CARRIERS

Carrier systems are the part that contains the active substance(s) in the products. 
Different carrier systems are used in the preparation of cosmetic formulations.
With carriers: 
–Controlled release of the active substance in the formulation can be achieved 
–Incompatible substances can be given together in the same system 
–The stability of the active substances can be increased 
–The shelf life of the finished product can be extended 
–The irritant properties of the active substances can be reduced
–The aesthetic properties of the product can be improved.

Advantages:
Incompatible materials can be given together in a single product
-Ensuring extended effect
-Preservation of unstable substances in the internal phase
-Being a ready-to-use product after preparation

Drug delivery systems, by carrying drugs or radiocontrast agents, ensure safe, controlled and effective delivery of diagnostic imaging and/or therapeutic (theranostic) materials to the target organ or tissue.


1-) DEXTROSE MONOHYDRATE

Dextrose monohydrate = Glucose Powder = DMH = D-Glucose monohydrate = D-Glucose

CAS Number: 14431-43-7
Molecular Formula: C6H12O6.H2O
Molecular Weight: 198.17

Dextrose monohydrate is a common natural sugar with key roles in energy-producing cellular processes as well as glycosylation and the formation of glycans that give cells their structure. 
Dextrose monohydrate modifies proteins post-translation via glycation or non-enzymatic glycosylation at lysine residues. 
Glycation has been identified as a detrimental process in cells and leads to problems associated with diabetes, Alzheimer’s, ageing, and cataracts.
Dextrose Monohydrate may be the sweetener that you're looking for. 
Dextrose monohydrates wide selection of purposes helps make Dextrose monohydrate an ingredient consumers will be happy to see on the list of ingredients. 
Dextrose Monohydrate may well present the perfect sweetener for your product.

Dextrose Monohydrate (Glucose Powder) is a key derivative of starch, produced commercially by the hydrolysis of starch and the enzymatic process. 
Dextrose monohydrate is in the form of a water-soluble, white or creamy white, odourless, crystalline powder. 
Dextrose monohydrate can be used as a sweetener in foods, as a replacement to sugar.
Dextrose Monohydrate is the monohydrate form of D-glucose, a natural monosaccharide and carbohydrate. 
Dextrose serves to replenish lost nutrients and electrolytes. 
The agent provides metabolic energy and is the primary ingredient in oral rehydration salts (ORS) and is used in intravenous (IV) fluids to provide nutrients to patients under intensive care who are unable to receive them by the oral route. 
Solutions containing dextrose restore blood glucose levels, provide calories, may aid in minimizing liver glycogen depletion and exerts a protein-sparing action. 
Dextrose also plays a role in the production of proteins and in lipid metabolism.
Dextrose monohydrate is generally used in food industry, pharmaceutical companies and cattle and poultry feed industry. 
This is basically a type of sugar that is produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch and comes in free-flowing white.

Dextrose Monohydrate (DMH)
Dextrose Monohydrate (D-glucose) is a sugar that's a stable, odorless, white crystalline powder or colorless crystal. 
In Dextrose monohydrates pure form, Dextrose monohydrate has a dextrose equivalency (DE) of 100, which indicates that Dextrose monohydrate's 100% pure Dextrose, not a mixture with other substances as well. 
Dextrose monohydrate is extensively used in food industry and can provide support in replacing sucrose in baking, dairy products, canned products, chewing gum and preserves. 
Other than this, Dextrose monohydrate is also used in beverage powders, in caramel coloring and other compositions where Dextrose monohydrate supports extended shelf life of the products. 
The presence of dextrose also supports keeping powdered beverage drinks free flowing. 
Dextrose monohydrate is made from non-GMO rice.

At present, we manufacture DMH at Muzaffarnagar facility of the Company. 
Offered product is appreciated and accepted in the market for its effectiveness & enhanced shelf life.

Dextrose monohydrate Features:
-Easy to digest
-Safe to consume
-Longer shelf life

Dextrose monohydrate Uses
-Dextrose Monohydrate is used in the production of baked goods, candy and gum, creams and frozen dairy products (like some ice-creams and frozen yogurts), alcoholic beverages, jarred and canned foods.
-Dextrose monohydrate is used as energy food by convalescing patient, sportsperson, children etc. and known to give instant energy and vigour.
-Dextrose is used in fruit and vegetable processing to help keep them fresh.
-Dextrose monohydrate's also used in dehydration.
-Dextrose monohydrate is used as a preservative as Dextrose monohydrate doesn't alter the natural flavor of the food, especially compared to using sugar, another useful preservative.

Dextrose monohydrate Applications of Dextrose Monohydrate
-Dextrose monohydrate is a sweetner with sweetness of about 75% of the sucrose.
-Dextrose monohydrate is used as flavour to the food preparations when added alone or in combination with other weetener.
-Dextrose monohydrate is the simplest carbon source monosaccharide and used extensively in fermentation process for rapid growth with excellent yield, no non-fermentable sugars, low level of trace minerals organics, few leftovers to purify and consistency.
-Dextrose monohydrate is used in extending shelf life of many food products.

Application of dextrose monohydrate is increasing in the food & beverage industry owing to Dextrose monohydrates contribution to many useful physical and functional attributes, including texture and flavor enhancement. 
The high glycemic index of dextrose monohydrate compared to other sugars is appealing to manufacturers who are focusing on providing enhanced energy to customers through different food & beverage products.
Dextrose monohydrate manufacturers is benefitting from rising demand for sweeteners sourced from natural ingredients and growing health consciousness among consumers. 
High caloric content in sugar increases the risk of obesity, diabetes, and heart diseases. 
This is creating a favorable market scenario for sugar substitutes such as dextrose monohydrate.
Dextrose monohydrate is gaining traction in the food & beverage industry due to Dextrose monohydrates characteristics such as tooth-friendly properties, cost-effectiveness, ingredient synergy, flavor enhancement, humectancy, solubility, and resistance to crystallization.

Dextrose Monohydrate is:
Odorless
An excellent binder
Water-soluble
A white, crystalline powder
In a tablet, Dextrose Monohydrate will work as a sweetener. 
Dextrose Monohydrate is a constituent of glycogen, starch and cellulose. 
Dextrose monohydrate is just like common sugar. 
The dextrose you receive will be in a powder form. 
At room temperature, Dextrose monohydrate will remain in crystalline form. 
Dextrose monohydrate will dissolve in water and is slightly soluble in ethanol.

Dextrose Monohydrate provides the body with water and sugar. 
Dextrose monohydrate supplies four calories per gram and contains 9% water by weight. 
Dextrose monohydrate is often used by people suffering from low blood sugar. 
In a tablet, this ingredient can supply energy to a user. 
Dextrose monohydrate isn’t used in medicines and the food industry. 
Dextrose Monohydrate is a "reducing sugar" and is used in many food stuffs. 
The elements that affect food are also applicable to a tablet. 

Dextrose Monohydrate can improve the quality of your tablet and provide a pleasant taste. 
Dextrose monohydrate is economically priced and safe for consumption on a regular basis.
Dextrose Monohydrate and its many uses have resulted in a refined manufacturing process. 
Dextrose monohydrate is a simple sugar produced by the hydrolysis of starch. 
Corn starch, where glucose comes from, is a chain composed of dextrose chains. 
Hydrolysis is a process that works to break down these chains and create dextrose in a bulk. 
A common way to do this is to treat starch with the enzymes amylase, or treatment with acid, which imitates the processes that occur naturally. 

Dextrose monohydrate provides key excipient and nutrient benefits as a filler/binder and as a carbohydrate source. 
Glucose or dextrose is the monomer of natural starch polymer. 
This monomer is also the natural physiological sugar in the human body. 
In Dextrose monohydrates crystalline form this natural sugar has long been used both as a filler for oral dosage forms and as a sweetener. 
Roquette has a range of dextrose products wide enough to meet any of manufacturers’ different requirements. 
Our offering includes various particle sizes and a specific grade for compression.
Dextrose monohydrate can provide benefit to swallowable tablets, chewable tablets, effervescent tablets and medicated confectionaries. 
As an excipient Dextrose monohydrate can be used as a filler/binder. 
As a nutrient Dextrose monohydrate is a carbohydrate source.

Dextrose monohydrate Applications
-Oral Dosage for Pharmaceutical and/or Nutraceuticals
-Swallowable tablet
-Chewable tablets
-Effervescent tablets
-Medicated Confectionary

Dextrose monohydrate Applications
-Test compound for studying dehydration kinetics using THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS)
-In food and pharmaceutical industries, used to indicate degree of water content in substances

Dextrose monohydrate Chemical Properties
D-Glucose monohydrate is white or almost white, crystalline powder.

Dextrose monohydrate Chemical Properties
Dextrose occurs as odorless, sweet-tasting, colorless crystals or as a white crystalline or granular powder. 
The JP XV describes dextrose as dextrose anhydrous; the PhEur 6.3 specifies dextrose as either dextrose anhydrous or dextrose monohydrate; and the USP 32 specifies dextrose as dextrose monohydrate.

Dextrose Monohydrate (Food Grade) is a white hexagonal crystal which used starch as the raw materials. 
Dextrose monohydrate is often used as a sweetener in confectioneries, cakes, beverages, biscuits, cookies, jams, jellies, and honey products.

Dextrose monohydrate Uses
Replenisher (fluid and nutrient).

Dextrose monohydrate Production Methods
Dextrose, a monosaccharide sugar, occurs widely in plants and is manufactured on a large scale by the acid or enzymatic hydrolysis of starch, usually maize (corn) starch. 
Below 50°C a-D-dextrose monohydrate is the stable crystalline form produced; above 50°C the anhydrous form is obtained; and at still higher temperatures b-D-dextrose is formed, which has a melting point of 148–155°C.

Dextrose monohydrate Definition
A monosaccharide occurring widely in nature as D-glucose. 
Dextrose monohydrate occurs as glucose units in sucrose, starch, and cellulose. 
Dextrose monohydrate is important to metabolism because it participates in energy-storage and energy-release systems.

Agricultural Uses
Glucose is a monosaccharide sugar found in honey and fruits. 
Dextrose monohydrate is the primary product of plant photosynthesis, which is optically active and dextrorotatory.
Glucose and its derivatives are critically important in the energy metabolism of living organisms. 
Dextrose monohydrate is transported around the animal body through blood, and by lymph and cerebrospinal fluid, to cells where the energy is released during glycolysis.
Fructose, the stereoisomer of glucose, occurs in green plants, fruits and honey. 
Dextrose monohydrate is sweeter than sucrose.
Yeasts readily ferment glucose to produce ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. 
Dextrose monohydrate is also metabolized by bacteria into acetic and butyric acids, lactic acid, butyl alcohol, acetone, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and many other compounds.
Plants and animals convert complex carbohydrates (like starch and glycogen) into glucose to meet their energy needs. 
Glucose is produced commercially by hydrolysing corn starch with dilute mineral acid. 
Commercial glucose is mostly used in the manufacture of confections and in the canning industry.

Pharmaceutical Applications
Dextrose is widely used in solutions to adjust tonicity and as a sweetening agent.
Dextrose is also used as a wet granulation diluent and binder, primarily in chewable tablets.
Although dextrose is comparable as a tablet diluent to lactose, tablets produced with dextrose monohydrate require more lubrication, are less friable, and have a tendency to harden. 
The mildly reducing properties of dextrose may be used when tableting to improve the stability of active materials that are sensitive to oxidation.
Dextrose is also used therapeutically and is the preferred source of carbohydrate in parenteral nutrition regimens.

Dextrose monohydrate Safety
D-Glucose monohydrate is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. 
Dextrose monohydrate is metabolized to carbondioxide and water with therelease ofenergy.
Concentrated D-Glucose monohydrate solutions given by mouth may cause nausea and vomiting. 
D-Glucose monohydrate solutions of concentration greater than 5% w/v are hyperosmotic and are liable to cause local vein irritation following intravenous administration. 
Thrombophlebitis has been observed following the intravenous infusion of isoosmotic D-Glucose monohydrate solution with low pH, probably owing to the presence of degradation products formed by overheating during sterilization. 
The incidence of phlebitis may be reduced by adding sufficient sodium bicarbonate to raise the pH of the infusion above pH 7.
LD50 (mouse, IV): 9g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 25.8g/kg

Dextrose monohydrate storage
D-Glucose monohydrate has good stability under dry storage conditions. 
Aqueous solutions may be sterilized by autoclaving. 
However, excessive heating can cause a reduction in pH and caramelization of solutions.
Thebulkmaterialshouldbestoredinawell-closedcontainerina cool, dry place.

Incompatibilities
Dextrose solutions are incompatible with a number of drugs such as cyanocobalamin, kanamycin sulfate, novobiocin sodium, and warfarin sodium. 
Erythromycin gluceptate isunstable indextrose solutions at a pH less than 5.05. 
Decomposition of B-complex vitamins may occur if they are warmed with dextrose.
In the aldehyde form, dextrose can react with amines, amides, amino acids, peptides, and proteins. 
Brown coloration and decomposition occur with strong alkalis.
Dextrose may cause browning of tablets containing amines (Maillard reaction).

Dextrose Anhydrous and Dextrose Monohydrate
Dextrose anhydrous and dextrose monohydrate are both purified and crystallized D-glucose compounds. 
The primary difference between these compounds is that the anhydrous form does not contain water and the monohydrate form contains one molecule of crystallized water. 
According to the book, "A Manual of Sugar Analysis, Including the Applications in General of Analytical Methods to the Sugar Industry," both of these compounds contain approximately 99.5 percent D-glucose.

Dextrose
Dextrose, like fructose and glucose, is a monosaccharide known as simple sugar. 
You can also combine these sugars to produce complex sugars such as sucrose, also known as table sugar. 
One of the primary differences between these simple sugars is the way your body metabolizes each of the sugars. 
Dextrose is a form of glucose manufacturers widely use in food products and athletes use to replenish the muscle glycogen levels. 
Manufacturers derive dextrose from corn. 
According to the book "Dictionary of Food Ingredients," dextrose is approximately 20 percent less sweet than cane sugar.

Medical Uses
When your body's blood sugar levels fall below a certain range, Dextrose monohydrate can adversely affect your brain function and metabolism. 
Medical professionals sometimes use powdered dextrose to help raise your blood glucose levels quickly; they also sometimes recommend powdered glucose to individuals on restricted diets. 
Only use powdered dextrose as a dietary supplement in combination with other nutrients because powdered dextrose will not supply your body with any proteins or fats.

Considerations
In sports, athletes sometimes use powdered dextrose after workouts to boost energy levels in muscle. 
Dextrose has a high glycemic index ranking at 100. 
This means that dextrose will quickly raise your blood glucose levels. 
Products such as candy also quickly raise your blood glucose levels, but they contain sucrose, a combination of glucose and fructose. 
Fructose does not convert into glycogen in your muscles. 
Honey also raises blood sugar levels but, like candy, Dextrose monohydrate contains fructose.

There are several benefits of Dextrose Monohydrate powder.
Dextrose monohydrate promotes muscle repair post-workout as Dextrose monohydrate increases the release of insulin that facilitates the influx of sugars and amino acids into muscle cells.
Dextrose monohydrate delivers fast energy during exercise as Dextrose monohydrate is quickly absorbed by the gut and increases blood sugar levels fast.
Dextrose monohydrate is great for additional weight gain or as a meal replacement as Dextrose monohydrate is a highly absorbed complex carbohydrate that is calorie-dense.

Dextrose Monohydrate
Also Known As: Dextrose Sugar, Dextrose Glucose and Pure Dextrose
Origin: United States
Ingredients: Corn Sweetener
Taste and Aroma: Sweet, but not as sweet as sugar.
Uses: Dextrose Monohydrate is a healthier substitue for sugar, fructose and sucrose. 
Dextrose is also known to lessen baking time with faster rising and browning effects than similar ingredients. 
Given that Dextrose is less sweet, use about 2 times as much in recipes such as: Tea, coffee, shakes, brewing, wine, fruits, baking, cookies, brownies, cake, doughnuts and bread.

Here at VPA, we believe that our Dextrose Monohydrate powder has little to no taste, but Dextrose monohydrate is considered to have a hint of sweet flavour to it. 
The idea is that a good quality Dextrose Monohydrate powder is tasteless with a slight sweetness to Dextrose monohydrate, meaning you can have Dextrose monohydrate in plain water or add to other products.
Dextrose Monohydrate powder taste is comparable to other products on the market.

CAS No:    77938-63-7
Synonyms: Dextrose monohydrate;D-Glucopyranose;D-Glucose monohydrate
Product Code: MG05194
MDL No:    MFCD00148912
Chemical Formula: C6H12O6·H2O
Molecular Weight: 198.17 g/mol

Dextrose Monohydrate powder can be taken on its’ own in water, low-fat milk or juice. 
Dextrose powder can be mixed with Whey Protein for a quick post-workout nutrition hit or as a bulking shake between meals.
Dextrose monohydrate can be taken with maltodextrin powder, we recommend a 1:1 ratio for optimal absorption benefits.

What is Dextrose monohydrate?
Dextrose (C6H12O6), also known as corn sugar, is a common binder used in the pharmaceutical industry. 
Binders are added to tablet formulations to add cohesiveness to powders and provide the necessary bonding to form a compact tablet mass. 
As a medical product, dextrose may be in fluids containing various amounts of sugars to be given when a patient needs additional fluids and calories for energy. 
Dextrose monohydrate may also be used as a vehicle to provide other injectable medicines. 
There are two stereo-isomers of glucose, only one of which (D-glucose) is biologically active, and is often referred to as dextrose monohydrate (dextrose). 
The mirror-image of the molecule, L-glucose, cannot be metabolized by cells in the biochemical process known as glycolysis.

In the body, digestion of starch starts in the mouth with saliva, or enzyme amylase. 
Manufacturers have taken the natural process and replicated it in their own production methods.
Dextrose Monohydrate has long been providing humans a satisfying flavor in their meals. 
If used properly Dextrose monohydrate can help people by providing energy and fluids. 
Consumers will swallow a pill with ease if they have a sweetener to look forward to. 
Dextrose Monohydrate will also fit easily into many formulas because of Dextrose monohydrates inertness.

Dextrose monohydrate Applications
Bakery & Snacks
Sweet biscuit & cookie
Bread
Cake and pastry
Filling, custard, décor
Breakfast cereal

Dextrose Monohydrate is a white crystalline powdered sugar produced from demineralized glucose syrup obtained from the complete hydrolysis of corn starch. 
This product is characterised by a delicate sweetness, high solubility and clarity in solutions, mobility and flow in the dry form. pH (5% w/v solution) is 4.0 to 6.0, Grits (retained on 1000 micron screen) < 1.0%.

What is dextrose?
Dextrose is the name of a simple sugar that is made from corn and is chemically identical to glucose, or blood sugar. 
Dextrose is often used in baking products as a sweetener, and can be commonly found in items such as processed foods and corn syrup.
Dextrose also has medical purposes. 
Dextrose monohydrate is dissolved in solutions that are given intravenously, which can be combined with other drugs, or used to increase a person’s blood sugar.
Because dextrose is a “simple” sugar, the body can quickly use Dextrose monohydrate for energy.
Simple sugars can raise blood sugar levels very quickly, and they often lack nutritional value. 
Examples of other simple sugars include glucose, fructose, and galactose. 
Products that are typically made of simple sugars include refined sugar, white pasta, and honey.

Synonyms
Glucose;Corn sugar;C6H12O6.H2O;DEXTROSE 1HYD PWD;Dextrose, granular;Dextrose 1-hydrate;Dextrose monohydrate;D-Glucose monohydrate;DextroseMonohydrateIp;Glucose monohydrate CRS

What are common dextrose preparations?
Dextrose is used to make several intravenous (IV) preparations or mixtures, which are available only at a hospital or medical facility.
Dextrose is also available as an oral gel or in oral tablet form over the counter from pharmacies.
Each dextrose concentration has its own unique uses. 
Higher concentrations are typically used as “rescue” doses when someone has a very low blood sugar reading.

How is dextrose used?
Dextrose is used in various concentrations for different purposes. 
For example, a doctor may prescribe dextrose in an IV solution when someone is dehydrated and has low blood sugar. 
Dextrose IV solutions can also be combined with many drugs, for IV administration.
Dextrose is a carbohydrate, which is one part of nutrition in a normal diet. 
Solutions containing dextrose provide calories and may be given intravenously in combination with amino acids and fats. 
This is called total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and is used to provide nutrition to those who cannot absorb or get carbohydrates, amino acids, and fats through their gut.
High-concentration dextrose injections are only given by professionals. 
These injections are administered to people whose blood sugar may be very low and who cannot swallow dextrose tablets, foods, or drinks.
If a person’s potassium levels are too high (hyperkalemia), sometimes doctors also give dextrose injections of 50 percent, followed by insulin intravenously. 
This may be done in the hospital setting. 

Dextrose monohydrate Functional Properties
Excipient
Filler or Filler/Binder

Dextrose monohydrate APPEARANCE
Colorless to white crystalline powder

Dextrose monohydrate FUNCTION
Dextrose is glucose sugar refined from corn starch. 
Dextrose is a sweetener and a readily available source of energy. 
Dextrose is produced by the enzyme conversion of corn starch and then refined by ion-exchange demineralization.
Dextrose is commonly used as a sweetener, a source of rapidly absorbed energy and a carrier in water soluble medications. 
Dextrose is approximately 70% as sweet as sucrose.

SYNONYMS
Dextrose MH USP FCC V-Fine PDR; Dextrose MH Very Fine Powder; Upalex D20; Clintose VF; D-glucose, Monohydrate; Dextrosol; Dextrose, Monohydrate, Powder

Dextrose monohydrate STORAGE
Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances.

Dextrose monohydrate Nutrients
Carbohydrate Source
Dextrose monohydrate can be taken with maltodextrin powder, we recommend a 1:1 ratio for optimal absorption benefits.

Dextrose Monohydrate, more commonly known as glucose, is a simple sugar or monosaccharide.  
Chemically, glucose can be made to adopt a number of different forms, although only one, delta-glucose or “right handed glucose” is found in nature.  
Dextrose monohydrate is the food industry term for delta-glucose.  
Dextrose monohydrate is a 100% natural sugar, found in fruits, vegetables and many manufactured products.

Dextrose monohydrate Uses
Dextrose Monohydrate Solution is used for the treatment, control, prevention, & improvement of the following diseases, conditions and symptoms:
Insulin hypoglycemia
Insulin shock

Nutrient deficiency
Fluid deficiency
Dextrose Monohydrate Solution may also be used for purposes not listed here.

Other Properties and Benefits
Multicompendial
Excipact certified (site specific)

Dextrose Monohydrate is one of the popular food additives and ingredients in most countries, As a professional Dextrose Monohydrate supplier and manufacturer, Foodchem International Corporation has been supplying and exporting Dextrose Monohydrate from China for almost 15 years, please be assured to buy Dextrose Monohydrate at Foodchem. 
When the cells take in the extra glucose, they also take in potassium. 
This helps to lower a person’s blood potassium levels. 
The dextrose is given to prevent the person from being hypoglycemic. 
The insulin is treating the elevated potassium.
People with diabetes or hypoglycemia (chronically low blood sugar) may carry dextrose gel or tablets in case their blood sugar gets too low. 
The gel or tablets dissolve in a person’s mouth and quickly boost blood sugar levels. 
If a person’s blood sugar is less than 70 mg/dL and they are having low blood sugar symptoms, they may need to take the dextrose tablets. 
Examples of low blood sugar symptoms include weakness, confusion, sweating, and too-fast heart rate.

Functional Properties
Indulgence
Sweetness
Anti-crystallization & freezing point depression
Specific needs
Energy management

Description
Dextrose Monohydrate is a pure crystallised dextrose. 
Dextrose monohydrate is used as a sweetener, a fermentation substrate, an humectant or a carrier in a large scope of applications such as confectionery, bakery, snacks, beverages and dairy products.
Dextrose is a type of simple sugar made from corn. 
Dextrose monohydrate is similar to fructose and chemically identical to glucose, which is blood sugar.
Simple sugars, including dextrose, fructose, and glucose, appear in foods such as table sugar, honey, and bread.
Dextrose often appears in foods as an artificial sweetener and ingredients such as fructose corn syrup.
Doctors may use this simple sugar to raise a person's blood sugar when Dextrose monohydrate is too low.
They may also combine dextrose with other substances if giving it as an injection.

Dextrose monohydrate is sterile intravenous solution for fluid replenishment. 
Intravenous administration of dextrose solution provides a source of water and glucose ( sugar), giving patients fluid and energy.

Dextrose monohydrate provides key excipient and nutrient benefits as a filler/binder and a carbohydrate source. 
Glucose or dextrose is the monomer of natural starch polymer. 
This monomer is also the natural physiological sugar in the human body. 
In Dextrose monohydrates crystalline form this natural sugar has long been used both as a filler for oral dosage forms and as a sweetener. 
Roquette has a range of dextrose products wide enough to meet any of manufacturers' different requirements. 
Our offering includes various particle sizes, and a specifc grade for compression.
Dextrose monohydrate can provide benefit to swallowable tablets, chewable tablets, effervescent tablets and medicated confectionaries. 
As an excipient Dextrose monohydrate can be used as a filler/binder. 
As a nutrient Dextrose monohydrate is a carbohydrate source.

Synonyms:
Dextrose monohydrate, D-(+)-Glucose monohydrate
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
C6H12O6 · H2O
CAS Number:
14431-43-7
Molecular Weight:
198.17

Dextrose monohydrate Uses in food
Dextrose is a sugar that comes from corn and sometimes other plants. 
Dextrose monohydrates primary use in food is as a sweetener, especially in baked goods. 
Because of its wide availability, packaged food also commonly contains dextrose.
Aside from sweetening food, dextrose may also help neutralize food that is otherwise very spicy or salty.
Also, some companies add dextrose to certain products to extend their shelf life.
Some bodybuilders use dextrose as a post-workout supplement to replenish glycogen stores. 
Glycogen is a form of glucose that the body stores for energy.
When someone does an intense workout, the body uses up some of Dextrose monohydrates stored glycogen.
Many bodybuilders add dextrose tablets or powder to water and drink Dextrose monohydrate following a workout to replenish those glycogen stores as quickly as possible to help with muscle repair.
During the muscle repair process, muscles increase in strength and size, both essential outcomes for bodybuilders.

Also known as Glucose powder, dextrose is used in applications such as ice creams and sorbets to inhibit crystallisation and lower sugar content as well as to provide flexibility in rolled fondants. 
Also used in baked goods to promote browning and to extend the shelf life and colour of prepared foods.

Applications and Uses of Dextrose Monohydrate
Dextrose Monohydrate is a common form of glucose widely used as nutrition supplement in food production. 
As a dietary monosaccharide, Dextrose Monohydrate can be used in a wide variety of industries including: food production, beverage, pharmaceutical, agriculture/animal feed, and various other industries.

Dextrose Monohydrate in Food Production
Dextrose Monohydrate is widely used as nutritional supplement and sweetener in food production.
As nutritional supplement: in infant formula to improve nutrition value.
As sweetener: in confectionery to provide cool taste; in bakery to enhance yeast growth and improve appearance.

Dextrose Monohydrate in Beverage
Dextrose Monohydrate is widely used as nutritional supplement and sweetener in beverage.
As nutritional supplement: in functional beverages to provide energy.

Dextrose Monohydrate in Pharmaceutical
Dextrose Monohydrate is widely used as nutritional supplement in Pharmaceutical.
As nutritional supplement: in oral tablets.
As Buffering agent (injection grade): in injection.

Dextrose Monohydrate in Cosmetics
Not enough is known about application of Dextrose Monohydrate in Cosmetics.
Dextrose Monohydrate in Agriculture/Animal Feed
Dextrose Monohydrate is widely used as Buffering agent veterinary medicine and nutrition supplement in Agriculture/Animal Feed.
As Buffering agent: in veterinary medicine.
As nutrition supplement: in animal feed to enhance nutrition value.

Dextrose Monohydrate in Other Industries
Dextrose Monohydrate is widely used as antioxidant and fermentation substrate in various other industries.
Dextrose is the most widely used fermentation substrate in production of various vitamins, amino acids and other organic products.
As fermentation substrate: in manufacturing of various organic substance to provide energy.
As antioxidant: in Leather processing.
This application file is based on limited review of Foodchem International Corporation. 
Feel free to contact us if you have any questions about Dextrose Monohydrate or want to report new applications of Dextrose

Uses in medicine
Doctors may combine dextrose with a saline solution to make a rehydration drip to treat people who are dehydrated.
Doctors use dextrose for a variety of reasons, including :
-to quickly treat low blood sugar
-to treat dehydration
-to provide nutrition in combination with amino acids and other substances

Doctors may recommend that a person with diabetes or who is otherwise prone to episodes of low blood sugar carries dextrose tablets with them.
Doctors can also combine dextrose with many other liquids to make an intravenous solution.
Some medical problems may make a person unable to eat or unable to absorb nutrients, this can lead to malnourishment.

Dextrose monohydrate Other uses
Dextrose has a variety of other applications and uses and is an ingredient in many everyday products, including:
-bath products
-makeup
-skin care products
-hair care products
-animal feed

What precautions should I take when using dextrose?
A medical provider should not give dextrose to people with certain kinds of medical conditions. 
This is because the dextrose could potentially cause too-high blood sugar or fluid shifts in the body that lead to swelling or fluid buildup in the lungs.

If you are diabetic and your doctor prescribes dextrose oral gel or tablets for you, these should only be used when you have a low blood sugar reaction. 
Your doctor or diabetes educator should teach you how to spot the signs of low blood sugar and when to use the tablets. 
If you need to have the gel or tablets on hand, you should keep them with you at all times and you should keep some at home. 
Your doctor should also explain to other family members when to use the gel or tablets, in case others need to give them to you.
If you have an allergy to corn, you could have an allergic reaction to dextrose. 
Talk to your doctor before using Dextrose monohydrate.

Other Properties and Benefits
White crystalline powder
Neutral odor and sweet taste
Sweetening power: 70% that of sugar
Caloric value: 3.64 kcal/g
Cryprotectant

Powdered dextrose, also known as icing dextrose, is a fine powder made from dextrose anhydrous, dextrose monohydrate or both. 
In most cases, manufacturers of powdered dextrose also add an anti-caking agent to the powder such as starch, silicates of calcium or magnesium. 
Powdered dextrose has several medical applications. 
Speak with a medical professional prior to consuming an powdered dextrose supplement.

Formula: C6H12O6 • H2O
Formula Wt.: 198.18
CAS: 14431-43-7
Storage Code: Green—general chemical storage
Synonym: Glucose

Dextrose Monohydrate is a form of single chain carbohydrate (simple sugar) made from corn starch and is easily soluble in water which is important for its’ palatability. 
Dextrose Monohydrate is commonly added to food to enhance sweetness, energy source and bulking agent. 
Dextrose Monohydrate can be either in liquid, tablet, or powder form. 
Dextrose Monohydrate is often used in foods (including sports drink and energy gels) as the source of carbohydrate.

Dextrose Monohydrate is quickly absorbed by the gut and Dextrose monohydrate can elevate blood sugar faster than glucose. 
Although the general rule is that a diet comprised of high glycaemic carbohydrates can be unsatisfactory, consuming a product such as dextrose powder does play an important role in sports performance and recovery.
Dextrose serves to replenish lost nutrients and electrolytes. 
Dextrose plays a role in the production of proteins and in lipid metabolism.

Sugars are an important source of energy, essential for our body and brain to function optimally. 
Dextrose is a sugar occurring widely in nature – in honey and many fruits for example. 
As a constituent of cellulose, starch and glycogen, Dextrose monohydrate is found in all plants and animals and is also known as ‘grape sugar’ or ‘blood sugar’.
Dextrose Monohydrate, which is derived from corn starch, has become a vital ingredient in a wide range of food and beverage applications, thanks to Dextrose monohydrates functional, sensory and nutritional properties. 
Often used in combination with sugar or other sweeteners, Dextrose monohydrate shortens the sweetness perception and enhances the original food and beverage flavors.

Nutritional properties
Dextrose, just like sucrose and other full caloric sweeteners – has a caloric value of 4 Kcal/g, producing a rapid glycemic response. 
Dextrose Monohydrate provides an immediate source of energy for the organs, muscles and brain. 

Sweetening properties
With a relative sweetness ranging between 70 and 80 versus sucrose, Dextrose Monohydrate is one of the sweetest starch-based sweeteners.

Functional properties
Dextrose Monohydrate is one of the most versatile sweeteners, and is used for freezing point depression in ice cream, browning in bread and biscuits, flavor enhancement in chocolate milk beverages, dispersibility in powder mixes and texture optimization to name but a few.

Dextrose Monohydrate can be used by anyone who wants to get the most out of their training, accelerate their progress towards their goals or gain weight. 
Dextrose Monohydrate is often used by endurance athletes, however Dextrose monohydrate can be used by bodybuilders, strength athletes, those who enjoy HITT or Bootcamp, as well as those who hit the gym to stay fit.

Residual Solvents: Meets Requirements (USP)
Vapor Pressure: Negligible
Water: 7.5 to 9.5% (USP)
Packaging: Poly Bottle
Density: 1.54g/mL
Quantity: 500g
Melting Point: 83°C
Color: White
Identification: Pass Test (USP)
Linear Formula: CH2OHCHO(CHOH)3CHOH·H2O
Formula Weight: 198.17
Physical Form: Solid
Grade: USP
Chemical Name or Material: Dextrose Monohydrate

Dextrose Monohydrate is a kind of white hexagonal crystal which used starch as the raw materials. 
Dextrose monohydrate is used as a sweetener.
After Corn Starch being transformed into dextrose syrup by adopting double enzyme technique, Dextrose monohydrate still needs processes such as removing residues, discoloring, removing salts through ion-exchange, then further through concentration,crystallization, dehydration, abstersion, evaporation, ect.
Dextrose of food grade is widely used in all kinds of foods and beverages replacing sucrose as sweeter and as the raw materials in pharmaceutical factory to produce Vitamin C and sorbitol,etc.

Function(Food grade):
Dextrose monohydrate is directly edible and can be used in confections, cakes, beverages, biscuits, torrefied foods, medicinal drugs jam jelly and honey products for better taste, quality and low cost.
For cakes and torrefied foods Dextrose monohydrate can keep soft, and extend shelf life.
Dextrose Powder can be dissoluted, Dextrose monohydrate can widely used in beverages and cold food.
The powder is used in artificial fiber industries.
The property of Dextrose Powder is similar to that of high maltose syrup, so that it is easy to be accepted in market

Dextrose monohydrate
D-Glucose monohydrate
D-Glucose, monohydrate
Glucose Monohydrate
D-(+)-Glucose monohydrate
77938-63-7
5996-10-1
UNII-LX22YL083G
C6H12O6.H2O
MFCD00149450
LX22YL083G
(2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanal hydrate
(2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanal;hydrate
glucose water
Dextrose hydrate
D-Glucose hydrate
Dextrosum (Glucosum) monohydricum
D-Glucopyranose monohydrate
50-99-7 (anhydrous)
SCHEMBL65210
SCHEMBL236816
DTXSID401015224
AKOS028109053
O363

Dextrose monohydrate injection (10%) is a sterile intravenous solution that is FDA approved for the treatment of and indicated for admixture with amino acids or dilution with other compatible IV fluids to provide a 5% final dextrose concentration for intravenous infusion in patients whose condition requires parenteral nutrition. 
Common adverse reactions include hyperosmolar syndrome, febrile response, infection at the site of injection, venous thrombosis or phlebitis extending from the site of injection, extravasation, and hypervolemia.
Dextrose Monohydrate is a product consisting of 100% glucose, which as a monosaccharide is metabolised faster than other complex carbohydrates. 
A varied and balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle are important.
The monohydrate form of D-glucose, a natural monosaccharide and carbohydrate. 
Dextrose serves to replenish lost nutrients and electrolytes. 
The agent provides metabolic energy and is the primary ingredient in oral rehydration salts (ORS) and is used in intravenous (IV) fluids to provide nutrients to patients under intensive care who are unable to receive them by the oral route. 
Solutions containing dextrose restore blood glucose levels, provide calories, may aid in minimizing liver glycogen depletion and exerts a protein-sparing action. 
Dextrose also plays a role in the production of proteins and in lipid metabolism. 

Dextrose monohydrate is a recommended ingredient for non-GMO products such as:
bakery products
baby food
puddings, and other “just add water” mixes
beverages
condiments
ice cream
jams
dried fruit products
and more
Bulk Packaging

D-glucose monohydrate is a common natural sugar involved in processes such as energy production, glycosylation, and formation of glycans that provide structure to cells. 
Dextrose monohydrate is involved in a detrimental process in cells called glycation. 
Dextrose monohydrate is used as a supplement for cell culture and in numerous cellular processes.

Dextrose Monohydrate is a single chained carbohydrate which is absorbed very rapidly by the body and works to increase blood glycogen levels to promote muscle recovery and growth.
Dextrose is ideal taken post-workout and mixes well with whey for a quick post workout nutrition. 
Dextrose monohydrate can also be useful to take during a workout to supply the body with carbohydrates to create a more anabolic environment.
Dextrose is also excellent as a carbohydrate source mixed with Whey Protein Concentrate to make a bulking shake for between meal consumption.

Avoid heat and moisture.
Stability: Stable under normal conditions of use and storage.
Incompatibility: Strong oxidizers.
Shelf life: Fair shelf life, store in a cool, dry environment

Molecular formula C6H12O6•H2O. 
Appearance White crystalline powder.
Molecular weight 198.17. 
Odor None.
Specific Gravity 1.5. 
Odor Threshold N/A.
Vapor Density (air=1) 6.3. 
Solubility Soluble in water.
Melting Point 146°C (295°F). 
Evaporation rate N/A. (Butyl acetate = 1).
Boiling Point/Range Decomposes. 
Partition Coefficient N/A. (log POW).
Vapor Pressure (20°C) 
Negligible.. pH N/A.
Flash Point: N/A. 
LEL N/A.
Autoignition Temp.: N/A. 
UEL N/A. 

Monitoring your blood sugar while on dextrose
Even if you don’t have certain conditions, Dextrose monohydrate is important to continually check your blood sugar if they are receiving dextrose. 
This can ensure that the dextrose does not dangerously increase blood sugar. You can check your blood sugar with home tests. 
They involve testing blood from a finger prick on a blood strip. 
For those who are physically unable to test their blood at home, urine glucose tests are available, though they’re not as reliable.
If you do find that you or someone else is having a negative reaction due to low blood sugar, the dextrose tablets should be taken immediately. 
According to the Joslin Diabetes Center, four glucose tablets are equal to 15 grams of carbs and can be taken in the case of low blood sugar levels (unless otherwise advised by your doctor). 
Chew the tablets thoroughly before swallowing. 
No water is needed. 

Description
White Crystalline powder, Free from Foreign Matter, Sweet in taste
IdentificationPositive for Dextrose
Clarity 10% SolutionClear
Retention on 30 #10% Maximum
Specific Volume135 – 150ml / 100 gm
Loss on Drying %7.5 – 9.5
Acidity (5.0 gm Sample)1.25 ml of N/50 NaOH Max.
Sulphated Ash %0.1 maximum
Sulphur Dioxide ppm20 Maximum
Dextrose Content %99.5 – 100
Optical Rotation +52.5o to 53.0o

Your symptoms should improve within 20 minutes. 
If they don’t, consult your doctor.
The dextrose gel often comes in single-serving tubes, which are poured directly into the mouth and swallowed. 
If you haven’t felt any positive changes after 10 minutes, repeat with another tube. 
If your blood sugar is still too low after an additional 10 minutes, contact your doctor.

(2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanal hydrate
(2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxyhexanalhydrat
14431-43-7 [RN]
218-914-5 [EINECS]
77938-63-7 [RN]
D-(+)-Glucose monohydrate
DEXTROSE MONOHYDRATE
Dextrosum (Glucosum) monohydricum
D-glucose hydrate
D-Glucose hydrate (1:1) [ACD/IUPAC Name]
D-glucose monohydrate [Wiki]
D-Glucose, hydrate (1:1) [ACD/Index Name] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
D-Glucose, hydrate (1:1) [French] [ACD/Index Name] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
D-Glucose, monohydrate
D-Glucosehydrat (1:1) [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
glucose monohydrate
MFCD00149450 [MDL number]

Dextrose Monohydrate can be used in Food, Beverage, Pharmaceutical, Health & Personal care products, Agriculture/Animal Feed/Poultry. 
Dextrose Monohydrate is used in confectioneries, cakes, beverages, biscuits, cookies, jams, jellies, and honey products. 
Dextrose Monohydrate has a sweet taste and used as sweetener and texturizing agent, or as a fermentation substrate.
Dextrose Monohydrate uses as follows:  Dextrose Monohydrate

In Food Production
Dextrose Monohydrate can be used as nutritional supplement and sweetener in food such as in confectioneries, cakes, beverages, biscuits, cookies, jams, jellies, and honey products.

In Beverage
Dextrose Monohydrate can be used as nutritional supplement and sweetener in beverage such as in energy drink, Beer/Alcoholic Beverages

In Pharmaceutical
Dextrose Monohydrate can be used as nutritional supplement in Pharmaceutical.

In Health and Personal care
Dextrose Monohydrate can be used in the formulation of bath products, cleansing products, eye makeup, skin care products, makeup and hair care products in Cosmetics and personal care products.

In Agriculture/Animal Feed/Poultry
Dextrose Monohydrate can be used in Agriculture/Animal Feed/Poultry feed such as in pet food.

In Other Industries
Dextrose Anhydrous can be used in energy drinks as carbohydrate to impart milder sweetness and less calories than sugar
Also can be used as a “carrier” for Vitamin C and other molecules.

Tastes 60%-70% of the sweetness of sucrose’s. 
Dextrose monohydrate can be widely used in confectionery, beverages, biscuits, bakery products for better taste, quality and low cost. 
Easily dissolved, so Dextrose monohydrate can be widely used in beverages and cold food. 
Dextrose monohydrate can also be used for direct consumption since Dextrose monohydrate can increase physical strength and endurance. 
Dextrose monohydrate can be used as supplementary fluid for patients suffering low blood sugar, fever, dizziness collapse. 
Dextrose monohydrate is indispensable nutrient in destabilization. 
Dextrose monohydrate has broad use in the food and pharmaceutical industry.

(2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanal and hydrate
(2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanal;hydrate
200-075-1 [EINECS]
2280-44-6 [RN]
3632-91-5 [RN]
50-99-7 (anhydrous)
5996-10-1 [RN]
66592-87-8 [RN]
D -GLUCOSEMONOHYDRATE
D(+)-Glucose monohydrate
D-(+)-Glucose, monohydrate
Dextrose hydrate
D-Glucopyranose monohydrate
D-GLUCOSE, HYDRATE(1:1)
d-glucose,monohydrate
Magnesium gluconate [Wiki]
α-d-glucopyranose hydrate

Dextrose in children
Dextrose can be used in children similarly to how Dextrose monohydrate is used in adults, as a medical intervention for hypoglycemia.
In cases of severe pediatric hypoglycemia, children will often be given dextrose intravenously. 
Prompt and early treatment in children and infants with hypoglycemia is essential, as untreated hypoglycemia can result in neurological damage. 
If they’re able to take Dextrose monohydrate, dextrose may be given to children orally.
In the case of neonatal hypoglycemia, which can be caused by several disorders such as metabolism defects or hyperinsulinism, infants can have small amounts of dextrose gel added to their diet to help them maintain healthy blood sugar levels. 
Consult your doctor for how much dextrose to add to their diet. 
Infants that were born prematurely are at risk for hypoglycemia, and may be given dextrose via an IV.

Alternate Names:Dextrose
CAS Number:5996-10-1
Molecular Weight:198.17
Molecular Formula:C6H12O6•H2O

Eyes: Immediately flush eyes with excess water for 15 minutes, lifting lower and upper eyelids occasionally.
Skin: Immediately flush skin with excess water for 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing.
Ingestion: Call Poison Control immediately. Rinse mouth with cold water. 
Give victim 1-2 cups of water or milk to drink.
Induce vomiting immediately.
Inhalation: Remove to fresh air. 
If not breathing, give artificial respiration.

Dextrose monohydrate, meets USP testing specifications
Q27283222
D-(+)-Glucose monohydrate, for microbiology, >=99.0%
D-(+)-Glucose monohydrate, tested according to Ph.Eur.
D-(+)-Glucose monohydrate, BioUltra, >=99.5% (HPLC)
UNII-IY9XDZ35W2 component SPFMQWBKVUQXJV-BTVCFUMJSA-N
UNII-XY6UN3QB6S component SPFMQWBKVUQXJV-BTVCFUMJSA-N
Glucose monohydrate, EuropePharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
56119-27-8
D-(+)-Glucose monohydrate, meets analytical specification of Ph.??Eur., BP, Ph??Fran??., 7.0-9.5% water(Karl Fischer)
dextrose monohydrate USP
alpha-D-glucose monohydrate
alpha-dextro-glucose monohydrate
(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol;hydrate


2-) GLYCERINE

GLYCERINE = GLYCERIN = GLYCEROL = Humectant (glycerol (E 422)) = Propane-1,2,3-triol

Synonyms: Propanetriol, Glycerin, 1,2,3-Trihydroxypropane, Glycerol
INCI: Glycerine
Chemical Formula: C3H8O3
CAS Number: 56-81-5

EC / List no.: 200-289-5
CAS no.: 56-81-5
Mol. formula: C3H8O3

Synonyms: GLYCERIN
Chemical Names:    1,2,3-PROPANETRIOL; GLYCEROL; TRIHYDROXYPROPANE
CAS number: 56-81-5
JECFA number: 909
INS: 422
FEMA number: 2525

Functional Class: Flavouring Agent

FLAVOURING_AGENT

Food Additives
CARRIER_SOLVENT

Food Additives
EMULSIFIER

Food Additives
HUMECTANT

Food Additives
THICKENER

Glycerol, sometimes referred to as glycerin, is a sugar alcohol widely used in a variety of personal care products, including toothpaste, hair conditioner, cosmetics, and moisturizers.


GLYCERIN
GLYCERIN (ANHYDROUS)
GLYCERIN (MIST)
GLYCERIN, ANHYDROUS
GLYCERIN, SYNTHETIC
GLYCERINE
GLYCERITOL
GLYCEROL
GLYCYL ALCOHOL
GLYROL
GLYSANIN
OSMOGLYN
PROPANETRIOL
1,2,3-PROPANETRIOL
SYNTHETIC GLYCERINE
90 TECHNICAL GLYCERINE
TRIHYDROXYPROPANE
1,2,3-TRIHYDROXYPROPANE

IUPAC name
Propane-1,2,3-triol [1]
Other names
Glycerin
Glycerine
Propanetriol
1,2,3-Trihydroxypropane
1,2,3-Propanetriol

Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin) is a simple polyol compound. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is sweet-tasting and non-toxic. The glycerol backbone is found in those lipids known as glycerides. Due to having antimicrobial and antiviral properties it is widely used in FDA approved wound and burn treatments. It can be used as an effective marker to measure liver disease. It is also widely used as a sweetener in the food industry and as a humectant in pharmaceutical formulations. Owing to the presence of three hydroxyl groups, glycerol is miscible with water and is hygroscopic in nature.


Glycerine is an outstanding moisturizer and skin cleanser that also provides softening and lubricating benefits. 
It is hypoallergenic and easily soluble in water, making it suitable for use in all of your favorite cosmetic applications.

Applications
Glycerine is used as a sweetener, humectant, preservative and solvent in food and beverages. This chemical is used as a thickening agent in liqueurs and filler in commercially produced low-fat foods. It is used in the preservation of certain kinds of plant leaves. Glycerin is a better substitute for sugar since it is only 60% as sweet as sucrose. Glycerine as a food additive has the E number E422.

This chemical finds applications in pharmaceutical, medical and personal care industries for enhancing smoothness, offering lubrication and acting as a humectant. Glycerol is used in cough syrups, expectorants, mouthwashes, toothpaste, shaving creams, soaps, skin care and hair care products. Red blood cells are preserved with glycerine before they are frozen. It is used as a laxative in the form of suppositories.
Glycerin is an alternative to ethanol as a solvent in the preparation of herbal extractions. Nitroglycerin is produced from glycerol, which is an important component of propellants like cordite and explosives like gelignite and dynamite. The durability of pressure gauges can be increased with glycerin, where the chemical damps vibrations by filling the air space.


Glycerine, also called glycerol, has moisturizing, emollient and protective properties. 
Its name comes from the Greek “glykerós” which means sweet. 
Glycerine comes in the form of a sweet, soft, colourless and odourless liquid. 
Glycerine is capable of capturing and retaining water efficiently. 

Glycerine is used in pharmaceuticals, personal care product, toiletries and cosmetics as solvents and humectants; 
Food additives; Animal feed; As humidifiers and plasticizers for tobacco; 
Glycerine is used in adhesives, agricultural chemicals, antifreeze, coatings, manufacture of electrolytes for electrolytic condensers, fuel, inks; 
Glycerine is used as plasticizers and lubricants for plastics and in manufacturing of paper; As conditioning agents in textiles; As a raw material in production of epichlorohydrin, propylene glycol, polyurethane foams, nitroglycerine, alkyd resins for paints etc.

It is a sweet tasting, colorless, odorless, nontoxic, viscous liquid that is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations as well as food industry and also used in coatings resins and adhesives.

Glycerine is a multi-functional product used in a wide variety of applications such as anti-freeze agents, tobacco products, surface coatings, paper and more.

Glycerine is a sugar alcohol compound and has three hydroxyl groups that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hygroscopic nature.


Glycerine, or glycerol is a simple polyol compound. It is a sweet tasting, colorless, odorless, nontoxic, viscous liquid that is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations. 
Glycerol has three hydroxyl groups that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hygroscopic nature. 
The glycerol backbone is central to all lipids known as triglycerides.

Glycerine is a 3-carbon alcohol, aka glycerol. It is non-volatile and intensely hygroscopic (water-loving), and can be rinsed off any surface with ordinary water.

Pure glycerine has recently been found to hasten cell maturation and suppress inflammation. Glycerine is a major component of numerous expensive soaps.

Glycerine is produced in huge quantities in its impure form as a byproduct of biofuel generation. This crude form is treated mostly as a waste product and is generally disposed of or burned.

Applications
Pure glycerine, or glycerol, has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, medical and personal care industries, as well as a variety of industrial and scientific uses.

In foods and beverages, glycerol serves as a humectant, solvent, and artificial sweetener. It is also used as filler in commercially prepared low-fat foods, and as a thickening agent in liqueurs.

Glycerol is used in medical, pharmaceutical and personal care preparations mainly as a means of improving smoothness, providing lubrication, and as a humectant. It is found in allergen immunotherapies, cough syrups, elixirs and expectorants, toothpaste, mouthwashes, skin care products, shaving cream, hair care products, glycerin soaps and water-based personal lubricants. Nitroglycerin is the most commonplace treatment for chronic angina, the chest pain of heart disease.

Topical pure or nearly pure glycerol is an effective treatment for psoriasis, burns, bites, cuts, rashes, bedsores, and calluses. It can be used orally to eliminate halitosis, as it is a contact bacterial desiccant. The same property makes it very helpful with periodontal disease; it penetrates biofilm quickly and eliminates bacterial colonies.

In surface science, glycerol is shown to reduce the coefficient of friction of polymer-coated surfaces by several orders of magnitude. It is also used as an alcohol-free alternative to ethanol as a solvent in preparing herbal extractions.

Glycerol is used to produce nitroglycerin, or glyceryl tinitrate (GTN), which is an essential ingredient of smokeless gunpowder and various explosives such as dynamite, gelignite, and propellants like cordite.


Glycerol or glycerine is the most commonly used name for Propan-1,2,3-triol. 
Glycerine made by the separation of fats is chemically always identical, regardless of the fat grade/type used. It is a colorless, odorless viscous liquid with a sweetish taste and non-toxic. It is miscible with water and alcohol in any possible ratio.

Due to its properties, glycerine can be used in many different technical applications, for example as raw material for the manufacturing of alkyd resins, as plasticizer for polyurethane (PU) as antifogging agent, heat carrier fluid or refrigerant.

glycerol
glycerin
56-81-5
Glycerine
1,2,3-Propanetriol
PROPANE-1,2,3-TRIOL
Glycyl alcohol
Trihydroxypropane
Glyceritol
Propanetriol
Osmoglyn
1,2,3-trihydroxypropane
Grocolene
Glysanin
Glyrol
Glycerin, synthetic
Polyglycerol
Dagralax
Ophthalgan
Vitrosupos
Glycerin, anhydrous
Synthetic glycerin
Polyglycerine
Synthetic glycerine
Optim
Moon
Star
Glycerin mist
Incorporation factor
Glycerin (mist)
Glycerinum
90 Technical glycerine
Glycerine mist
Citifluor AF 2
Glycerolum
Bulbold
Cristal
Glicerina [DCIT]
Caswell No. 469
Propanetriol (VAN)
Glycerin base
FEMA No. 2525
Glicerol [INN-Spanish]
Glycerolum [INN-Latin]
Clyzerin, wasserfrei
Pricerine 9091
25618-55-7
Clyzerin, wasserfrei [German]
Emery 916
CCRIS 2295
HSDB 492
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 063507
UNII-PDC6A3C0OX
Collyrium Fresh-Eye Drops
Glycerol solution
AI3-00091
NSC 9230
MFCD00004722
BRN 0635685
IFP
Monoctanoin Component D
PDC6A3C0OX
1,2,3-trihydroxypropanol
Pentrioxido sulfurico glycerincol
CHEBI:17754
Glycerin anhydrous
NSC9230
Glycerol polymer
Glycerol (INN)
Glycerol [INN]
NSC-9230
8043-29-6
NCGC00090950-03
Polyglycerin
Unigly G 2
Unigly G 6
Glycerol; Propane-1,2,3-Triol
Glycerol, 99.6%, ACS reagent
Glicerina
Glicerol
Glycerol, 99+%, pure, synthetic
1,2,3-PROPANETRIOL, HOMOPOLYMER
Glycerol, ACS reagent, >=99.5%
Glyceol Opthalgan
Glycerol, 99.5+%, for spectroscopy
Glycerin - mist
Glycerin, natural
Tegin M
CAS-56-81-5
Glycerol, polymers
Glycerin [USP:JAN]
HL 80
Glycerol, pure, 83.5-88.5 wt% aqueous solution
RG-S
EINECS 200-289-5
Glycerol, for analysis, 86-88% wt% aqueous solution
UNII-F92TF92VBF
alditol
Glycerin - mist, Respirable
Neutracett
Glyceol
Glyzerin
Oelsuess
glycerine usp
glycerol group
Artifical tears
UNII-522DM106CR
C3H8O3
D-glycerol
L-glycerol
Tryhydroxypropane

Organic Glycerin
Organic Glycerine
Glycerin,anhydrous
Glycerine (crude)
Polyhydric alcohols
1,3-Propanetriol
Glycerol, ultrapure
Glycerin USP grade
Glycerine 96%
Glycerol 85%
Glycerin 99.5%
Glycerine 96% USP
1,3-Trihydroxypropane
90 Technical glycerin
Emery 912
PubChem16092
rac-Glycerol-1-13C
ACMC-20akt3
E 422
CHEMBL692
MolMap_000024
EC 200-289-5
EC 607-759-2
Glycerol, >=99.5%
Glycerol, biochemical grade
Glycerin Reagent Grade ACS
WLN: Q1YQ1Q
[O]CC(O)CO
F92TF92VBF
Glycerine (Fragrance Grade)
2-hydroxylpropane-1,3-diol
Glycerol, LR, >=98%
Glycerol, analytical standard
4-01-00-02751 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)


Glycerine, or glycerol is a simple polyol compound. It is a colorless, odorless, nontoxic, viscous liquid that is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations. 
Glycerol has three hydroxyl groups that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hygroscopic nature. The glycerol backbone is central to all lipids known as triglycerides.

Glycerol is chiefly produced by saponification of fats as a byproduct of soap making. 
It is also a byproduct of the production of biodiesel via transesterification. This form of crude glycerin is often dark in appearance with a thick, syrup-like consistency. 
Triglycerides are treated with an alcohol such as ethanol with catalytic base to give ethyl esters of fatty acids and glycerol.

Glycerol has a very sweet taste and is the main byproduct of making biodiesel. Pure glycerine has thousands of uses.


Glycerine is an material of outstanding utility with many areas of application. 
The key to glycerine's technical versatility is a unique combination of physical and chemical properties, ready compatibility with many other substances, and easy handling. 
Glycerine is also virtually nontoxic to human health and to the environment . 
Physically, glycerine is a water-soluble, clear, almost colorless, odorless, viscous, hygroscopic liquid with a high boiling point. 
Chemically, glycerine is a trihydric alcohol, capable of being reacted as an alcohol yet stable under most conditions. 
With such an uncommon blend of properties, glycerine finds application among a broad diversity of end uses. 
In some, glycerine is the material of choice because of its physical characteristics, while other uses rely on glycerine's chemical properties. 
Glycerine has over 1500 known end uses. Major, or large volume, applications include some dozen different categories that range from foods to urethane foams.

The origin, chemical structure, and utility of glycerine have been known for little more than two centuries. 
Glycerine was accidentally discovered in 1779 by K. W. Scheele, the Swedish chemist, while he was heating a mixture of olive oil and litharge (lead monoxide). 
Scheele called glycerine the "sweet principle of fat."
Scheele later established that other metals and glycerides produce the same chemical reaction which yields glycerine and soap and, in 1783, he published a description of his method of preparation in l?ansactions of the Royal Academy of Sweden. 
Scheele's method was used to produce glycerine commercially for some years., 
The immense potential of glycerine went largely untapped until M. E. Chevreul, the French pioneer investigator of fats and oils, studied it early in the 19th Century. 
Chevreul named Scheele's "sweet principle of fat" glycerine in 1811 after the Greek word, glykys, meaning sweet." 
In 1823 Chevreul obtained the first patent for a new way to produce fatty acids from fats treated with an alkali, which included the recovery of glycerine released during the process.

Glycerine did not become economically or industrially significant until Alfred Nobel invented dynamite in 1866 after twenty years of experimentation. 
Nobel's invention successfully stabilized trinitroglycerin, a highly explosive compound, by absorption on kieselguhr, which permitted safe handling and transportation.
The invention of dynamite and the later invention of blasting gelatin, also by Nobel, thrust glycerine into economic and military importance. 

Dynamite became the first worldwide technical application for glycerine and through it, glycerine had an enormous influence on industrial development. 
Dynamite unlocked immense underground deposits of minerals and fuels from which much chemicak and technical progress later sprang. 
Huge amounts of dyhamite were also consumed in building railroads and in other construction projects. 
A notable example is the Panama Canal, which required about 8,000 tons of the explosive, an amount equivalent to about 4,000 tons of glycerine.' 
Glycerine plays an important role in nature, too. It is one of nature's wonders and is closely linked to the life processes themselves, being a component of all living cells. 
It occurs naturally in wines, beers, bread, and other fermentation products of grains and sugars. 
Glycerine is found abundantly in nature in the form of triglycerides, the chemical combinations of glycerine and fatty acids which are the principal constituents of almost all vegetable and animal fats and oils. 
'higlycerides in plants originate from carbohydrates produced photosynthetically from water and carbon dioxide. 
In animals, they appear to be formed through assimilation of triglycerides present in foods and through biosynthesis from other food substances, especially carbohydrates. 
The chemistry of triglyceride synthesis in both plants and animals is highly complex and still not completely understood. 

Industrially, glycerine is a product of fats and oils that have been saponified, hydrolysed, or transesterified, which is recovered in a crude state and then purified by distillation or ion exchange, or it is synthesized from propylene. 
Glycerine may also be produced by fermentation or hydrogenolysis of carbohydrates, but these routes currently are not utilized industrially; however, they were used during World Wars I and I1 in Europe.' 
Glycerine, whether recovered from triglycerides or synthesized, is almost always consumed as a refined or purified substance. 
Producers of glycerine, whether natural or synthetic, strictly monitor each stage of processing from pretreatment of crude or precursor materials to finishing to assure high purity and uniform quality.
 
Glycerine Definitions and Grades 
glycerine glycerin glycerol 


Glycerol is usually produced as a byproduct of the transesterification of a triglyceride in the production of natural fatty acid derivatives. 
These derivatives are utilized in many areas from pharmaceuticals and food industry to alternative fuels, e.g., biodiesel, and thus as the production of glycerol raises its price decreases. 
In addition, glycerol has also promising physical and chemical properties. 
It has a very high boiling point and negligible vapor pressure; it is compatible with most organic and inorganic compounds, and does not require special handling or storage. 
Glycerol, as other polar organic solvents such as DMSO and DMF, allows the dissolution of inorganic salts, acids, and bases, as well as enzymes and transition metal complexes (TMCs), but it also dissolves organic compounds that are poorly miscible in water and is non-hazardous. 
Different hydrophobic solvents such as ethers and hydrocarbons which are immiscible in glycerol allow removing the products by simple extraction. 
Distillation of products is also feasible due to the high boiling point of glycerol.

GLYCERINE is the most commonly used commercial name in the United States for products whose principal component is glycerol, but it is frequently spelled GLYCERIN. 
More precisely, however, glycerin applies to purified commercial products containing 95% or more of glycerol. 
GLYCEROL (CAS registry No. 56-81-5; NIOSH No. MA8050000) refers to the chemical compound 1,2.3-propanetriol, CH, OHCHOHCH,OH, and to the anhydrous content in a glycerine product or in a formulation. 
Concentration is by weight, normally obtained by conversion from specific gravity measurements made at either 20120°C or 25125°C. 
Outside the United States. especially in Europe, glycerol is a much more broadly applied term, being employed much in the same manner as glycerine is in the United States. 
Glycerol in European usage may pertain to any grade of glycerine, including crude. 

Glycerine is an important article of domestic and international commerce. 
The designations for the various grades of glycerine used in the United States and in terntinolog y Europe are prevalent worldwide because these areas are the leaders in glycerine product types production and consumption. 
Accordingly, reference is made to European nomenclature for similar U.S. grades or types of commercially available glycerine where possible in the discussion that follows. 

USP GLYCERIN(E1 is a clear, almost colorless product for uses requiring glycerine of high purity with taste and odor characteristics desirable for pharmaceutical and food purposes. 
Its glycerol content in aqueous solution is "not less than 95%," as defined by a specific gravity of not less than 1.249 at 25125°C. 
The designation USP is an abbreviation of U.S. Pharmacopeia and signifies that the glycerine thus designated meets or exceeds the standards established in U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP XXII, 1990) monograph, Glycerin. 
The USP designation has official legal status in the United States since the U.S. Pharmacopeia has been incorporated by reference in various statutes and regulations governing drug and medical practices, of which the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act is the most significant. 
USP glycerine is commonly available commercially at anhydrous glycerol content levels of 96%. 99.0% and 99.5%. 

Concentrations above 99.5% are also available commercially. The European equivalent of USP in the United States is PH.EUR., commonly followed by a percentage indicating glycerol content (e.g., PH.EUR.99.5% ). 
The PH.EUR label signifys that the glycerine so designated meets the specifications of the European Pharmacopoeia 11 (1986), as determined by analytical methods given in the same compendium. 
The European Pharmacopeia obtains in the European Economic Community (EEC), i.e., it supersedes the national pharmacopeias of member countries.


CP GLYCERINE or chemically pure glycerine is generally understood to be of the same quality or grade as USP glycerine, but this term is considered generic in the United States because it does not reflect compliance with any official quality requirements or specifications as does the USP designation. 

In Europe, the term CP glycerine is understood to conform with the standard specification for CHEMICALLY PURE GLYCEROL, BS 2625:1979 issued by the British Standards Institution. 

A notation in this standard states that glycerol meeting the criteria of BS 2625:1979 will also comply with the requirements of the European Pharmacopeia. 

FOOD GRADE GLYCERINE in the United States meets the requirements outlined in the monograph Glycerin contained in the Food Chemicals Codex prepared by the Committee on Food Protection of the National Research Council. Food grade requirements are similar to USP standards. 
Within the European Economic Community, glycerine for use in food products must comply with Council Directive 78/663/EEC which specifies the standards of purity for emulbifiers, stabilizers, thickeners, and gelling agents for use in foods. 

HIGH GRAVITY GLYCERINE is a designation used in the United States for a commercial grade of glycerine that is clear, almost colorless and conforms to Federal Specification 0-G-491C issued November 14, 1983 by the General Services Administration. 

This product also conforms to Standard Specijication for High-Gravity Glycerin, 0-1257, issued by the American Society for 'Esting and Materials (ASTM). 
This grade must contain not less than 98.7% glycerol based on specific gravity of 1.2587 minimum at 25125OC. 

It is commonly supplied at not less than 99.0% concentration (specific gravity minimum 1.2595 at 25/25OC). 
ASTM Standard Specification D-1257 is also recognized in Europe to define a grade of glycerine for industrial purposes. 

DYNAMITE GLYCERINE in the United States meets all the High Gravity grade specifications except color, but it cannot be darker than the Federal Color Standard. 
In Europe, glycerine for use in explosives is defined by Specffication 21D for dynamite glycerine issued by the Nobel Explosives Company Ltd. 

The British Standards Institution has also issued a standard specification for this grade of glycerine as Britlsh Standard Specflcation for Dynamite Glycerol, BS 2624: 1979.


SAPONIFICATION (88%) CRUDE AND SOAP LYE (80%) CRUDE are generic terms used in the United States to designate grades of crude glycerine recovered from triglycerides. 
The percentages refer to the glycerol content of the crudes. 
Saponfication crude is a concentrate of the "sweetwater" from fat hydrolysis or "splitting." 
In Europe, the term for this type of crude is HYDROLYSER CRUDE GLYCEROL. 
Hydrolyser crude glycerol contains not less than 88% glycerol and conforms to Britfsh Standard Specification BS 2622: 1979. 

Soap lye crude is the product of the spent lye of the soap kettle, after concentration in a desalting evaporator. 
In Europe, crude glycerine of this derivation is called SOAP LYE CRUDE GLYCEROL. 
It contains not less than 80.0% glycerol and meets the requirements given in British Standard SpeciJication for Soap Lye Crude Glycerol BS 2621: 1979. 

Although important articles of commerce, these grades of glycerine are almost never consumed in any process except refining. 

Glycerine Properties and Performance lndustrial consumption of glycerine in the United States per year is in the neighborhood of 300 million pounds, mainly in such large volume applications as urethane foams, alkyd resins, drugs. foods. tobacco, dentifrices, and cosmetics. 
Products requiring smaller quantities of glycerine, but in which glycerine's function is equally essential, number in the hundreds. 
Among them are such diverse materials as antifreeze solutions, soldering fluxes, cements, textiles, and waxes. 
Glycerine's versatility is a tribute to its unique combination of chemical and physical properties. 
Chemically, glycerine is a trihydric alcohol which is very stable under most trihydric alcohol conditions, but which can be reacted to form many derivatives. 
Physically, it is a clear, almost colorless, viscous, high-boiling liquid miscible with water and alcohol, and like these materials, a good solvent. 
At low temperatures, glycerine tends to supercool, rather than crystallize. 
Water solutions of glycerine resist freezing, a property responsible for glycerine's use as a permanent antifreeze in cooling clear liquid, systems. 
Among its most valuable attributes are hygroscopicity, or the ability to almost colorless absorb moisture from the atmosphere, and low vapor pressure, a combination that produces outstanding permanent humectancy and plasticity. 
Glycerine is virtually nontoxic9 in the digestive system and non-irritating to the skin and sensitive membranes, except in very high concentrations when a dehydrating effect is noted. 
It is also odorless and has a warm sweet taste. Some of glycerine's uses depend on its chemical properties, one such example being the manufacture of urethane polymers. 
Others make use of one or more of its physical characteristics, such as toothpaste and moisturizing cream. 
Quite often, however, the choice of glycerine in either type of application may depend upon secondary factors such as virtual nontoxicity and freedom from disagreeable odor or taste. 
Esters used as food emulsifiers are outstanding examples of chemical applications for glycerine where nontoxicity of reactants is essential. 

Similarly food wraps and bottle cap liners in intimate contact with food and beverages require a plasticizer-humectant that cannot be a source of contamination, and hence glycerine is a common choice. 
The ability to meet a nontoxicity requirement plus the availability of bonus properties in addition to those associated with its principal function in a product make glycerine a prized ingredient among chemists and formulators. 
In a hand cream, for example, glycerine may be incorporated as an ingredient because of its outstanding humectancy. 
Simultaneously, glycerine's emollient qualities may improve the efficacy of the formulation, its viscosity may give the product a very desirable body, its antifreeze qualities may afford necessary protection in shipping and storage-all in addition to the main function of maintaining the moisture content of the product at the proper level. 
Glycerine is a trihydric alcohol and, like other alcohols, forms esters, ethers. amines, aldehydes, and compounds analogous to metallic alcoholates. 
But, because of its multiple hydroxyl groups, it can be reacted to form an unusually large number 6 three hydroxyl groups attracts and holds water from air of derivatives. 
One, two or three of these hydroxyls can be replaced with other chemical groups, thus permitting the synthesis of many different derivatives with properties designed for specific applications. 
Structurally, glycerine has two primary and one secondary hydroxyl groups. 
The primary hydroxyl groups generally are more reactive than the secondary group and, of the two primary groups, the first to react usually does so more readily than the second. 
In any reaction, however, the second and third hydroxyls will react to some extent before all the most reactive groups are exhausted. 
Reaction mixtures thus contain isomers and products of different degrees of reaction, with the relative amounts of each reflecting their ease of formation. 
Glycerine is stable to atmospheric oxidation under ordinary conditions, but can be readily oxidized by other oxidants. Partial oxidation is generally difficult to control to give a large yield of a single product. 

Applications in which glycerine's versatility as a chemical is exploited account for approximately half of the glycerine consumed by industry. 
The most important industrial class of derivatives is esters, which are formed by reacting glycerine with acids, usually at high temperatures. 
Among these are alkyd resins of long chain fatty acids. 

Glycerine possess a unique combination of physical properties. 
Although chemical reactivity and versatility make glycerine one of the basic building blocks of the chemical industry, each year large volumes go into non-chemical uses. 
In these processes and products, glycerine's function-as a plasticizer, humectant, solvent, bodying agent, lubricant, etc.-is based on one or more of its physical properties, some of which properties are summarized in. 
Generally, no chemical combination should take place in such applications; thus, chemical stability is a prerequisite in the choice of a material to impart specific physical properties. 
Glycerine meets this requirement, for it is highly stable under ordinary conditions of storage and use, remaining free from objectionable color, odor or taste with the passage of time. 
Glycerine solutions subject to heat, however, should not be processed or stored in iron- or copper-containing vessels unless inhibitors are present, since iron and copper salts will catalyze oxidation of glycerine under such conditions. 

HYGROSCOPICITY, the ability to attract moisture from the air and hold it, is one of the most valuable properties of glycerine. 
It is the basis for its use as a humectant and as a conditioning agent in many applications where both the glycerine and the water it holds act as plasticizers. 
The net effect is to give products the desired softness, flexibility, creaminess, and shelf life. 
On exposure to air, glycerine at a given concentration gains or loses moisture until it reaches another concentration that is in equilibrium with the moisture (relative humidity) in the surrounding atmosphere. 
The equilibrium concentration is relatively independent of temperature change within normal atmospheric 

Properties of Glycerine 
Molecular Weight 92.09 
Specific Gravity (in air) 1.2636 (20°C); 1.2620 (25°C) 
Vapor Pressure 0.0025 mm (50°C) 
Boiling Point 290°C (760 mm) 
Boiling Points at Low Pressure: 152.0°C (5 mm) 166.1°C (10 mm) 181.3"C (20 mm) 190.9"C (30 mm) 198.0°C (40 mm) 
Melting Point 18.17"C Freezing Point (eutectic) (66.7% glycerol solution) -46.5"C 
Viscosity 1499 centipoises (20°C) 
Specific Heat 0.5795 cal pr gm deg (26'C) 
Refractive Index (NdZ0)1 .47399 
Flash Point (99% glycerol) 177°C 
Fire Point (99% glycerol) 204°C 
Auto lgnltion Point (on platinum) 523°C (on glass) 429°C 
Heat of Combustion 397.0 Kcal per mole Food-Energ Value 4.32 Kcal per gram Surface 'Ension 63.4 dynes cm (20°C) 58.6 dynes cm (90°C) 5 1.9 dynes cm ( 150°C) 
Sound Tkansmission 1923 rnlsec (20°C) 
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (Gravimetric) 0.00061 15 ( 15-25°C Temperature interval) 0.000610 (20-25°C Temperature interval) 
Thermal Conductivity 0.00069 1 cal cm deg/sec (0°C) 
Molar Heat of Solution 1381 cal 
Dissociation Constant 0.07 x 
Dielectric Constant 42.48 (25°C: current frequency =0.57X lo6 cycles sec) 
Specific Conductivity 5.6 X 10" reciprocal ohms (1 1.7"C) 
Compressibility 21.1 X 10" cc per atm pr cc (28.5"C) provided that a constant relative humidity is maintained. 

A number of determinations have been made of the relative humidity maintained over glycerine solutions


However, if glycerine is present as a thin film as it is when used to soften textile or paper fibers, equilibrium is reached within a few minutes.


LOW VOLATILITY or low vapor pressure allows for the permanency of glycerine in products. 
Low vapor pressure is closely allied to hygroscopicity in glycerine's effectiveness as a humectant. 
As is apparent in Figures 2 and 3, glycerine is practically nonvolatile at normal use temperatures. 
Moreover, between 0°C and 70°C. changes in temperature have little effect on the relative vapor pressure of glycerine solutions. 
In common with other alcohols, glycerine has a lower vapor pressure than might be expected from its molecular weight. 
The relatively low vapor pressure is characteristic of alcohols, water, and other polar compounds, and is the result of molecular association. 
Glycerine causes a greater reduction in the vapor pressure of water than can be accounted for by its molecular concentration, an effect that is attributable to the fonnation of hydrates.

The ability of glycerine to persist or "stay put" in products is particularly important when large areas are exposed for long periods of time. 
Such conditions can result in significant losses of relatively volatile humectants and occur most generally with films and fibers.


 A DIRECT PLASTICIZING EFFECT is produced in most applications for glycerine as a humectant-plasticizer because glycerine and water act together to promote softness and flexibility and to prevent drying out. 
These applications include promotes softness personal products such as cosmetic creams, lotions, capsules, and dentifrices, andflexibility edibles such as candy and cough drops, cigarette tobacco, and industrial materials such as cellophane, paper products, cork and gasket compounds, glues, textiles, and printing supplies. 
The plasticizing effect, however, is more than merely the result of glycerine's holding water. 
Even when conditions are such that little or no water is present, the glycerine itself may perform a direct plasticizing function. 
This action is in part a consequence of a combination of properties such as solvent power, low volatility, and noncrystallinity as well as hygroscopicity. 
It depends, too, on the molecular size and structure of glycerine relative to the molecular structure or space lattice of the material that is being treated. 
The lubricating action of glycerine on the materials can also be a factor. 

For these reasons, glycerine will frequently have a much greater conditioning effect on materials than equal concentrations of other compounds with similar hygroscopic characteristics, but with different molecular orientation. 

SOLVENT POWER and SOLUBILITY have caused glycerine to be regarded as one of the most valuable compounding ingredients for the formulator. 
Besides functioning as a suitable solvent for the active principles in a formulation, the easy compatibility of glycerine with many other substances affords the formulator a wide choice of ingredients. 
Because of its hydroxyl groups, glycerine has solubility characteristics similar to those of water and simple aliphatic alcohols. 
It is a good solvent for many industrial compounds, pharmaceutical preparations, and flavor extracts 
Many substances such as iodine, bromine, tannin, alkaloids, thymol, phenol, mercuric chloride, and boric acids are more soluble in glycerine than in water, and thus glycerine is used to prepare highly concentrated solutions of these materials. 
With vanillin and some similar materials, glycerine forms supersaturated solutions, thus making possible solutions of high concentrations.


Commonly used substances with which glycerine is completely miscible include methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol. n-propyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, secondary butyl alcohol, tertiary amyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, trimethylene glycol, and phenol. 
It is also completely miscible with ethylene glycol monomethyl ether. 
Glycerine's solubility in acetone is 5% by weight, and in ethyl acetate, 9%. 
It is only sparingly soluble in dioxane and ethyl either, and is practically insoluble in higher alcohols, fatty oils, and hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents such as hexane, benzene and chloroform.

The miscibility of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons with glycerine is increased by introducing hydroxyl and amine groups into their structure, but is decreased by the introduction of alkyl groups. 
Heterocyclic compounds such as pyridine,'quinoline, piperidine, and alpha-picoline. which contain a nitrogen atom in the ring, are generally miscible with glycerine." 
Detailed studies of multi-component systems containing glycerine have been made over a long history of use in formulations. 
Micibility and solubility data for such systems as glycerine-tertiary amyl alcohol-water, glycerine-phenol-water, glycerine-alcohol-water, glycerine-sucrose-water and glycerine-benzene-ethyl 'alcohol have been published." 
The availability of such information greatly helps simplify the work of the chemist in incorporating glycerine in formulations. 

COMPATIBILITY, while not strictly a scientific concept is an important consideration for formulators who require assurance that an ingredient added to a mixture or solution for one purpose will not interfere with the stability or activity of the other constituents. 

In general, the ability to act together harmoniously with other thickener materials can be expected in a chemical like glycerine with its related properties of high solvent power, solubility, micibility, and stability. 
The-compatibility of glycerine with a wide range of other materials has been established through long use and empirical tests. 
Glycerine has been shown to be a highly compatible material, especially in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products which may incorporate many compounds of varying chemical structure and properties. 

Pure glycerine is stable to atmospheric oxygen under normal conditions of use or storage. 
However, at higher temperatures, oxidation may be promoted by iron and copper catalysts. 

For this reason, processing or storing glycerine solutions in iron- or copper-containing vessels without the use of inhibitors should be avoided. 

HIGH VISCOSITY is one of the most distinctive characteristics of glycerine. 
This quality is of value in a number of mechanical applications for glycerine such as a hydraulic fluid or a special lubricant, in laboratory studies of fluid flow phenomena and in viscosimeter calibrations, where aqueous solutions of glycerine are used as standards. 
But, by far, the most important commercial use for glycerine on the basis of its viscosity is as thickening or bodying agent for liquid preparations, syrups, emulsions, and gels. 
At normal temperatures, glycerine remains a viscous liquid up to 100% concentration. 
Thus, it is available for use over a wide range of viscosities without crystallization difficulties. 
Likewise, at low temperatures, concentrated glycerine sogtions tend to supercool as high-viscosity fluids. 

When glycerine supercools, its viscosity increases slowly at first, and then rapidly, until it becomes glassy at about - 89°C. 

Viscosities of various concentrations of glycerine in water at various temperatures are shown in 'Pable 111. 

In addition to these values, data on the viscosity of glycerine-alcohol-water solutions and of glycerine in combination with glucose, sugar solutions, and various salts are available in the literature.
The results of using glycerine for bodying action in a formulation may not always be proportional to the amount of glycerine added or to its viscosity in a pure state because the other ingredients present may also be exerting an influence. 
The effect of glycerine on the viscosity of a liquid cream, for example, is likely to be proportional to the amount added, and increases progressively with additions. 
But in the case of asemisolid cream, the addition of glycerine may increase body up to a certain concentration beyond which further additions result in a decrease in viscosity.

Glycerine is EASY-TO-USE. 
Glycerine is a liquid at high concentrations and at the temperatures generally encountered in storage and use. 
That undesirable crystallization which adversely affects the appearance of a product cannot occur with glycerine at room temperature. 
If, for example, glycerine is exposed on the threads of a bottle or cap even in a dry atmosphere, it will not become "gritty" like a crystallizing sugar. 
The freezing points of various concentrations of glycerine are shown in Figure 4. 

These values explain why pure glycerine, with a freezing point of approximately 18°C is seldom seen in the crystalline state. 
As is evident from these data, even the small amounts of water usually present in most formulations depress the freezing point of glycerine. 
A combination of two parts of glycerine to one part of water forms a eutectic mixture which freezes at - 46.5 C.

Because of such antifreeze properties, glycerine was the first permanent-type antifreeze for automobile radiator cooling systems. 
Although later replaced by ethylene glycol in this application, combinations of an alcohol or a glycol and glycerine are still employed for this purpose. 
Glycerine-water and glycerine-alcohol solutions, however, are used in some refrigeration systems and in quick freezing of foods. 
Here glycerine's virtual nontoxicity combines with its antifreeze properties to make it the coolant of choice. 
Since glycerine is a liquid, it is convenient to handle, which is another bonus quality of particular advantage to many industrial consumers who use glycerine in large quantities. 
In some applications, glycerine is easily pumped from the tank car to the storage tank, and from there metered to the reactor as required, compared to the' handling required when solid polyols are used. 

Glycerine also has an added advantage in that it can be measured either by volume or by weight. 
Therefore, systems using other liquid ingredient materials can stay entirely in the "liquid phase." 
The virtual NONTOXICITY of glycerine as an ingredient in foods and pharmaceuticals has been established through generations of safe use and by support- virtually nontoxic ing data. 
Glycerine occurs naturally in foods, both in a combined form as in fats and in a free state as in fermentation products like beer and wine. 
With a diet of 100 grams of fat per day, the human body would absorb and metabolize 10 grams of glycerine as glycerides. 
When metabolized, glycerine yields roughly the same caloric food value as glucose or starch.

Glycerine, i.e., glycerin, was initially accorded GRAS status (generally recognized as safe) as a miscellaneous substance by the U.S. Food and Drug AdministraGRAS substance tion (FDA) in 1959. 
Subsequently, in 1961, it was reclassified as a miscellaneous and general purpose food additive. 

Under a regulation FDA promulgated in 1977, it was reclassified and recodified as a multiple purpose GRAS food substance. 

Glycerine was also first listed as GRAS as a substance migrating to food from paper and paperboard products used in food packaging in a regulation published in 1961. 

Glycerine is currently listed as GRAS in the Code ofFederal Regulations (CFR) as a multiple purpose GRAS food substance (21CFR 182.1320) and as a substance migrating from paper and paperboard products: (21CFR 182.90) for use in certain food packaging materials.
The FDA proposed reaffirmation of glycerine as GRAS as a direct human food ingredient in February 1983 as part of a comprehensive review of human food ingredients classified as GRAS or subject to prior sanction." 
There has been no official FDA action with respect to the proposed reaffirmation of the GRAS status of glycerine since it was promulgated. 
The FDA review of the GRAS list is, by its very nature, a lengthy procedure and one that involves many food ingredients. 

Glycerine has demonstrated over many years that it is essentially nontoxic as an ingestive substance and thus, it apparently has not been accorded a high priority in the FDA GRAS review process. 
Glycerol is also virtually nontoxic to the environment, which is another plus factor with respect to ordinary plant operations and the kinds of problems usually associated with accidental spills. 
Its aquatic toxicity is insignificant. 
Glycerine's TLm96 value, or the concentration that will kill 50% of the exposed organisms in 96 hours, is over 1000 mg/L.Ie 
Glycerine may be used on every part of the epidermis, including mucous membranes. 
When diluted to a concentration below 50%, it acts as an emollient and demulcent, finding important applications in ointments and lotions. 

Preparations for the most sensitive areas of the body-antiseptic, vaginal, nasal, analgesic, dermatological, and burn ointments and jellies-are commonly made of watersoluble bases compounded with glycerine. 
Glycerine, too, is one of the most widely used ingredients in medical prescriptions. 
Only water may exceed glycerine in its range of applications. 
A predominantly sweet taste producing a pleasant sensation of warmth in the mouth is another of glycerine's assets. 
Studies have shown that it is from 55 to 75 percent as sweet as sucrose, with the relative sweetness depending on the sweet-tasting concentration tested.  

As a sweetening agent, glycerine makes many medicinal preparations palatable, which ordinarily would be unpleasant or less pleasant to swallow. 
In cough remedies, for example, it makes the mixture more pleasing to the taste while simultaneously soothing the mucous membranes. 
In such products as dentrifices and chewing gum, glycerine imparts a desirable degree of sweetness without clashing with the other flavor elements. 
Perfumes or flavors remain "true to type," with no fragrance or flavor change resulting from the presence of glycerine. 

It also tends to offset the harshness or bite of alcoholic (ethyl) content. 
Applications Food and Beverages properties in action In foods and beverages, glycerine functions as a humectant, solvent, sweetener, and preservative. 

It acts as a solvent for flavors and food colors in soft drinks and confections and as a humectant and softening agent in candy, cakes, and casings for meats and cheese. 
Glycerine is also used in dry pet foods to help retain moisture and enhance palatability. 
Another important, but indirect, use of glycerine in food processing is represented by rnonoglycerides, the glycerol esters of fatty acids, which are emulsifiers and stabilizers for many products. 
Edible monoglycerides help maintain moisture balance in a product and permit richer formulations with longer shelf life when added to margarine to increase plasticity and to dough mixes to promote dispersion of fat. 
Monoglycerides are also used in salad dressings, frozen desserts, candy, and food coatings. 
Drugs Glycerine is one of the most widely used ingredients in drugs and pharmaceuticals. 
It functions as a solvent, moistener, humectant, and bodying agent in tinctures, elixirs, ointments, and Capsules for medicinal use, which are plasticized with glycerine, are another important application. 
Other well known uses include suppositories, ear infection remedies, anesthetics, cough remedies, lozenges, gargles, and vehicles for antibiotics and antiseptics. 
Medically, glycerine serves as an emollient and demulcent in preparations used on the skin and as an osmotic diuretic to manage cerebral edema, reduce cerebrospinal pressure, and lower intraocular pressure.
A derivative, nitroglycerine, is a coronary vasodilator used to treat angina. 
In veterinary medicine, glycerine has been used as a source of glucose in bovine ketosis and nitroglycerine as a treatment for bronchial asthma in dogs.

Cosmetics and Toiletries
Glycerine is widely used in cosmetics and other toiletry applications, being virtually nontoxic, non-irritating, and odorless. 
It functions as a humectant and emollient. 
Glycerine is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. 
In cosmetics, glycerine is one of the most frequently used ingredients for its moisturising and emollient properties.
Glycerine is a major toothpaste ingredient, preventing drying out and hardening in the tube and around the cap threads or at the opening of the pumptype dispenser. 
Other uses include skin creams and lotions, shaving preparations, deodorants, and make up. 
Glycerol esters of fatty acids, an important class of glycerine derivatives, are utilized as emulsifiers in creams and lotions and as replacements for waxes in lipstick, in mascara, and in other non-greasy emulsions. 


Glycerine is an exceptionally good moisturising, emollient and protective agent.
Its ability to capture and retain water slows down the evaporation of water from the surface of the skin.
The skin is better hydrated, more supple and protected. Glycerine is also a humectant (wetting agent), which promotes scalp hydration, disciplines the hair and improves curl definition.


The Facts:

Glycerine has excellent affinity with water and is capable of absorbing 25% of its weight in water.
Numerous studies have proven its ability to diffuse and be stored in the upper layers of the skin.

Tobacco 
A glycerine content of about 3% keeps tobacco moist and soft to prevent breaking and crumbling during processing and to ensure freshness in packaged cigarettes and other tobacco products. 
Sheet-formed cigar tobacco is plasticized with glycerine. 
It also adds flavor to chewing and pipe tobaccos. 
Triacetin (glycerol triacetate) acts as a plasticizer for cellulose acetate in the manufacture of cigarette filter-tips. 

Surface Coating Resins Alkyds are an important class of resins used in surface coatings. 
Glycerine, because of its chemical versatility and process advantages, is a standard component in the manufacture of these resins. 
Alkyd resins produced from glycerine may readily be modified to meet a wide range of coating applications and demanding conditions. 

Paper and Printing 
Glycerine is used in the manufacture of papers as a plasticizer/humectant and lubricant. 
In addition to the softening effect of retained moisture, it also reduces shrinkage. 
It is likewise useful with other ingredients in specialty treatments such as grease-proofing. 
Since many papers are used as food wrappers or in sanitary products, glycerine's essential nontoxicity, freedom from odor, and stability meet other important quality requirements. 
Glycerine also finds extensive use in ink manufacture, especially the alkyd resins which are an important constituent of many printing inks. 

Lubrication 

Glycerine plays an important role in the lubricants used in many applications because of its stability over a broad range of temperatures and pressures. 
In addition, the virtually nontoxic character of glycerine makes it suitable for lubrication of food and other machinery where product purity is of paramount importance. 
Glycerine is a textile conditioning agent used widely in lubricating, sizing, and softening yarn and fabric. 
Its effectiveness in these and similar applications is due mainly to its viscosity and hygroscopicity. 
Glycerine is also successfully used to lubricate many kinds of fibers in spinning, twist setting, knitting and weaving operations. 

Rubber and Plastics 
Glycerine's main use in the rubber industry is for its lubricating action on rubber. 
In the plastics industry, glycerine is used as a plasticizer and lubricant. 

Urethane Polymers In this application, glycerine serves as the fundamental building block in polyethers for urethane foams. 
The flexible foams resulting from the processes utilizing glycerine have superior properties with respect to humid aging and resilience. 
Glycerine-based polyethers have also found some application in rigid foams and. particularly, in urethane coatings. 
Electrical and Electronics Glycerine is widely employed for the manufacture of electrolytes for electrolytic condensers used in radios and neon lights and in processes for electrodeposition and treatment of metals. 
Electronic applications are mostly of a proprietary nature. although one use in this field is associated with the production of computers. 
Nitration The nitration of glycerol to yield nitroglycerine is probably the most well-known application. 

Dynamite, as it is manufactured today, is a mixture based on an explosive compound, usually nitroglycerine, mixed with an absorbent, usually diatomaceous earth, in a proportion of about 3:l nitroglycerine to the abs~rbent.
Nitroglycerine is also used as a cardiovascular agent, functioning as a vasodilator in coronary spasm and as an antianginal agent.
It has also been used therapeutically for canine bronchial asthma. 
Other Uses There are many other applications for glycerine. 
These uses are small in volume and include such applications as photography, laboratory use, cell preservation, and gas drying among many others too numerous to list. 
Applications for some glycerine derivatives have also been discussed. 
It is worth noting that they include ethers, esters, acetates, and alcohol substitution products. 

New uses, many proprietary, for glycerine and its derivatives come under constant development as technology progresses. 
Producers of glycerine are excellent sources of information about applications for glycerine. 
They stand ready to provide technical assistance to formulators and others regarding current and new applications. 
Specifications describes product quality requirements stipulates analytical methods sources of standard specjfications Specifications are precise, written descriptions of the physical and chemical quality requirements of a particular grade or type of glycerine product and of the analytical methods to be used in determining product compliance with designated parameters. 
Specifications deal with product quality issues in various ways, depending upon the grade or kind of crude or refined glycerine being addressed and the kinds of materials that may be associated with it. 
Quality requirements may include parameters for glycerol content, specific gravity or relative density, characteristics of color, odor, and flavor, fatty acid and ester content, chlorinated compounds. chloride, sulfate, arsenic, heavy metals, ignition residue, and other aspects of the product as appropriate. 
Likewise, the specifications stipulate the analytical methods which are to be used in assaying each given requirement. 
The test methods may be incorporated in the specifications directly or by reference. 
Standard specifications for various grades of glycerine have been issued by some national standards institutions and professional and industry organizations. 
The organized, definitive character of standard specifications makes them very useful in commerce. 

Specifications involved in a commercial transaction are basically subject to agreement between buyer and seller. 
While standard specifications have proven very helpful commercially, the parties to a transaction sometimes prefer to develop their own criteria or adapt existing ones to their needs. 
In the United States, the specifications used in commerce include the requirements of the U.S. Pharmacopoeia (USP) monograph, Glycerin, and those of the Fbods Chemicals Codex, prepared by the National Academy of Science (National Academy Press, Third Edition, 1981). 
Also important are the specifications for reagent grade glycerine issued by the American Chemical Society (ACS) and those of the Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association (CTFA) for glycerine in cosmetic and toiletry applications. 
The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the General Services Administration (GSA) have both issued standard specifications for high gravity glycerine. 

In the international area, specifications for various grades of glycerine are available from national standards institutions and from national pharmacopoeias in the case of refined glycerine. 
Within the European Economic Community (EEC), the counterpart of USP glycerine is provided for by the glycerine specifications included in the European Pharmacopoeia 11 ( 1986). 

The European Pharmacopoeia is published in accordance with the Convention on the elaboration ofa European Pharmacopoeia, under the auspices of the Council of Europe (Partial Agreement) (European Peaty Series No. 50). 
It supercedes the national pharmacopoeias in the EEC member countries. 
Glycerine for use in foods within the EEC is governed by Directive 78/663/EEC, issued by the Council of Europe, which mandates the quality criteria for emulsifiers, stabilizers, thickeners, and gelling agents. 
The main source of information on European standard specifications for glycerine is the Association Europeenne des Producteurs d'Acides Gras (APAG), an international organization of 2 1 safety tips and in steam tracing of piping. 

Storage tanks may have insulated external steam coils or may have internal coils for circulation of low pressure steam or hot water. 
PIPING should be stainless steel, aluminum or galvanized iron. 
Valves and pumps should be all bronze, cast iron and bronze trim, or stainless steel. 
Piping should also be self-draining. The SIZE OF PUMPS for unloading process feed and circulating stored glycerine to maintain it at desired temperatures depends upon individual requirements. 

A 50-gpm pump will unload a tank car of warm glycerine in about four hours. 
Safety Long experience in research, development, and production has demonstrated that glycerine is one of the safest industrial chemical materials. 
Despite an enviable safety record, the only appropriate way to handle glycerine is in accordance with sound industrial, maintenance, and safety practices. 
Human Exposure Glycerine is essentially nontoxic by ingestion and harmless to the skin. 
In the event of eye contact the eye should immediately be rinsed gently with tepid (body temperature) water. 
However, accidents involving splash burns of hot liquor to the eye or skin should be treated by a physician.

Fire and Explosion 
Glycerine has a high flash point (350°F or 177°C at 99.0% glycerol concentration) and a fire point of glycerine of 400°F (204°C at 99.0% concentration). 

Fire hazard is low even when exposed to heat or flame, but glycerine is still combustible. 
Glycerine can react violently in contact with certain strong oxidizing agents CAWTON such as acetic anhydride. (aniline + nitrobenzene), calcium hypochlorite, chrostrong oxidizing mium peroxide, chromium trioxide, (F, + PbO), (HCIO, + PbO), potassium agents chlorate, potassium permanganate, potassium peroxide, silver perchlorate, and sodium hydride.
If glycerine catches fire, it should be treated with water, dry powder or carbon dioxide fog.
The toxic hazard from the products of combustion is slight, but use of a canister mask is suggested.
Environmental Glycerine has no harmful impact on the environment due to a massive release or spill. 
In water, it does not appear to have any effect other than an oxygen demand arising from biodegradation which occurs at a moderate rate.
Aquatic toxicity as measured by TLm96, defined as the concentration that will kill 50% of the exposed organisms in 96 hours, is over 1000 mg/L.27 a level which is insignificant.

Glycerine is used as a moisturizer to treat or prevent dry, rough, scaly, itchy skin and minor skin irritations (e.g., diaper rash, skin burns from radiation therapy). 
Emollients are substances that soften and moisturize the skin and decrease itching and flaking. 
Dry skin is caused by a loss of water in the upper layer of the skin. 
Humectants, including glycerin, lecithin, and propylene glycol, draw water into the outer layer of skin. 

Glycerine was traditionally a co-product of soap making, a process known as saponification. Historically it was of animal and fossil origin. 
Today we sell 100% vegetable glycerine. 
It is produced from vegetable oils such as rapeseed, sunflower or palm oil rich in fatty acids, using a process that complies with the principles of green chemistry*. 
It is biodegradable and renewable. 

*process using minimum energy and water and generating minimum waste

Glycerol is a triol with a structure of propane substituted at positions 1, 2 and 3 by hydroxy groups. 
It has a role as an osmolyte, a solvent, a detergent, a human metabolite, an algal metabolite, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite, an Escherichia coli metabolite and a mouse metabolite. It is an alditol and a triol.

Glycerine is a humectant, which is a substance that retains moisture. Humectants work by drawing moisture from the air and delivering it to the skin. Because of it’s moisturizing abilities, glycerine helps prevent wrinkles, breakouts, and improves the overall health of the skin.  

What does glycerine do to your body?
Performs as a natural moisturizer
Repairs damaged skin
Aids in repairing skin tissue and healing scars
Prevents wrinkles and fine lines
Treats skin infections
How can glycerine help relieve dry skin?
Glycerine’s moisturizing virtues make it a wonderful ingredient in skincare. It’s ability to retain  moisture in the skin helps those with especially dry or cracked skin.

What are some ways I can use glycerine? 
The ways in which glycerine can be used on the body doesn’t stop at just dry skin. Several other cosmetic benefits this liquid can be used to: 

Cleanse the face
Help relieve psoriasis and eczema
Help heal cracked heels and hands 
Help heal chapped lips
Help heal wounds due to its natural antiviral and bactericidal properties
Help with dandruff and dry, itchy scalp
Improve hair health

Glycerin is a neutral, sweet-tasting, colourless, thick liquid.  It is commonly used in the manufacture of clear soaps, lip balms, hand lotions, hair products, and moisturizing creams for its cleansing, emollient, humectant, and softening properties

BENEFITS

Glycerin is a neutral, sweet-tasting, colourless, thick liquid.  It is commonly used in the manufacture of clear soaps, lip balms, hand lotions, hair products, and moisturizing creams for its cleansing, emollient, humectant, and softening properties.  Although conventional glycerin is associated with industrial processes, our glycerin is created from the natural process of saponification.  The oils we use in this process – Karanja or Mahawa oil ­­– are both sustainably and organically sourced and the final product is graded as suitable for therapeutic and food use.   By contrast, most conventionally-produced glycerin brokered on the open market is a by-product of industrial processes, may contain impurities, and is often from an untraceable source. 

Having a high quality, naturally-sourced glycerin is particularly important when used in body products because it is often used in formulations to treat wounds, burns, rashes, eczema or skin, and hair that is generally dry or damaged.  It can be further irritating to sensitive skin if the products used to try and solve the problem are actually from an impersonal, industrial process (most conventional glycerin is a byproduct from biodiesel manufacturing).  Our customers who want to use this versatile ingredient – whether in home-made lip balms, soaps or moisturisers, or even food use ­– can use our organic product with confidence that it is both ethically sourced and a pure, safe-to-use product. 

For food use, glycerin is an ingredient that can add sweetness and moisture.  It metabolises in a different way to sugar, does not contribute to tooth decay, and is suitable for creating lower carbohydrate foods. 

Our organic glycerin is ideal for those who like to make their own soaps and have control of what goes into them – whether for therapeutic needs or creative preference.  Making soap and natural beauty products have become popular cottage industries in recent years and having access to organic-grade ingredients helps to create truly luxurious merchandise.

Glycerin is also used as a solvent by herbalists who need an alternative to alcohol for extracting material from plants – to create herbal tinctures that are suitable for children, pets, and others for whom alcohol-free products are best.

Glycerin’s anti-bacterial quality and ability to cleanse and treat the skin without blocking pores also make it a popular ingredient in formulations for acne and oily skin.

Added to hair products, it is therapeutic for dry, brittle hair, restoring health and shine. 

non-irritating
anti-bacterial
Emollient
Humectant
Common uses: popular as an ingredient in toothpaste, cosmetics (including lipstick, lip-gloss, and eye-shadow), shampoos, lip balms, hand lotions, hair products, shaving products, and creams; herbal remedies; glycerin soaps and other household items; in formulations for dry and damaged skin.

Glycerin is a by-product of saponified, hydrolyzed or transesterified fats and oils. 
It was discovered in 1779 by the German-Swedish chemist and pharmacist Carl Wilhelm Scheele during the saponification of olive oil. 
The name of the liquid is derived from the Greek word glykys, "sweet."

Physically, glycerin is a water-soluble, colorless, odorless, clear and viscous liquid with a high boiling point. 
Chemically, glycerin is a trivalent alcohol that can be made to react and yet is stable under most conditions. 
Because of these unusual properties, its good compatibility with many other substances and its ease of processing, glycerin is used in many applications.

In 1854, the English entrepreneur, chemist and plant breeder George Fergusson Wilson developed a process to synthesize glycerin on an industrial scale. 
Today, it is generally refined by distillation after extraction in its raw state.

Glycerin, Glycerine or Glycerol?
All names are correct and trivial names for a substance that chemically correctly, according to UIPAC nomenclature, is called propane-1,2,3-triol. 
The most common name is glycerine. The name glycerol is also frequently used. 
It has the correct suffix "-ol" for an alcohol (the suffix "-in" stands for alkynes or amines). 
Glycerine is a sugar alcohol and the simplest trivalent alcohol, a so-called triol.

Depending on the application or labeling standard, other terms are used for glycerine: The correct molecular formula is C3H8O3. 
Its CAS number is 56-81-5, and in  the european food industry its designation is E 422. 
Glycerine is used here as an additive to improve consistency, flavor and preservation.

Glycerine (or glycerin, glycerol) is a triol or polyol compound. In its pure form glycerine is a colorless odorless, sweet tasting, viscous liquid. 
As an alcohol with three hydroxyl groups it is hydroscopic and soluble in water. Glycerine is a byproduct of three main processes: fat and oil splitting, fat and oil saponification, and biodiesel manufacturing.

The fats and oils used can be from animal or vegetable sources. Glycerine can be used as a solvent, sweetener or humectants. 
Product applications include pharmaceuticals, foods, personal care, tobacco, antifreeze, and agrochemicals.

ATAMAN CHEMICALS offers glycerine products in a variety of grades:

Private label
Tech grade
USP grade
Kosher certified 
Halal certified
RSPO certified
Mass balanced
Non-GMO
Organic
Various purity grades (80% crude, 96%, 99.5%, 99.7%)


Typical applications includes:

Adhesives, coatings, elastomers and sealants: Flexible foam, surface coatings
Agriculture: Carrier, solvent, humectant, anti-freeze
Chemical manufacturing: Anti-freeze, initiator (EO/PO reactions)
Food: Humectant, sweetener, filler in cakes, candies, bars, meat/ cheese, casings, diet foods
Lubricants and metalworking: Lubricants additives & metalworking fluids
Oilfield: Drilling muds, shale stabilizer
Personal care: Humectant and emollient in skin care, hair care, color cosmetics
Pharmaceuticals: Excipients for gel caps, liquid medications, elixirs, expectorants


Glycerine cost and availability has been recently improved as a result of growth in the bio-diesel market. 
Mong, a by-product of bio-diesel can be filtered and processed in to fatty acids and glycerine.

Although water-glycerine mixtures are prone to biological contamination, blends using bio-glycerine in conjunction with other antifreeze chemicals can neutralise any bacterial and algae growth.

Neat Glycerine is more viscous than neat Propylene Glycol, but when it is mixed in the appropriate concentration with water and other antifreeze chemicals the thermal performance is better than Propylene Glycol. 


Glycerine (also called glycerol or glycerin) is a widely used simple polyol.

Glycerine has a wide variety of industrial applications such as freeze control and is used as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals including polyester polyols.

Typical Applications

Key component in electronic cigarette production.
Moisturiser in soap production and other personal hygiene products.
Ingredient in herbal remedies and homeopathic applications.
An excellent ingredient for fishing bait.
Used in Nurseries/Schools – When added to soapy water it helps to produce great big bubbles.
As a base for certain antifreeze preparations.


Highlights  
Glycerin is a type of carbohydrate called a sugar alcohol, or polyol.  
Glycerin contains slightly more calories per gram than sugar and is 60–75% as sweet.  
Glycerin occurs naturally in fermented foods and beverages, including beer, honey, vinegar, wine and wine vinegar. It is also commercially produced from fats and oils or through the fermentation of yeast, sugar or starch. 
Glycerin is used in a variety of food and drink products, including various beverages, nutrition and energy bars, cake icings, soft candies, chewing gum, condiments, creams, diet foods, dried fruits, fondant, fudge and marshmallows. 
Glycerin’s safety has been confirmed by multiple global health authorities, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.  


Production
Glycerol is generally obtained from plant and animal sources where it occurs in triglycerides, esters of glycerol with long-chain carboxylic acids . The hydrolysis, saponification, or transesterification of these triglycerides produces glycerol as well as the fatty acid derivative:

Triglycerides can be saponified with sodium hydroxide to give glycerol and fatty sodium salt or soap.

Typical plant sources include soybeans or palm. 


Glycerol from triglycerides is produced on a large scale, but the crude product is of variable quality, with a low selling price of as low as 2-5 U.S. cents per kilogram in 2011.
 It can be purified, but the process is expensive. Some glycerol is burned for energy, but its heat value is low.

Crude glycerol from the hydrolysis of triglycerides can be purified by treatment with activated carbon to remove organic impurities, alkali to remove unreacted glycerol esters, and ion exchange to remove salts. High purity glycerol (> 99.5%) is obtained by multi-step distillation; a vacuum chamber is necessary due to its high boiling point (290 °C).

Synthetic glycerol
Although usually not cost-effective, glycerol can be produced by various routes from propene. 
The epichlorohydrin process is the most important: it involves the chlorination of propylene to give allyl chloride, which is oxidized with hypochlorite to dichlorohydrins, which reacts with a strong base to give epichlorohydrin. 
This epichlorohydrin is then hydrolyzed to give glycerol. 
Chlorine-free processes from propylene include the synthesis of glycerol from acrolein and propylene oxide.

Synthetic routes to glycerol.png
Because of the large-scale production of biodiesel from fats, where glycerol is a waste product, the market for glycerol is depressed. 
Thus, synthetic processes are not economical. Owing to oversupply, efforts are being made to convert glycerol to synthetic precursors, such as acrolein and epichlorohydrin.


Applications
Food industry
In food and beverages, glycerol serves as a humectant, solvent, and sweetener, and may help preserve foods. 
It is also used as filler in commercially prepared low-fat foods (e.g., cookies), and as a thickening agent in liqueurs. 
Glycerol and water are used to preserve certain types of plant leaves.[15] As a sugar substitute, it has approximately 27 kilocalories per teaspoon (sugar has 20) and is 60% as sweet as sucrose. 
It does not feed the bacteria that form plaques and cause dental cavities.[citation needed] As a food additive, glycerol is labeled as E number E422. It is added to icing (frosting) to prevent it from setting too hard.

As used in foods, glycerol is categorized by the U.S. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics as a carbohydrate. 
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) carbohydrate designation includes all caloric macronutrients excluding protein and fat. 


Medical, pharmaceutical and personal care applications

A bottle of glycerin purchased at a pharmacy

Personal lubricants commonly contain glycerol

Glycerol is an ingredient in products such as hair gel

Glycerol suppositories used as laxatives
Glycerin is mildly antimicrobial and antiviral and is an FDA approved treatment for wounds. The Red Cross reports that an 85% solution of glycerin shows bactericidal and antiviral effects, and wounds treated with glycerin show reduced inflammation after roughly 2 hours. Due to this it is used widely in wound care products, including glycerin based hydrogel sheets for burns and other wound care. It is approved for all types of wound care except third degree burns, and is used to package donor skin used in skin grafts. There is no topical treatment approved for third degree burns, and so this limitation is not exclusive to glycerin.[17]

Glycerol is used in medical, pharmaceutical and personal care preparations, often as a means of improving smoothness, providing lubrication, and as a humectant.

Ichthyosis and xerosis have been relieved by the topical use of glycerin.
It is found in allergen immunotherapies, cough syrups, elixirs and expectorants, toothpaste, mouthwashes, skin care products, shaving cream, hair care products, soaps, and water-based personal lubricants. In solid dosage forms like tablets, glycerol is used as a tablet holding agent. For human consumption, glycerol is classified by the U.S. FDA among the sugar alcohols as a caloric macronutrient. Glycerol is also used in blood banking to preserve red blood cells prior to freezing.

Glycerol is a component of glycerin soap. Essential oils are added for fragrance.
This kind of soap is used by people with sensitive, easily irritated skin because it prevents skin dryness with its moisturizing properties. 
It draws moisture up through skin layers and slows or prevents excessive drying and evaporation.

Taken rectally, glycerol functions as a laxative by irritating the anal mucosa and inducing a hyperosmotic effect, expanding the colon by drawing water into it to induce peristalsis resulting in evacuation.[21] It may be administered undiluted either as a suppository or as a small-volume (2–10 ml) enema. Alternatively, it may be administered in a dilute solution, e.g., 5%, as a high volume enema.[22]

Taken orally (often mixed with fruit juice to reduce its sweet taste), glycerol can cause a rapid, temporary decrease in the internal pressure of the eye. 
This can be useful for the initial emergency treatment of severely elevated eye pressure.[23]

Glycerol has also been incorporated as a component of bio-ink formulations in the field of bioprinting.
The glycerol content acts to add viscosity to the bio-ink without adding large protein, carbohydrate, or glycoprotein molecules.

Botanical extracts
When utilized in "tincture" method extractions, specifically as a 10% solution, glycerol prevents tannins from precipitating in ethanol extracts of plants (tinctures). 
It is also used as an "alcohol-free" alternative to ethanol as a solvent in preparing herbal extractions. 
It is less extractive when utilized in a standard tincture methodology. 
Alcohol-based tinctures can also have the alcohol removed and replaced with glycerol for its preserving properties. 
Such products are not "alcohol-free" in a scientific or FDA regulatory sense, as glycerol contains three hydroxyl groups. 
Fluid extract manufacturers often extract herbs in hot water before adding glycerol to make glycerites.

When used as a primary "true" alcohol-free botanical extraction solvent in non-tincture based methodologies, glycerol has been shown to possess a high degree of extractive versatility for botanicals including removal of numerous constituents and complex compounds, with an extractive power that can rival that of alcohol and water–alcohol solutions.[27] That glycerol possesses such high extractive power assumes it is utilized with dynamic (i.e. critical) methodologies as opposed to standard passive "tincturing" methodologies that are better suited to alcohol. Glycerol possesses the intrinsic property of not denaturing or rendering a botanical's constituents inert like alcohols (i.e. ethyl (grain) alcohol, methyl (wood) alcohol, etc.) do. Glycerol is a stable preserving agent for botanical extracts that, when utilized in proper concentrations in an extraction solvent base, does not allow inverting or mitigates reduction-oxidation (REDOX) of a finished extract's constituents, even over several years.[citation needed] Both glycerol and ethanol are viable preserving agents. Glycerol is bacteriostatic in its action, and ethanol is bactericidal in its action.

Electronic cigarette liquid

Glycerin is often used in electronic cigarettes to create the vapor
Glycerin, along with propylene glycol, is a common component of e-liquid, a solution used with electronic vaporizers (electronic cigarettes). This glycerol is heated with an atomizer (a heating coil often made of Kanthal wire), producing the aerosol that delivers nicotine to the user.[31]

Antifreeze
Main article: Antifreeze
Like ethylene glycol and propylene glycol, glycerol is a non-ionic kosmotrope that forms strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules, competing with water-water hydrogen bonds. 
This interaction disrupts the formation of ice. The minimum freezing point temperature is about −36 °F (−38 °C) corresponding to 70% glycerol in water.

Glycerol was historically used as an anti-freeze for automotive applications before being replaced by ethylene glycol, which has a lower freezing point. 
While the minimum freezing point of a glycerol-water mixture is higher than an ethylene glycol-water mixture, glycerol is not toxic and is being re-examined for use in automotive applications.[32][33]

In the laboratory, glycerol is a common component of solvents for enzymatic reagents stored at temperatures below 0 °C due to the depression of the freezing temperature. It is also used as a cryoprotectant where the glycerol is dissolved in water to reduce damage by ice crystals to laboratory organisms that are stored in frozen solutions, such as fungi, bacteria, nematodes, and mammalian embryos.

Chemical intermediate
Glycerol is used to produce nitroglycerin, which is an essential ingredient of various explosives such as dynamite, gelignite, and propellants like cordite. Reliance on soap-making to supply co-product glycerol made it difficult to increase production to meet wartime demand. Hence, synthetic glycerol processes were national defense priorities in the days leading up to World War II. Nitroglycerin, also known as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is commonly used to relieve angina pectoris, taken in the form of sub-lingual tablets, or as an aerosol spray.

An oxidation of glycerol affords mesoxalic acid.[34] Dehydrating glycerol affords hydroxyacetone.

Vibration damping
Glycerol is used as fill for pressure gauges to damp vibration. External vibrations, from compressors, engines, pumps, etc., produce harmonic vibrations within Bourdon gauges that can cause the needle to move excessively, giving inaccurate readings. The excessive swinging of the needle can also damage internal gears or other components, causing premature wear. Glycerol, when poured into a gauge to replace the air space, reduces the harmonic vibrations that are transmitted to the needle, increasing the lifetime and reliability of the gauge.[35]

Niche uses
Film industry
Glycerol is used by the film industry when filming scenes involving water to stop areas from drying out too quickly.

Glycerine is used—combined with water (around in a 1:99 proportion)—to create a smooth smoky environment. The solution is vaporized and pushed into the room with a ventilator.

Ultrasonic couplant
Glycerol can be sometimes used as replacement for water in ultrasonic testing, as it has favourably higher acoustic impedance (2.42MRayl vs 1.483MRayl for water) while being relatively safe, non-toxic, non-corrosive and relatively low cost.[37]

Internal combustion fuel
Glycerol is also used to power diesel generators supplying electricity for the FIA Formula E series of electric race cars.

Research on uses
Research has been conducted to produce value-added products from glycerol obtained from biodiesel production.Examples (aside from combustion of waste glycerol):

Hydrogen gas production
Glycerine acetate is a potential fuel additive.
Glycerol is one of the most used additive for starch thermoplastic.
Conversion to propylene glycol
Conversion to acrolein
Conversion to ethanol
Conversion to epichlorohydrin, a raw material for epoxy resins


Metabolism
Glycerol is a precursor for synthesis of triacylglycerols and of phospholipids in the liver and adipose tissue. When the body uses stored fat as a source of energy, glycerol and fatty acids are released into the bloodstream.

Glycerol is mainly metabolized in the liver. Glycerol injections can be used as a simple test for liver damage, as its rate of absorption by the liver is considered an accurate measure of liver health. Glycerol metabolism is reduced in both cirrhosis and fatty liver disease.[49][50]

Blood glycerol levels are highly elevated during diabetes, and is believed to be the cause of reduced fertility in patients who suffer from diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Blood glycerol levels in diabetic patients average three times higher than healthy controls. Direct glycerol treatment of testes has been found to cause significant long-term reduction in sperm count. Further testing on this subject was abandoned due to the unexpected results, as this was not the goal of the experiment.[51]

Circulating glycerol does not glycate proteins as do glucose or fructose, and does not lead to the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). In some[which?] organisms, the glycerol component can enter the glycolysis pathway directly and, thus, provide energy for cellular metabolism (or, potentially, be converted to glucose through gluconeogenesis).

Before glycerol can enter the pathway of glycolysis or gluconeogenesis (depending on physiological conditions), it must be converted to their intermediate glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate in the following steps:

Glycerol


The enzyme glycerol kinase is present mainly in the liver and kidneys, but also in other body tissues, including muscle and brain.
In adipose tissue, glycerol 3-phosphate is obtained from dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) with the enzyme glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

Glycerol has very low toxicity when ingested; its LD50 oral dose for rats is 12600 mg/kg and 8700 mg/kg for mice. 
It does not appear to cause toxicity when inhaled, although changes in cell maturity occurred in small sections of lung in animals under the highest dose measured.
 A sub-chronic 90-day nose-only inhalation study in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats exposed to 0.03, 0.16 and 0.66 mg/L glycerin (Per liter of air) for 6-hour continuous sessions revealed no treatment-related toxicity other than minimal metaplasia of the epithelium lining at the base of the epiglottis in rats exposed to 0.66 mg/L glycerin.[55][56]

Historical cases of contamination with diethylene glycol
On 4 May 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration advised all US makers of medicines to test all batches of glycerol for the toxic diethylene glycol.
This followed an occurrence of hundreds of fatal poisonings in Panama resulting from a falsified import customs declaration by Panamanian import/export firm Aduanas Javier de Gracia Express, S. A. The cheaper diethylene glycol was relabeled as the more expensive glycerol.[58][59] Between 1990 and 1998, incidents of DEG poisoning reportedly occurred in Argentina, Bangladesh, India, and Nigeria, and resulted in hundreds of deaths. In 1937, more than one hundred people died in the United States after ingesting DEG-contaminated elixir sulfanilamide, a drug used to treat infections.[60]

Etymology
The origin of the gly- and glu- prefixes for glycols and sugars is from Greek γλυκύς glukus which means sweet.[61]


In products such as moisturizer creams, glycerol helps to bring moisture to the surface of the skin, to help skin smooth. It is also added to hair conditioner, shaving creams and eye drops for the same purpose.

In over-the-counter skin care products, such as moisturizers, glycerol is added to help protect the skin from irritants. 

This is also why glycerol is added to cough syrups – to help prevent irritation in throats which leads to coughing.


Glycerol Definition
Glycerol is a colorless, odorless liquid with a sweet taste. It is viscous at room temperature and non-toxic in low concentrations. Glycerol was discovered in 1779. It is also called glycyl alcohol, glycerin or glycerine in some literature.

Glycerol is seen in biological systems as an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism because surplus carbohydrate can be converted into long chain fatty acids and esterified with the three hydroxyl groups. Glycerol can influence immune reactions in the body through histamines, increased antibody production and by enhancing immune cell activity and is therefore classified as an allergen. In the blood, glycerol can increase blood pressure by preferentially attracting the water from tissues into plasma and lymph. In nephrons, glycerol can increase urine volume by preventing water resorption.

History of Glycerol
Glycerol was accidentally discovered by a Swedish scientist named K. W. Scheele. He was investigating the similarities between soap and a drying plaster called Emplastrum simplex. The salve was made of lead salts of fatty acids, while soap is made of sodium salts of organic acids. During his experiments of reacting olive oil with lead monoxide, he discovered a water-soluble substance with a sweet taste. This was the first recorded chemical isolation of glycerol and was initially called the ‘sweet principle of fat’. Scheele analyzed the substance and found it to be distinct from the other sugars known at the time. Glycerol did not crystallize, ferment, and showed greater heat resistance than most other sugars. He also investigated the difference between glycerol and cane sugar, especially in the proportion of oxygen (or phlogiston as it was then called) it contained. Scheele demonstrated that it took a greater amount of nitric acid to oxidize glycerol than cane sugar. It also did not release an alkali when it was reacted with ethanol. While it could not be easily crystallized, it could be distilled. It also decomposed at higher temperatures.

In 1836, the chemical formula of glycerol was elucidated by a French scientist called Pelouze. He proposed an empirical formula of C3H8O3. Fifty years later, the structural formula of C3H5(OH)3 was accepted, based on the work of two scientists named Berthelot and Lucea.

The relevance of glycerol as a commercially important chemical is linked to its use in the production of dynamite. Alfred Nobel, who later instituted the Nobel Prizes, discovered a method for the reliable stabilization, transport and handling of trinitroglycerin, which is the central explosive compound in dynamite. Glycerol, therefore, was involved in the rapid extraction of mineral ore, as well as many large-scale infrastructure projects that needed natural structures to be blasted away.

Properties of Glycerol
Pure glycerol has a melting point of 17.8°C. Its boiling point is 290°C but it also decomposes at that temperature. The presence of three hydroxyl groups makes the compound hygroscopic, with a tendency to absorb moisture from the air. This also makes it useful as a humectant in cosmetics and food, retaining water and preventing the substance from drying out.

Glycerol is easily soluble in water, due to the ability of the polyol groups to form hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Glycerol is slightly denser than water with a specific gravity of 1.26. This means that when glycerol is poured into a container of water, it will sink to the bottom. However, due to its solubility, over time and with mild agitation, glycerol will form an aqueous solution.

Glycerol can cause mild irritation to the eyes, nose, lungs and skin, particularly due to its hygroscopic nature. Skin and other internal organs can get dried out when pure glycerol comes into contact with these moist tissues. Since the molecule can bind to water, the same property that makes glycerol a good humectant also desiccates internal tissues. On the other hand, if a cosmetic preparation with high water content is applied on the skin, especially in arid environments, the presence of glycerol can prevent the lotion, cream or gel from drying out quickly.

The three hydroxyl groups of glycerol allow reactions with many organic acids to form esters. When all three reactive groups are esterified with long chain organic fatty acids, a triglyceride is formed. Triglycerides are among the most common lipids in the human body.

Uses of Glycerol
Glycerol is used in a number of industrial applications, in the pharmaceutical industry, in cosmetics and personal care products, in the production of resins, detergents, plastics and tobacco and as a humectant in food.

Its use as a commercially important chemical began with its application in the production of dynamite. Dynamite was necessary in the discovery and extraction of underground minerals, and in the construction of infrastructure. Therefore, it propelled industrial development.

Cosmetics and Food
Glycerol is used in the cosmetics industry as a moisture-control reagent and to enhance the texture of lotions and creams. Glycerol’s ability to retain moisture and its emollient properties make it an attractive ingredient in many moisturizing formulations. Glycerol can also prevent the cosmetic from either drying out or freezing.

In food, the utility of glycerol arises from its ability to form inter-molecular hydrogen bonds, especially with water molecules. This increases the water content in preserved food, without compromising on shelf life, and also enhances viscosity and texture. Its low toxicity and lack of a disagreeable odor or flavor allow the use of glycerol as an emulsifier.

Industrial Applications
Crude glycerin is a byproduct of the production of biofuels from soya bean oil and other vegetable oils. It contains over 60% impurities in the form of methanol, soaps and salts, making it difficult to extract pure glycerin. Recent advances in technology allow the use of crude glycerin to make urethane foams. Polyurethane foams have a variety of applications in the construction and automotive industries. They are also commonly used as insulators.

Pure glycerol is a crucial part of the industrial production of antifreeze, textiles and waxes. It is used in large quantities to generate resins, paints and waxes, for creating cleaning and purifying agents for soldering, and in the manufacture of many textiles and cosmetics.

Pharmaceuticals
Glycerol usage in the pharmaceutical industry is to improve smoothness and taste. It is used in the creation of tablets so that they are easy to swallow. The coating can disintegrate within the body. Cough lozenges often use glycerol to give a sweet taste. Suppositories of glycerol can act as laxatives since they can irritate anal mucosa.

Production of Triacetin
Triacetin is a triple ester of glycerol, formed through an esterifying reaction with acetic acid. It has a variety of uses in the food industry as a plasticizing agent, to enhance the viscosity of a product. It can also act as a stabilizer for food products that need to be preserved for extended periods of time.

Triacetin is used as an antiknock reagent in fuels for internal combustion engines. It is also an additive in cigarettes.

Glycerol Structure
Glycerol is a trihydroxy sugar alcohol with three carbon atoms and three hydroxyl groups. The presence of multiple hydroxyl groups and carbon atoms makes it an organic polyol compound with the IUPAC name of 1, 2, 3 – Propanetriol.

1,2,3-Propanetriol [ACD/Index Name]
200-289-5 [EINECS]
203-809-9 [EINECS]
56-81-5 [RN]
635685 [Beilstein]
8043-29-6 [RN]
Bulbold [Trade name]
Cristal [Trade name]
Glicerol [Spanish] [INN]
Glyceol [Trade name]
glycerin [ACD/IUPAC Name] [JAN] [JP15] [USP] [Wiki]
Glycerin [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
glycerine [Wiki]
Glycerol [INN] [ACD/IUPAC Name] [Wiki]
glycérol [French] [INN] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
glycerolum [Latin] [INN]
MFCD00004722 [MDL number]
Ophthalgan [Trade name]
Propan-1,2,3-triol
Propane-1,2,3-triol
PROPANETRIOL [Wiki]
غليسيرول [Arabic] [INN]
Mackstat H 66
RG-S
1,2,3-Propanetriol, Glycerine
1,2,3-Propanetriol, Trihydroxylpropane, Protol, Glycerin
1,2,3-TRIHYDROXYPROPANE
1,2,3-trihydroxypropanol
101662-08-2 [RN]
102088-01-7 [RN]
107283-02-3 [RN]
144086-02-2 [RN]
144086-03-3 [RN]
153050-05-6 [RN]
175385-78-1 [RN]
18803-09-3 [RN]
1H-Thieno[3,4-d]iMidazole-4-pentanaMide, hexahydro-2-oxo-N-[6-oxo-6-(2-propenylaMino)hexyl]-, (3aS,4
2,3-DIHYDROXYPROPANOL
25618-55-7 [RN]
29796-42-7 [RN]
2-Propenoic acid, polymer with 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol, methyloxirane and oxirane
2-Propenoic acid, polymer with oxirane and 1,2,3-propanetriol
30049-52-6 [RN]
30918-77-5 [RN]
37228-54-9 [RN]
3GR
3H-glycerol
5034-70-8 [RN]
614-33-5 [RN]
62502-71-0 [RN]
63346-81-6 [RN]
64333-26-2 [RN]
7325-16-8 [RN]
7325-17-9 [RN]
75398-78-6 [RN]
76550-75-9 [RN]
78630-16-7 [RN]
8013-25-0 [RN]
Aci-Jel [Trade name]
alditol
alditols
Auralgan
Citifluor AF 2
CRY
Dagralax
DB09462
Decaglycerol
DYNASTIN 7
emergy 916
Emery 912
glicerol
GLO
Glycerin, 1
Glycerin, 1,2,3-Propanetriol, Trihydroxylpropane, Protol
Glyceritol
glycérol
Glycerol 85%
Glycerol anhydrous cell culture grade
Glycerol, Molecular Biology Grade - CAS 56-81-5 - Calbiochem
glyciterol
Glycitol
glycyl alcohol
Glyrol
Glysanin
Glyzerin
Gro
Grocolene
heterochromatin-specific nonhistone chromosomal protein HP-1
http:////www.amadischem.com/proen/553706/
Monoctanoin
Oelsuess
OmniPur Glycerol - CAS 56-81-5 - Calbiochem
Optim
PEE
PGR
Sugar alcohol
Tegin M
Triglycerol
Trihydroxylpropane, Protol
Trihydroxypropane
Unigly G 2
Unigly G 6
Vitrosupos
WLN: Q1YQ1Q
β-propylene glycol
глицерол
غليسيرول
甘油


3-) MALTODEXTRIN

CAS Number: 9050-36-6
EC Number: 232-940-4
MDL number: MFCD00146679

Maltodextrin is a saccharide polymer that can be classified as a carbohydrate. 
Maltodextrin can be produced by enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of the starch. 
Maltodextrin formed after purification and spray drying can be used in a variety of food and beverage products. 
Maltodextrin can be used as a good source of energy (16 kJ/g) in food products.
Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide that is used as a food additive.
Maltodextrin is produced from vegetable starch by partial hydrolysis and is usually found as a white hygroscopic spray-dried powder.
Maltodextrin is easily digestible, being absorbed as rapidly as glucose and may be either moderately sweet or almost flavorless (depending on the degree of polymerisation).
Maltodextrin is commonly used for the production of soft drinks and candy.
Maltodextrin can also be found as an ingredient in a variety of other processed foods.
Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide used as a food additive and flavor enhancer. 
Maltodextrin is produced from starches in a process called partial hydrolysis, which is the breakdown of starch into smaller units called polymers.

To better understand what maltodextrin is, Maltodextrin’s worth quickly reviewing the three different kinds of sugar molecules:
Monosaccharides (mono- meaning “one”) are carbohydrates entirely composed of a single kind of sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose.
Oligosaccharides (oligo– meaning “few”) are carbohydrates composed of two to ten monosaccharide molecules such as sucrose (glucose + fructose) and raffinose (galactose + glucose + fructose).
Poysaccharides (poly– meaning “many”) are carbohydrates composed of ten or more (and sometimes hundreds or thousands) of sugar molecules such as starch, cellulose, and maltodextrin.

Maltodextrin falls into the last category, as Maltodextrin’s a very long chain of repeating glucose molecules connected together. 
To produce pure maltodextrin, starchy foods such as wheat, corn, potatoes, and rice are cooked in water and then exposed to various acids and enzymes to separate the maltodextrin from other sugars.
This process is referred to as hydrolysis, and Maltodextrin’s used in the production of a number of other products like hydrolyzed whey protein powder, hydrolyzed collagen, and soy sauce. 
After this process, the liquid containing maltodextrin is purified, filtered, and spray-dried to create a white, odorless, and nearly flavorless powder.

Maltodextrin is commonly spotted hiding near the bottom of ingredient lists of packaged or processed foods. 
Maltodextrin is white, powdery, nearly flavorless starch derived from rice, corn, potatoes, or wheat.
Maltodextrin is a fast-digesting carbohydrate, and a versatile additive that preserves flavors in processed foods. 
Maltodextrin also thickens food, mimics fat content, and prolongs shelf life.
To make maltodextrin, starches from these foods are subjected to a process called hydrolysis, in which they’re broken down through chemical reactions with water, aided by additional enzymes and acids.
So, Maltodextrin is used as a preservative or a food thickener — does this mean Maltodextrin should be avoided at all costs?
Maltodextrin is considered generally safe to eat by the FDA. 
In fact, maltodextrins are also produced in the intestine when we digest starchy foods. 
They have the same calorie density as sugars and carbohydrates.
Maltodextrin is hydrolysated starch (corn, potato, or others) by means of less than 20 dextrose equivalence (DE). 
The DE of the maltodextrin is interrelated to the degree of protection. 
Elevated DE systems are less leaky to oxygen and have higher encapsulation efficiencies of powders. 

Maltodextrin is mainly used as a food additive to:
-Thicken or add bulk to processed food.
-Increase the sweetness of certain food products when combined with artificial sweeteners.
-Maximize the shelf life of food products as a preservative.
-Boost the texture of certain food products.
-Serve as a replacement of sugar in sugar-free products.

How is maltodextrin made?
Maltodextrin is a white powder made from corn, rice, potato starch, or wheat.
Even though Maltodextrincomes from plants, Maltodextrin is highly processed. 
To make Maltodextrin, first the starches are cooked, and then acids or enzymes such as heat-stable bacterial alpha-amylase are added to break it down further. 
The resulting white powder is water-soluble and has a neutral taste.
Maltodextrins are closely related to corn syrup solids, with the one difference being their sugar content. 
Both undergo hydrolysis, a chemical process involving the addition of water to further assist breakdown.
However, after hydrolysis, corn syrup solids are at least 20 percent sugar, while maltodextrin is less than 20 percent sugar.

Maltodextrin, which is sometimes listed as "maltrin" on ingredient lists, is a common food additive. 
Maltodextrin is made from starchy foods like rice, corn, potatoes or wheat. 
However, Maltodextrin is certainly not a whole food: Manufacturers turn the starches from these foods into an odorless and nearly tasteless powder to make maltodextrin, per a November 2016 report in ​Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition​.

Uses:
If you are in the habit at looking at the ingredients lists on packaging, you will realize just how many processed foods contain this substance, Maltodextrin's everywhere.
Maltodextrin is not used as a sweetener on Maltodextrin's own - it's not sweet enough. 
Maltodextrin has unique properties that make Maltodextrin very useful in the food industry. 
Maltodextrin is often added as a thickener in sauces and gravy. 
Maltodextrin can be used as a spray drying agent for fruit juice concentrates. 
Maltodextrin is used in soup powders, coffee whiteners and infant formulas. 
Also used in the pharmaceutical industry as a binding agent in pills. 
Helps with the texture of hot cocoa powder mixes.

Benefits:
Appears to be useful for bodybuilders. 
Maltodextrin has certain properties which are useful in food manufacture, i.e. bulk and texture. 
Maltodextrin can be fluffed up to provide bulk to artificial sweeteners, while keeping weight and calories down. 
Regardless of the source, i.e. wheat or corn, Maltodextrin contains no gluten, it is pure carbohydrate. 
Therefore Maltodextrin is suitable for coeliacs.

Maltodextrin is a saccharide polymer that can be classified as a carbohydrate. 
Maltodextrin can be produced by enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of the starch. 
The material formed after purification and spray drying can be used in a variety of food and beverage products. 
Maltodextrin can be used as a good source of energy (16 kJ/g) in food products.

Concerns:
Harmful to teeth. High glycemic index. 
Maltodextrin is a sugar and contains calories. 
There have also been reports of some people having allergic reactions including skin rashes etc. 
Why this is in unclear, Maltodextrin's a fairly pure product. 

Safety Guideline:
No issues regarding daily quantities. 
But be aware that Maltodextrin is a highly refined carbohydrate with a high glycemic index, and, like white sugar, devoid of all nutrient.

Maltodextrins are products of partial hydrolysis of starch. 
They are used as:
-Bulking agents
-Carriers for flavors
-Sweetness reducers
-‘Gram by gram’ sugar/fat replacers
They are classified based on their dextrose equivalents (DE) which range from 3-20. 
The higher the DE, the more extensive is the hydrolysis and the shorter is the glucose chain.

Maltodextrin is made from corn, rice, potato starch, or wheat. 
Although Maltodextrin's a powder, maltodextrin is often used in place of sugar. 
In fact, Maltodextrin is the first ingredient listed in many low-calorie sweeteners. 
Unlike fruits with natural sugars, processed foods that contain maltodextrin and similar ingredients such as high fructose corn syrup do not supply any fibre, protein, or healthy fat. 
This means that when you consume these ingredients, sugar absorption is not slowed.

Maltodextrin is a highly processed type of carbohydrate. 
Maltodextrin is mostly present in the packaged food extracted from natural sources, such as corn, rice, potato, wheat, and some other plants. 
Starches from these foods undergo a complex chemical process that involves cooking the starch at a very high temperature and mixing it with chemicals until they're broken down into a neutral-tasting powder. 
Maltodextrin is artificially produced and can be found in several different foods, such as artificial sweeteners, baked goods, yogurt, beer, nutrition bars, weight-training supplements, cereals, meal-replacement shakes, low-fat and reduced-calorie products, condiments, sauces, spice mixes, salad dressings, chips, pie fillings, and snack foods. 
Maltodextrin is used to improve the consistency, texture, and taste of the food item. 
Basically, maltodextrins are a group of carbohydrate entities (sugars) resulting from the more or less partial hydrolysis of starch.

Is maltodextrin safe?
If you have diabetes or insulin resistance, or if your doctor has recommended a low-carbohydrate diet, you should include any maltodextrin you eat in your total carbohydrate count for the day.
However, maltodextrin is usually only present in food in small amounts.
Maltodextrin won’t have a significant effect on your overall carbohydrate intake.
Maltodextrin is high on the glycemic index (GI), meaning that Maltodextrin can cause a spike in your blood sugar. 
Maltodextrin is safe to consume in very small amounts, but those with diabetes should be particularly careful.
Maltodextrins are used to replace sugar or fat in many food products such as ice cream, dried instant food formulations, sweets, cereals, snacks, and beverages.
Given that these foods are widely consumed, they may be in your daily diet.
Maltodextrin is considered high on the glycemic index, with a score between 80–120, meaning Maltodextrin raises blood sugar about the same as glucose.

Why is maltodextrin in your food?
Maltodextrin is generally used as a thickener or filler to increase the volume of a processed food. 
Maltodextrin is also a preservative that increases the shelf life of packaged foods.
Maltodextrin is inexpensive and easy to produce, so it’s useful for thickening products such as instant pudding and gelatins, sauces, and salad dressings. 
Maltodextrin can also be combined with artificial sweeteners to sweeten products such as canned fruits, desserts, and powdered drinks.
Maltodextrin is even used as a thickener in personal care items such as lotion and hair care products.

Corn Maltodextrin:
Corn Maltodextrin comes from maize or waxy maize and is the most used maltodextrin among the five types. 

Tapioca Maltodextrin:
Tapioca Maltodextrin is derived from cassava root and Maltodextrins low DE type which has similar properties to those of native starch and is often used as a fat replacer in desserts, ice cream, dressings, and sauces.

Potato Maltodextrin:
Potato Maltodextrin has a higher digestion rate in our body, a higher viscosity and forms a more transparent solution than maize and waxy maize maltodextrin if with the same DE. 
Potato maltodextrin can be used in sports drink as Maltodextrin is absorbed by our body shortly to provide energy. 

Rice Maltodextrin:
Rice maltodextrin consists of more low molecular‐weight saccharides and Maltodextrin has higher protein and lipid contents and exhibits high viscosity compared with other maltodextrin. 

Wheat Maltodextrin:
As you can see, Wheat Maltodextrin is not listed in the plant sources of maltodextrin by the FDA. 
Wheat Maltodextrin may contain gluten but the European Commission has confirmed in Regulation No.1169/2011 that wheat-based maltodextrin is also gluten-free. 

What’s the nutritional value of maltodextrin?
Maltodextrin has 4 calories per gram — the same amount of calories as sucrose, or table sugar.

How Is Maltodextrin Made?
Maltodextrin is a type of carbohydrate, but it undergoes intense processing. 
Maltodextrin comes in the form of a white powder from rice, corn, wheat, or potato starch. 
Maltodextrins makers first cook it, then add acids or enzymes to break it down some more. 
The final product is a water-soluble white powder with a neutral taste. 
Maltodextrin is used as an additive in the foods above to replace sugar and improve their texture, shelf life, and taste.

Maltodextrin is a starch-derived food additive that is commonly used as a thickening or filling agent in a range of commercial foods and beverages. 
Maltodextrin is nearly tasteless but is often described as being slightly sweet. 
Most nutritional experts consider the substance to have basically a “zero sum” content, which means that Maltodextrin contains very little in the way of calories, vitamins, or other nutrients. 
Maltodextrin is mostly used to bulk products up and to improve their texture and appearance.

Many consumers demand texture in foods such as coffee creamers, pudding, infant formula, salad dressing, canned fruits, and protein shakes. 
Maltodextrin creates the bulk and creaminess in these foods that consumers crave, while stabilizing the liquids within them.
As a binder, maltodextrin is used abundantly in artificial sweeteners, where it creates the crystallized form of packaged sweeteners consumers add to coffee and tea.
In the food industry, maltodextrin works to turn an oily substance or a liquid into a powder. 
This drying and anti-caking ability allows foods, such as instant pudding mixes, to remain in a powdery form until a liquid is added, at which time the powder bulks into a highly viscous form.
Maltodextrin inhibits ice formation in frozen foods, ensuring that the original smooth texture keeps over time. 
When added to ice cream or frozen yogurt, maltodextrin also increases the freezing temperature.
Maltodextrin is frequently called upon as a replacement for fats in packaged foods, such as baked goods, frozen desserts, and even sausages. 
With the same mouthfeel as many fats, consumers have the satisfaction of a fatty snack without the added fat.
New research is finding maltodextrin to be a viable carrier for many flavors. 
When oils or concentrated fruit or vegetable juices are spray dried onto maltodextrin, they can be dried into powdered forms.
Many breakfast cereals and snacks are sprayed with maltodextrin to create crispy textures with an appealing, shiny coating.

Maltodextrin powder is a great post-workout supplement to incorporate into your post workout routine because of the many benefits Maltodextrin offers. 
These include:
Replenish Glycogen – Glycogen is mainly stored in the liver and the muscles and provides the body with a readily available source of energy if blood glucose levels decrease. 
Maltodextrin powder provides you with the Glycogen you need immediately following a hard workout.
Improve Endurance – With the extra boost of energy, maltodextrin powder gives users the ability to maintain much longer workouts at high levels of intensity and to recover faster after intense workouts.
Fast Digesting – Maltodextrin powder is fast-digesting for those that need the extra boost of energy right away after a workout.
Raises Blood Sugar & Insulin Levels – Maltodextrin powder is an important post workout supplement for those engaging in particularly intensive workouts due to the energy depletion that can occur.

The substitutes for maltodextrin include:
-White or brown sugar
-Coconut sugar
-Agave
-Honey
-Maple syrup
-Fruit juice concentrates
-Molasses
-Corn syrup
-Guar gum
-Pectin

Food Uses of Maltodextrin:
-Soft Drinks 
-Candy
-Baked Goods
-Salad Dressings
-Soups
-Frozen Meals

Why Is Maltodextrin Used?
In cosmetics and skincare products, maltodextrin functions as a moisturizer and a texture enhancer. 
Maltodextrin may also be able to enhance the anti-aging benefits of alpha hydroxy acids or AHAs, which are commonly used in anti-aging products.

Moisture:
Maltodextrin functions as a moisturizing ingredient as Maltodextrin supports the  Natural Moisturizing Factors found within the first few layers of the skin. 
The Natural Moisturizing Factors include amino acids, PCA, lactates, sugars, salts, urea, and peptides that work to keep the skin’s surface intact, supple, and hydrated. 

As we age, the Natural Moisturizing Factors can become depleted. 
Exposure to sensitizing ingredients like harsh cleansing agents and alcohols can also deplete this natural barrier. 
The result is visibly dry, tight-feeling, flaky skin. 
As a polysaccharide, maltodextrin mimics the sugars found in Natural Moisturizing Factors, effectively drawing in moisture to maintain skin hydration.

Flakes and Crunch:
If you like flakes and clusters in your cereal, maltodextrin helps provide them. 
The gel formed by maltodextrin acts as a binding agent that holds molecules together when they are dried. 
According to Amy Brown, author of "Understanding Food Principles and Preparation," Maltodextrin is often used in alternative sweeteners to hold the powder together to form larger crystals. 
In your cereal, maltodextrin helps keep the flakes and clusters crunchy.

Molecular formula: C18H32O16
Molar mass: 504.437
CAS Registry Number: Not available
Appearance: Not available
Melting point: Not available
Boiling point: Not available
Solubility: Not available
Safety sheet: Not available

Texture of Maltodextrin:
Maltodextrin also functions to improve the texture of products. 
Since matlodextrin is constructed with simple sugar building blocks that are soluble in water, Maltodextrin has the ability to create a gel-like texture in formulations. 
This makes the product feel lighter and makes Maltodextrin glide evenly over the skin. 
Maltodextrin also acts as a binding agent, helping to ensure the formulation stays even in texture throughout use.  
As a binder, maltodextrin works to bind other ingredients together and prevent them from coming apart. 
For example, binders are often used in pressed powders to keep them together in the container.

Stabilizer:
As a stabilizer, maltodextrin is often used in products that contain both water and oil components. 
When water and oil are combined in a formulation Maltodextrin can be hard to keep them mixed and will often settle and separate. 
To address this problem, an emulsion stabilizer like maltodextrin can be added to the formulation. 
This helps the two different ingredient types to remain dispersed and produces a stable product.

Anti-aging
Recent research has suggested that Maltodextrin may also have anti-aging and anti-irritation properties. 
In 2002, a patent filed by a company called Unilever presented research on the use of maltodextrin in combination with hydroxy acids. 
Hydroxy acids such as alpha hydroxy acids and beta hydroxy acids are commonly used in skincare products. 
Maltodextrin is due to their ability to improve the appearance of photodamaged or naturally aged skin and help reduce the visible pigmentation caused by hormones, genetics, sun and diet. 

The one major issue with hydroxy acids is that they can cause skin irritation such as redness and stinging. 
Researchers found that while maltodextrin itself was not an anti-aging compound, Maltodextrin enhanced the anti-aging activity of the acids and reduced skin irritation.

Use as a Thickener:
One of the most common uses of maltodextrin is as a food additive, where it's used to thicken products. 
Maltodextrins virtually tasteless and colorless character makes Maltodextrin an easy — and inexpensive — way to “bulk up” foods like oatmeal, salad dressings, and commercial sauces. 
Since Maltodextrin doesn't really have any nutritional value, Maltodextrin is often criticized as being something of an “empty” additive. 
In nearly all cases, the same thickening could be achieved through other, often more wholesome means, but adding the processed powder is a shortcut favored by commercial food preparers all over the world as a way to lessen costs and improve volume.

Use as a Filler:
The compound is also frequently used as a filler in products like sugar substitutes. 
The white powder often blends right in, and it can stretch the quantity of an item without impacting Maltodextrins taste. 
On Maltodextrins own, the powder often looks a lot like sugar, so blending in a few scoops is a common way of selling less for more. 
Maltodextrin is almost always less expensive to produce than more natural sugar substitutes.

What Are the Benefits of Maltodextrin?
Maltodextrin is a highly refined carbohydrate, so Maltodextrin probably won't benefit the average person. 
If you're not already eating foods with Maltodextrin, you don't need to add Maltodextrin to your diet.
However, here are a few cases in which maltodextrin might have advantages — but more research is needed.

Maltodextrin and Gut Bacteria:
Some research suggests that maltodextrin could negatively affect your gut bacteria. 
The additive has been found to impair cellular anti-bacterial responses and suppress gut antimicrobial defense systems, per a March 2015 study in the journal ​Gut Microbes​.
That said, it's very prevalent in our food system: In one food survey, nearly 99 percent of respondents reported routinely eating foods containing maltodextrin (more than twice a day on average), according to the researchers. 
Meanwhile, about 60 percent of all packaged items in a survey of grocery store food items had "maltodextrin" or "modified (corn, wheat, etc.) starch" included on the ingredients list.
"As food technology has advanced to produce increasingly shelf-stable products through the addition of dietary additives, we are observing a corresponding increase in chronic inflammatory diseases associated with intestinal barrier dysfunction and bacterial dysbiosis [imbalanced gut bacteria]," note the researchers. 
"Although these additives have been designated as GRAS by the FDA, more and more studies suggest that these agents may not be safe for individuals with other risk factors for chronic disease."
That said, many of the studies on maltodextrin and gut health have been done in labs or animals. 
Large studies in humans are needed to confirm the effects of maltodextrin on chronic disease and gut health.

What is Maltodextrin?
Maltodextrin is a starch derivative commonly used as a food thickener or in beer brewing to improve mouthfeel. 
Typically, maltodextrin is sourced from corn, but Maltodextrin can also come from other starches such as wheat, rice or potato. 
On Maltodextrin own, maltodextrin is a slightly sweet, nearly flavorless white powder.

What does Maltodextrin do?
Maltodextrin can be used in personal care products in a number of ways: as an absorbent, a binder, or a skin conditioner. 
In our antiperspirant products Maltodextrin is used as the binder which carries the olive leaf extract to our products. 

How is Maltodextrin made?
Our Stewardship Model guides us to select ingredients which have been processed in a manner that supports our philosophy of human and environmental health.
The maltodextrin used by Tom’s of Maine is derived from non-GMO corn.  
Starch from the corn undergoes partial hydrolysis with exposure to water, heat, and enzymes to break down the starch into the polysaccharide maltodextrin. 
The olive leaf extract is then spray-dried onto the maltodextrin.

Structure:
Maltodextrin consists of D-glucose units connected in chains of variable length. 
The glucose units are primarily linked with α(1→4) glycosidic bonds, like that seen in the linear derivative of glycogen (after the removal of α1,6- branching). 
Maltodextrin is typically composed of a mixture of chains that vary from three to 17 glucose units long.
Maltodextrins are classified by DE (dextrose equivalent) and have a DE between 3 and 20. 
The higher the DE value, the shorter the glucose chains, the higher the sweetness, the higher the solubility, and the lower heat resistance. 
Above DE 20, the European Union's CN code calls Maltodextrin glucose syrup; at DE 10 or lower the customs CN code nomenclature classifies maltodextrins as dextrins.

Production:
Maltodextrin can be enzymatically derived from any starch. 
In the US, this starch is usually corn; in Europe, Maltodextrin is common to use wheat. 
In the European Union, wheat-derived maltodextrin is exempt from labeling, as set out in Annex II of EC Directive No 1169/2011.
In the United States, however, Maltodextrin is not exempt from allergen declaration per the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act, and its effect on a voluntary gluten-free claim must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis per the applicable Food and Drug Administration policy.

Food uses:
Maltodextrin is used to improve the mouthfeel of food and beverage products.
Maltodextrin is also used in some snacks such as potato chips and jerky. 
Maltodextrin is used in "light" peanut butter to reduce the fat content but maintain the texture. 
Maltodextrin is also sometimes taken as a dietary supplement by athletes, in powder form, gel packets, or energy drinks.
Maltodextrin is used as an inexpensive additive to thicken food products such as infant formula.
Maltodextrin is also used as a filler in sugar substitutes and other products.
Maltodextrin has a glycemic index ranging from 85 to 105.
In animal studies, there is evidence to suggest that maltodextrin may exacerbate intestinal inflammation.

Other uses of Maltodextrin:
Maltodextrin is used as a horticultural insecticide both in the field and in greenhouses. 
Maltodextrin has no biochemical action. 
Maltodextrins efficacy is based upon spraying a dilute solution upon the pest insects, whereupon the solution dries, blocks the insects' spiracles and causes death by asphyxiation.

Benefits for Athletes of Maltodextrin:
The body digests maltodextrin as a simple carbohydrate, which means that Maltodextrin is easily converted to quick energy. 
Athletes often love the compound for this reason, and Maltodextrin is an ingredient in many sports drinks. 
Endurance athletes sometimes also purchase Maltodextrin in small packs that they will add to their water bottles mid-workout for a quick boost.

Dextrose Equivalent Values:
Part of what makes the manufacturing process so challenging is how variable Maltodextrin is: chemists can often alter the composition of the powder depending on how long they allow the basic starches to interact with the activating enzymes, as well as how much time they set aside for hydrolysis in the first place. 
Maltodextrins are typically assigned a dextrose equivalency value as a way to distinguish them based on processing time. 
Those that are very highly processed typically have a low equivalency value, while those that are less processed tend to have higher numbers.
Dextrose is a type of sugar, but even high equivalency values do not necessarily lead to sweetness. 
The values are usually related primarily to chemical structure, and manufacturers will seek out compounds with high or low equivalencies depending on what exactly is being produced. 
For example, maltodextrins with high dextrose values are more soluble and freeze better; they are common in products like ice creams and frozen prepared foods. 
Those with low values tend to be stickier, making them a good choice for more gelatinous products like jams and syrups.

To understand maltodextrin, lets understand what are prebiotics. 
Prebiotics are non-digestible polysaccharides and oligosaccharides that are selectively capable of promoting the growth of beneficial lactic acid producing bacteria in the colon such as bifidobacteria and lactobacillus. 
A prebiotic is fibre, but not all fibres are prebiotics.
Some of the renown prebiotics include:
Inulin
Fructooligosaccharides (FOS)
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS)
Trans-galactooligosaccharides (TOS)
Lactulose
Polydextrose
Resistant Starches
Whereas there are some upcoming prebiotics:

Applications
Organic maltodextrin is an excellent flow agent/carrier substance, with the added features of improved mouthfeel, increased solubility, and thickening properties

AGENAMALT organic maltodextrin is a recommended ingredient for organic and non-GMO products such as:
baby food
spice blends
dry mixes
puddings
condiments
nutritional supplements
spray dried applications
beverages
extruded products
and more
Bulk Packaging

25 kg multi-ply craft paper bag, 30 bags per pallet
Storage and Minimum Shelf Life 60 months from date of manufacture when kept in ambient storage conditions (under 70% humidity at temperatures between 59 and 77°F)

Properties
White, fine powder
Manufacturing Process

Raw organic corn kernels are mashed, washed/separated and dried to produce organic corn starch. 
The corn starch then undergoes saccharification and spray drying, producing organic maltodextrin.

Certifications
AGENAMALT organic maltodextrin is:
Certified Organic
Non-GMO Project verified
Kosher
Halal
Suitability

AGENAMALT organic maltodextrin is:
Vegetarian
Vegan
Gluten free

Hydrocolloids
Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO)
Xylooligosaccharides (XOS)
Arabinoxylooligosaccharides (AXOS)
Glucans
Lactilol
Raffinose
Lactulose
Sorbitol, and
Resistant Maltodextrin
They are industrially produced by enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of the starch, followed by purification and spray drying. 
The resulting commercially available, mostly white, powders are of high purity and microbiological safety and are used in a wide range of food and beverage products, including baked goods and sports drinks.

Manufacturing Process
Making maltodextrin is often a somewhat complex undertaking. 
Chemists usually begin with a natural starch; potato is a common example, but corn, wheat, and barley can also be used. 
The starch must be reduced to Maltodextrins basic components, usually by combining it with water in a process called hydrolysis. 
An enzyme is then used to break Maltodextrin down even further by stripping away proteins and other elements. 
The result is a white powder that is virtually tasteless and will dissolve quickly in water. 

Maltodextrin molecules are composed of short chains of glucose units. 
These chains, or polymers, are generally 3 to 17 glucose units in length. 
Maltodextrin and other short chains of sugars are referred to as oligosaccharides. 
Commonly spray dried and sold as a powder, maltodextrin may also be purchased in a syrup form dissolved in water.
To make maltodextrin, starches are broken down into much smaller pieces through the use of enzymes or acids. 
Although both enzymes and acids can be used to cut starch chains into shorter segments, OMRI considers hydrolysis by acid to produce synthetic maltodextrin that would not be allowed for use in a livestock feed for organic production. 
However, hydrolysis of starch by enzymes is considered to be a natural process creating a nonsynthetic form of maltodextrin.
Not all maltodextrins are identical. 

Maltodextrins have different functional properties depending on the type of starch from which they are made and the degree of hydrolysis. 
If starch hydrolysis is allowed to continue to completion, starches will be completely broken down into glucose. 
Maltodextrins are formed by stopping the hydrolysis reaction at the appropriate time. 
By carefully controlling the hydrolysis reaction, the size and properties of the final maltodextrin can be determined.
The starch used to make maltodextrin may come from a variety of plants. 

Grains such as corn, wheat, and rice are often used, as well as starchy tubers like potato and cassava (tapioca). 
Starch molecules are made of thousands of glucose units linked together into long chains of varying length. 
Starch contains a mixture of both branched (amylopectin) and unbranched (amylose) polymers. 
The variety of lengths and degree of branching give different starches distinct functional properties. 
Likewise, the properties of maltodextrins made from different starches may differ due to the distinct structure of the parent starches from which they are made.
Maltodextrin is commonly used in food processing. 

The Food Chemicals Codex lists maltodextrin as a stabilizer, thickener, anticaking agent and bulking agent. 
Maltodextrin may also be used in livestock feed and health care products to provide an easily digestible energy source intermediate between starches and sugars. 
Maltodextrin may also be used as a carrier, excipient, or microencapsulation agent in formulating probiotics and other health care products. 
Maltodextrin is important to note that although maltodextrin does not have do be certified organic for use in a health care product; Maltodextrin must be certified organic for use as a livestock feed additive. 
Livestock producers that wish to use maltodextrin in their organic operation should check with their certifying agent prior to use.

Maltodextrin Alternatives
You can find products that use additives other than maltodextrin by looking at the ingredients list. 
According to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, food thickeners, stabilizers and gelling agents include:
-Starches such as arrowroot, cornstarch, potato starch, sago and tapioca
-Vegetable gums such as guar gum, xanthan gum and locust bean gum
-Pectin (from apples or citrus fruit)
-Proteins such as collagen, egg whites, gelatin or whey
-Sugars like agar (from algae) or carrageenan (from seaweeds and used to avoid separation in dairy products like ice cream)
-Lecithin (found in legumes, egg yolk and corn)
-When cooking at home, you may use thickeners, stabilizers and gelling agents to create stiffness, stabilize emulsions or form gels. 
You can do so with egg yolks, yogurt, gelatin, mustard and vegetable purees, per the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

Maltodextrin and genetically modified foods:
Finally, because Maltodextrin’s often used as a cheap thickener or filler, maltodextrin is usually manufactured from genetically modified (GMO) corn.
According to the FDATrusted Source, GMO corn is safe, and Maltodextrin meets all of the same standards as non-genetically modified plants.
But if you choose to avoid GMO, that doesn’t mean you need to avoid all foods that contain maltodextrin. 
Any food that’s labeled organic in the United States must also be GMO-free.

CAS Number: 9050-36-6
EC Number: 232-940-4
MDL number: MFCD00146679
NACRES: NA.23

Is maltodextrin OK for people with diabetes?
Since maltodextrin has the potential to cause fast increases in blood sugar levels, people with diabetes would be better off largely avoiding Maltodextrin.
However, maltodextrin is often safe in small doses. 
You should be fine as long as you’re only consuming maltodextrin in small amounts and counting Maltodextrin in your carbohydrate total for the day.
If you’re unsure how it will affect your blood sugar, check your glucose levels more often when you add maltodextrin into your diet.

Maltodextrin and diabetes:
The glycemic index (GI) in maltodextrin is higher than in table sugar. 
This means that the powder can cause a spike in your blood sugar shortly after eating foods that have Maltodextrin. 
A sudden increase in blood glucose in people with insulin resistance or diabetes can be fatal.

Signs that maltodextrin has caused your blood sugar to spike include:
-sudden headache
-increased thirst
-trouble concentrating
-blurred vision
-fatigue
If you experience any of these symptoms, check your blood sugar levels immediately. 
If they’re too high, contact your doctor.

Maltodextrin, a common food additive, is a type of sugar that’s made by breaking down starch. 
Once manufactured, maltodextrin is a fine white powder, which can be either neutral in taste or slightly sweet-tasting. 
Because of its sweetness and consistency, Maltodextrin is used in a variety of processed food products including sodas and candies.
Dextrin, on the other hand, is a stickier, gummy ingredient, made by heating starch, that is often used to bind things together. 
Different types of dextrins, made from different starting materials, can be used as ingredients in food coatings such as in frozen fried chicken, binders for pharmaceutical products, and even envelope glues.

Maltodextrins are synthesized from chemical treatment (hydrolysis) of carbohydrates or sugars. 
The source carbohydrate may be corn, maize, wheat, rice, or tapioca. Maltodextrin does not taste sweet.
Maltodextrin is used as a thickening or filling agent in puddings, custards, gelatins, sauces, and salad dressings. 
Because Maltodextrin doesn’t have much sweetness, Maltodextrin can be used with artificial sweeteners in canned fruits, desserts, and powdered drinks to increase Maltodextrins sweetness. 
They can also be used as preservatives to maximize the shelf life of the processed foods.
Maltodextrin is a highly processed food additive with a high glycemic index; hence, Maltodextrins consumption can cause an instant spike in the blood sugar level. 
Individuals with diabetes must make a note of this.

If you regularly check the ingredients in your processed or packaged foods, you might have seen maltodextrin in them. 
Food makers add Maltodextrin to a wide variety of foods, like:
-Weight-training supplements
-Yogurt
-Nutrition bars
-Chips
-Sauces
-Spice mixes
-Cereals
-Artificial sweeteners
-Baked goods
-Beer
-Snack foods
-Candies
-Soft drinks

There are a lot of ingredients that go into our foods. 
In this post, we’ll look at one of the most common. 
We’ll answer the question, “What is maltodextrin?”.  
This substance is an innocuous-looking white powder.

Maltodextrin is used extensively in the food industry to:
-Thicken sauces
-Improve the flavour or texture of food
-Prolong the shelf-life of foods
-Substitute for sugar
Is maltodextrin a natural ingredient?
The first thing that people ask after asking, “What is maltodextrin?” is, “Is Maltodextrin a natural product?” Technically, Maltodextrin’s naturally based. 
Manufacturers extract Maltodextrin from starchy foods such as potato, corn, and wheat. 
Maltodextrin is highly processed, though.

Is maltodextrin a sugar?
Maltodextrin consists of several different sugars. 
Maltodextrin is complicated, though. 
The downside is that the body can convert Maltodextrin to glucose much faster than regular table sugar. 
That said, they only add small amounts to food.
If you ate a tablespoon of Maltodextrin, Maltodextrin could cause a spike in your blood sugar. 
There’s not nearly that much in your average food product, though. 
Just keep in mind that Maltodextrin all adds up – if you’re only eating starchy, processed foods, you’re getting a lot more of this substance than you should.

Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide that is most often added during processing of foods and is used as a thickener, filler, to add texture, or to improve the mouth-feel of a food. 
As a processed food additive, many have suggested that maltodextrin in any amount or form is “toxic.”  
However, this review covers the toxicity and properties of the most processed form of maltodextrin, known as resistant maltodextrin (RMD).

Some artificial sweeteners are thought of as better choices for blood sugar management. 
However, new research is dispelling that myth by revealing that artificial sweeteners affect gut bacteria and indirectly affect insulin sensitivity.

Maltodextrin and weight loss:
If you’re trying to lose weight, you will want to avoid maltodextrin.
Maltodextrin is essentially a sweetener and a carbohydrate with no nutritional value, and Maltodextrin causes an increase in blood sugar. 
The levels of sugar in maltodextrin can lead to weight gain.

Like sugar, your body can digest maltodextrin quickly, so Maltodextrin’s useful if you need a quick boost of calories and energy. 
However, maltodextrin’s GI is higher than table sugar, ranging from 106 to 136. 
This means that Maltodextrin can raise your blood sugar level very quickly.

Maltodextrin can sound scary if you are on a gluten-free diet, because Maltodextrin sounds like it would be made from barley malt. 
However, Maltodextrin does not contain barley. Maltodextrin is a type of partially hydrolyzed starch that is often used as a thickener in foods. 
Maltodextrin can be made from wheat, but is almost always derived from corn in the United States. 
If Maltodextrin is made from wheat Maltodextrin has to be declared on the label as an allergen per the Food Allergen Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA) either in parenthesis directly after the ingredient containing the wheat or in a “contains statement” following the ingredient listing.
However, even if maltodextrin is derived from wheat, Maltodextrin is generally considered safe for people with celiac disease as gluten is removed during processing.

Functionality:
-Light color
-Mild flavor
-Uniform coating
-Enhanced crispiness

Maltodextrin is a white, starchy powder that manufacturers add into many foods to improve their flavor, thickness, or shelf life.
Maltodextrin is a common ingredient in packaged foods, such as pastries, candies, and soft drinks. 
When it is present, Maltodextrin will usually feature on the food label. Athletes may also use maltodextrin as a carbohydrate supplement.
Many people believe that maltodextrin is harmful to health. 
But how much truth is there to these claims?
Read on to learn about the benefits and dangers of maltodextrin and which foods contain this ingredient.

Maltodextrin is ever-present in workout gels, drinks and bars because of Maltodextrins ability to thicken products without adding a lot of sweetness, and its ease of digestibility. 
“Maltodextrin is one of the fastest-burning carbohydrates on the market making it an excellent option for sports nutrition products,” says sports nutritionist Marie Spano, RD, noting that athletes use it to get energy during a workout and replenish glycogen (sugar) stores in the muscles afterward. 
Maltodextrin is also used to add texture in baked goods, moisture to low-fat products like salad dressings and bulk to artificial sweeteners. 
In recent years, companies have used resistant maltodextrin to bolster fiber content in processed foods.

What is maltodextrin?
Maltodextrin is a white powder that is relatively tasteless and dissolves in water. 
Maltodextrin is an additive in a wide range of foods, as Maltodextrin can improve their texture, flavor, and shelf life.
Maltodextrin is possible to make maltodextrin from any starchy food, including corn, potato, wheat, tapioca, or rice. 
Although the powder comes from these natural products, Maltodextrin then undergoes processing.
To make maltodextrin, manufacturers put starch through a process called hydrolysis. 
Hydrolysis uses water, enzymes, and acids to break the starch into smaller pieces, resulting in a white powder consisting of sugar molecules.
People with celiac disease should be aware that maltodextrin can contain traces of gluten when wheat is the source of the starch. 
However, according to the Beyond Celiac charity, maltodextrin is gluten-free as long as the ingredients list does not include the word wheat.
In edible products, this powder can help by:
-thickening foods or liquids to help bind the ingredients together
-improving texture or flavor
-helping to preserve foods and increase their shelf life
-replacing sugar or fat in low-calorie, processed foods
Maltodextrin has no nutritional value. 
However, Maltodextrin is a very easy-to-digest carbohydrate and can provide energy rapidly. 
Due to this, manufacturers add this powder to many sports drinks and snacks.

Is maltodextrin the same as MSG?
No, Maltodextrin’s not the same thing. 
In some people, the body breaks Maltodextrin down in a similar way, though. 
As a result, those sensitive to MSG may have a similar reaction to high levels of this substance.

Why is maltodextrin used in energy gels?
Your body needs carbohydrates to function, they are like the fuel in the gas tank of your car – without it, you’re toast. 
For most people, the body will burn carbs until they are no longer available and then switch to burning fat. 
This can cause a lag in energy, which is uncomfortable to say the least (ever heard of ‘hitting the wall’?). 
Eating carbohydrates earlier on in a long run will allow your body to start burning fat earlier, making that transition from burning carbs to burning fat much less painful.

What does maltodextrin do for your run?
Maltodextrin provides you with a steady release of energy so your body can begin to break down fat to use as fuel. 
This essentially helps you avoid ‘bonking’ or ‘hitting the wall’ during your long run.
Maltodextrin is also practically flavorless, making Maltodextrin a good choice for exercise nutrition products. 
Energy gels that include maltodextrin might taste a little less sweet than gels that don’t contain maltodextrin.
Because maltodextrin is a chain of easily-digested glucose molecules, Maltodextrin will result in a slightly slower release of energy compared to if you were to simply eat a spoonful of straight glucose.

Maltodextrins are easily digestible carbohydrates made from natural corn starch. 
The starch is cooked, and then acid and/or enzymes are used to break the starch into smaller polymers (a process similar to that used by the body to digest carbohydrate).

Maltodextrins are generally sold as dried powders.
Maltodextrins are polymers of dextrose (sometimes labeled "glucose polymers").
Maltodextrins do not contain significant quantities of protein, fat or fiber.
Maltodextrins are not produced from and do not contain malt products.
Corn-based Maltodextrins are safe for patients with celiac disease since they do not contain proteins from wheat, barley, oats or rye.
Maltodextrins are not known to contain MSG.
Diabetics should follow the advice of their physicians. 
maltodextrins glycemic index should be considered metabolically equivalent to glucose (dextrose).

The finished product
Is easily digestible
Is a convenient source of energy
Contains approximately 4 calories per gram
Is cold-water soluble
Has low or no sweetness
Helps in producing many liquid and dried nutritional products

Maltodextrins and corn syrup solids are each mixtures of glucose polymers produced by the controlled depolymerization of corn starch. 
They are most often categorized by dextrose equivalence (DE). 
DE is a measure of reducing power compared to a dextrose standard of 100. 
The higher the DE, the greater the extent of starch depolymerization, resulting in a smaller average polymer size.
Maltodextrins are defined by the FDA as products having a DE less than 20. 
They are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) food ingredients. 
Maltodextrins are excellent solids builders for standard and low-fat products. 
They are effective spray-drying aids for flavors, fruit juices, and other hard-to-dry products. 
They also are easily digestible carbohydrates for nutritional beverages.
Corn syrup solids are defined by the FDA as dried glucose syrup with a DE of 20 or higher. 
They are also considered a GRAS ingredient. 
Corn syrup solids have moderate sweetness and low viscosity. 
They are used to build solids in meat and dairy products, as a nutrition source in infant formulas, and as a drying aid for spray-dried fats.

Maltodextrin is a group of complex sugars, rather than one carbohydrate. 
Maltodextrin ranges from more complex to less so and this depends on the method of production.

Maltodextrin is popular among bodybuilders as an aid to recovery after hard workouts, and there appears to be scientific evidence to support it's role in this regard. 
Care needs to be taken, however, regarding quantities used as it has a high glycemic index. 
Excessive consumption may create a load on the blood sugar regulatory mechanism.

Maltodextrin is enzymatically produced from starch. 
The enzymes break the glucose chains in the starch molecules into shorter units, similar to the process of digestion in the human body.
Depending of how far this process is taken the product can vary from a non sweet starch to a sweet sugar composed of glucose molecules in short chains. 
Maltodextrin is not really useful as a sweetener, as Maltodextrin not sweet enough. 
Maltodextrin has a high glycemic index ranging from 85 to 105 so Maltodextrin should not be considered suitable for diabetics.

USES OF CORN SYRUp
SWEETENER
HUMECTANT
BODYING AGENT
pARTICIpANT IN brOWNING
INHIBITOR OF SUGAR CRYSTALliZATION
SOURCE OF FERMENTABLE CARBOHYDRATES
SOURCE OF COMpLEX CARBOHYDRATES
CALORIE REDUCTION (HFCS)
Malt-dextrin has many applications, including in the:

1) Confectionary industry: used to increase flexibility, prevent granulation and melting, lower sweetness, change taste, improve institutional framework and prolong storage life of sweets. 
Maltodextrin reduces the incidence of toothache, obesity, blood pressure, diabetes etc.
2) Beverage industry: used as a raw material, after reasonable mixing, maltodextrin will increase natural smell, reduce nutritional loss, improve dissolubility, lower sweetness, reduce costs and further increase economic profits.
3) papermaking industry: with high fluidity and good cohesive force, maltodextrin can be used as a surface glue and bonding agent for paint and coatings. 
Maltodextrins good fluidity and transparency not only attach on the surface but also penetrate the paper, raising the fibers' cohesive force, meanwhile improving appearances and physical properties.
4) Other industries: maltodextrin has good stability on emulsification, so can be used as a coverer and absorbent in cosmetics for increasing luster and skin elasticity. 
Maltodextrin can also be used in the production of solvents and powdered insecticides.

Sports and nutrition
For sports, infant and medical beverages - such as oral rehydration and low-residue liquid feeding products - maltodextrins provide complex carbohydrates, and allow the formulation of a product that matches the osmolality of bodily fluids (280 to 300 mOsm/Kg). 
This can eliminate cramping and other undesirable side effects caused by rehydration with water.
To provide a balance of caloric concentration and osmolality, maltodextrins can be used as part of the carbohydrate source. 
The lower DE/higher molecular weight products provide lower osmolality on a weight basis than sugars, such as dextrose, fructose or glucose. 
If the goal is to deliver a certain level of calories, much higher levels of maltodextrins can be used, while still maintaining the body's osmotic balance. 
Because maltodextrins do not contribute sweetness, they are typically combined with sugars for flavor.

"In most sports beverages, you balance the sweeteners, such as fructose, sucrose and dextrose, with maltodextrins to try and optimize the carbohydrate profile and osmolality," Armstrong says. 
"If you just added maltodextrins, even an 18 DE, Maltodextrin would only be slightly sweet, but not as sweet as you'd want Maltodextrin to be. 
If you used only other sweeteners, such as fructose or sucrose, at the same level as the maltodextrins, Maltodextrin would probably be too sweet and the osmolality would be too high."
Maltodextrins can help out in the process, too. 
"For liquid beverages, you normally want to preblend some of the gums and other hard-to-disperse ingredients, such as vitamins, with maltodextrin," Armstrong recommends.

Maltodextrin is also worth mentioning that those with Celiac Disease should check the source of this carb. 
When the source is potatoes, for example, Maltodextrin shouldn’t cause a reaction. 
If Maltodextrin is extracted from wheat, though, Maltodextrin will contain gluten.

Does maltodextrin give you energy?
Companies use Maltodextrin in relatively large quantities in sports drinks and energy drinks. 
They bill Maltodextrin as a constant source of energy for athletes. 
Maltodextrin can provide fuel for your muscles and help you get a better workout.

Maltodextrin wll also give you a quick boost in energy straight away. 
So, Maltodextrin can be useful for athletes. But here we want to stress the word “athletes.” 
That is people who are training hard. 
Unless you’re exercising for an hour at a time, there’s usually no physical need for this much energy.

What is the difference between dextrose and maltodextrin?
Dextrose is composed of one sugar, while maltodextrin is a polysaccharide. 
In other words, the latter is a more complex form of sugar. 
If you’re looking for a quick boost of energy during your workout, dextrose is converted to glucose faster in the body.

Maltodextrin is a plant-based sugar derived from corn, rice or potato that is used in cosmetics and personal care products as a moisturizer, filler, binding agent, and film-forming agent. 
Maltodextrin provides body to creams and lotions, and is very mild and non-irritating, making Maltodextrin ideal for use in products for sensitive skin. 

Applications
-Facial Care
-Body Care
-Hair Care

In the vast world of bodybuilding supplements, there are several powders that have several functions. 
Creatine monohydrate, whey protein, pre-workout, post-workout, etc. – are all common supplements. 
Two common supplements with a hot bit of debate between them are maltodextrin and dextrose.
Although maltodextrin and dextrose are extremely similar, there are a few key differences that could weigh into your decision on taking one over the other.

Commonly found in:
-pudding and gelatins
-salad dressings
-canned fruits
-various desserts
-powdered drinks lotion
-hair care products
-post-workout supplements

corn syrup solids
modified corn starch
modified rice starch
modified tapioca starch
modified wheat starch

Maltodextrin vs. Resistant Maltodextrin
Note: For simplicity, we’ll refer to the regular, digestible maltodextrin simply as “maltodextrin” in the rest of this article while digestion-resistant maltodextrin will be referred to as “resistant maltodextrin”.
Maltodextrin is clear that maltodextrin and resistant maltodextrin only sound similar. 
However, these two sugars are completely different when it comes to their benefits and risks.

What’s the Final Verdict?
We don’t advise mainlining any sugar. 
This one is relatively harmless in small quantities. 
The quantities that you get from food won’t make a noticeable difference to your sugar. 
If your diet is otherwise healthy, Maltodextrin shouldn’t do you any harm to have it occasionally.

Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide that is used primarily in foods and beverages as a thickener, sweetener, and/or stabilizer. 
Maltodextrin is a relatively short-chain polymer (some would call it an oligomer); commercial products contain an average of ≈3 to ≈17 glucose units per chain. 
Maltodextrin is manufactured by partially hydrolyzing grain starches, usually corn or wheat.

Allergies or intolerances:
Many food additives can cause allergies or intolerances. 
Side effects may include allergic reactions, weight gain, gas, flatulence, and bloating.
Maltodextrin may also cause a rash or skin irritation, asthma, cramping, or difficulty breathing.
The primary sources of maltodextrin will be corn, rice, and potato, but manufacturers may sometimes use wheat. 
People with celiac disease or gluten intolerance should be aware that, although the production process will remove most of the protein components, maltodextrin derived from wheat may still contain some gluten.

Genetically modified (GM) ingredients:
GM corn, which is a genetically modified organism (GMO), is a common source of maltodextrin.
The World Health Organization (WHO) state that GMOs are safe to consume.
However, GMOs may be harmful to the environment or people's health because of the increased use of herbicides and pesticides on GMO crops. 
There is also a chance that the genetically modified material can get into wild plants and animals, or into the human body through the diet.
Many people believe that there is a link between GMOs and various health conditions, including cancer, kidney problems, Alzheimer's disease, antibiotic resistance, allergies, and reproductive issues.
There is little evidence that this is true, though some believe that the lack of evidence could be partly due to the censorship of GMO research. 
The Environmental Sciences Europe journal published an article in support of this theory.

Digestible maltodextrins are low-sweet saccharide polymers consisting of D-glucose units linked primarily linearly with alpha-1,4 bonds, but can also have a branched structure through alpha-1,6 bonds. 
Often, maltodextrins are classified by the amount of reducing sugars present relative to the total carbohydrate content; between 3 and 20 percent in the case of digestible maltodextrins. 
These relatively small polymers are used as food ingredients derived by hydrolysis from crops naturally rich in starch. 
Through advances in production technology, the application possibilities in food products have improved during the last 20 years. 
However, since glucose from digested maltodextrins is rapidly absorbed in the small intestine, the increased use has raised questions about potential effects on metabolism and health. 
Therefore, up-to-date knowledge concerning production, digestion, absorption, and metabolism of maltodextrins, including potential effects on health, were reviewed. 
Exchanging unprocessed starch with maltodextrins may lead to an increased glycemic load and therefore post meal glycaemia, which are viewed as less desirable for health. 
Apart from beneficial food technological properties, Maltodextrins use should accordingly also be viewed in light of this. 
Finally, this review reflects on regulatory aspects, which differ significantly in Europe and the United States, and, therefore, have implications for communication and marketing.

Maltodextrin is a type of carbohydrate synthesized from grain starch, corn, potatoes or rice that is commonly added to food to enhance sweetness and texture. 
As one of the main components of ‘weight gainer’ used by bodybuilders, maltodextrin has a thick, sweet taste that matches its dense caloric content.
Despite Maltodextrins classification as a complex carbohydrate, maltodextrin is quickly absorbed by the gut and can elevate blood sugar faster than glucose. 
On the glycemic index, a relative scale of how quickly a ingested carbohydrate affects blood sugar, maltodextrin ranges between 85-105, where the standard glucose is set at 100.
Sugars that induce a rapid rise in blood glucose content are typically considered poor sources of energy and nutritionally deficient. 
Though Maltodextrin is generally true that a diet comprised of mostly high glycemic carbohydrates would be unsatisfactory, they do have an important role in athletic performance and recovery.

What is maltodextrin?
Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide that is used as a food additive. 
Maltodextrin is produced from vegetable starch by partial hydrolysis and is usually found as a white hygroscopic spray-dried powder. 
Maltodextrin is easily digestible, being absorbed as rapidly as glucose and may be either moderately sweet or almost flavorless (depending on the degree of polymerisation). 
Maltodextrin is commonly used for the production of soft drinks and candy. 
Maltodextrin can also be found as an ingredient in a variety of other processed foods.
Used as a thickener in infant formula, milk thickeners, and commercial baby food, maltodextrin has a glycemic index ranging from 85 to 105. 
When we consider that pure glucose has a glycemic order of 100 and the side effects of this are obesity, an increased risk of heart disease, type 2 diabeties and cancer, one has to ask, why oh why is this being put into baby formula and commercial baby food?

What do the experts say about maltodextrin?
For further information on this I suggest you start by reading the research from Harvard Medical School2 where they studied the effects of ‘maltodextrin-dominant human infant formula’ on neonatal mice. 
Maltodextrin states that, ‘mice in all M groups demonstrated reduced body weight, increased small intestinal dilatation and increased intestinal injury scores. 
Maltodextrin-dominant infant formula with hypoxia (reduced oxygen levels) led to intestinal injury in neonatal mice accompanied by loss of villi, increased MUC2 production, altered expression of tight junction proteins, enhanced intestinal permeability, increased cell death and higher levels of intestinal inflammatory mediators. 
This robust and highly reproducible model allows for further interrogation of the effects of nutrients on pathogenic factors leading to intestinal injury, and what is known as Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants.”

In regards to maltodextrin increasing MUC2 production, a family of high molecular weight, heavily glycosylated proteins (glycoconjugates) produced by epithelial tissues in most animals, research shows a critical link between imbalance causing many cancers.
The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development defines NEC as “infection and inflammation in the child’s gut, which may stem from the growth of dangerous bacteria or the growth of bacteria in parts of the intestine where they do not usually live.”
A recent NICHD-supported study found that a common type of medication, sometimes given to infants for acid reflux and called “H2-blockers,” (e.g. Ranitidine) was associated with a slight increase in the risk of NEC in preterm infants.
Another study “determined that maltodextrin impairs cellular anti-bacterial responses and suppresses intestinal anti-microbial defense mechanisms.”

Chemical formula: C6nH(10n+2)O(5n+1)
Molar mass: Variable
Appearance: White powder
Solubility in water: Free soluble or readily dispersible in water
Solubility: Slightly soluble to insoluble in anhydrous alcohol
CAS Number: 9050-36-6 check
ChemSpider: None
ECHA InfoCard: 100.029.934 
PubChem CID: 62698
UNII: 7CVR7L4A2D check
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID5027720 


4-) MONOPROPYLENE GLYCOL

CAS number: 57-55-6
EC number: 200-338-0
Molecular formula: C3H8O2
Molar mass: 76,09 g / mol

Monopropylene glycol (also known as propylene glycol, PG, propan1, 2diol and MPG) is a clear, colourless and viscous liquid with a characteristic odour and has the formula C3H8O2. 
Monopropylene glycol is soluble in water and holds hygroscopic properties, meaning Monopropylene glycol can attract hard water molecules. 
Monopropylene glycol is used across a wide range of industries as Monopropylene glycol has low toxicity, coupled with a freezing point which is depressed upon mixing with water.

Mono propylene glycol is utilized across many different industries and some chemical manufacturers produce two grades of MPG to meet these varied needs.
The first grade is used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. 
MPG is used as a solvent for food colourings and flavourings. 
In the personal care industry Monopropylene glycol is used as a moisturiser in make-up, shampoo, bubble bath and baby wipes, to name but a few examples. 
The pharmaceutical industry uses MPG as a solvent in oral, injectable, and topical formulations.
The main application for industrial grade MPG is as an antifreeze and aircraft wing and runway de-icer because the freezing point of MPG lowers upon mixing with water. 
Monopropylene glycol is also used in heat transfer liquids such as engine coolants.
Monopropylene glycol can also be used as a chemical intermediate in the production of high performance unsaturated polyester resins used in paints and varnishes. 
Monopropylene glycol is also an excellent solvent that is utilised in printing inks and Monopropylene glycol is also used in the manufacture of detergents which are used in the petroleum, sugar-refining, and paper making industries.

MPG is a colorless liquid with steady viscosity and good water absorption. 
Monopropylene glycol is nearly odorless, inflammable and minutely toxic. 
Monopropylene glycol can be mixed and solved with alcohol, water and various organic agents.

Identified uses Chemical Intermediate
-Antifreeze liquid.
-Industrial Solvent
-Pharmaceuticals
-Food industry
-Cosmetics

Monopropylene Glycol is used for its solvent properties in industry, the personal care market and pharmaceutical industries. 
Monopropylene glycol is more widely used as a non toxic anti-freeze, de-icer, heat transfer fluid, a component in hydraulic fluids, and in paints and surface coating industries. 
MPG has many special features and benefits including, low freezing point, low flammability, low toxicity, biodegradability, low corrosive nature to metals making it an excellent substitute for ethylene glycol.

Monopropylene glycol Applications:
MPG is the raw material for preparing unsaturated polyester resin, plasticizer, surface active agent, emulsifying agent and demulsifying agent. 
Monopropylene glycol can also be used as mould inhibitor, antiseptic for fruit, ice inhibitor and moisture preserving agent for tobacco.

Mono Propylene Glycol (MPG) serves as a solvent, connects and stabilises insoluble fluids, reduces the freezing point in water, increases the boiling point, and offers outstanding stability with high flash and boiling points. 
MPG is chemically neutral, i.e. Monopropylene glycol usually does not react with other substances.
MPG is used as a humecant in food and cosmetics to maintain moisture levels in products. 
These can include marshmallows, coconut flakes, shampoo and baby wipes along with many other products.
MPG is used as an antifreeze for various reasons, including as an engine coolant additive, home water pipes and food processing systems. 
Because MPG is non toxic, Monopropylene glycol is safe to use in food applications where accidental ingestion may occur. 
This gives MPG a huge advantage over other antifreezes.

Mono propylene glycol (also known as propylene glycol, PG, propan1, 2diol and MPG) is a clear, colourless, and viscous liquid with a characteristic odour. 
Monopropylene glycol has the formula C3H8O, is soluble in water, and has hygroscopic properties. 
MPG is used across a wide range of industries as Monopropylene glycol has low toxicity, coupled with a freezing point which is depressed upon mixing with water.

Monopropylene glycol is a transparent, colorless, sticky liquid with a specific odor. 
Monopropylene glycol is water-soluble and has hygroscopic properties. 
Owing to Monopropylene glycols low toxicity Monopropylene glycol is used in many industry branches.

Method of obtaining
Monopropylene glycol is obtained by hydrating the propylene oxide. 
Currently, two production methods are used:§ a non-catalytic, high-temperature process at 200-220°C § a catalytic process at 150-180°C in the presence of ion-exchanging resin or a small quantity of sulphuric acid or alkali Monopropylene glycol can also be obtained from glycerin as a product remaining after the biodiesel production.
Monopropylene Glycol is mainly used as feedstock for the manufacture of unsaturated polyester resins but also as a solvent, humectant and preservative in food and tobacco products.

Application
Monopropylene glycol is widely used, among others, in the food industry, chemical industry, medicine and pharmacy.
In food processing, monopropylene glycol is used as a preservative (E1520) or emulsifier, and as a dye and aroma component.
In the production of beauty products Monopropylene glycol is used as a solvent yielding the product the desired consistency and as a skin moistener.
In the pharmaceutical industry, Monopropylene glycol is used as a carrier of the active substance of the drug.Monopropylene glycol is commonly used to produce antifreezes. 
Monopropylene glycol can also be used as a chemical half-product to produce high-quality unsaturated polyester resins used in paints and varnishes.

Storage and transport
Monopropylene glycol is stored in stainless steel containers and can be transported in tank cars. 
Monopropylene glycol is not classified as a hazardous product in transport.

Substance name:1,2-propanediol
Trade name:Monopropyleneglycol tech
EC no:200-338-0
CAS no:57-55-6
HS code:29053200
KH product code:100040
Formula:C3H8O2

Monopropylene Glycol (MPG) is a high performance heat transfer fluid designed for use in indirect cooling in food processing and beverage cooling applications. 
MPG fluids have been specifically designed to deliver higher resistance to degradation, scale, bacterial growth and corrosion, with inclusion of a specially designed food grade corrosion inhibitor.

Product Features & Benefits
-Offer excellent freeze protection, cleaner circuits, efficient heat transfers and long term cost benefits to system maintenance
-MPG provides superior corrosion protection as it contains highly efficient inhibitors; uninhibited glycols can cause corrosion of metals
-The MPG fluid is a greenish blue liquid that has a temperature range of -35oC to 120oC
-This heat transfer fluid is tested to and exceeds the ASTM D1384-05 corrosion test standard
-For a list of compatible materials, suitable for use with MPG, please contact A‑Gas
-MPG is mostly supplied in concentrate form. Diluted product available on request

Monoethylene glycol (MEG) is a basic building block used for applications that require chemical intermediates for resins, solvent couplers, freezing point depression solvents and humectants and chemical intermediates, such as automotive antifreeze and coolants, resins, water-based adhesives, latex paints and asphalt emulsions, electrolytic capacitors, textile fibres, paper and leather.
Monopropylene glycol (MPG) industrial grade is a high-purity material, having a wide range of practical applications. 
PGI is a colorless, water soluble, medium viscosity, hygroscopic liquid with a low vapour pressure and low toxicity. 
Monopropylene glycol is widely employed as a solvent, heat transfer medium or chemical intermediate in numerous industries. 
Monopropylene Glycol EP/USP, referring to the European and USA Pharmacopoeias, is a high-purity grade of monopropylene glycol for use in pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic, personal care, flavour and fragrance, plus a variety of other applications. 
PG USP/EP is Kosher certified and complies with Halal requirements. 
Monoethanolamine (MEA) offers a broad spectrum of application opportunities, namely in surfactants, personal care products, textile finishing and wood treating. 
Other applications include use in oil well chemicals and in metalworking to prevent corrosion, and as catalysts that promote stability during the reaction process in the manufacture of flexible and rigid urethane foams.

What Is Monopropylene Glycol?
Mono propylene glycol (also known as propylene glycol, propylene glycol mono, PG, propan1 and MPG) is a clear, colourless and viscous liquid with a characteristic odour and has the formula C3H8O. 
This solvent is soluble in water, meaning Monopropylene glycol has the ability to attract hard water molecules. 
Monopropylene glycol is used across a wide range of industries as it has low toxicity, coupled with a freezing point which is depressed upon mixing with water.

Is Monopropylene glycol the same as Propylene glycol?
Yes, PG (Propylene Glycol) is just another name for MPG (Monopropylene Glycol) so it is exactly the same chemical.

Characteristics propylene glycol
-Acts as a solvent.
-Connects and stabilizes insoluble liquids. (Emulsifier)
-Helps to connect and transport other materials. (excipient)
-Holds and dissolves active ingredients evenly in one environment.
-Absorbs and retains water and moisture.
-Reduces the freezing point.
-Increases the boiling point.
-Offers extraordinary stability with high strengths and boils.

Technical Properties
Chemical and physical properties of mono propylene glycol: 
Molecular Formula: C3H8O2 / CH3CH(OH)CH2OH
Synonyms: MPG, Propylene Glycol, PG, Propan1, 2diol, Propane-1,2-Diol, 1,2-Dihydroxypropane 1,2Propandiol
Cas Number: 57-55-6
Molecular Mass: 76.095 g·mol−1
Exact Mass: 76.052429 g/mol
Flashpoint: 210 °F / 98.9 °C  
Boiling Point: 370.8 °F / 188.2 °C  
Melting Point: −74 °F / −59 °C  
Vapour Pressure: 0.13 mm Hg at 25 °C
Water Solubility: Miscible
Density: 1.0361 g/cu cm at 20 °C  
Log P: -1.34 

What are the uses of Monopropylene Glycol?
Monopropylene Glycol (MPG) has a place in various industries due to Monopropylene glycols relatively low toxicity. 
We have Monopropylene glycol available in two grades.
Industrial Grade MPG is primarily used in the production of unsaturated polyester resins which are used to make items such as bath tubs, small boats, chemical/water tanks and pipes. 
Additional applications include paints and coatings, aeroplane de-icers, antifreeze, coolants, detergents and hydraulic fluids.
United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) Grade MPG has a minimum purity of 99.8%. 
Monopropylene glycol has a variety of potential applications including food, drink, flavourings, pharmaceutical and personal care products. 
Monopropylene glycol is also used in e-cigarette products or ‘vape’ products.

How is Monopropylene glycol produced?
Mono propylene glycol is produced from propylene oxide.  
The most common process is by the non-catalytic hydrolysis of propylene oxide in a high-temperature and high-pressure environment.  
The second method is the catalytic one, which can proceed at 150 °C, in the presence of ion exchange resin, or a small amount of sulphuric acid or alkali.  
Monopropylene glycol can also be produced from glycerol which is a bio-diesel by-product.
The demand for, and consumption of, mono propylene glycol is high with an estimated 1.2 million tonnes produced yearly by plants situated around the world.

Mono propylene glycol also known as propylene glycol, PG, propan1, 2diol, MPG is a clear, colourless, and viscous liquid with a characteristic odour and the molecular formula C3H8O2, CAS: 57-55-6. 
Monopropylene glycol is soluble in water, and has hygroscopic properties.

Production
Mono propylene glycol is produced from propylene oxide. 
The most common process is by the non-catalytic hydrolysis of propylene oxide in a high-temperature and high-pressure environment. 
The second method is the catalytic one, which can proceed at 150 °C, in the presence of ion exchange resin, or a small amount of sulphuric acid or alkali.
Monopropylene glycol can also be produced from glycerol which is a bio-diesel by-product.
The demand for, and consumption of, mono propylene glycol is high with an estimated 1.2 million tonnes produced yearly by plants situated around the world.
Monopropylene glycol has a flash point of 103 °C and a specific gravity of 1.04.

How is Monopropylene glycol handled, stored distributed?
Mono propylene glycol is stored and moved in stainless steel or mild steel tanks and can be transported by tank trucks.  
Monopropylene glycol is not classified as dangerous for any mode of transport and is not hazardous to health.  
Monopropylene glycol has a flash point of 103 °C (closed cup) and a specific gravity of 1.04.

Monopropylene Glycol Uses
There are many uses for mono propylene glycol across many different industries and some chemical manufacturers produce two grades of MPG to meet these varied needs. 

Consumer uses 
The first grade is used in the food industry for food colourings and flavourings and is also a classified humectant food additive (E1520). 
There are also many applications in the cosmetics industry that use this solvent, specifically personal care products including shampoos, bubble baths, baby wipes and as a moisturiser in make-up. 

Industry uses of Monopropylene glycol:
The second is industrial grade MPG which has a variety of uses but the main application is as an antifreeze and aircraft wing and runway de-icer which is because its freezing point lowers upon mixing with water.  
Monopropylene glycol is also used in heat transfer liquids such as engine coolants.  
Monopropylene Glycol is additionally used in the pharmaceutical industry, examples include as a chemical intermediate in the production of high-performance unsaturated polyester resins used in paints and varnishes and as an excellent solvent utilised in printing inks. 
Monopropylene glycol is also used in the manufacturing of non-ionic detergents which are used in the petroleum, sugar-refining, and papermaking industries, the cryonics industry and as an additive in pipe tobacco, preventing dehydration.

Monopropylene glycol (MPG) is used in various industries because of Monopropylene glycols physical properties, Monopropylene glycols low freezing point and good digestibility. 
The main fields of application for technical grade MPG are polyester resins used in the automotive industry and in shipbuilding, for example. 
Other technical fields of application are laundry detergents and antifreeze products, where MPG is used due to the fact that Monopropylene glycol is non-toxic. 
For food grade MPG, the main field of application is in cosmetics, where Monopropylene glycol is used as a moisture regulator. 
Food grade MPG accounts for approx. 43% of total consumption worldwide.

What is Monopropylene Glycol (MPG)?
Monopropylene Glycol (MPG) is a derivative of Propylene Oxide (PO) and is produced in a twostep process.
The first step is the reaction of PO with water into a mixture of MPG and Dipropylene Glycol (DPG) and the second step is the distillation and purification of the mixture into its two separate components (MPG and DPG) with MPG being the main component. 
Shell Chemical companies supply MPG in two different qualities: the industrial grade and the Unites States Pharmacopoeia (USP) grade, which is produced applying Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) as described for pharmaceutical excipients.
MPG is a colourless, viscous and odourless liquid. 
Monopropylene glycol is highly hygroscopic and miscible in all ratios with water, alcohols, esters, ketones and amines. 
Monopropylene glycol has limited miscibility with halogenated hydrocarbons and is not miscible with aliphatic hydrocarbons. 

USES FOR PROPYLENE GLYCOL:
-Making Diffuser oils (see below for details)
-For use in solar boilers / heaters as a heat transfer fluid. 
-To use dilute the propylene glycol 1:1 with water.
-Non-toxic antifreeze and coolant for engines.
-Substitute for ethylene glycol and glycerol.
-A lubricant and antifreeze for hydraulic and brake systems.
-Monopropylene Glycol is used in the manufacture of synthetic alkyd resins found in paints, enamels and varnishes.
-Propylene glycol is used in making polyester compounds and as a solvent in the paint and plastics industries.
-As a solvent for dyes, resins and inks used in high speed printing presses. 
-Monopropylene glycol is used to create artificial smoke or fog for theatrical uses.
-To regulate humidity in a cigar humidor.
-As a carrier for fragrance oils.
-As a coolant in liquid cooling systems.
-MPG is used as a coolant in ice skating rinks.
-Dehydrating fluid for use in the natural gas processing industry. 
-In the manufacture of paintballs.
-As a solvent in photographic chemicals like film developers.

CAS number: 57-55-6
PubChem: 1030
ChemSpider: 13835224
UNII: 6DC9Q167V3
Chebi: 16997
CHEMBL286398
RTECS number: TY6300000
ATCvet code: QA16QA01
Molecular formula: C3H8O2
Molar mass: 76,09 g / mol
Density: 1.036 g / cm ³
Melting point: -59 ° C (-74 ° F)
Boiling point: 188.2 ° C (370.8 ° F)
Solubility in water: Completely miscible
Ethanol solubility: completely miscible
Diethyl ether solubility: completely miscible
Acetone solubility: completely miscible
Chloroform solubility: completely miscible
Thermal conductivity: 0.34 W / m-K (50% H2O at 90 ° C (194 ° F))
Other names: 1-2 propandiol

Chemical formula C3H8O2 is a clear solvent which is miscible in all proportions with its low volatility of colorless water of low purity. 
Polypropylene glycol is a microbicide that is approximately equal to ethanol. 
Generally, the desired effect is obtained with a concentration in the range 15-30%. 
In order to meet the needs of the cosmetic industry, Monopropylene glycol is produced with high purity and odorless properties.

Monopropylene glycol Production and Reactions
Propylene glycol; propylene oxide. 
Methane and sludge can be obtained by reaction with oxygen.
C3H8O2 4 O2? 3 CO2 4 H2O energy

Monopropylene glycol Usage areas
Water
Monopropylene glycol is used in aerobic or anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing mono propylene glycol.

Monopropylene glycol Bakery Products
Monopropylene glycol is widely used in the formulations in the production stage in this sector.

Propylene Glycol is mainly used as a:
-Non-corrosive anti-freeze additive
-Substitute for ethylene glycol
-De-icing fluid of air craft
-Refrigerant
-Solvent
-Chemical feedstock
-Plasticizer
-Surfactant of pesticides

Propylene glycol (IUPAC name: propane-1,2-diol) is a synthetic organic compound with the chemical formula C3H8O2. 
Monopropylene glycol is a viscous, colorless liquid which is nearly odorless but possesses a faintly sweet taste. 
Chemically Monopropylene glycol is classed as a diol and is miscible with a broad range of solvents, including water, acetone, and chloroform.
Monopropylene glycol is produced on a large scale and is primarily used in the production of polymers, but also sees use in food processing, and as a process fluid in low-temperature heat-exchange applications. 
In the European Union, Monopropylene glycol has the E-number E1520 for food applications. 
For cosmetics and pharmacology, the number is E490. 
Propylene glycol is also present in propylene glycol alginate which known as E405.
The compound is sometimes called (alpha) α-propylene glycol to distinguish Monopropylene glycol from the isomer propane-1,3-diol, known as (beta) β-propylene glycol.

Monopropylene glycol Contents
-Structure and properties
- Production
-Industrial
-Laboratory
-Applications
-Safety in humans
-Oral administration
-Skin, eye and inhalation contact
-Intravenous administration
-Animals
-Allergic reaction
-Environmental
-References
-External links

Structure and properties
Propylene glycol is a clear, colorless and hygroscopic liquid. 
Propylene glycol contains an asymmetrical carbon atom, so it exists in two enantiomers. 
The commercial product is a racemic mixture. 
Pure optical isomers can be obtained by hydration of optically pure propylene oxide.
The freezing point of water is depressed when mixed with propylene glycol, owing to the effects of dissolution of a solute in a solvent (freezing-point depression). 
In general, glycols are non-corrosive, have very low volatility and very low toxicity; however, the closely related ethylene glycol (a key ingredient in antifreeze) is toxic to humans and to many animals.

Production
Industrial
Industrially, propylene glycol is produced from propylene oxide (for food-grade use), and global capacity in 1990 was 900,000 tonnes per year.
Different manufacturers use either non-catalytic high-temperature process at 200 °C (392 °F) to 220 °C (428 °F), or a catalytic method, which proceeds at 150 °C (302 °F) to 180 °C (356 °F) in the presence of ion exchange resin or a small amount of sulfuric acid or alkali.

1,2-Propandiol Synthesis V1.svg
Final products contain 20% propylene glycol, 1.5% of dipropylene glycol and small amounts of other polypropylene glycols.
Further purification produces finished industrial grade or USP/JP/EP/BP grade propylene glycol that is typically 99.5% or greater. 
Propylene glycol can also be converted from glycerol, a biodiesel byproduct. 
This starting material is usually reserved for industrial use because of the noticeable odor and taste that accompanies the final product

Cosmetic
There is a wide range of use in mouthwashes, mouthwashes, toothpastes, ointments, skin creams, shampoos and perfumes (solutions containing propylene glycol remain generally clear, even when diluted too much with water).

Lubrication
Monopropylene glycol is used in the lubrication of freezing machines and machines used in the cosmetics industry.

Chemistry
Monopropylene glycol is used as extractor to obtain active extracts from natural extracts.

How is Monopropylene Glycol (MPG) Used?
The most important end use of MPG industrial grade is in the production of unsaturated polyester resins, which, in turn, are used to make everyday items such as bath tubs, small boats and water/chemical tanks and pipes. 
Other end use application areas are paints and coatings; airplane de-icers/anti-icers; antifreeze and industrial coolants; detergents; hydraulic fluids.
Monopropylene glycol USP grade is used in food, beverage and animal feed, in pharmaceuticals as an excipient (inactive ingredient or carrier in a pharmaceutical product), in cosmetics and personal care products. 
The application of MPG USP for direct injections into the blood system is not allowed. 
Likewise, Monopropylene glycol is not for use in cat food because of a species-specific effect on blood cells of cats. 
Use of MPG USP in tobacco applications and electronic cigarettes is not supported.
For both MPG industrial and MPG USP grades, the use in theatrical fogs and artificial smoke generation is also not supported.
Health, Safety and Environmental Considerations MPG has low acute toxicity by oral, dermal or inhalation routes. 
Monopropylene glycol is non-irritating to skin and eyes from animal studies. 

Some mild irritation effects were observed with human volunteers, but will not trigger classification. 
There is low concern for skin sensitisation and there are no reports of respiratory sensitisation although there is extensive exposure to this substance given the wide spectrum of professional and consumer uses. 
MPG is not considered to be carcinogenic or genotoxic, nor does it have effects on fertility or reproduction.
The US Food and Drug Administration designates MPG as GRAS, ‘generally regarded as safe’. 
As such, MPG made to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards may be used in food, food packaging, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. 
In the European Union (EU), MPG USP is not cleared as a foodstuff or general-purpose food additive. 
MPG is readily biodegradable, does not bio-accumulate and is of very low toxicity to aquatic organisms.
Monopropylene glycol not classified as flammable, but will burn at temperatures over 200 to 244°F/90 to 120°C. 

Common uses:  Mono Propylene Glycol can be used as a food grade antifreeze, cleaning agent, and in pharmaceutical formulations.
Monopropylene glycol is produced by reacting propylene oxide with water. 
Monopropylene glycol is widely used for its solvent properties in the pharmaceutical, food, flavour and personal care industries. 
Monopropylene glycol is more widely used as an anti-freeze/de-icer, grinding aid, heat transfer fluid, component in hydraulic fluids, humectant, and surface coating industries.

Storing and Transporting Monopropylene Glycol (MPG)
MPG is transported by tank truck and vessel as bulk and packaged (drums, intermediate bulk containers (IBC) products.
The MPG USP grade needs specific attention regarding product quality and purity. 
Therefore, dedicated equipment and specific cleaning procedures as well as stringent controls throughout the whole supply chain are necessary.
MPG is hygroscopic and requires storage equipped with drying devices to protect the product from humidity. 
Nitrogen blanketing compatible to USP requirements is the preferred means of keeping the product dry and ensuring Monopropylene glycols shelf life. 
Storage temperature should not exceed 104°F /40°C and the product should not be stored in direct sunlight. 
In cold climates, tank heating devices and insulation must be installed. 

Mono Propylene Glycol, commonly referred to as Propylene Glycol but also referred to as Propane-1,2-diol, MPG, PG and Food Safe Glycol. 
Propylene Glycol has for many years been the go-to glycol for use in food and beverage processing systems or where there is a requirement for a non-toxic classification. 
E.g. where the specifier or end user wants to eliminate any risk of accidental poisoning, as might occur with mixtures of water and Ethylene Glycol.

Mono propylene glycol (with or without the space), is a viscous, colourless and odourless liquid. 
Monopropylene glycol carries hygroscopic properties (readily attracts moisture from the air) and is miscible in all rations with water, alcohols, esters, ketones and amines.

Is Monopropylene glycol the same as Propylene glycol?
Yes, PG (Propylene Glycol) is just another name for MPG (Monopropylene Glycol) so Monopropylene glycol is exactly the same chemical.

Synonyms, Trade Names
PROPYLENE GLYCOL, PROPAN 1, 2 DIOL, DOWCAL 20, DOWCAL N , 1, 2
PROPYLENE GLYCOL CARE, PROPYLENE GLYCOL INDUSTRIAL GRADE,
MONOPROPYLENE GLYCOL PH , MPG STANDARD, PROPYLENE GLYCOLUSP
GRADE, PROPYLENE GLYCOL TECHNICAL GRADE, PROPYLENE GLYCOL
USP/EP, KOLLISOLV PG

Monopropylene Glycol (MPG) is a derivative of Propylene Oxide (PO) and is produced in a twostep process. 
The first step is the reaction of PO with water into a mixture of MPG and Dipropylene Glycol (DPG) and the second step is the distillation and purification of the mixture into its two separate components (MPG and DPG) with MPG being the main component. 
Shell Chemical companies supply MPG in two different qualities: the industrial grade and the Unites States Pharmacopoeia (USP) grade, which is produced applying Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) as described for pharmaceutical excipients.
MPG is a colourless, viscous and odourless liquid. 
Monopropylene glycol is highly hygroscopic and miscible in all ratios with water, alcohols, esters, ketones and amines. 
Monopropylene glycol has limited miscibility with halogenated hydrocarbons and is not miscible with aliphatic hydrocarbons. 

What grades of Monopropylene Glycol are there?
Monarch Chemicals are a leading UK supplier of monopropylene glycol and offer three different grades suitable for a whole range of applications.

Mono Propylene Glycol USP: With an extremely high purity, this grade of MPG has uses across food, flavourings, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and e-cigarette industries.
Mono Propylene Glycol Technical Grade: The grade of MPG is commonly used in anti-freeze, coolant, de-icing products and as a chiller glycol.
Mono Propylene Glycol Feed Grade: This grade of MPG is European produced and registered under FEMAS (Feed Materials Assurance Scheme) for use in livestock feed applications.

What is Mono Propylene Glycol used for?
There are a wide range of uses for MPG across a variety of different industries including use in agriculture, cosmetics, coolants, de-icers, e-cigarette and vape products, pharmaceutical, personal care and in the production of a number of end products including paints and inks.
Mono Propylene Glycol in animal feed: Monopropylene glycol works to assist in the formulation of glucose to rebalance negative energy experienced in dairy carrel, particularly during periods of calving. 
Monopropylene glycol can be administered to dairy cows orally via drencher, in conjunction with a robotic system or mixed with feed. 
MPG serves as a readily available energy source in ketosis treatment and prevention and has an energy value of 23.6 Mj/Kg
Mono Propylene Glycol in vape juice: Mono Propylene Glycol USP is used in vape juice as a carrier, effectively transporting more flavour in your vape than vegetable glycerine (VG). 

Product details
CAS-No. 57-55-6
EINECS-No. 200-338-0
Chemical formula: C3H8O2

Trade name: Monopropyleneglycol (MPG)

Snyonyms: Propane-1,2-diol | Propylene glycol | α-Propylene glycol | 1,2-Propanediol | 1,2-Dihydroxypropane | Methyl ethyl glycol (MEG)
Application of the substance / the preparation: Raw material for the production of plastics and synthetic resins. 
Antifreeze, Plasticizer, Detergents, Disinfectant, Solvents, Corrosion inhibitors

Monopropylene glycol also provides that ‘throat hit’ a lot of ex-smokers look for.
Mono Propylene Glycol in cosmetics and personal care products: Monopropylene glycol USP is widely used in most cosmetic and personal care products including moisturisers, shampoos, shower gels, fragrances and soaps. 
Because of Monopropylene glycols hygroscopic properties Monopropylene glycol retains moisture therefore enhancing the appearance of skin. 
In perfumes Monopropylene glycol carries fragrance and, as an odourless and colourless chemical Monopropylene glycol is used as a diluent.
Mono Propylene Glycol in food and drink: Monopropylene Glycol is found in many prepared and long-life foods to maintain moisture and preserve quality.

Mono Propylene Glycol in de-icers: Propylene Glycol based de-icing fluids, particularly in airplane de-icer, are often a mix of water, corrosion inhibitors and propylene glycol which work to remove ice and snow whilst also acting as a freezing point depressant (The freezing point of MPG lowers once mixed with water). 
Variants of Monopropylene glycol contain thickening agents to help Monopropylene glycol adhere to surfaces to help reduce the amount of ice that forms between take-off and landing.
Glycols in heat transfer fluid: In heat transfer liquids monopropylene glycol is added for Monopropylene glycols freeze protection and, as a non-toxic glycol compared to other glycols (ethylene glycol) can be safely used in applications where there may be incidental food contact (for example in immersion wort chillers in brewing where a cooling coil runs through conditioning tanks to control temperature during fermentation). 
Glycols also maintain consistent water-flow at the chosen operating temperature; however, Monopropylene glycol is important to use a glycol with added inhibitors (such as Monarch’s MonCool range of inhibited glycols) in order to reduce the formation of scale and risk of corrosion to protect the metal.
Other uses of Monopropylene glycol include use in the production of polyester resins, as an ingredient in special effect fog machine liquids and in the manufacture of paints, inks, surface coatings and lubricants.

Monopropylene Glycol (MPG) is a derivative of Propylene Oxide (PO) and is produced in a two step process. 
The first step is the reaction of PO with water into a mixture of MPG and Dipropylene Glycol (DPG) and the second step is the distillation and purification of the mixture into its two separate components (MPG and DPG) with MPG being the main component.

Propylene glycol is a synthetic food additive that belongs to the same chemical group as alcohol.
Monopropylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, slightly syrupy liquid that is a bit thicker than water. 
Monopropylene glycol has practically no taste (1Trusted Source).
Additionally, Monopropylene glycol can dissolve some substances better than water and is also good at retaining moisture. 
This makes Monopropylene glycol very useful as a food additive, so Monopropylene glycol can be found in a wide variety of processed foods and drinks.

Other names Monopropylene glycol is known by include:
1,2-propanediol
1,2-dihydroxypropane
Methyl ethyl glycol
Trimethyl glycol
Propylene glycol is sometimes confused with ethylene glycol, as both have been used in antifreeze due to their low melting points. 
However, these are not the same substance.
Ethylene glycol is highly toxic to humans and is not used in food products.

Propylene glycol is a synthetic, colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that belongs to the same chemical class as alcohol. 
Monopropylene glycol should not be confused with the toxic substance ethylene glycol.

Where and How Is Monopropylene glycol Used?
Propylene glycol is commonly used as an additive to aid in the processing of foods and improve their texture, flavor, appearance and shelf life.

In foods, propylene glycol may be used in the following ways:
Anti-caking agent: Monopropylene glycol helps prevent food components from sticking to one another and forming clumps, such as in dried soups or grated cheese.
Antioxidant: Monopropylene glycol extends the shelf life of foods by protecting them against deterioration caused by oxygen.
Carrier: Monopropylene glycol dissolves other food additives or nutrients to be used in processing, such as colors, flavors or antioxidants.
Dough strengthener: Monopropylene glycol modifies the starches and gluten in dough to make Monopropylene glycol more stable.


Emulsifier: Monopropylene glycol prevents food ingredients from separating, such as oil and vinegar in salad dressing.
Moisture preserver: Monopropylene glycol helps foods maintain a stable level of moisture and stops them from drying out. 
Examples include marshmallows, coconut flakes and nuts.
Processing aid: Monopropylene glycol is used to enhance the appeal or the use of a food, for example, to make a liquid clearer.
Stabilizer and thickener: Monopropylene glycol can be used to hold food components together or thicken them during and after processing.
Texturizer: Monopropylene glycol can change the appearance or mouthfeel of a food.

Synonyms:
1,2-dihydroxypropane
1,2-propylene glycol
2,3-propanediol 
alpha-propylene glycol
DOWFROST 
methyl ethylene glycol 
methylethyl glycol 
monopropylene glycol
MPG (=monopropylene glycol) 

For use in the food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. 
MPG is used a solvent for foodcolourings and flavourings, Monopropylene glycol also a classifed humectant food additive (E1520). 
Monopropylene glycol can be used in electronic cigarettes too. 
In the personal care industry Monopropylene glycol is used as a moisturiser in make-up, shampoo, bubble bath and wet wipes to name but a few examples. 
The pharmaceutical industry uses MPG as a solvent in oral, injectable and tropical formulations.
Monopropylene glycol is clear, colourles and practically odourless, hygroscopic liquid, completely soluble in water.

Monopropylene glycol is a colorless and odorless compound which is generally known as propane-1, 2-diol. 
Monopropylene glycol is an artificial organic compound and a derivative of propylene oxide. 
The low toxicity of the monopropylene glycol enables Monopropylene glycols use in different end user industries. 
Monopropylene glycol is used in the antifreezes, industrial coolants and others. 
The food grade monopropylene glycol is used in the food industry as food coloring and food additives. 
The other primary use of the monopropylene is in paints and varnishes such as bath tubs and small boats. 
Monopropylene glycol also used as liquid engine coolants.

Monopropylene glycol is widely used as an intermediate solvent to produce superior-performance unsaturated polyester resins used in varnishes and paints. 
Apart from this, monopropylene glycol is also used in the production of various cosmetic products such as soaping agents, shampoos, baby wipes, bubble baths, and moisturizer. 
This signifies demand potential for the global monopropylene glycol market.

Production
Mono propylene glycol is produced from propylene oxide.  
The most common process is by the non-catalytic hydrolysis of propylene oxide in a high-temperature and high-pressure environment.  
The second method is the catalytic one, which can proceed at 150 °C, in the presence of ion exchange resin, or a small amount of sulphuric acid or alkali.  
Monopropylene glycol can also be produced from glycerol which is a bio-diesel by-product.
The demand for, and consumption of, mono propylene glycol is high with an estimated 1.2 million tonnes produced yearly by plants situated around the world.
 
USES FOR PROPYLENE GLYCOL:
-Making Diffuser oils (see below for details)
-For use in solar boilers / heaters as a heat transfer fluid. To use dilute the propylene glycol 1:1 with water.
-Non-toxic antifreeze and coolant for engines.
-Substitute for ethylene glycol and glycerol.
-A lubricant and antifreeze for hydraulic and brake systems.
-Monopropylene Glycol is used in the manufacture of synthetic alkyd resins found in paints, enamels and varnishes.
-Propylene glycol is used in making polyester compounds and as a solvent in the paint and plastics industries.
-As a solvent for dyes, resins and inks used in high speed printing presses. 
-Monopropylene glycol is used to create artificial smoke or fog for theatrical uses.
-To regulate humidity in a cigar humidor.
-As a carrier for fragrance oils.
-As a coolant in liquid cooling systems.
-MPG is used as a coolant in ice skating rinks.
-Dehydrating fluid for use in the natural gas processing industry. 
-In the manufacture of paintballs.
-As a solvent in photographic chemicals like film developers.

Industrial grade MPG also has a variety of uses but the main application is as an antifreeze and aircraft wing and runway de-icer.  
This is because the freezing point of MPG lowers upon mixing with water.  
Monopropylene glycol is also used in heat transfer liquids such as engine coolants.

Monopropylene glycol can also be used as a chemical intermediate in the production of high performance unsaturated polyester resins used in paints and  varnishes.  
Monopropylene glycol is also an excellent solvent that is utilised in printing inks and Monopropylene glycol is also used in the manufacture of non-ionic detergents which are used in the petroleum, sugar-refining, and paper making industries.  
Monopropylene glycol can also be used in the cryonics industry and can be used as an additive in pipe tobacco as Monopropylene glycol prevents dehydration.

Monopropylene glycol is a colourless, viscus particularly odourless liquid with a sweet taste. 
Monopropylene glycol is highly hygroscopic and miscible with water in all dilutions. 
Monopropylene glycol is also miscible with alcohols, esters ketone and amines. 
Limited miscibility in halogenated hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons.

PG 12 
propane-1,2-diol 
propylene glycol 
propylene glycol USP 
SIRLENE 
SOLAR WINTER BAN 
SOLARGARD P
Substances with a flash-point above 60 °C and not more than 100 °C
Substances with a flash-point above 60 °C and not more than 100 °C, which do not belong to another class 
trimethyl glycol
UCAR 35

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