CARBOXYLMETHYL CELLULOSE

Carboxymethyl cellulose = CMC = E466 = Cellulose Gum = Carmellose

CAS number :9004-32-4
MF: C8H16NaO8
MW: 242.16
EINECS: 618-378-6


Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), also known as cellulose gum or Tylose, and its sodium salt are important cellulose derivatives. 
The bound carboxymethyl groups (-CH2-COOH) along the polymer chain makes the cellulose water-soluble. 
When dissolved, Carboxymethyl cellulose increases the viscosity of aqueous solutions, suspensions and emulsions, and at higher concentration, Carboxymethyl cellulose provides pseudo-plasticity or thixotropy. 
As a natural polyelectrolyte, CMC imparts a surface charge to neutral particles and thus, can be used to improve the stability of aqueous colloids and gels or to induce agglomeration.

Carboxymethyl cellulose is a cellulose derivative that consists of the cellulose backbone made up of glucopyranose monomers and their hydroxyl groups bound to carboxymethyl groups. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is added in food products as a viscosity modifier or thickener and emulsifier. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is also one of the most common viscous polymers used in artificial tears, and has shown to be effective in the treatment of aqueous tear-deficient dry eye symptoms and ocular surface staining. 
The viscous and mucoadhesive properties as well as Carboxymethylcelluloses anionic charge allow prolonged retention time in the ocular surface. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is the most commonly used salt.
Carboxymethyl cellulose is an acid ether derivative of cellulose that in the form of Carboxymethyl celluloses sodium salt is used as a thickening, emulsifying, and stabilizing agent and as a bulk laxative in medicine
Carboxymethyl cellulose is composed of anhydroglucose unit with average 0.2-1.5 carboxymethyl groups (-CH2COOH) on it.

Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) is an anionic, water-soluble cellulose derivative. 
Solubility of CMC depends on the DP as well as the degree of substitution and the uniformity of the substitution distribution. 
Water solubility of CMC would increase with decreased DP and increased carboxymethyl substitution and substitution uniformity. 
The viscosity of Carboxymethyl cellulose increases with increasing DP and increasing concentration.
CMC is soluble in water at any temperature. Because of its highly hygroscopic nature, CMC hydrates rapidly. 
Rapid hydration may cause agglomeration and lump formation when the CMC powder is introduced into water. 
Lump creation can be eliminated by applying high agitation while the powder is added into the water or preblending the CMC powder with other dry ingredients such as sugar before adding into water.
Due to Carboxymethyl celluloses high solubility and clarity of its solutions, CMC is commonly used in beverages and beverage dry mixes to provide rich mouthfeel. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is also used in acidified protein drinks to stabilize protein and prevent it from precipitating. 
CMC is also added to syrup and sauce formulations to increase viscosity. 
Bakery is another application where CMC is commonly used to improve the quality and the consistency of the end product. 
In tortilla breads, for example, Carboxymethyl cellulose is used to improve the process ability of the dough and the textural properties of the end product, including foldability and rollability.

Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or cellulose gum is a cellulose derivative with carboxymethyl groups (-CH2-COOH) bound to some of the hydroxyl groups of the glucopyranose monomers that make up the cellulose backbone. 
CMC is often used as its sodium salt, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. 
CMC used to be marketed under the name Tylose, a registered trademark of SE Tylose.

Carboxymethylcellulose is particularly used as a thickening agent, but it is also used as a filler, dietary fiber, anti-clumping agent, and emulsifier. 
Carboxymethylcellulose is made from cellulose, which is the main polysaccharide and makes up the woody parts and cell walls of plants. 
Carboxymethylcellulose is commercially made from wood and is chemically modified. 
Carboxymethylcellulose is similar to cellulose, but is also very soluble in water.
Carboxymethylcellulose can also be identified via its alternate names, such as cellulose gum, carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, CMC, modified cellulose, and cellulose gel, and it has an E number of E466.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Application:
Some baked good applications where carboxymethyl cellulose finds use include:
Frozen dough: As a 0.5% replacement for wheat flour and with a D.S. of 1.1, CMC weakens the influence of frozen treatment on the gluten starch structure of the dough.
Tortillas: CMC is added to tortillas for shelf life extension and to maintain a pliable texture.
Gluten free bread and cakes: Improves the internal structure like gluten proteins and helps with moisture retention and mouthfeel.
Fried doughs: At the level of 0.35%, CMC can reduce oil absorption and improve the texture of fried products.
Cookies: CMC functions as a release aid and spread controller.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Detergents:
The detergent industry is the largest consumer of CMC. 
Technical grade CMC compositions are most often used for soaps and detergents. 
CMC acts as an inhibitor of the redeposition of grease in the fabric after it has been removed by the detergent.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Paper Industry:
CMC coating reduces the consumption of wax in waxed paper and paperboard, ensuring less penetration of the wax into paper. 
Similarly, the consumption of printing ink is reduced as a result of the surface shine it gives. 
In addition, because Carboxymethyl cellulose smoothes the surface, CMC makes paper more resistant to grease and improves the union between fibers, thereby improving the color of the paper. It is also used as a dispersant aid in the extrusion of fibers from the pulp and to prevent their flocculation.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Agriculture:
In pesticides and water-based sprays, CMC acts as a suspending agent. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose also functions as glue to attach the insecticide to the leaves of plants after application. 
Sometimes, CMC is used as an aid in the deterioration of certain fertilizers that are highly polluting.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Adhesives:
CMC is added to various compositions of glues and adhesives that are used for almost any material. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is widely used in the leather industry. Adhesives that join wood to other wood have been effectively made by combining CMC with starch and phenol formaldehyde.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Cosmetics:
CMC is used in dental impression materials, and in toothpastes and gels. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose, this water soluble ether serves as a thickener, stabilizer, suspending agent and former of films in creams, lotions, or shampoos, and is widely used in hair care products.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Paint:
CMC is used in oil paints and varnishes. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose acts as a thickener and suspends the pigment in the fluid.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Oil Industry:
Crude or purified CMC is used in drilling sludge as a colloid thickener and is applied when removing the drill from the hole to avoid sediments.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Plastics:
The main use of CMC in the plastics industry is to help increase the viscosity of plastics such as latex.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Ceramics:
The majority of water-soluble ethers are used to join pieces of porcelain. 
They have good baking properties and CMC solutions create very little ash.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Textiles Industry:
Crude CMC is used as sizing agent for fabric. 
CMC is also used in combination with starch in laundry operations. 
To give a better finish to fabrics in the manufacturing process, the fabric is impregnated with CMC and is then treated with acid and heat. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is also a very effective agent in fabric printing and as a thickening agent in paints and textile varnishes.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Pharmaceuticals:
CMC is used to coat tablets with high degrees of purity and low viscosity. 
CMC is insoluble in the acidic environment of the stomach but soluble in the basic medium of the intestine. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is also used for form gels, to transport the drug, to disintegrate tablets and as a stabilizer for suspensions, emulsions, sprays and bio-adhesive tablets which attach internally to the mucus of a body part.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Food:
CMC is used in food as an auxiliary agent in the churning of ice cream, creams and dairy products, as an auxiliary to form gels in gelatins and puddings, and as a thickener in salad dressings and fillings. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is also used as suspending agent in fruit juices, as a protective colloid in emulsions and mayonnaise, as a protective agent to cover the surface of fruits and as a stabilizer in ready- to- bake products. 
Because CMC is not metabolized by the human body, it has been approved for use in foods that are low in calories.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Medicine:
The most innovative applications of CMC are in the area of medicine. CMC solutions are used to form gels that are used in heart, thoracic and cornea surgery. 
In thorax operations, the lungs are stapled and then covered with a solution of CMC to prevent air leaks and fluid ingress. 
In the field of orthopedics, CMC solutions are used in lubricating the joints of the bones, most often in the wrists, knees and hips. 
The fluid is injected into these joints to prevent erosion, swelling and possible destruction of the cartilage attached to bones.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Other Applications:
CMC is also used in the manufacture of diapers and sanitary products of this type. 
Because it is hydrophilic, CMC helps gelatinize liquid and promotes retention.
 
Body systems affected by carboxymethylcellulose
There are only a few body systems that carboxymethylcellulose can adversely affect. 
These include the integumentary system and the digestive system as it may cause allergic reactions, flatulence, diarrhea, and cramping.

Items that can contain carboxymethylcellulose
Carboxymethylcellulose are usually found in food products, such as ice cream, processed cheese, beverages, infant formula, cottage cheese, cream cheese, dressings, desserts, concentrated juice, beer, jams, jellies, and cake frosting. 
On the other hand, it can also be found in non-food items, such as K-Y jelly, toothpaste, laxatives, hand cream, antacids, diet pills, water-based paints, detergents, different paper products, artificial tears, and in laundry detergents.

How to avoid carboxymethylcellulose
In order to avoid carboxymethylcellulose it is important to read the labels on food products, particularly the nutrition facts table and ingredient list. 
In addition, carboxymethylcellulose can be avoided by refraining from using or consuming these products: ice cream, dressing, cheese, icing, toppings, gelatinous desserts, infant/baby formula, candy, cottage cheese, cream cheese spread, K-Y jelly, toothpaste, laxatives, hand cream, antacids, diet pills, water-based paints, detergents, different paper products, artificial tears, and laundry detergents.

Sinergia Comercial y Representaciones is a provider of raw materials for the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, ceramics, paints and coatings, construction and plastics industries to name a few. 
Carboxymethyl celluloses main commodities include CMC and cellulose gum.

CMC has a tendency to lump when added to an application unless carefully mixed.  Methods of addition to recipes include:
-Adding directly to a vortex of vigorously agitated body of water.
-Dispersing CMC in another dry ingredient before adding water.
-Dispersing CMC in a water miscible non-solvent (such as glycerine or corn syrup) before adding water.

CMC has a tendency to lump when added to an application unless carefully mixed.  
Methods of addition to recipes include:
-Adding directly to a vortex of vigorously agitated body of water.
-Dispersing CMC in another dry ingredient before adding water.
-Dispersing CMC in a water miscible non-solvent (such as glycerine or corn syrup) before adding water.

CMC is used in food under the E number E466 or E469 (when it is enzymatically hydrolyzed) as a viscosity modifier or thickener, and to stabilize emulsions in various products including ice cream. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is also a constituent of many non-food products, such as toothpaste, laxatives, diet pills, water-based paints, detergents, textile sizing, reusable heat packs, and various paper products. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is used primarily because it has high viscosity, is nontoxic, and is generally considered to be hypoallergenic as the major source fiber is either softwood pulp or cotton linter.
CMC is used extensively in gluten free and reduced fat food products.
In laundry detergents, Carboxymethyl cellulose is used as a soil suspension polymer designed to deposit onto cotton and other cellulosic fabrics, creating a negatively charged barrier to soils in the wash solution. 
In ophthalmology, CMC is used as a lubricant in artificial tears to treat dry eyes. 
Extensive treatment may be required to treat severe dry eye syndrome or Meibomian gland dysfunct on (MGD).

Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is tackifier, at room temperature, Carboxymethyl cellulose is non-toxic tasteless white flocculent powder, it is stable and soluble in water, aqueous solution is neutral or alkaline transparent viscous liquid, it is soluble in other water-soluble gums and resins, it is insoluble in organic solvents such as ethanol. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is the substituted product of cellulosic carboxymethyl group. 
According to their molecular weight or degree of substitution, it can be completely dissolved or insoluble polymer, the latter can be used as the weak acid cation of exchanger to separate neutral or basic proteins.
Carboxymethyl cellulose can form highly viscous colloidal solution with adhesive, thickening, flowing, emulsifying, shaping, water, protective colloid, film forming, acid, salt, suspensions and other characteristics, and it is physiologically harmless, so it is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, oil, paper, textiles, construction and other areas of production.

What is Carboxymethyl Cellulose?
Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is a sodium salt derivative of cellulose. 
Unlike cellulose, Carboxymethyl cellulose is water soluble and can function as a suspending agent, stabilizer, film former or thickening agent.
CMC finds use in gluten-free baking by providing dough with viscosity and bread with volume much like gluten proteins do. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is used in many products including adhesives, sealants, coatings, textiles, ceramics, mining products, building and construction materials, laundry detergents, pulp, paper, and tobacco. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose functions as a dispersant agent, emulsifier, stabilizer, water retainer, thickener and clarifying agent. 
Or Carboxymethyl cellulose is used as a film-forming and binding agent, for example to agglomerate and bind iron ore into pellets. 
Since CMC is physiologically harmless2, it is also widely used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. 
In food products, Carboxymethyl cellulose acts as a thickener, stabilizer and binder and helps to control crystallization, moisture retention, and fat uptake. 
In cosmetic products such as creams and lotions, Carboxymethyl cellulose thickens and stabilizes the product and improves its moisturising effect. 
And in tooth pastes Carboxymethyl cellulose is added to adjust the viscosity profile.

CMC is soluble in water at any temperature. 
Because of its highly hygroscopic nature, CMC hydrates rapidly. 
Rapid hydration may cause agglomeration and lump formation when the CMC powder is introduced into water. 
Lump creation can be eliminated by applying high agitation while the powder is added into the water or preblending the CMC powder with other dry ingredients such as sugar before adding into water.

Cellulose gum is a family of high-purity, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) products that are tailored to meet the needs of the food market. 
They offer viscosity in solution, stability and water-binding capabilities. 
In addition to modifying the behavior of water, cellulose gum is useful in suspending solids and modifying flow and texture.
Cellulose gum, or sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), is widely used as an economical thickener and stabilizer in foods and beverages. 
Besides modifying the behavior of water, cellulose gum is useful in suspending solids and modifying the flow and texture. 
Cellulose gum has the ability to form strong, oil-resistant films. 
In beverage concentrates (alcoholic and non-alcoholic) and powdered drink mixes, cellulose gum adds pleasant, clean mouthfeel.
Cellulose gum, or sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), is a high-purity, powdered super-absorbent that offers increased bake stability, extended shelf life, freeze/thaw stability and water binding. 
Besides modifying the behavior of water, cellulose gum is useful in suspending solids and modifying the flow and texture. 
In beverages, cellulose gum adds a pleasant, clean mouthfeel. 
In addition, the anionic nature of CMC allows it to interact with the positive charges found on protein in acidic conditions, thus making it an excellent stabilizer for low-pH dairy beverages. 
CMC is also used in ice cream to control meltdown, add texture and protect against heat shock.
Cellulose gum, or sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), is ideal for batter and filling viscosity, crumb softness, increased volume and moisture retention. 
Besides modifying the behavior of water, cellulose gum is useful in suspending solids and modifying the flow and texture. 
Cellulose gum has the ability to form strong, oil resistant films. 
In beverage concentrates (alcoholic and non-alcoholic) and powdered drink mixes, cellulose gum adds pleasant, clean mouthfeel.
Cellulose gum, or sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), is widely used as an economical thickener and stabilizer in foods and beverages. 
Besides modifying the behavior of water, cellulose gum is useful in suspending solids and modifying the flow and texture. 
In beverage concentrates (alcoholic and non-alcoholic) and powdered drink mixes, cellulose gum adds a pleasant, clean mouthfeel.

Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium Lubricant Eye Drops 0.5% w/v is well tolerated but occasionally stinging, burning, red eyes, or allergic reactions can occur after instillation.
In children when the semi-steadfast or steadfast spasm of accommodation is present, it is better to use atropine sulfate for cycloplegia.

Uses:
Carboxymethyl cellulose is used in cigarette adhesive, fabric sizing, footwear paste meal, home slimy. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is used in interior painting architectural, building lines melamine, thickening mortar, concrete enhancement. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is used in refractory fiber, ceramic production molding bond. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is used in oil drilling, exploration address slurry thickening, reducing water loss, quality paper surface sizing. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose can be used as soap and washing powder detergent active additives, as well as other industrial production on the dispersion, emulsification, stability, suspension, film, paper, polishing and the like. 
Quality product can be used for toothpaste, medicine, food and other industrial sectors.
CMC can significantly increase the viscosity of the solution as thickener, dispersion, emulsification, suspension, protective colloid and so on when it is dissolved in water, and it is physiologically harmless, it is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, oil, paper, textiles, construction and other areas of production.

Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) is an anionic, water-soluble cellulose derivative. 
Solubility of CMC depends on the DP as well as the degree of substitution and the uniformity of the substitution distribution. 
Water solubility of CMC would increase with decreased DP and increased carboxymethyl substitution and substitution uniformity. 
The viscosity of the solution increases with increasing DP and increasing concentration.

Origin of Carboxymethyl cellulose:
Jansen1 first discovered carboxymethyl cellulose at the end of World War I. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose was initially proposed as a substitute for naturally occurring gums. 
Commercial production of carboxymethyl cellulose occurred closer to World War II.

Function of Carboxymethyl cellulose:
Carboxymethyl cellulose can provide different functionality depending on its degree and uniformity of substitution by sodium ions, chain length and cellulose backbone. 
For example, CMC with uniform substitution is known for smooth flow properties and works well in frostings. 
CMC with non-uniform substitution is known to be thixotropic, forms a stable gel that becomes more fluid when agitated and reforms to a gel over time. 
Non-uniform substituted CMC works well in fillings or sauces.

Usage Instruction:
Use warm water or cold water when preparing the solution, and stir till it completely melts. 
The amout of added water depends on variety and the use of multiple requirements.
High viscosity sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (HV-CMC) is a white or slightly yellow fibrous powder, hygroscopic, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, easy to ferment, insoluble in acids, alcohols and organic solvents, easily dispersed to form colloidal solution in water. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is reacted by the acid and fibrous cotton, Carboxymethyl cellulose is mainly used for water-based drilling fluids tackifier, Carboxymethyl cellulose has certain role of fluid loss, it has strong salt and temperature resistance especially.

What Are the Benefits of Cellulose Gum?
Cellulose gum, which comes from the cell walls of plants such as wood pulp and cottonseeds, is used to make foods thick and creamy, without all the fat. 
If you’re trying to reduce your fat intake or you’re on a low-fat diet, choosing foods made with an additive like cellulose gum can help to make you feel less deprived.
Carboxymethyl cellulose may help to supress the appetite. Because it works as a filler in foods, it has the potential to keep you feeling full. 
This is another reason cellulose gum is often found in diet foods. 
Some people even use it as a laxative for weight loss.
Cellulose gum is versatile. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose’s not only in a variety of food products, but also in toothpaste, pharmaceuticals, and even household products. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose’s a highly useful additive that acts as a stabilizing and thickening agent.

Carmellose (Carboxymethylcellulose) is used as a binder of tablets, disintegrators and stabilizers; it is widely used in cosmetics and foods. 
Carmellose is an anionic polysaccharide with carboxyl groups. 
Anionic samples may elute earlier due to ion exclusion interaction between the sample and packing materials hence leading to a larger than expected calculated molecular weight. Addition of salt to the eluent will decrease the ion exclusion interactions. 
The effect of increased salt concentration in the eluent is shown for the analysis of Carmellose. 
Carboxymethylcellulose was confirmed that peak shape stabilized at a concentration > 50mM NaCl.

Chemical Properties: 
solid

Chemical Properties: 
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium occurs as a white to almost white, odorless, tasteless, granular powder. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is hygroscopic after drying.

Uses:
cellulose gum (Carboxymethyl cellulose) is a thickener, binder, and emulsifier equivalent to cellulose fiber. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is resistant to bacterial decomposition and provides a product with uniform viscosity. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose can prevent skin moisture loss by forming a film on the skin’s surface, and also help mask odor in a cosmetic product. 
Constituents are any of several fibrous substances consisting of the chief part of a plant’s cell walls (often extracted from wood pulp or cotton).

Uses:
In drilling muds, in detergents as a soil-suspending agent, in resin emulsion paints, adhesives, printing inks, textile sizes, as protective colloid in general. 
As stabilizer in foods. 
Pharmaceutic aid (suspending agent; tablet excipient; viscosity-increasing agent).

Definition:
A semisynthetic, water-soluble polymer in which CH 2 COOH groups are substituted on the glucose units of the cellulose chain through an ether link- age. 
Mw ranges from 21,000 to 500,000. Since the reaction occurs in an alkaline medium, the prod- uct is the sodium salt of the carboxylic acid R-O- CH 2 COONa.

Production Methods:
Alkali cellulose is prepared by steeping cellulose obtained from wood pulp or cotton fibers in sodium hydroxide solution. 
The alkaline cellulose is then reacted with sodium monochloroacetate to produce carboxymethylcellulose sodium. 
Sodium chloride and sodium glycolate are obtained as by-products of this etherification.

Common Causes of Dry Eye:
Environment factors such as excessive heat and wind
Computer use
Smoking
Prolonged contact lens use
Certain medications
Aging

Pharmaceutical Applications:
Carboxymethyl cellulose sodium is widely used in oral and topical pharmaceutical formulations, primarily for its viscosity-increasing properties. 
Viscous aqueous solutions are used to suspend powders intended for either topical application or oral and parenteral administration. 
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium may also be used as a tablet binder and disintegrant, and to stabilize emulsions.
Higher concentrations, usually 3–6%, of the medium-viscosity grade are used to produce gels that can be used as the base for applications and pastes; glycols are often included in such gels to prevent them drying out. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose sodium is also used in self-adhesive ostomy, wound care, and dermatological patches as a muco-adhesive and to absorb wound exudate or transepidermal water and sweat. 
This muco-adhesive property is used in products designed to prevent post-surgical tissue adhesions; and to localize and modify the release kinetics of active ingredients applied to mucous membranes; and for bone repair. 
Encapsulation with carboxymethylcellulose sodium can affect drug protection and delivery. 
There have also been reports of its use as a cyto-protective agent.
Carboxymethyl cellulose sodium is also used in cosmetics, toiletries, surgical prosthetics, and incontinence, personal hygiene, and food products.

A colorless, odorless, water-soluble polymer. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, NaCMC or CMC, was first developed in 1947. 
Commonly known as carboxymethyl cellulose, it is composed of the sodium salt of an alkaline modified cellulose. 
CMC is water-soluble but will react with heavy metal salts to form films that are clear, tough and insoluble in water. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is thixotropic, becoming less viscous when agitated. In most cases, CMC functions as a polyelectrolyte. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is used commercially in detergents, food product and as size for textiles and paper. 
In conservation, CMC has been used as an adhesive for textiles and paper. 
Aging studies indicate that most carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) polymers have very good stability with negligible discoloration or weight loss.

Sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) is a water soluble salt produced in large crude commercial grade quantities without any refinement for use in detergents, drilling fluids and the paper industry. 
At higher degrees of purity, CMC is used as a food additive.

Safety Profile:
Mildly toxic by ingestion. 
Experimental reproductive effects. 
Questionable carcinogen with experimental neoplastigenic data. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose migrates to food from packagmg materials. 
When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NazO. 
See also POLYMERS, SOLUBLE.

Safety:
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium is used in oral, topical, and some parenteral formulations. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is also widely used in cosmetics, toiletries, and food products, and is generally regarded as a nontoxic and nonirritant material. 
However, oral consumption of large amounts of carboxymethylcellulose sodium can have a laxative effect; therapeutically, 4–10 g in daily divided doses of the medium- and high-viscosity grades of carboxymethylcellulose sodium have been used as bulk laxatives.
The WHO has not specified an acceptable daily intake for carboxymethylcellulose sodium as a food additive since the levels necessary to achieve a desired effect were not considered to be a hazard to health. 
LD50 (guinea pig, oral): 16 g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 27 g/kg

Carboxymethyl cellulose sodium can be found in food stuff and cosmetics as a viscosity modifier or thickener and as an emulsion stabilizer. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose can also be used in the production of water-based paints and paper. 
Medicine eye-drops (artificial tears) may contain carboxymethyl cellulose sodium.

storage:
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium is a stable, though hygroscopic material. 
Under high-humidity conditions, carboxymethylcellulose sodium can absorb a large quantity (>50%) of water. 
In tablets, this has been associated with a decrease in tablet hardness and an increase in disintegration time.
Aqueous solutions are stable at pH 2–10; precipitation can occur below pH 2, and solution viscosity decreases rapidly above pH 10. 
Generally, solutions exhibit maximum viscosity and stability at pH 7–9.
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium may be sterilized in the dry state by maintaining it at a temperature of 1608℃ for 1 hour. 
However, this process results in a significant decrease in viscosity and some deterioration in the properties of solutions prepared from the sterilized material.
Aqueous solutions may similarly be sterilized by heating, although this also results in some reduction in viscosity. 
After autoclaving, viscosity is reduced by about 25%, but this reduction is less marked than for solutions prepared from material sterilized in the dry state. 
The extent of the reduction is dependent on the molecular weight and degree of substitution; higher molecular weight grades generally undergo a greater percentage reduction in viscosity. 
Sterilization of solutions by gamma irradiation also results in a reduction in viscosity.
Aqueous solutions stored for prolonged periods should contain an antimicrobial preservative.
The bulk material should be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry place.

Purification Methods:
Dialyse Carboxymethyl cellulose for 48hours against distilled water and freeze-dry if a solid is required.

Incompatibilities:
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium is incompatible with strongly acidic solutions and with the soluble salts of iron and some other metals, such as aluminum, mercury, and zinc. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is also incompatible with xanthan gum. 
Precipitation may occur at pH < 2, and also when it is mixed with ethanol (95%).
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium forms complex coacervates with gelatin and pectin. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose also forms a complex with collagen and is capable of precipitating certain positively charged proteins.

CMC is also used as a thickening agent, for example, in the oil-drilling industry as an ingredient of drilling mud, where Carboxymethyl cellulose acts as a viscosity modifier and water retention agent. 
Sodium CMC(Na CMC) for example, is used as a negative control agent for alopecia in rabbits.
Knitted fabric made of cellulose (e.g. cotton or viscose rayon) may be converted into CMC and used in various medical applications.

Carboxymethylcellulose:
Carboxymethylcellulose is used to treat dry eyes.
Carboxymethylcellulose is used to treat eye irritation.

Device for epistaxis (nose bleeding). 
A poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) balloon is covered by CMC knitted fabric reinforced by nylon. 
The device is soaked in water to form a gel, this is inserted into the nose and the balloon inflated. 
The combination of the inflated balloon and the therapeutic effect of the CMC stops the bleeding.
Fabric used as a dressing following ear nose and throat surgical procedures.
Water is added to form a gel, and this gel is inserted into the sinus cavity following surgery.
Insoluble microgranular CMC is used as a cation-exchange resin in ion-exchange chromatography for purification of proteins.
Presumably, the level of derivatization is much lower, so the solubility properties of microgranular cellulose are retained, while adding sufficient negatively charged carboxylate groups to bind to positively charged proteins.

CMC is also used in ice packs to form a eutectic mixture resulting in a lower freezing point, and therefore more cooling capacity than ice.
Aqueous solutions of CMC have also been used to disperse carbon nanotubes. 
The long CMC molecules are thought to wrap around the nanotubes, allowing them to be dispersed in water. 
In conservation-restoration, Carboxymethyl cellulose is used as an adhesive or fixative.
CMC is used to achieve tartrate or cold stability in wine. 
This innovation may save megawatts of electricity used to chill wine in warm climates. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is more stable than metatartaric acid and is very effective in inhibiting tartrate precipitation. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is reported that KHT crystals, in presence of CMC, grow slower and change their morphology.
Their shape becomes flatter because they lose 2 of the 7 faces, changing their dimensions. 
CMC molecules, negatively charged at wine pH, interact with the electropositive surface of the crystals, where potassium ions are accumulated. 
The slower growth of the crystals and the modification of their shape are caused by the competition between CMC molecules and bitartrate ions for binding to the KHT crystals.
In veterinary medicine, CMC is used in abdominal surgeries in large animals, particularly horses, to prevent the formation of bowel adhesions.
CMC is sometimes used as an electrode binder in advanced battery applications (i.e. lithium ion batteries), especially with graphite anodes. 
CMC's water solubility allows for less toxic and costly processing than with non-water-soluble binders, like the traditional polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), which requires toxic n-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) for processing. 
CMC is often used in conjunction with styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) for electrodes requiring extra flexibility, e.g. for use with silicon-containing anodes.

Culinary uses of Carboxymethyl cellulose:
CMC powder is widely used in the ice cream industry, to make ice creams without churning or extreme low temperatures, thereby eliminating the need for the conventional churners or salt ice mixes.
CMC is used in preparing bakery products such as bread and cake. 
The use of CMC gives the loaf a much improved quality at a reduced cost to the baker, by economizing on the fat component. 
CMC is also used as an emulsifier in high quality biscuits. 
By dispersing fat uniformly in the dough, Carboxymethyl cellulose improves the release of the dough from the moulds and cutters, achieving well-shaped biscuits without any distorted edges.
Carboxymethyl cellulose can also help to reduce the amount of egg yolk or fat used in making the biscuits, thus achieving economy. 
Use of CMC in candy preparation ensures smooth dispersion in flavour oils, and improves texture and quality. 
CMC is used in chewing gums, margarines and peanut butter as an emulsifier. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is also used in leather crafting to burnish the edges.

CAS Number: 9000-11-7
Source:    Cellulose
Purity:    99.5%
Monosaccharides (%): Glucose
Main Chain Glycosidic Linkage: β-1,4
Substrate For (Enzyme):    endo-Cellulase
Appearance: white to pale yellow powder (est)
Assay: 99.50 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Boiling Point: 525.00 to 528.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Flash Point: 548.00 °F. TCC ( 286.67 °C. )

Carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC), is widely used as an excipient in oral, topical, and parenteral pharmaceutical formulations. 
Carboxymethylcellulose increases viscosity, serves as a suspension aid, and stabilizes emulsions. 
More recently, applications for CMC in formulations that facilitate improved delivery of cytotoxic drugs and biologics have been evaluated.
CMC is manufactured in a broad range of viscosities, with grades typically classified as low, medium, or high viscosity. 
CMC grades can be divided further based on their degree of substitution (DS), which is defined as the average number of hydroxyl groups substituted per anhydroglucose unit. 
Together, DS and the extent to which carboxymethyl substituents cluster determine functional properties of CMC (e.g., its aqueous solubility). 
Thus, CMC offers good water solubility above DS 0.6; at a lower DS (e.g., 0.2), CMC retains the fibrous character of its starting material and is insoluble in water.
During the manufacture of parenterals, both finished product and precursory process fluids that are labile to gamma irradiation or heat are protected from microbial contamination by filtration. 
A sterile filtrate typically can be achieved using a 0.2-μm–rated sterilizing-grade filter that has undergone generic validation by its manufacturer with further support by a user’s process-specific validation.
According to their physical– chemical properties, process fluids show varied filterability (filtration behavior in terms of throughput, as a factor of flow rate and filter membrane capacity to blockage). 
Viscosity enhancers such as CMC can limit the rate of filtration and incur early filter blockage, impacting upon the the practicality and economy of filter use.
In some cases, premature filter blockage and increased processing time associated with filtration of CMC-containing solutions has led to concerns over the practicality and economy of using a sterilizing-grade filter for them at all.
Because of those challenges, opportunities for optimizing the filtration of CMC-based solutions are needed. 
Here we report on a collaboration between Pall Corporation and Ashland Specialty Ingredients to investigate some factors that can affect the filterability of CMC. 
Ultimately we seek to provide useful data that can help companies engaged in filtration of CMC-based solutions to make informed choices of filters and CMC grade.

Preparation of Carboxymethyl cellulose:
Carboxymethyl cellulose is synthesized by the alkali-catalyzed reaction of cellulose with chloroacetic acid.
The polar (organic acid) carboxyl groups render the cellulose soluble and chemically reactive.
Following the initial reaction, the resultant mixture produces about 60% CMC plus 40% salts (sodium chloride and sodium glycolate). 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is the so-called technical CMC which is used in detergents. 
A further purification process is used to remove these salts to produce the pure CMC used for food, pharmaceutical, and dentifrice (toothpaste) applications. 
An intermediate "semipurified" grade is also produced, typically used in paper applications such as restoration of archival documents.
The functional properties of CMC depend on the degree of substitution of the cellulose structure (i.e., how many of the hydroxyl groups have taken part in the substitution reaction), as well as the chain length of the cellulose backbone structure and the degree of clustering of the carboxymethyl substituents.

This product is a medium viscosity carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC); the viscosity of a 2% solution in water at 25 C is 400-800 centipoise (cps). 
The viscosity of Carboxymethyl cellulose is both concentration and temperature dependent. 
As the temperaure of Carboxymethyl cellulose increases, the viscosity decreases. 
As the concentration of Carboxymethyl cellulose increases, the viscosity increases.
Low, medium and high viscosity CMCs are all used as suspending agents. 
Low viscosity CMC is usually used in "thin" aqueous solutions. 
Medium viscosity CMC is used to make solutions that look like a syrup. 
High viscosity CMC is used to make a mixture, which resembles a cream or lotion.

CMC has also been used extensively to characterize enzyme activity from endoglucanases (part of the cellulase complex). 
CMC is a highly specific substrate for endo-acting cellulases, as its structure has been engineered to decrystallize cellulose and create amorphous sites that are ideal for endoglucanase action. 
CMC is desirable because the catalysis product (glucose) is easily measured using a reducing sugar assay, such as 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid. 
Using CMC in enzyme assays is especially important in regard to screening for cellulase enzymes that are needed for more efficient cellulosic ethanol conversion. 
However, CMC has also been misused in earlier work with cellulase enzymes, as many had associated whole cellulase activity with CMC hydrolysis. 
As the mechanism of cellulose depolymerization has become better understood, exo-cellulases are dominant in the degradation of crystalline (e.g. Avicel) and not soluble (e.g. CMC) cellulose.

What is Carboxymethyl Cellulose Used for?
Cellulose gum is often used in foods and beverages to make foods thick and creamy to attract the appetite of customers. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose thickens and stabilizes a lot of foods by retaining moisture, keeping oil and water phased ingredients don’t separate and produces a consistent texture and so on.

Commonly we call CMC (used in food) is its salt, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose or sodium CMC instead of carboxymethyl cellulose itself.
Due to the poor water solubility of CMC, it is usually made into its sodium salt in order to be better use it.
Sodium CMC is a water-soluble cellulose ether obtained by chemical modification from natural cellulose such as cotton linter or wood pulp.

What is Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC)/Cellulose Gum (E466) in Food and Uses?
Cellulose gum, or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (sodium CMC), is a multi-functional ingredient that can be used as a thickener, binder, emulsifier and stabilizer in food with the European food additive number E466. 
Together with xanthan gum, they’re the most used and common thickener among others in food applications.

Carboxymethyl cellulose aka CMC (e466) is actually the sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is derived from cellulose, which is made water-soluble by a chemical reaction. 
The water-solubility is achieved by introducing carboxymethyl groups along the cellulose chain, which makes hydration of the molecule possible. 
CMC is used as a viscosity modifier or thickener, and to stabilize emulsions in various products including ice cream. 
CMC is known for its excellent water retaining capacity.

Carboxymethyl Cellulose is used to treat dry eyes. 
Carboxymethyl Cellulose relieves irritation and discomfort caused by the dryness in the eyes. 
Carboxymethyl Cellulose is advised to used this drug as per the direction of the doctor. 
The side effects of Carboxymethyl Cellulose include itching in eyes, dryness in eyes, stinging in the eyes, etc. People with liver or kidney problems may need lower doses.

Some medicines may interact with the action of this medication. 
Hence, tell your doctor if you are taking any other medicines, especially any anticoagulants, hydantoins, sulfonylureas or medicines that may decrease your bone marrow.

Information given here is based on the salt content of Carboxymethyl Cellulose. 
Uses and effects of Carboxymethyl Cellulosee may vary from person to person. 
Carboxymethyl Cellulose is advisable to consult a Ophthalmologist before using this medicine.

Before taking Carboxymethylcellulose:
If you are allergic to carboxymethylcellulose; any part of carboxymethylcellulose; or any other drugs, foods, or substances. 
Tell your doctor about the allergy and what signs you had.
Carboxymethyl cellulose may interact with other drugs or health problems.
Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all of your drugs (prescription or OTC, natural products, vitamins) and health problems. 
You must check to make sure that Carboxymethyl cellulose is safe for you to take carboxymethylcellulose with all of your drugs and health problems. 
Do not start, stop, or change the dose of any drug without checking with your doctor.

Physical Properties of Sodium Carboxymethyl
In dry form sodium carboxymethyl is a white or slightly yellowish, amber or grayish powder. 
Carboxymethyl Cellulose is odorless and tasteless. Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose dissolves readily in water. 
Carboxymethyl Cellulose is hygroscopic, meaning it takes up and holds onto moisture. 
Carboxymethyl Celluloses hygroscopic properties are partially responsible for its success as a food and drug additive.

Use as a Thickener
Sodium carboxymethyl is added to some products as a thickener and as a dispersant. 
By controlling the amount of sodium carboxymethyl added, the manufacturer can fine-tune the feel of the food or medicine in the mouth and as it is swallowed. 
As a thickener, sodium carboxymethyl makes it easier for ingredients to be dispersed evenly throughout the mixture and stay evenly dispersed. 
Carboxymethyl Cellulose helps keep solids suspended in liquids and acts as an emulsifier, keeping lotions and creams from separating.

Effect on Pourability
Adding sodium carboxymethyl cellulose to liquids changes the viscosity of the liquid. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose molecules normally bind to each other; water squeezes in and breaks up the bonds. 
The viscosity or resistance to pouring of a liquid depends on the amount of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose added. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose can be used to make thick, slow-pouring gels or soothing, tear-like eye lubricants.

As a Food Additive
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is often added to foods as a stabilizer. 
As a generally recognized safe ingredient, the FDA does not have to approve its use in foods. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose can keep ice cream from separating. 
Carboxymethyl Cellulose is also added as a bulking agent, emulsifier, firming agent, gelling agent, glazing agent, humectant and thickener. 
Carboxymethyl Cellulose is found in chocolate milk, cocoa, eggnog, condensed milk, powdered milk, some cheeses, daily spreads, processed fruit, breakfast cereals, sausage casings, custards, seasonings and condiments, soups and broths, sauces, dietetic foods, beer, cider and much more.

Use in Reusable Ice Packs
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is sometimes used to make reusable ice packs. 
When combined with water and other substances such as propylene glycol, sodium carboxymethyl forms a eutectic mixture--a mixture whose freezing point is lower than that of any of the mixture constituents. 
One product on the market has a freezing point of -23 degrees Celsius (-9.4 Fahrenheit). 
These reusable ice packs are usually nontoxic and environmentally friendly.

While taking Carboxymethylcellulose:
Tell all of your health care providers that you take carboxymethylcellulose. 
This includes your doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and dentists.
Do not take carboxymethylcellulose by mouth. 
If carboxymethylcellulose is put in the mouth or swallowed, call a doctor or poison control center right away.
Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan on getting pregnant. 
You will need to talk about the benefits and risks of using carboxymethylcellulose while you are pregnant.
Tell your doctor if you are breast-feeding. 
You will need to talk about any risks to your baby.

How is Carboxymethylcellulose best taken?
Use carboxymethylcellulose as ordered by your doctor. 
Read all information given to you. 
Follow all instructions closely.

All products:
-For the eye only.
-Some of these products are not for use if you are wearing contact lenses. 
-Be sure you know if you need to avoid wearing contact lenses while using this product.
-Do not touch the container tip to the eye, lid, or other skin.
-Put the cap back on after you are done using your dose.
-Wash your hands before and after use.
-Tilt your head back and drop drug into the eye.
-After use, keep your eyes closed. 
-Put pressure on the inside corner of the eye. 
-Do this for 1 to 2 minutes. This keeps the drug in your eye.
-Some of these drugs need to be shaken before use. 
-Be sure you know if this product needs to be shaken before using it.
-Do not use if the solution is cloudy, leaking, or has particles.
-Do not use if solution changes color.

If missing a dose of CMC (carboxymethylcellulose)?

If you use carboxymethylcellulose on a regular basis, use a missed dose as soon as you think about it.
If Carboxymethyl cellulose is close to the time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your normal time.
Do not use 2 doses or extra doses.
Many times carboxymethylcellulose is used on an as needed basis. 
Do not use more often than told by the doctor.

WARNING/CAUTION: 
Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. 
Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

Appearance: White Powder
Viscosity:1% aqueous solution, Brookfield (DV-E), 30rpm, 25℃:≥1900mPa.s
Apparent Density: 0.35~ 0.60 g/ml
Drying Shrinkage: ≤8%
Mv: 400,000 g/mol
PH:6.0—8.0  
D.S :0.98
Chloride: ≤0.5%

Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Change in eyesight, eye pain, or very bad eye irritation.
Ocular lubricant ophthalmic side effects (more detail)
What are some other side effects of Carboxymethylcellulose?
All drugs may cause side effects. 
However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. 
Call your doctor or get medical help if you have any side effects that bother you or do not go away.

These are not all of the side effects that may occur. 
If you have questions about side effects, call your doctor. 
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.

If OVERDOSE is suspected:
If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. 
Be ready to tell or show what was taken, how much, and when it happened.

carboxymethylcellulose
NaCMC
CMC
carboximetilcelulosa sódica (Esp.)
carbossi metil cellulosa (It.)
cellulose gum
sodium carboxymethylcellulose
CM cellulose
Cellulose, carboxymethyl ether
acetic acid;2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanal
carboxy methyl cellulose
acetic acid; 2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanal; sodium
C.M.C.
carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt
carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium salt
carboxymethylcellulose sodium
cellulose carboxymethyl ether sodium salt
cellulose gum
celluvisc
orabase
sodium acetate - hexose (1:1:1)
sodium carboxy methyl cellulose
sodium carboxymethylcellulose
NaCMC

Carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium salt, also known as carmellose sodium or C.M.C., belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hexoses. 
These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium salt is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa).

How do I store and/or throw out Carboxymethylcellulose?
All products:
Store at room temperature.
Be sure you know how long you can store carboxymethylcellulose before you need to throw it away.
Keep all drugs in a safe place. 
Keep all drugs out of the reach of children and pets.
Throw away unused or expired drugs. 
Do not flush down a toilet or pour down a drain unless you are told to do so. 
Check with your pharmacist if you have questions about the best way to throw out drugs. 
There may be drug take-back programs in your area.
Single-dose container:

Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium Lubricant Eye Drops 0.5% w/v. For the temporary relief of burning, irritation, and discomfort due to the dryness of the eye, or due to exposure to wind, sun, etc.
Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium Lubricant Eye Drops 0.5% w/v may be used as a protectant against further irritation.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Viscosity:800-1200 mPa.s) is the sodium salt of cellulose arboxymethyl and frequently used as viscous agent, paste and barrier agent.

Store in pouch until ready for use.
Consumer information use
If your symptoms or health problems do not get better or if they become worse, call your doctor.
Do not share your drugs with others and do not take anyone else's drugs.
Some drugs may have another patient information leaflet. 
Check with your pharmacist. 
If you have any questions about carboxymethylcellulose, please talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other health care provider.
If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. 
Be ready to tell or show what was taken, how much, and when it happened.

Appearance: Almost white powder
Assay (as Na; HClO4 titration, on anhydrous basis): 6.5 - 9.5%
Appearance of solution: Passes test
Residue on ignition (as SO4): 20 - 29.3%
pH (1% solution): 6.5 - 8.0
Identity: Passes test
Viscosity (2% in water; 20°C): 400 - 800 cps
Insoluble matter in water: Passes test
Loss on drying (at 105°C): Max 10.0%
Chloride (Cl): Max 0.25%
Sodium glycolate: Max 0.4%
Heavy metal (as Pb): Max 0.002%
Arsenic (As): Max 0.0003%
Iron (Fe): Max 0.02%

Overdosage:
Acute overdosage with Carboxymethyl cellulose Sodium Lubricant Eye Drops
0.5% w/v eye drops has not been reported

Pharmacological Properties:
Pharmacodynamic properties Carboxymethyl cellulose Sodium Lubricant Eye Drops 0.5% w/v is a lubricating formulation, provides immediate relief and long lasting protection against dryness and irritation for patients with dry eyes.

Incompatibilities:
None

Synonyms
carboxy-methyl cellulose;carboxymethyl cellulose;cellulose carboxymethyl ether;cmc-4lf;carbose;carboximethylcellulosum;carboxymethyl cellulose ether;carboxymethylated cellulose pulp;carboxymethylcellulose;carboxymethylcellulosum;carmellose;carmellosum;carmelosa;cellulose gum 7h;cellulose carboxymethylate;cellulose, (carboxymethyl);cellulose, ether with glycolic acid;celluloseglycolic acid;colloresine;croscarmellose;croscarmellosum;cm-cellulose;FEMA No. 2239;Duodcel;Glycocel TA;hexose - acetic acid (1:1);Carboxyl methyl Cellulose

The CMC food grade from Robillion is featured by high acid-tolerance, high salt-tolerance, high transparency, few free fiber, few gel granule, fast dissolving speed. 
Good solution fluidity after dissolving. 
Moleculars distribute uniformly with purity greater than 99.5%. 
Prevent food from influence of other substances.

1.Structure Loosen Effect
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose good rheological and gel stable characteristics can prevent dehydration and shrinkage of food, can improve the expansivity rate of food. 
Reversibility between viscosity and temperature of CMC is good to the increase of food expansivity rate. 
Meanwhile, pseudo-plasticity of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose creates good conditions for homogenization processing, enhancing the homogenization efficiency. 
High viscosity of sodium CMC reduces 3%-5% oil content of fried food during the process of frying.

2.Thickening and Taste Improvement Effect
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose can get higher viscosity at low temperature to further control the viscosity of food during processing, and endow smooth texture to food. 
Rapid hydration property of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose makes it be used in instant soup, chocolate milk and cold fruit drinks as thickening agent. 
Pseudo-plasticity effect of CMC brings refresh and strong mouth feel. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is a good suspension stabilizing characters can make food keep the uniformity on odor, concentration and taste.

3.Water Retention Effect
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is kind of high molecular weight cellulose derivative. 
There is many hydrophile groups (carboxyl and hydroxyl) in its molecular chains. 
So CMC has good hydrophile and rehydration properties. 
Can reduce dehydration and shrinkage of food, prolong shelf life. 
Water retention function of CMC is applied to prevent water evaporation or non-crystallization of sugar.
CMC can suffer from high temperature when making bakery food. 
Can retain certain moisture of bakery food, prevent such food from aging or seasoning crack, and make food with appearance configuration.

4. Suspending Effect
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose can be used as suspending agent in different food. 
Have good suspension bearing capacity. 
If mixing with agar, will get good compatibleness and efficiency strengthening effect.

5. Binding Effect
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose can improve performances of starch food (prevent starch aging, dehydration), control mash viscosity. 
Better effects if mixing with emulsifier, konjak gum, spermine diphosphate hexahydrate, so sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is widely used in noodles, bread and frozen dessert, etc.

6. Peptization Effect
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose has function of stabilizing protein and sediment prevention under acidic conditions. 
Through reactions with soybean protein, gelatin and casein, can avoid sediment of protein in the system. 
CMC’s effect on protein can increase the solubility of protein to certain pH range, so sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is widely used in lactic acid and soymilk. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is also compatible with most water soluble non-ionic gum and many types of anionic gum. 
But when compounding with xanthan gum, must pay attention to deactivate the possible existing cellulase in xanthan gum. 
Otherwise will result in enzymatic degradation. There is synergism when compounding with guar gum and carboxyethyl cellulose.

7. Cross-Linking Effect
On condition that higher concentration sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with chelating agent (citric acid or polyphosphate, etc), mixing with multi-valent cations AL3+ solutions can form irreversible spongy gel structure, can make some special food.

8. Curative Effect
Expansibility of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is strong after absorption of water, not easy to digest. 
Can be processed into diet food after applying CMC in biscuit. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is helpful for intestine cleaning as cellulose, suitable to make low calorie food for patients with hypertension, arteriosclerosis, coronary heart diseases.

Carboxymethyl cellulose is a medium viscosity carboxymethylcellulose (CMC); the viscosity of a 2% solution in water at 25 C is 400-800 centipoise (cps). 
The viscosity of Carboxymethyl cellulose is both concentration and temperature dependent. 
As the temperaure increases, the viscosity decreases. 
As the concentration increases, the viscosity increases.
Low, medium and high viscosity CMCs are all used as suspending agents. 
Low viscosity CMC is usually used in "thin" aqueous solutions. 
Medium viscosity CMC is used to make solutions that look like a syrup. 
High viscosity CMC is used to make a mixture, which resembles a cream or lotion.

Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, R = CH 2 COONa , H) is produced by reacting alkali cellulose with monochloroacetic acid or its sodium salt. 
Here, too, not every hydroxy group in the ring is substituted. 
Commercially available CMC is a colorless powder or granulate. 
The molar mass is between4 ⋅104th and 106thg / mol. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is offered with a wide range of solution viscosities. 
CMC is water-soluble, but can be precipitated by adding acids, salts or polyvalent metal ions such as Cu 2+ , Al 3+ , Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ . 
The acid form of carboxymethyl cellulose is only soluble in aqueous alkali.

Application:
Soluble carboxymethyl celluloses (CM-cellulose; CMC) available in varying viscosities are used as viscosity modifiers (thickeners) to stabilize emulsions and as a chemical dispersants of oils and other carbon structures such as nanotubes. 
CMCs are used in the development of biostructures such as biofilms, emulsions and nanoparticles for drug delivery. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose, medium viscosity, may be used to make solutions the consistency of syrup.
CMC is a derivative of cellulose, containing carboxymethyl groups that are generated via the reaction of cellulose with chloroacetate in alkali to produce substitutions in the C2, C3, or C6 positions of glucose units. 
As a result, CMC is water soluble and more amenable to the hydrolytic activity of cellulases. 
CMC is therefore a useful additive to both liquid and solid medium for the detection of cellulase activity, and its hydrolysis can be subsequently determined by the use of the dye Congo red, which binds to intact β-d-glucans. 
Zones of clearing around colonies growing on solid medium containing CMC, subsequently stained with Congo red, provides a useful assay for detecting hydrolysis of CMC and therefore, β-d-glucanase activity. 
The inoculation of isolates onto membrane filters placed on the surface of CMC agar plates is a useful modification of this technique, as the filter may subsequently be removed allowing visualization of clear zones in the agar underneath cllulolytic colonies.

A new cellulose gum, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, is described which can be used advantageously in the successful treatment of a majority of chronic constipation cases.

Cellulose gum is an additive, not a whole food ingredient. 
Although cellulose gum is generally deemed a safe and acceptable food additive, there’s still the potential that there are as yet unknown risks because it isn’t a traditional whole food.
Because cellulose gum (also known as carboxymethylcellulose, or CMC) is sometimes called a “dietary fiber” on the package of food products, you might think you’re getting more fiber in your diet than you really are. 
CSPI cautions that cellulose gum isn’t as healthy as the fiber you’ll find in natural foods. 
You should read nutrition labels and ingredient lists carefully.
Some people may have an allergic reaction or sensitivity to cellulose gum, although this is extremely rare. 
The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) reports in a study that one woman had a serious allergic reaction related to the ingestion of cellulose gum in a medication, although the study does note that this is an uncommon complication.
The NEJM also observes that the substance “is widely used as a suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, certain food products, and cosmetics. 
Therefore, previous exposure may have led to sensitization in our patient, although carboxymethylcellulose sodium is generally considered not to be absorbed.” 
This last point is an important one: Because cellulose gum isn’t absorbed or digested, risks such as allergic reaction are very low.

Carboxymethylcellulose (cellulose gum) for oenological use is prepared exclusively from wood by treatment with alkali and monochloroacetic acid or its sodium salt. 
Carboxymethylcellulose inhibits tartaric precipitation through a "protective colloid" effect. 
A limited dose is used.

Carboxymethyl cellulose, a hydrophobic derivative from cellulose that can be prepared from different biomass, has been widely applied in food, medicine, chemical, and other industries. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose was used as the additive to improve the hydrophobicity and strength of carboxylated starch film, which is prepared from starch catalyzed by bio-α-amylase. 
This study investigated the effects of different bio-α-amylase dosages (starch 0.5%, starch 1%) and different activation times (10, 30 min) on starch to prepare the carboxylated starch. 
The effects of different carboxymethyl cellulose content on the carboxylated starch film were investigated by analysis viscosity, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, x-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and contact angle. 
The results showed that preparing carboxylated starch using activated starch increased the carboxyl content, which could improve the effectiveness of the activated enzyme compared to prolonging the activation time. 
The carboxyl starch prepared by enzyme catalysis had a lower gelatinization temperature, and enzyme activation destroyed the crystallization area of the starch, thus facilitating the carboxylation reaction. 
The addition of 15% carboxymethyl cellulose improved the mechanical properties of the prepared film with maximum tensile strength of 44.8 MPa. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose effectively improved the hydrophobicity of the starch film with the addition amount of 10–30%, while hydrophobic property was stable at 66.8° when the addition amount was exceeded to 35%. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose can be found that carboxymethyl cellulose improve the mechanical and hydrophobic properties of starch film, laying the foundation for the application of carboxylated starch materials.

Warnings:
-For external use only.
-To avoid contamination, do not touch tip of container to any surface. Do not reuse. Once opened, discard.
-Do not touch unit-dose tip to eye.
-If solution changes color, do not use.

Carboxymethyl cellulose is manufactured by acidifying an aqueous suspension of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and heating the suspension to achieve cross-linking. 
The product is then washed and dried. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is also produced during the manufacture of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by lowering the pH and heating to cause cross-linking. 
Cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is used in tablets of table-top sweeteners and dietary food supplements, as it facilitates disintegration in aqueous solutions, with a maximum level of use of 30 g/kg. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is also widely used as an excipient in pharmaceutical applications.

CHEBI:85146 
ChEMBL: ChEMBL1909054 
ChemSpider: none
ECHA InfoCard: 100.120.377
E number: E466 (thickeners, ...)
UNII: 05JZI7B19X 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)    
DTXSID7040441 
Storage and Shipping Information
Ship Code: Ambient Temperature Only
Toxicity: Standard Handling
Storage: +15°C to +30°C
Do not freeze: Ok to freeze
Special Instructions: Following reconstitution, store at room temprature. Stock solutions are stable for up to 6 months at room temprature.
storage temp. room temp
solubility H2O: 20 mg/mL, soluble
pka4.30(at 25℃)
form low viscosity
color White to light yellow
OdorOdorless
PHpH (10g/l, 25℃) 6.0~8.0
PH Range6.5 - 8.5
Water Solubility soluble
 

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