color and delicate flavors of wine. 
Sodium metabisulfite solutions are also used as sanitizing rinses for winemaking equipment.
Sodium metabisulfite functions identically to potassium metabisulfite. 
Potassium metabisulfite is usually preferred as an additive becuase Sodium metabisulfite does not contribute any dietary sodium, but sodium metabisulfite is more popular as a sanitizing rinse.

Recommended Usage
Dosage varies when used to kill wild bacteria in must, halt fermentation, or preserve finished wines against oxidation. 
The addition of ¼ teaspoon of sodium metabisulfite to 5 gallons contributes approximately 50 ppm of free SO2.
To make a sanitizing rinse for equipment, dissolve 8 teaspoons of sodium metabisulfite into 1 gallon of water. 
High concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas are irritating and toxic, so use in a well ventilated area. 
After applying the solution to your equipment, the items must be rinsed with clean, cold water.

Chemical formula: Na2S2O5, Na-O-(S=O)-O-(S=O)-O-Na
Molar mass: 190.107 g/mol
Appearance: White to yellow powder
Odor: Faint SO2
Density: 1.48 g/cm3
Melting point: 170 °C (338 °F; 443 K) decomposition begins at 150 °C
Solubility in water:
45.1 g/100 mL (0 °C)
65.3 g/100 mL (20 °C)
81.7 g 100 mL (100 °C)
Solubility:
Very soluble in glycerol
Slightly soluble in ethanol

What Is Sodium metabisulfite?
Sodium Sulfite, Potassium Sulfite, Ammonium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, Ammonium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite and Potassium Metabisulfite are inorganic sulfite salts. 
In cosmetics and personal care products, these ingredients are used in the formulation of permanent waves, hair bleaches, hair dyes, colors and tints, and in some bath and skin care products.

Why is Sodium metabisulfite used in cosmetics and personal care products?
All these ingredients function as reducing agents, which means they donate hydrogen molecules to other substances in cosmetics and personal care products. 
With the exception of Sodium Metabisulfite, these ingredients also modify hair fibers to facilitate changes to the structure of the fibers, such as with permanent waves or with hair straightening. 
In addition, Sodium Sulfite, Potassium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite and Sodium Metabisulfite function as antioxidants preventing or slowing deterioration of cosmetics and personal care products caused by chemical reactions with oxygen.

Scientific Facts about Sodium metabisulfite: 
Sodium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, Potassium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite and Potassium Metabisulfite are referred to as sulfiting agents because they release sulfur dioxide under certain conditions.

What Are The Benefits of Sodium Metabisulfite?
In cosmetics and personal care products, sodium metabisulfite functions as an antioxidant preservative and a hair-waving/straightening agent.

Preservative
As an antioxidant preservative, sodium metabisulfite works by protecting the other ingredients in a formulation from oxidation. 
Oxidation occurs when products are exposed to air. 
Oxidation changes the composition of some of the formulation’s ingredients such as fats and oils. 
Oxidation results in rancidity, color changes, viscosity changes, and deterioration of active ingredients in your skincare and bodycare products. 
Adding an antioxidant preservative like sodium metabisulfite will make the product less susceptible to degradation when exposed to environmental elements and prevent the growth of bacteria and molds.

Sodium metabisulfite and hair care
In addition to use as an antioxidant preservative, sodium metabisulfite functions as a hair-waving/straightening agent. 
Sodium metabisulfite is often used in combination with sodium sulfite and sodium sulfate in products used to straighten the hair and in permanent waves. 
Other hair care products that use sodium sulfite include hair bleaches, hair dyes, colors and tints.

Synonyms:
Sodium disulfite
Sodium pyrosulfite
Sodium metabisulfite

How is Sodium Metabisulfite made?
Sodium metabisulfite can be made from the reaction between sulfur dioxide with sodium carbonate. 
The following is the reaction equation: SO2 + Na2SO3 → Na2S2O5
Here is the manufacturing process came up by Solvay (1): Reaction between sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3) solution to form the mixed solution of sodium bisulfite and sodium sulfite (Na2SO3). 
Reaction equation: Na2CO3+2NaHSO3 = Na2SO3+H2O+CO2
Add excess sulfur dioxide (SO2) to the above solution to convert sodium sulfite to sodium bisulfite and also obtain the dissolved sulfur dioxide. 
Reaction equation: Na2SO3+H2O+SO2=2NaHSO3
Convert the dissolved sulfur dioxide to sodium bisulfite by adding an alkali ingredient, e,g, sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, or sodium sulfite, or the mixtures. 
Reaction equation: Na2CO3+H2O+SO2=2NaHSO3+CO2
Obtaining sodium metabisulfite (Na2S2O5) through two sodium bisulfite molecules reacts itself by cooling the above sodium bisulfite solution, and follows purification and drying processes to produce crystals or powder. 
Reaction equation: 2NaHSO3 = Na2S2O5+H2O

What is Sodium metabisulfite?
Sodium metabisulfite has a molecular formula of Na2O5S2 and is consider an antioxidant. 
Sodium metabisulfite is used as a food preservative and in the commercial wine making industry. 
In the paper and textile industry Sodium metabisulfite is used as a bleaching agent. 
Sodium metabisulfite can be associated with serious allergic reactions. 
Although primary exposure in children is through foods, serious reactions have also occurred after oral, inhalational, parenteral, and ophthalmic administration of sulfite-containing drugs. 
Reactions to sulfites most often occur in patients with reactive airway disease like asthma. 
Symptoms most frequently reported include wheezing, dyspnea, and chest tightness; anaplylaxis has also been reported. 
Sulfites have been removed from metered-dose inhalers, including albuterol. 
The diagnosis of a sulfite sensitivity is made by history and through a challenge testing with a qualified physician. 
Read food package labels carefully to avoid sulfites in foods. 
In addition, drug manufacturers are required to list the inclusion of sulfites in medicine product labeling. 
Metabisulfites may be present in some intravenous preparations. 
People who do not have a sensitivity to sulfites rarely show any reaction.

Application of sodium metabisulfite in food industry
Sodium Metabisulfite is widely used in food industry. 
Besides bleaching effect, Sodium Metabisulfite also owns the following functions:
1) Sodium Metabisulfite in food has anti-browning effects. 
Enzymatic browning often occurs in fruit, potato food. 
Sodium Metabisulfite is a kind of reducing agent, has a strong inhibitory effect on the polyphenol oxidase activity. 
0.0001% of sulfur dioxide can reduce 20% of the enzyme activity, 0.001% of sulfur dioxide can completely inhibit the enzyme activity and can prevent enzymatic browning; In addition, can consume oxygen in food organization and has deoxidation effect. 
Furthermore, sulfite and glucose can have addition action, prevent glucose and amino acids in food ammonia reaction sugar ammonia reaction, so as to own the function of anti-browning.
2) Sodium Metabisulfite in food has antiseptic effect. 
Sodium Metabisulfite can play the role of acidic preservative, the undissociated sulfurous acid is considered Sodium metabisulfite can inhibit yeasts, moulds and bacteria. 
The inhibition of undissociated sulfurous acid for colon bacillus is 1000 times stronger than Hydrogen sulfite, 100 to 500 times stronger than beer yeast, 100 times stronger than leaf mold. 
Sulfur dioxide in the acid has the most powerful anti microorganism effects.
3) Sodium Metabisulfite in food has loosen machine effect. 
Sodium Metabisulfite can be used as the constituent of loosen machine.
4) Sodium Metabisulfite in food has oxidation resistance effect. 
Sodium Metabisulfite has distinctive resistance effect. 
Sulfurous acid is strong reducing agent, Sodium metabisulfite can consume the oxygen in organization of fruits and vegetables, inhibit the activity of inhibit the activity of oxidizing enzyme, it is effective to prevent oxidation and breaking of vitamin C in fruits and vegetables.

The mechanism Sodium Metabisulfite effects: Decolorizers can be divided into two types by its function: oxidation type bleaching agent & reducing type bleaching agent. Sodium Metabisulfite belongs to reducing type bleaching agent.

What’re the Uses of Sodium Metabisulfite?
Sodium metabisulfite is a strong reducing agent that can react with oxidizing agents as the sulfur atom in Sodium metabisulfite with a positive valence of 4, the maximum valence of which is 6. 
That is the mechanism why sodium metabisulfite is a multifunctional ingredient that can be used as a preservative, antioxidant and bleaching agent in agricultural food products, wine and other applications.

Preservative
SMBS is a sulfur-containing preservative that inhibits the oxidase in the food, and also can block the normal physiological oxidation process of microorganisms and thus inhibit the reproduction of microorganisms in food preservation. 

Antioxidant
Since sulfite is a strong reducing agent, Sodium metabisulfite reacts with oxygen from fruits and vegetables and also inhibits oxidase activity, so it prevents food spoilage caused by oxidation and protects vitamin C in them.

Bleaching agent
Reduce the colored material to a bright and fresh color or prevent/slow oxidative browning.

Wine
You may have seen sulfur dioxide in the ingredients list of wine, but not like other ingredients you notice in the label, sulfur dioxide is not directly added to wine, it is formed by the adding of sodium metabisulfite or potassium metabisulfite. 
The following are the reaction equation of Na2S2O5 in wine:

Na2S2O5 + H2O <===> 2Na+ + 2(HSO3)-
HSO3- + H+ <===> H2O + SO2 
Sulfur dioxide plays an important role in almost every manufacturing process of winemaking, from grape picking to bottling. 
Sodium metabisulfite is mainly to inhibit the growth of yeast and bacteria, and therefore preserve the wine fresh and extend the shelf life. 

Sodium metabisulfite or potassium metabisulfite is commonly added to wines, ciders, or maybe beers as an antioxidant, preservative and stabilizer. 
Also, Sodium metabisulfite can be used to clean and sanitize wine equipment and wine bottles. 

Sodium metabisulfite is commonly used to precipitate dissolved gold out of aqua regia and gold chloride solutions. 
When Sodium metabisulfite is dissolved into water, Sulfur dioxide gas is created which is excellent at precipitating gold from the solution.
Sodium metabisulfate is a popular choice in this process because Sodium metabisulfite is more selective in precipitating gold by itself.

Sodium metabisulfite (SMBS) is not a disinfectant. SMBS dissolved in water converts to sodium bisulfite.  
When dosed online at high dosages, Sodium metabisulfite is an oxygen scavenger and many biofilm forming bacteria are anaerobic, making oxygen scavenging useless.  
In many cases, such high dosages have been associated with increased biological growth, especially where the water contains high TOC levels.
SMBS does however prevent fungal growth in membranes when used as a storage solution, because most fungi can’t grow without oxygen.  
Sodium metabisulfite goes without saying that growth of aerobic bacteria is also inhibited under these storage conditions.
Fungus requires nitrogen for growth making polyamide membranes especially susceptible to deterioration should fungal growth not be prevented.  
Fungi and heterotrophic bacteria obtain their energy from organic compounds, so Sodium metabisulfite’s important to clean the membranes well and remove all organic foulants from the membrane surface prior to long term storage in bisulfite solution.

Bakery 
Like L-cysteine, sodium metabisulfite functions as a reducing agent in biscuit/pastry dough which loosens the dough, reduces the rest time and accelerates the kneading process by reacting with disulfide bonds and generating thiolsulfate esters in gluten protein after hydrolyzed to bisulfite (HSO3−) in water.

Processed fruit products
Like other sulfites (e.g. sodium sulfite, sulfur dioxide), sodium metabisulfite can be used as both a preservative and antioxidant in processed fruit products to slow browning reactions, as well as inhibit the growth of certain microorganisms. 

Industrial 
Industrial grade sodium metabisulfite is used in a wide range of applications: 

Pharmaceuticals: used for the purification of chloroform, phenyl propyl sulfone and benzaldehyde.
Rubber: a coagulant.
Printing and dyeing:  as a dechlorination agent for bleached cotton.
Leather: impart leather the properties of soft, waterproof, folding resistance in leather treatment.
Surfactants and polymerization: as a sulfonating agent and reducing agent.
Gold refining: as a reducing agent to precipitate gold out of an aqua regia solution by reducing the Au³⁺ to Au.

What Is Sodium Metabisulfite?
Sodium metabisulfite is an antioxidant-based preservative that is used in cosmetics and skincare products to prevent contamination by bacteria and mold and to extend the shelf-life of products. 
Antioxidants help to prevent oxidation of products which is a natural process that occurs when oxygen takes electrons from the ingredients in the formulation, changing their composition and efficacy. 
Oxidation often is associated with a change in the color and texture of a product. 
Antioxidants donate electrons to oxygen so that Sodium metabisulfite doesn’t damage the formulation. 
Additionally, sodium metabisulfite prevents the growth of bacteria and yeasts in a similar way, making it an effective preservative. 
Preservatives are important for the stability of your product and help to reduce contamination through use and from general environmental contamination from being open. 
Sodium metabisulfite, also known as sodium pyrosulfite, is a white crystalline or powder solid with a slight sulfur odor. 
In addition to use in the cosmetic industry, sodium metabisulfite functions as a food preservative with the code E223. 
Sodium metabisulfite is commonly used to stabilize wine or beer. 
When added to these beverages, the sulfite compounds release sulfur dioxide gas, which prevents oxidation and also inhibits the growth of yeasts and fungi. 
Additionally, sodium metabisulfite is used in the medical industry, in the oil and gas industry, and various other industries for different purposes. 
Sodium metabisulfite also functions as a hair-waving/straightening agent.

Is Sodium Metabisulfite Safe to Eat?
Yes, Sodium metabisulfite almost has no side effects and the safety has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), as well as the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA).  

In food industry as additive (E223) preservative, antioxidant and antimicrobic for fruits (dried, glazed and
candled), vegetables (onions, potatoes, etc.), juices (citrus and grapes) and fish (shrimps and prawns).
In silage treatment as antifermentative.
In starch and sweeteners production as bacteriostatic.
In the photographic industry as component of developer bath.
In desalting plants with reverse osmosis (for removing the excess of chlorine and for membrane preservation) or in drinking water treatment (to remove the excess of chlorine).
In chemical synthesis in the production of acrylic fibres, vitamin K and A, pharmaceutical intermediates, etc

CAS Number: 7681-57-4
Formula Weight: 190.10
Formula: Na2S2O5
Density (g/mL): 1.33
Boiling Point (°C): 104
Solubility: Water and Alcohol
Synonyms: Sodium Pyrosulfite Anhydrous
Shelf Life (months): 12
Storage: Green

Sodium Metabisulfite, (often referred to as SO2, sulfites meta, or meta-bi) has several uses in winemaking. 
Sodium metabisulfite is used at the crush, to help control the spoilage bacteria and indigenous yeast that may already be present on the fruit or the equipment. 
The amount used is enough to stop most of the unwanted organisms but not enough to hinder a cultured yeast, which has a higher tolerance to sulfites. 
This effectively “wipes the slate clean” for the cultured yeast to step in and rapidly colonize the must.
Sulfites also help to inhibit the enzymatic browning of musts and finished wines. 
During storage and in the bottle, sulfites at the proper levels will protect a wine by continuing to inhibit spoilage organisms, as well as by scavenging oxygen.
Campden tablets are Sodium Metabisulfite in an easier to measure format. 
Adds 75 ppm of sulfites at the rate of one tablet per gallon. 
These must be fully ground-up prior to use. 
Potassium Meta-bi in powder form, AD495 or AD500, is much easier to use if you have a scale and does not add sodium to your wine.
Sodium metabisulfite is possible the sodium could contribute a very small salty flavor. 
Especially when making white wine Sodium metabisulfite is preferable to add potassium over sodium since added potassium can later help with cold stabilization.

FDA
Sodium metabisulfite is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) when used as a preservative except in meats, foods recognized as a source of vitamin B1 and fresh fruits or vegetables.

EFSA
Sodium metabisulfite (E223) is listed in Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012 as an authorised food additive and categorized in “ additives other than colours and sweeteners”

Sodium metabisulfite is a chemical compound with the formula Na2S2O5. 
Sodium metabisulfite is also known as sodium pyrosulfite and sodium disulfite. Na2S2O5 is an ionic compound containing the sodium cation (Na+) and the metabisulfite anion (S2O52-). 
In its standard state, sodium metabisulfite exists as a white or yellowish-white powder, as shown below.

THE GOOD: Helps to preserve your product, reducing contamination and extending its shelf life.
THE NOT SO GOOD: Has been linked to allergy and sensitivity in some skin types.
WHO IS IT FOR? All skin types except those that have an identified allergy to it.
SYNERGETIC INGREDIENTS: Works well with most ingredients
KEEP AN EYE ON: Its other name, E223, which is what sodium metabisulfite is called when used as a food additive.

What is Sodium Metabisulfite used for?
In cosmetics and personal care products, sodium metabisulfite functions as an antioxidant preservative and a hair-waving/straightening agent. 
As an antioxidant preservative, sodium metabisulfite works by protecting the other ingredients in a formulation from oxidation, which is the loss of electrons.

Other names
Sodium pyrosulite
Sodium disulfite
Sodium metabisulfite
7681-57-4
Sodium pyrosulfite
Sodium disulfite
Disodium disulphite

Sodium Metabisulfite, Anhydrous, Granular, Reagent, ACS, also known as disodium or metabisulfite, is typically used as an antioxidant, disinfectant or preservative agent. 
As an ACS grade quality reagent, Sodium metabisulfites chemical specifications are the de facto standards for chemicals used in many high-purity applications and typically designate the highest quality chemical available for laboratory use. 
Spectrum Chemical manufactured Reagent ACS grade products meet the toughest regulatory standards for quality and purity.

Sodium metabisulfite (MBS) is used as a preservative in food and wine and frequently triggers attacks of asthma. 
To determine the characteristics of responses to inhaled MBS, 30 asthmatic subjects and 16 nonasthmatic subjects inhaled MBS, in concentrations of 6.2, 12.5, 50, and 100 mg/ml, from a DeVilbiss No. 40 nebulizer in doses ranging from 0.1 to 12.8 µmol. 
Response was measured as the dose that caused a 20% fall in FEV1 (PD20FEV1). 
All the asthmatic subjects responded; one of the atopic, nonasthmatic subjects responded and none of the nonatopic, nonasthmatic subjects responded. 
The response occurred within 1 min, and most subjects recovered to within 10% of baseline after 30 to 40 min. 
Dose-response curves to MBS were steep and were reproducible, within a 7-day period, to within one doubling dose, with mean PD20FEV1 values of 2.17 and 2.11 µmol in 11 subjects. 
There was no correlation between PD20FEV1 values to MBS and histamine, and inhalation of MBS did not enhance responses to subsequent challenge with histamine (mean PD20FEV1 to histamine was 0.65 µmol and to histamine 1 h after MBS was 0.74 µmol). 
Challenge with MBS (mean PD20FEV1 4.07 µmol) did not cause refractoriness to a second challenge 1 h later (mean PD20FEV1 5.39 µmol). 
Of 20 subjects tested, prior inhalation of 8 mg nedocromil sodium blocked the response to MBS in 15 subjects and reduced it in two others. 
Cromolyn sodium (4 mg) blocked the response to MBS in three subjects but did not alter the mean PD20FEV1 in the remaining 17 subjects. 
The characteristics of responses to MBS suggest that the response is due to the effect of inhaled SO2. 
Sodium metabisulfites mode of action, like that of SO2, appears to be different from that caused by mediator release and may be due to an effect on sensory nerves.

Disodium pyrosulfite
Sodium metabisulphite
Disodium disulfite
Disodium metabisulfite
Sodium bisulfite anhydrous
UNII-4VON5FNS3C
sodium pyrosulphite
MFCD00167602
4VON5FNS3C
Na2S2O5

Sodium metabisulfite is an organic salt commonly use in the healthcare and food industries. 
As a food additive, Sodium metabisulfite is used as a preservative. When used as a health product it is used most often in hair care products. 
A further common use of sodium metabisulfite is as a disinfectant. 
So, is Sodium metabisulfite bad for you? Well, that depends entirely on the amount of exposure. 
The sodium metabisulfite that helps keep your food fresher longer isn't going to harm you. 
Multiple studies have been done and no carcinogenic effects have been found. 
There are some studies that indicate sulfite can cause copper levels in the kidney to rise, but any sulfite you are getting from sodium metabisulfite has been diluted far more than what was used in the experiment. 
In fact, a reaction to sodium metabisulfite will most likely occur only in people who are allergic to sulfite or in people who are exposed to pure sodium metabisulfite. 

When pure sodium metabisulfite is ingested, Sodium metabisulfite can cause gastrointestinal damage by releasing sulfurous acid as it comes into contact with stomach acid. 
Inhaled, sodium metabisulfite is a strong irritant and can cause shortness of breath and coughing. 
Sodium metabisulfite is also a skin and eye irritant . 

Preparation
When a solution of NaHSO3 (sodium bisulfite) is saturated with SO2 (sulfur dioxide) and then allowed to evaporate, a residue of sodium metabisulfite is obtained. 
The equilibrium reaction can be written as follows.
2HSO3– ⇌ S2O52- + H2O
The free sodium ions in the solution form an ionic bond with the metabisulfite ion, resulting in the formation of solid Na2S2O5 residue.

Appearance
White crystals or crystalline powder. 
Slowly oxidized to Na2SO4 (sodium sulfate) and release sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas if exposed to air and moisture. 
SO2 is also released by the reaction with acid.

Sodium metabisulfites solubility
Soluble in water and Sodium metabisulfites water solubility increases with temperature, 54g/100ml at 20°C and 81.7g/100ml at 100°C. 
Sodium metabisulfite produces sodium bisulfite (HSO3−) when dissolved in water and the aqueous solution is acidic with the PH 4.0-5.5 (10 % aqueous solution). 
Na2S2O5 + H2O = 2 NaHSO3
Soluble in glycerin, slightly soluble in ethanol, insoluble in benzene.

Sodium metabisulfites origin
Sodium metabisulfite can be produced by crystallizing a solution of sodium bisulfite. 
Sodium bisulfite results from introducing sulfur dioxide into a solution of sodium sulfite. 
Sodium sulfite, in turn, can be produced by introducing sulfur dioxide into sodium hydroxide.

Sodium metabisulfite [NF]
Disulfurous acid, sodium salt (1:2)
Fertisilo
Natrii disulfis
Campden Tablets
Sodium metabisulfite (NF)
Natrium pyrosulfit
Natriummetabisulfit
Natrium metabisulfurosum

Sodium metabisulphite is used to neutralize regular bleach that can stay in fabric even after rinsing. 
After bleaching, soaking in a solution of metabisulphite prevents the deterioration of fibers by bringing the pH back to neutral.

Sodium metabisulfite, for analysis
Sodium metabisulfite, 97+%, ACS reagent
CCRIS 3951
HSDB 378
Sodium pyrosulfite (Na2S2O5)
Sodium metabisulfite (Na2-S2O5)
Sodium metabisulfite, 97%, extra pure, anhydrous

Function
As a reducing agent, sodium metabisulfite makes the dough flexible for better sheeting, and this is the rationale for sodium metabisulfite’s working as reducing agent. 
Sodium metabisulfite reacts with the cysteine amino acids in dough, creating S-sulfocysteine residues within the protein structure, which inhibit the restoration of disulfide bonds.
Essentially, sodium metabisulfite acts as a cap, covering the reactive thiol group on cysteine, so it is unavailable to reform disulfide bonds. 
Lack of adequate disulfide bonds means that dough can’t form a strong gluten network.
Recent studies show that the presence of sodium metabisulfite slows down the Maillard reaction, thereby reducing levels of acrylamide.

Sodium Metabisulfite is generally immediately available in most volumes. 
High purity, submicron and nanopowder forms may be considered. 
American Elements produces to many standard grades when applicable, including Mil Spec (military grade); ACS, Reagent and Technical Grade; Food, Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Grade; Optical Grade, USP and EP/BP (European Pharmacopoeia/British Pharmacopoeia) and follows applicable ASTM testing standards.

Application
Compared with other reducing agents, like glutathione and L-cysteine, sodium metabisulfite has the greatest reducing capacity. 
There is far greater danger of over-dosing a formulation. 
The reducing power is one reason that sodium metabisulfite is not the preferred reducing agent in the industry. 
Sodium metabisulfite is usually used at 0.03% dry flour weight in cracker production. 
Sodium metabisulfite is rarely used in bread dough production.

Sodium Metabisulfite Na2S2O5
Molar Mass 190.107 grams per mole
Density    1.48 grams per cubic centimetre
Melting Point 170oC but begins to decompose at 150oC
Boiling Point Decomposes

Sodium metabisulfites physical properties
Sodium sulfite has a white or whitish-yellow appearance in its solid-state.
Sodium metabisulfite has a faintly pungent smell similar to SO2.
Na2S2O5 is fairly soluble in water – its solubility corresponds to 65.3g/100mL at a temperature of 20o
This compound is highly soluble in glycerol but not very soluble in ethanol.

Sodium metabisulfites chemical properties
When introduced to water, sodium metabisulfite liberates sulfur dioxide gas which has a very pungent and unpleasant odour. 
This gas can also lead to respiratory problems in humans.
SO2 gas is liberated by this compound on exposure to strong acids such as hydrochloric acid. 
The chemical equation for this reaction is given by: 2HCl + Na2S2O5 → 2SO2 + 2NaCl + H2O
When heated, sodium metabisulfite undergoes decomposition to form sodium sulfite and sulfur dioxide. 
The chemical reaction is: Na2S2O5 → SO2 + Na2SO3

Sodium metabisulfites uses
Sodium sulfite has several applications as an antioxidant, a preservative and as a disinfectant. 
Some important uses of this compound are listed below.

Na2S2O5 is one of the primary ingredients used in Campden tablets. 
Sodium metabisulfite is also used to sanitize the equipment used for winemaking.
This compound is also used to increase the shelf life of several local anaesthetics.
Concentrated Na2S2O5 can be used for the removal of tree stumps since it degrades the lignin in it.
Sodium sulfite is also used to test for sickle cell diseases.
When gold is dissolved in aqua regia, Sodium metabisulfite can be precipitated out with the help of this compound.
Since Sodium metabisulfite can act as an oxygen scavenger, Na2S2O5 is used as a corrosion inhibitor in the oil industry.
Sodium metabisulfite is also used in the treatment of wastewater since it can reduce hexavalent chromium into its trivalent form.

Compound Formula: Na2S2O5
Molecular Weight: 190.1
Appearance: White crystals or poqder
Melting Point: >300 °C
Boiling Point: N/A
Density: 1.4 g/cm3
Solubility in H2O: N/A
pH: 3.5-5.0 (20 °C, 5%)
Exact Mass: 189.898254
Monoisotopic Mass: 189.898254

Sodium Metabisulfite is an inorganic salt used as a disinfectant and preservative agent in cosmetics and personal care products. 
Sodium metabisulfite is also considered a reducing agent that donates hydrogen molecules to other substances in cosmetics and personal care products. 
Sodium metabisulfite can sometimes function as an antioxidant, preventing or slowing deterioration of formulas caused by chemical reactions with oxygen. 
Sodium Metabisulfite is seen as an ingredient primarily in hair care products, such as formulas for permanent waves, hair bleaches, hair dyes, colors and tints, and also in some bath and skin care products

What are the uses of sodium metabisulfite?
Sodium metabisulfite, a chemical compound with the formula Na2S2O5, is widely used as an antioxidant in pharmaceutical formulations. 
Sodium metabisulfite is also used as a disinfectant and as a food preservative in many industries.

List some examples of foods that contain sodium metabisulfite
Examples of food items that contain sodium metabisulfite are listed below:
-Jams
-Baked products
-Potato chips
-Pickled food items
-Dried fruits

Is sodium metabisulfite organic or inorganic?
Sodium metabisulfite, also known as sodium pyrosulfite, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Na2S2O5. 
The IUPAC spelling of the compound is sodium metabisulphite or sodium pyrosulphite.
Sodium metabisulfite is used as a preservative and antioxidant in food and is also known as E223. 
Sodium metabisulfite can be used to preserve color of some fruits, such as bananas. 
Sodium metabisulfite may cause allergic reactions in those who are sensitive to sulfites, including respiratory reactions in asthmatics, anaphylaxis, and other allergic reactions in sensitive individuals.
Sodium metabisulfite and potassium metabisulfite are the primary ingredients in Campden tablets, used for wine and beer making.
The acceptable daily intake is up to 0.7 milligrams per kilogram of body weight. 
Sodium metabisulfite oxidizes in the liver to harmless sulfate which is excreted in the urine.
Sodium metabisulphite is added as an excipient to medications which contain adrenaline (epinephrine), in order to prevent the oxidation of adrenaline. 
For example, Sodium metabisulfite is added to combination drug formulations which contain a local anaesthetic and adrenaline, and to the formulation in epinephrine autoinjectors, such as the EpiPen. 
This lengthens the shelf life of the formulation, although the sodium metabisulphite reacts with adrenaline, causing it to degrade and form epinephrine sulphonate.
Concentrated sodium metabisulfite can be used to remove tree stumps. 
Some brands contain 98% sodium metabisulfite, and cause degradation of lignin in the stumps, facilitating removal.
A very important health related aspect of this substance is that Sodium metabisulfite can be added to a blood smear in a test for sickle cell anaemia (and other similar forms of haemoglobin mutation). 
The substances causes defunct cells to sickle (through a complex polymerisation) hence confirming disease.

EINECS 231-673-0
AI3-51684
Disodiumdisulphite
Sodium metasulfite
sodiummetabisulphite
sodium metabisuifite
sodium metabisuiphite
sodium meta bisulfite
sodium meta-bisulfite
ACMC-1BJUM
Na2O5S2
EC 231-673-0

What is Sodium Metabisulfite?
Sodium metabisulfite is an inorganic compound composed of sodium, sulfur and oxygen. 
Sodium metabisulfite's typically a white, or yellowish-white crystalline powder that easily dissolves in water, which leaves that unpleasantly familiar sulfur smell.

In Food
Sodium metabisulfite is commonly used as a food preservative for dried foods like potato chips, raisins and apples, as well as fruit concentrate juices. 
As a food product, the safe daily intake of sodium metabisulfite has been determined to be about .
7 grams per kilogram of body weight. 
However, those with allergies to sulfites – often exhibited by rashes, hives and wheezing - may want to steer clear of this preservative altogether.

As a Cleaning Agent
The compound is also present in wines and beers, as Sodium metabisulfite's used as both a sterilizer and an antioxidant in the process of brewing beer or fermenting wine. 
If you or someone you know claims to have an allergy to red wine, Sodium metabisulfite's probably because of the presence of sodium metabisulfite.
As an antibacterial, the chemical is also used in the process of purifying water, cleaning water pipes and reverse osmosis membranes in desalinization equipment.

Additional Uses
Sodium metabisulfites acidic and preservative properties also make Sodium metabisulfite an effective substitute for sodium bisulfite, a chemical that's used in traditional darkroom photography. 
Also, sodium metabisulfite is used as a bleaching agent in pulp and textile manufacture, as well as a reducing agent in pharmaceuticals. 
Sodium metabisulfite's also a known preservative in cosmetics.
Sodium metabisulfite, in concentrated form, has also been used in landscape gardening as a tree stump remover, as it disintegrates the lignins – chemicals in plant cell walls – in the tree stumps, making them easier to remove.

Sodium pyrosulfite (JP17)
CHEMBL2016976
DTXSID0029684
CHEBI:114786
Sodium metabisulfite, SO2 58.5%
Sodium metabisulfite A.C.S. reagent
AKOS015950722
NSC 158277
NSC 227243
E223
K325
FT-0645096
disodium oxido(oxo)-kappa(4)-sulfanesulfonate
D02054
Q284549

Bu internet sitesinde sizlere daha iyi hizmet sunulabilmesi için çerezler kullanılmaktadır. Çerezler hakkında detaylı bilgi almak için Kişisel Verilerin Korunması Kanunu mevzuat metnini inceleyebilirsiniz.